Volume 2

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Proceedings Second Plant Propagators Society Meeting

Author: Arnold Davis

PP: 14

Registration and various preparations occupied the first morning of this second annual meeting of the Plant Propagators Society. The meeting was scheduled to be called to order at 1:30 p.m. by president James S. Wells. The Second Annual Meeting of the Plant Propagators Society convened in the Ballroom, Wade Park Manor, Cleveland, Ohio, at 1:40 o’clock President James S. Wells, Koster Nursery, Bridgeton, New Jersey, presiding.
Viburnum Round Table

Author: Richard H. Fillmore

PP: 17

I will speak briefly about the “Propagation of Viburnums from Cuttings”, and any discussion of this type, to my mind, should be taken up under four or five general headings. The first heading would be timing. What time of the year shall we make the cutting? The second topic would be the type of cutting. What type of cutting shall we make? The third topic would be, having made the cutting, what sort of a medium shall we put in it? The fourth topic should be what sort of culture should we give the cuttings after we have finally placed them in that medium. I am not going to discuss all of these topics. I think that the discussion will include comments and questions which will bring out these various points in more detail than I wish to give to them at this time. I am going to confine my remarks to the type of cutting in relation to the rooting and survival of the cutting. First of all I would say that virbunums in general, and many of you folks may not agree with me, are easy plants.
The Propagation of Viburnums from Seed

Author: Carl E. Kern

PP: 23

These are just a few short remarks as to the family of viburnums in general, and I would like also to point out to you the value of the gorgeous fall coloring foliage of the viburnums. Some of these are: orange-red color. All of our viburnums are very highly attractive subjects in the fall, aside from the evergreen species of which we are able to grow a few, but only one of which I would recommend. Now, on the subject of seeding. The viburnum family produces most unusually attractive fruits which are at times more attractive than the flower or the foliage of the plant itself. I might say two-thirds of our virburnums are planted and grown for attractiveness of their fruits. So in order to produce plants, then we go back to seed. That means we usually have seeds to produce plants in large quantities. One of the first things the propagator concerns himself with in the producing virburnum from seed is careful observation of the seed-bearing plants, beginning as early as August.
The Grafting of Viburnum

Author: C. Hoogendoorn

PP: 32

We graft Viburnum and do both winter and summer grafting and will start to discuss the understock we use for grafting. We graft Virburnum and use nothing but Viburnum Dentatum for understock and only use Viburnum Lantana when we cannot get enough Dentatum. However, in the past we experienced considerable trouble with black spot and leaf drop in the foliage of Viburnum Carlesi. Years ago in Holland we used nothing else but Viburnum Lantana for utaderstock so after I came over, continued to use Lantana for understock. Finally about 1930 we tried Dentatum as an understock and discovered that we were getting just as good a growth and were not bothered half as much with black spot and leaf drop. Since then we have always used Viburnum Dentatum as an understock except when we cannot get enough Dentatum. I know that a lot of people object to grafted Viburnum and complain about suckering and they are fully justified in a good many cases.
The Importance of Uniformity and Timeliness In the Selection of Propagating Wood

Author: L. C. Chadwick

PP: 43

Much has been written in the past denoting the importance of uniformity and timeliness in the selection of propagating wood and perhaps little that is new can be added at this time. However, it seems to me that the subject is of sufficient importance to warrant discussion. Those who have had an opportunity to visit the commercial nurseries at Boskoop, Holland, surely left impressed with the uniformity of the nursery stock propagated in that region. In the commercial propagation of plants interest centers around two things primarily, (1) quantity production and (2) the quality of the plants produced. During the past few years, with the scarcity of nursery stock, emphasis seems to have been more on quantity than quality in many of our nurseries. Quality of young propagated stock and quality of larger saleable stock seems worthy of considerable emphasis in the U. S. nursery circles today.
Collecting, Storage and Germination of Maple Seed

Author: Roy M. Nordine

PP: 62

Bailey’s Encyclopedia list 110 species of maples, all are found in the northern hemisphere. They range from the northern tree zone to the semi-tropics of northern India. Relider’s Manual of Trees and Shrubs 2nd edition lists 87 species and many hybrids as being hardy in the various zones of this country. Maple seeds vary in size from less than one half inch long to nearly three inches. All are winged and the seed coats vary from a very thin covering to a hard nut that must be cracked open with a hammer. Two species, namely rubrum and saccharinum (dasycarpum) ripen their seeds in late May - all other maples ripen their seed in the fall. Maple seeds have only an embryo, they do not have an endosperm or stored food in the seed. The embryos are green to yellow in color. This makes a cutting test a quick and easy method to determine the value of a lot of seeds. Seeds will vary from a high percentage of filled seeds to 50% in the case of saccharurn where only half the seeds are ever filled.
The Selection of Maple Understock, Budwood and the Timing and Placement of Buds

