Volume 57

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Historic and Modern Update on Plant Variety Protection©

Author: Jörgen H. Selchau

PP: 45


You and I most probably agree that the world of plants is fascinating and interesting, but does the rest of the World’s population have the same priorities? When performing a Google search on "plants, " "plant novelty(ies), " or "plant novelty/breeders’ rights, " almost 190 million hits were revealed; "beer" had 127 million matches; "wine" had 232 million; "sex" had 413 million; and "food" revealed 661 million hits. In other words, plants are half as interesting as sex, but 50% more fascinating than beer. Wine is just a bit more interesting than plants, the interest of which is only a little less than 1/3 that of food. Certainly, plants are fascinating!

The demand for new ornamental crops in the plant market continues to soar and independent breeders are the key source for such introductions. The job of a plant breeder is to create improved plants. This may be accomplished simply by selecting a superior individual from amongst a range of existing possibilities, or it may require that a breeder know how to efficiently swap or replace parts, recombine components, and rebuild a biological system that will be capable of growing vigorously and productively in the context of an agricultural or horticultural environment. How the breeding is done and what goals are achieved is largely a matter of biological feasibility, consumer demand, and production economics. What is clear is that the surest way to succeed in a reasonable amount of time is to have access to a large and diverse pool of genetic variation.

Spent Mushroom Substrate as a Component of Soilless Potting Mixes: Nutrient Changes During Composting©

Author: Charles Heuser, Jr., E. Jay Holcomb, and Paul Heinemann

PP: 53


The greenhouse and nursery industries in the U.S.A. are, to major extent, container plant industries and as such have a need for a continuous supply of growing media. The components that can be used to create a growing medium are numerous and often regional in terms of availability. Growers want components that are readily available, consistent, and economical. A component that has potential as a growing medium amendment is spent mushroom substrate (SMS).

The U.S.A mushroom industry generates 1 billion tons of SMS each year and that SMS is not recycled by the mushroom industry. The mushroom industry either puts the SMS on a field and lets it weather for a year or longer or the SMS must go into the waste stream. When placed on a field for weathering, the SMS continues to decompose and results in a product that has been used by gardeners. The product is called mushroom casing soil or spent mushroom compost, and it is highly organic and has some nutritional value. Problems with this procedure are that it requires land for the application of SMS and the supply of land is running out and there is potential for surface and ground water pollution.

Propagation Indigenous Herbs©

Author: Kobus Eloff

PP: 62

  • Aspects to be discussed.
  • Why propagate medicinal plants?
  • Difference from producing other plants.
  • Factors influencing success.
  • Promoting use of African medicinal plants.
  • African medicinal plant standards (AMPS).
  • Quality control.
  • Marketing.
Genetic Modification: A Technology That Is Here to Stay©

Author: Wynand J. van der Walt

PP: 67

  • Biotechnology is applied biology — putting our biological knowledge to work.
  • Biotechnology is using any living system to produce something useful.
  • Modern biotechnology — various new ways to produce products more efficiently, or to produce new products.


Present: Proteonomics, metabolomics, and genomics.


  • Tissue /cell culture: molecular breeding.
  • rDNA techniques: diagnostics.
  • Gene transfer > genetic modification > microbes, plants, and animals.
  • Conventional: selection, breeding, and chemical and radiation mutation.
  • Past: bread, beer, wine, vinegar, compost, mining, ethanol, etc.
Potential Trees for Bio-Diesel Production©

Author: Elsa S. du Toit

PP: 69

  • Shrinking supply of fossil fuels and the increasing demand for energy in 2005.
  • In the global economy it could lead to an oil crisis in the future.
  • The enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol drives towards using biofuels to offset CO2 emissions. As a result the possibility of earning additional revenue through bio-fuel projects in the form of "Certified Emission Reductions" is certain.
  • This form of funding contributes towards the financial feasibility of tree projects for bio-diesel.
  • The potential of alleviating poverty in South Africa’s rural areas with the production of a needed product bio-diesel while reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a solution to many of Africa’s problems.
The Growing of Lisianthus Under South African Conditions©

Author: Jac Duif

PP: 75


Eustoma grandiflora: lisianthus, prairie gentian, Texas blue bell.

  • Eustoma: Gentianacea family.
  • Eustoma grandiflora (syn. E. russellianum) is the first name given to this species of the Eustoma genus. On the basis of international nomenclature rules the name Lisianthus, is a synonym for Eustoma.