Author: Wayne McGill

PP: 64

I was greatly honored indeed when asked to prepare this paper on the selection of Maple understock, budwood and the timing and placement of buds. When Mr. Nordine asked me to present this paper I did not know that it was going to be a Round Table discussion and in preparing it I find it is much more difficult to prepare a paper which is going to be read than if one were going to read it himself. When reading it himself, any mistakes can be corrected as he goes along. However, as it is a Round Table discussion, possibly it is better that I am not here to present myself, for at least, I cannot be asked questions which I cannot answer. I feel certain that in the group there are many propagators with more experience than myself and a good many of them can answer any question that I have left unanswered. The experiences and details as outlined in the paper are from our own growing experience and of course, references are made to the growing conditions.
The Grafting of Some Maples

Author: J. Howard Burton

PP: 71

The experience upon which I base the following conclusions regarding the grafting of Maple varieties has accrued over a thirty year period. I apologize rather than boast of that because in that time much more definite data should have accrued than I have available to present to you. My Maple grafting experience has been largely with Japanese Maple varieties, select types of Acer Rubrum, Special forms of Sugar Maple and attempts to graft Acer Nigra on Sugar understocks. (The less said about the latter the better). Although if successful they would have little commercial value. Japanese Maples are often injured in our section by early Fall freezes like the one in October that killed back our Weigelas. Hence securing good and un-injured scion wood is sometimes a problem in winter grafting. However as a rule Maples graft quite readily and offer no insurmountable problems.
Vegetative Propagation of Oaks and Suggested Research Techniques

Author: Henry T. Skinner

PP: 81

Botanically, the oaks fall in the family Fagaceae, in which are also included both beech and chestnut, with their rather similar propagation problems. In a search of the literature through upwards of 300 propagation references to these plants, the walnuts, Juglans, have been included, in that difficulties have been experienced here too so that possible leads to our own problem might be discovered. Within the genus Quercus three major taxonomic subdivisions are currently recognized: Subgenus I (Cyclobalanopsis) with its few evergreen representatives is relatively unimportant from our standpoint; subgenus II (Erythrobalanus) comprises the large black oak group including Willow, Shingle, Water, Black-Jack, Scrub, Black, Scarlet, Pin, Red Oaks and several others; subgenus III (Lepidobalanus) includes the white oaks of which Turkey, Cork, Holm, Live, English, White, Post, Burr, Chestnut and Swamp White oaks are among the more familiar.
Vegetative Propagation of Holly By Grafting

Author: H. Gleason Mattoon

PP: 91

The current popularity of the several species of Ilex that thrive in the United States may be due to improvement in the general run of available stock as a result of vegetative propagation of selected clones, or, on the other hand, perhaps the reverse is true, that vegetative propagation of superior strains has become more general due to public demand for better stock. Whichever came first, there has been a noticeable improvement in the quality of nursery grown hollies. In some areas wild trees of Ilex opaca are still collected to be refurbished in the nursery into attractive specimens through care, cultivation and fertilizing. The practice is dying out, however, due in part to the natural variableness of the species, but more especially because such trees, when sold by the nurseryman, do not receive the care necessary to maintain the compact form and deep green foliage, and without it they revert to typical sparse berried trees with leaves jaundiced yellow or reddish purple.
Rooting American Holly from Softwood Cuttings Cold Frame Method

Author: Roger W. Pease

PP: 95

Drainage: Free drainage - tile drain - 18-inch excavation. White, washed, building sand fill if fog nozzles are to be used. Otherwise top four inches one-third peat moss and two-thirds sand. Soil Cable: Optional. Not necessary if other conditions are very good. Advised to be installed for emergency. Thermoswitch readily adjustable without removing from soil medium. Easy adjustment of thermoswitch. Cover thermoswitch above ground with inverted plastic bag. Thermoswitch adjustable for temperatures from freezing to at least 70 degree F. The Cold Frame: Cement block construction recommended. Not wood. Sashes: Flexoglass more expensive in long run than glass. Hinged or sliding sashes reduce labor. 3 ft. by 4 ft. sashes easy to work under. Humidity and Water: Humidity 100%. Low pressure: fog nozzles recommended. On during day - off at night. Light intensity: Variable. One-fourth to one-third light recommended. Ventilation: Open sashes a few minutes each.