Lisianthus is native from Colorado to Texas, U.S.A., where these plants grow in the prairies. If the seeds in nature germinate early in the spring they will flower the same season. If germination takes place later in the season, with higher temperatures, drought, etc., the plants will not flower until the next year.

With commercial selections, we find the same characteristics with seedlings "rosetting" when exposed to high temperatures. Breeders are currently breeding for selections that are tolerant of these conditions. Lisianthus is a quantitative long day plant, i.e., plants will flower quicker with less leaf pairs and shorter stems under long day situations. There are, however, new selections which are less susceptible to long day periods and heat and there are now excellent cultivars for summer and winter production.
An Australian Experience!©

Author: Gerhard Hoogendoorn and Coleen C. Cronje

PP: 79

Gerard Hoogendoorn, Jac Duif, Karen Eichholtz, Coleen Cronje, and Mornet de Jager (the latter being two sisters) were fortunate to be part of a great and wonderful "Down Under" experience.

We arrived in Brisbane on Tuesday the 16th of May 2006, after a harrowing and exhausting flight. Imagine that! Thirty hours to get to the other end of the world! At least this was the opinion of the girls. The men consoled themselves with the profusions of meals (or so it seemed).

We booked in at the Carlton Crest Hotel where the Australian I.P.P.S. Region conference was held and were delighted to find the hotel clean and refreshingly welcoming. To our dismay, we discovered that we would only be allowed to enter our rooms at 12 noon. This left us dragging our feet around a few blocks of Brisbane, until we were able to flop down on our beds after a cleansing shower.

Refreshed and revived the following morning, Brisbane impressed us with its very well organised public transport system. For only $5 a day, unlimited river, bus, and train transport was available. This left us giddy with a sense of long lost freedom and everywhere to go! Soon we discovered that this city had a feeling of a small town with vast amounts of sidewalk space, friendly people, and half a zillion sidewalk cafes. We vowed to try them all, but failed dismally. You can only eat so much!

Regulating Agricultural Water Use With a Pollution Potential: An Introduction©

Author: Magda Ligthelm

PP: 83

An introduction is provided to the present overarching regulatory framework in South Africa (SA) and how it is being implemented for agricultural water-use activities that can pollute the resource. Mention is made of source-directed controls and its linkage to resource directed measures as used within the SA context. The general water-use authorization process is described. More detail is provided on the strategy being finalized to regulate water use with a pollution potential. The strategic objective set is to ensure that there is a measurable trend in reduction of pollution from agricultural sources — from both point and non-point sources — by 2013. Eight programme objectives were set to achieve this. The importance of awareness raising, capacity building, and training for departmental officials is emphasized while the main other challenges facing agricultural water use in general are mentioned. The agricultural water-use sector is in conclusion encouraged to use the scare water prudently and with care.
Zantedeschia: From Test Tube to Pot©

Author: Andy Hackland

PP: 92


Refining the micropropagation, hardening off, and growing-on of the New Zealand bred hybrid Zantedeschia has been a continuous process at Frontier Labs for the last 10 years. And refinement continues!


In early spring sprouting "eyes" from dry-stored tubers are excised and initiated onto basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium in vitro. Basil-shoot multiplication is stimulated from aseptic culture lines through the addition of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) at final concentration of 0.5 mg?L-1. At this stage the original mother shoots are isolated and sent for virus indexing (see disease management paragraph). Mass propagation proceeds with the culture lines that show no virus infection. Rooting is carried out using standard MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) without the addition of growth regulators. Rooting results in 5–14 days and plants are removed from the glass containers ready for hardening off.

Revegetating the Rarities©

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 97


Awareness of the environment has become all the rage and not before time. Politicians invented it just a few years ago, or so they would have us believe. For some of us it has always been a way of life. My first major revegetation was a silverbirch (Betula pendula) forest in our back garden in Essex, United Kingdom, at the age of seven. Sixty years later this planting must now be well past its use by date. There are other quite major plantings in that country I helped plant while an apprentice. On arrival in New Zealand in 1963 I travelled north from Wellington. The population along the route were still in the slash and burn mode, and dark remains of once proud trees littered the eroding hillsides. In the intervening 40 years or so, things have changed, some for the better, but many places are still eroding and sending their precious cargo of topsoil down silted rivers to the sea. There is an awakening in certain areas that plants matter, even native plants!

Seed Production and Processing of the Indigenous Coastal Sand-Binding Plant Spinifex sericeus©

Author: Robert Southward

PP: 99

Spinifex sericeus R.Br is an important indigenous sand-binding grass growing on coastal foredunes throughout the North Island and northern South Island of New Zealand. Utilising seed rather than vegetative propagation techniques has typically been more successful in establishing plants for sand dune stabilisation in New Zealand. Since 1998, caryopses (naked "seeds") have been mechanically extracted at Massey University from 43 collections (or sub-collections) sent by interested parties from 16 North Island beaches. Although most collections received were from five beaches of the south western coast of the North Island (25), especially Hokio beach near Levin, a number were also received from a further five west coast and six east coast beaches. Weights of extracted whole seeds ranged from as little as 2.9 g (approximately 210 seeds) to 142 g (approximately 11,270 seeds) per "packed" fertiliser bag of spinifex seedheads (ave. 51.1 g, about 3790 seeds). The ten highest yields obtained were collections from Hokio (8), Foxton (1), and Himatangi (1) beaches. Low yields were more typical of east coast beaches, although the lowest yields recorded were from the west coast beach of Oakura, near New Plymouth. Fungal smut or rodents were identified as causes of low seed yield in some cases. Thousand seed weight varied from 11.7 g (Patea) to 15.6 g (Muriwai). A relationship of declining seed weight with increasing seed yield was only prevalent from the combined Hokio and Kapiti collections (r2 = 76%).

The seed extraction/cleaning process used is outlined in this paper and involves the use of four lab-scale seed threshing/cleaning machines plus ancillary equipment. Overall seed quality as a result of the extraction process was acceptable with losses through broken seed typically restricted to around 5%. In today?s dollar terms, extraction costs ranged from 1.9? to $1.00 per seed, ave. 5.5¢, largely depending on the seed number able to be extracted, or 3.2¢ to $1.67, ave. 9.2¢ per germinable seed based on a conservative germination rate of 60%.

Preliminary laboratory germination tests revealed no loss of quality from mechanical extraction and also confirmed naked seed germinated faster than seed still held in its bracts as spikelets. Subsequent occasional germination tests were conducted on only a few seed lots, at client?s request, with results ranging between 60%–81% over 35 days.

Improvements to the process will depend on the scale of the operation desired but are definitely possible through modifications to existing machinery and/or access to and possible modification of other machines such as a cone thresher, hammer mill, and de-awner.

Producing Native Plants for Revegetation ? Meeting the Challenges?

Author: Esme Dean

PP: 111


Over the last 26 years the production methods in our nursery have and will continue to change considerably to meet the needs of the revegetation market. My purpose in this paper is to outline these past changes as well as taking a brief look at what still needs to happen in the future.


Firstly, identify the needs of the revegetation market, which is the market for native plants specifically to restore native vegetation to specified areas.

The market requires:

  • Identified and/or specified seed provenance.
  • Bulk supply at low cost.
  • Consistent grades of healthy, viable plants.
  • Ease of handling for contractors.
  • To be a serious grower of revegetation native plants and to remain competitive in an increasingly pressurised market we have had to change practices and will continue to change to remain a market player.
Revegetation of the Stockton Coal Mine, Buller©

Author: Michael Kingsbury

PP: 114


Stockton Coal Mine is situated 25 km north-east of Westport and stretches from 1 km to 5 km from the coast. The 2,200-ha coal mining licence is located within the western sector of the Buller Coal Field on a plateau 400 to 1,100 m above the coastal plain. The opencast mine currently has a disturbed area of 750 ha and is expected to have a footprint of more than 900 ha at end of mine life. Thick seams of generally high quality coal exported for use in thermal, coking, and specialised markets overlies a basement of weathered granite rock. This material is quarried for mine road aggregate and, due to its phosphate content, is capable of supporting vegetation. Overlying the coal is a thick layer of hard, massive quartz sandstone overburden, which is fragmented by blasting and stripped using 180-tonne excavators. It has poor plant-supporting characteristics, being low in fertility and having low water and nutrient-holding capacity. Remnants of the Kaiata mudstone exist on top of the sandstone and contribute to acid rock drainage through oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals.

Taranaki Regional Council’s Riparian Management Programme©

Author: Don Shearman

PP: 120


The Taranaki Regional Council (TRC) has a statutory obligation under the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) to give effect to the fundamental purpose of promoting the sustainable management of natural and physical resources in carrying out its functions in the Taranaki Region. In particular, Sections 6 and 7 of the Act recognise the importance of preserving the natural character of rivers and their margins and the protection of them from inappropriate use; protection of significant areas of indigenous vegetation and habitats of indigenous fauna; and maintenance and enhancement of amenity values. Furthermore, Regional Councils are required under the RMA to prepare a Regional Policy Statement that identifies significant issues in the region along with objectives, policies, methods of implementation, and environmental results anticipated. One of the key issues identified in Taranaki is the degradation of water quality resulting from diffuse source contamination from agriculture. Council has identified riparian management as one of the preferred methods of improving water quality.

Using a Greenhouse for Controlling Plant Growth©

Author: Elly M. Nederhoff

PP: 126


Greenhouses protect the plants from adverse conditions and enable the grower to control the growing conditions. Good control helps achieving a high yield, good quality, uniformity, and precise timing of delivery. A wide range of crops is grown in greenhouses; the end product can be leaves, roots, bulbs, tubers, flowers, fruit, seed, young plants, mature plants (herbs, salad plants, bedding plants, pot plants, garden plants), and more.

Controlling the growing conditions requires technology, primarily for heating and venting, and optionally also for root-zone heating, cooling, fogging, misting, CO2 enrichment, shading, assimilation light, day-length extension, black-out, and more. Greenhouses come in degrees of sophistication: from uncontrolled plastic tunnels to completely automated and robotised plant factories. Simple greenhouses can be manually operated, but advanced greenhouses with a lot of technology require a good control computer. In New Zealand, most greenhouses used for plant propagation are relatively basic compared to some highly specialised greenhouses overseas.

Use of Geothermal Steam for Nursery Heat Supply©

Author: Philip Smith

PP: 134


Taupo Native Plant Nursery is located approximately 5 km south west of Lake Taupo, in the central North Island. We produce mainly New Zealand native plants for ecological restoration throughout New Zealand. Currently we are producing approximately 2 million seedlings and 1 million in containers. Staff numbers vary between 55 and 75 depending on seasonal requirements.


Lake Taupo is actually a massive depression or caldera within the earth’s crust that has formed as a direct consequence of repeated volcanic eruptions. In fact Taupo is considered to be the single most frequently active and productive volcano on earth today. Furthermore, within at least the last 5,000 years, Taupo has produced the most violent eruptions globally. It first began erupting about 300,000 years ago and last erupted about 1,800 years ago. On average it erupts every 900 years.

Propagation Problems or Have You Tried This? ©

Author: Ken Davey

PP: 137


Many of us have had plants that have basically said "tough; we are not going to let you propagate us. " I have a saying that I use quite a lot "There is no such thing as a plant being impossible to propagate; it is only that we have not yet worked out how to do it. It is only a matter of time and patience, where there is a will there is usually a way. "

I have been fortunate that through the 1970s I was involved in some basic propagation research when employed as a technician with the former Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) at the now-closed Levin Horticultural Research Centre (LHRC).This was a time when tissue culture was a new but still quite expensive tool in research. For more than half the time that I worked there I was responsible for the day-to-day running of the nuclear-stock unit, a plant quarantine unit that housed the National High Health (mainly virus free) berry-fruit collection.

Integrated Pest Management in Plant Display Houses: With Particular Reference to the Fernery and Display Houses, New Plymouth ©

Author: Jennifer Gleeson

PP: 144


"Battling the bugs and beasties in the war zone of a plant display house." This paper looks into the techniques and strategies that are available and used in controlling plant pests in the Fernery and Display Houses (The Fernery), Pukekura Park, New Plymouth. A coordinated approach evolved out of our desire to do things better. We wanted to reduce the use of toxic pesticides, because we were concerned about the development of pesticide-resistant populations, the nontarget effects pesticides can have, and the all-important public, staff, and environmental safety issues. We were also aware of the increasing public desire for a clean and green environment. Rather than rely on a prophylactic programme based on a calendar of spray applications, we looked for more environmentally friendly approaches sympathetic to the actual levels of crop damage. As horticulturists we found ourselves in the world of entomology, chemistry, ecology, and economics as we move into an integrated pest management (IPM) system. Although plant health depends on both the control of pests and the management of plant diseases, this paper only addresses insect and mite pests and their management.

Successful Exflasking©

Author: Antony Toledo

PP: 151


What I would like to discuss with you today is how the tissue culture laboratory and the nursery can work together more effectively to produce more successful exflasking.

To get the very best results at exflasking, it is necessary to have a greater understanding of the plant and its needs both while it is in the laboratory as well as when it leaves. It is important to have input from both sides. This will greatly improve the chances of a successful result. Some of you may recall a very good paper presented at the 2003 I.P.P.S. New Zealand Conference in Palmerston North entitled: "Exflasking, A Shocking Experience" (Seelye, 2003). To refresh your memory, I will return to this paper and will go over some of the points raised, looking again at these issues from perhaps a practical viewpoint. I hope in this way to foster a better understanding of the roles the plant nursery and the tissue culture laboratory have and how collectively they may improve their chances of successful exflasking.

Making Pineapple Lilies for the World©

Author: T. E. Welsh



My venture into the world of breeding, selecting, and commercializing pineapple lilies (Eucomis comosa) began in 1995. I sowed a few hundred seeds collected from a bed in the South African collection of the Auckland Regional Authority Botanical Gardens. The project was inspired by a visitor from Japan who, upon viewing these delightful plants, asked me to supply him with 5000 bulbs. I committed to growing them if he guaranteed to buy them, and so it all started. Within three growing seasons I had a field full of flowering bulbs showing great diversity of foliage and flower types. In 1998 I made my first selections and exported my first consignment of bulbs as a mixed strain. This project has now grown to a global exercise, with breeding and selecting done in New Zealand then starter bulbs being shipped off to locations in the Northern Hemisphere to be finished off in the natural cycles for their growing seasons, completely opposite to us in the Southern Hemisphere. This paper sets out to describe the techniques I used to bring the crop from a breeder?s dream to a venture that generates regular income as well as a great sense of satisfaction.

Propagating Material: Getting It Right From the Start©

Author: Richard Ware

PP: 163


Where do plant propagators get their stock and how good is it?

What needs to be done to remedy problems of poor strikes and poor resultant crops due to inferior material? What sort of cutting do we need to be successful?

Most of you will have the ideal cutting in mind, a bit like a fresh, succulent, plump salad that makes your mouth water, and no one wants a limp, pale, washed out thing that will become a gooey heap. You may laugh but I have seen bags of cuttings exactly like that. So now we see this ideal cutting, brilliant green, plump, fully nourished, close nodded with no stretch, firm and ready to root at a minute?s notice. How do we go about getting it?

You could take cuttings from leftover stock or from old bushes in someone?s garden, but this is not really a good answer. To produce quality plants from cuttings you need to take ownership of the source of plant material. That’s right, you have to own the process from the start. We at Plant Production Ltd. have lacked a standalone facility to do just that, and with producing the ideal cutting in mind, we set our goal towards the steps needed to accomplish this.

Recent Experiences Developing and Selecting New Cultivars by Hybridizing©

Author: Vance Hooper

PP: 166


If you can imagine a plant, it?s only a matter of growing enough seedlings and you will find it. Chances are, however, along the way you will find something even better! Random selection from crops of seedlings or tissue culture variants is one way to find new plants. Controlled hybridizing is a way to speed up the process of finding desirable plants. I have been breeding plants for 20 years now. This paper mainly discusses the last 4 years and how a more streamlined system has been developed that could be applied to practically any genus.

Growing and Propagating Conifers©

Author: David Sampson and Greg Sampson

PP: 175


Noeline and David started Cedar Lodge Nurseries over 30 years ago, developing it from a hobby. We had an interest in conifers, and thought that by specializing in only conifers we could handle it quite easily. What we soon found out is that we had taken on the world?s largest family of plants. This created many challenges since every continent has its native conifers, with climate requirements varying from the tropics to close to the Arctic Circle. These climatic requirement variations didn’t prove much of a problem from a propagating point of view but the continuing management of the young plants through to sale required a lot of experimentation with varying plant husbandry techniques, which continues today. We are blessed with a wonderful temperate climate in our locality, which allows us to handle this challenge and produce plants that can survive and thrive in their preferred climate range, which can be found in most cases within New Zealand.

Innovation and Innovators: Making a Difference Through Sharing©

Author: Ken Tilt

PP: 181

Innovation is the life-blood and survival mechanism of the nursery business. Most nursery businesses are made up of "mom and pop" or family operations with very few corporate behemoths. It is still one of the few businesses in horticulture or agriculture where one can start a business with a relatively small amount of money and build slowly over time. That is changing now, but it is still being done. Limited resources require nursery entrepreneurs to be very innovative to survive. Their question is, "How can I compete among the larger nurseries, and get things done with limited labor, time, money, space, and/or materials?" This is where entrepreneurial juices flow and necessity yields action, exploitation, and realization.

Innovative ideas are everywhere, but innovation is about INNOVATORS, people who not only have great ideas but people who develop and test those ideas and navigate them through or around the system and into the market or workplace. Innovators are passionate dreamers and doers with dogged determination to make a difference. The following is a limited sampling of those ideas and "hort-truisms" that have made a difference in the industry and some thoughts on testing and marketing your ideas. Most of the innovators have been long-time members of and contributors to I.P.P.S.

Innovations at Narromine Transplants©

Author: David O. Cliffe

PP: 186


From its creation, Narromine Transplants has endeavored to be at the forefront of its particular sector of the Australian nursery industry, namely cell-raised seedlings. To maintain this edge and at the same time ensure the enterprise remains economically viable, it has been necessary to be both innovative and inventive.

This paper outlines just some of the measures taken to ensure that we are the nursery of choice for our forestry customers, with a commitment to quality and service via the introduction of innovation.

Vegetative Propagation in the Vegetable Seed Industry©

Author: Daniel Trimboli

PP: 189


Vegetative propagation is used in certain aspects of the vegetable seed industry, with the majority being for plant breeding purposes. The uses are for:

  • Plant rescue
  • Multiplication and maintenance
  • Selection
  • Embryo rescue
  • Inbred development
  • Grafted seedlings


Vegetative Cuttings. These are used in brassicas, lettuce, cucurbits, and solanaceous crops for plant rescue, multiplication/maintenance, and selection. Cuttings are placed in Growool® (or similar) blocks under mist and potted immediately when root production is apparent. This ensures the highest seed yield by maintaining the vegetative stage for as long as possible.

Innovative Products, Services, and Nurseries©

Author: Robert Chin

PP: 190

The greatest danger for most of us is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it is too low and we reach it.? Michelangelo (not the Turtle!)


Innovation is seen by many people to be many different things. For some it is something that somebody else does, for others they can be too innovative and waste a lot of time and money. People in the nursery industry should be innovative and use it to their effect. For me, innovation is:

  • Taking an idea and using it to improve your business.
  • The key to future business prosperity and can take place in all areas of the business process.
  • Not just for big multi-national businesses ? it is for you!
  • Crucial.
  • Something to be promoted and nurtured.
  • Great for solving problems.
  • More than just invention.
  • Okay to copy if somebody else has already carried out good innovation that suits you.
Developing a Low-Risk, Recyclable Cutting Medium©

Author: Paul Carmen

PP: 202


Nonrenewable products such as perlite, sphagnum peat, and sand have been the mainstay of propagation media. Concerns about the long-term viability of their use, and the health risks associated with the use of perlite in particular, have prompted a search for alternatives by staff in the nursery at the Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG).

The ANBG nursery has used a combination of a coarse grade of perlite (P500) and coir (fine grade) (5 : 1, v/v) as a cutting propagation medium since 1990. Coir is a renewable resource and has the added advantage of being easy to rewet, unlike sphagnum peat. This combination has all the right characteristics for promoting root growth on cuttings of the wide range of Australian plants propagated by the nursery each year. In January 2006, pine bark and rice hulls were identified as potential ingredients that are inexpensive, safe to use, and made from renewable resources and that might be suitable for substituting for perlite.

Improving Take Rates in Grafting Macadamias©

Author: Dyllon McPhee

PP: 206


Macadamia nuts are the success story for the Australian bush food industry, but with a twist. Macadamias were discovered in Australia, but nuts were originally taken to Hawaii, U.S.A. where they were grown and bred. It took some enterprising Australians to bring them back to the NSW north coast to establish an industry now worth tens of millions of dollars.

There are two species that have been used for nut production, Macadamia integrifolia and M. tetraphylla. While the flavour of M. tetraphylla is considered superior, M. integrifolia cultivars are the most widely planted for nut production. Macadamia trees are generally grafted onto seedlings, with the selection ‘Hinde’ (syn. H2) being the most widely used rootstock. This is a M. integrifolia selection and is said to grow a vigorous seedling due to the large size nut. There has been some work on rootstock evaluation, but this has been limited.

A New High-Tech Research Greenhouse©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 209


This paper describes the design and environmental control features of a new research greenhouse built at the Gatton Campus of the University of Queensland (UQ). The greenhouse was funded by the University for the Centre for Native Floriculture, a research centre funded by the Queensland state government. Most University research greenhouses are designed for research on high light demanding agronomic crops such as sunflowers, sorghum, and wheat. This makes greenhouse design and environment control parameters relatively easy to deal with.

The nature of the research to be carried out in the UQ Gatton greenhouse involves studies of the floral physiology of a range of new native flowering plant species, and this requirement added a significant additional range of environment control parameters to this project. When the University of Queensland allocates funding for a project of this nature, an architect is appointed to manage the project. The architect has the final say on overall design of the structure. The University staff who are to use the facility form a ?users? group? that determines the environmental parameters required of the facility. I was the Chair of the users? group for the development of this facility.

Coloured Shade Cloth and Plant Growth©

Author: Wayne Stephens

PP: 212


At last year?s conference in Brisbane, coloured shade cloth was mentioned and discussed. I thought that this needed looking into with more depth. A Google Internet search for more information did not result in anything that was relevant.

So I decided to do a trial of my own, seeing if coloured shade cloth affects plant growth. At Advantage Plant Production, we prefer not to use chemicals to control growth and also try to minimise labour costs as much as possible. On top of this we are always looking for ways to produce better plants for our clients. So the option of using coloured shade cloth to regulate plant growth would be very beneficial.

I obtained shade cloth colours in grey, red, and blue. This was donated to me by the distributor, Polysack. Polysack claims the following with each colour.

Water Use and Best Management Practice Within the

Author: Michael Danelon

PP: 218


Fresh, useable water is one of Australia?s and the world?s most precious resources. As a resource, fresh water represents 2.5% of the world’s water supply. Like other horticulture industries, the nursery and garden industry requires access to appropriate and reliable water supplies. Water is crucial to nursery and plant production, and water is a resource we need to be aware of conserving. As an industry we know we need to be "waterwise." More importantly it is essential we implement and achieve high water-use efficiency without sacrificing plant quality and productivity.

In order to improve water access, given competition amongst users and the influence of dry climatic conditions, it is important for the nursery industry to be promoted as a responsible and efficient water user to help achieve:

  • A secure "water future" for our businesses;
  • Recognition of established Industry Best Practice; and
  • Recognition of the industry?s own initiatives in water conservation.
Overuse of Synthetic Pesticides: How Can Integrated Pest Management Help?©

Author: Leigh J. Pilkington

PP: 221


Many pest management problems arise from the repeated use of simplistic, unilateral management responses for what are often complex and highly variable pest problems. It is inefficient for a motorist to repair an oil leak by replacing the engine; it is equally unwise for a grower to manage a small pest problem by using large amounts of synthetic pesticides. A motorist is more likely to replace or repair small components of the engine, and a grower should also be prepared to use an integrated and more refined approach to dealing with pest problems. Is pest management changing the spark plugs or is it replacing the entire engine?

A Journey in Hibiscus Growing©

Author: David Ponman

PP: 226

My Journey started over 30 years ago when the employer I was working for was growing hibiscus and I became interested in the many selections. Over time he sold the retail part of his business, and I stayed with the new owner.

It was only a matter of time when I confirmed that I would rather grow plants than sell them. I expressed this to Ken, the owner, and we started Wallsend Wholesale Nurseries. At the beginning we grew indoor plants and camellias and bought and sold palms. After a period of time my previous employer retired from his wholesale nursery, so I decided to venture into the hibiscus that I liked and maybe fill the gap in the market place that he was going to leave.

To start with we grew plants on a section of the retail nursery in Wallsend, since it had growing areas from past years and some older glasshouses. After a couple of years we leased some land (2 acres) at Glendale, approximately 2 km from the retail site, and continued growing and expanding the business. The rest is history. After the 2 acres filled up I purchased 2 adjoining acres, and we now grow on about 3 of the 4 acres; the rest is house and gardens. I guess this is how a lot of us expand, by adding and changing over the years. After 25 years we changed our name to Glendale Select Plants, and we have just finished some smaller igloos for growing.

Top Wedge Grafting Eremophilas©

Author: Paul Carmen and Barbara Corsini

PP: 230


The Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) in Canberra holds the largest collection of Australian plants in Australia, and its goals are to promote the study of and culture of Australian plants. Plant collections are held for a range of purposes including ex situ conservation, education, and display.

Canberra has a temperate climate with a temperature range from -6 oC to 40 oC, making it possible to grow a wide range of Australian plants species.

However, the soil is largely clay, which means that many species in the genus Eremophila, which grow naturally in sandy, well drained soils, are more difficult to establish unless grafted on to a suitable rootstock.

The ANBG holds 53 Eremophila species, many of which make excellent display plants. The flowers are usually bright and well displayed, often appearing en masse, but there are often one or two flowers on the plants throughout the year. Some, like E. racemosa, have the unusual characteristic of having a range of distinct colours as the flowers develop — orange to red to pink — all of which can be present at the same time. The leaf colour and form is often as distinct as the flowers, and there is almost always a strong colour contrast between the foliage and flowers.

From Amateur to Professional Propagator©

Author: Bruce Higgs

PP: 234

Unlike most members who grew up in horticulture, I came to the industry later on from a career spanning disciplines of biochemistry, chemistry, and material science. Before starting the nursery, I was employed in multinational corporations in marketing and technical management, as well as corporate strategic planning. Throughout that career the ability to be innovative with products, systems, and markets had been shown, as well as while chairing a number of Australian and international committees. This paper looks at the challenges faced in establishing a nursery, along with a few simple tips found in improving the propagation environment.

All along my wife and I had a desire to have a nursery. In the 1980s we had joined the Australian Plant Society to find out more about Australian native plants. When I could, I continued to collect seeds and propagate plants from cuttings as a hobby. With changes in the manufacturing industry in Australia we set out in 2000 to establish a production nursery.

Invasive Plants and the Nursery Industry©

Author: Robert Chin

PP: 238


There are many issues that the nursery industry faces in tackling invasive plants in Australia. This is one of many environmental problems that face our industry. There has been a lot of misinterpretation as to the causes of invasive plants and their impact in Australia, and there are also a lot of interested parties and key stakeholders, from government (federal, state, and local), conservation groups, the media, the public, and the nursery industry.

The history of weeds in Australia is varied, and yes, the nursery industry has contributed to it — but we are actually working very hard to stop the impact of invasive plants on our natural and built environments. We need the help of industry, government, and the media to spread the word on minimising the impact of invasive plants.

Surviving and Thriving in the New Global Economy©

Author: Brian Minter

PP: 249

Although our industry has been challenged by international economic and political events throughout its history, the next few years are going to force us to re-evaluate everything we do. Global integration has grown to the point where even a minor disruption affects the entire worldwide economic system, and a major crisis not only disrupts but also forces re-alignments and paradigm shifts in how and with whom the world does business.

For years now significant changes have been taking place in many arenas, but as these small shifts in thinking progress, they often bump into each other, creating greater awareness of each other and revealing an interrelationship not thought of before. The synergy of all these smaller and larger changes coming together creates some of the major shifts that we are now beginning to witness. For example, extreme weather all over the globe has more folks around the world believing the cause to be global warming, triggered by an excess of carbon in the atmosphere. The majority public opinion is that industrial pollution and exhaust from automobiles and two-stroke engines are major contributors to this problem.

Look to the Future: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities©

Author: Mark Krautmann

PP: 252

INTRODUCTION Jolly and I are honored to be here in Montreal to visit with our long-time customers and friends. I recall a generation ago attending I.P.P.S. meetings to hear those old bald guys wax on and debate the merits of this hormone dip or that seed stratification method. I?d take copious notes, read the proceedings and call them after the meeting ended, and wonder how those folks got so smart. Now, as I look out there and a new group of propagators is growing among us, I realize that they?re looking at me up here as one of those old bald guys who knows everything. The truth is, we just know more questions.

New plants, information, and technology are always the hot topics in the trade magazines and shows, and certainly that keeps us all interested. But my sense is that what distinguishes a consistently profitable nursery or garden center is attention to the fundamentals. We will look forward and review some critical ones in my experience: labor and water management.

Finally, we’ll close with a dozen or so items of more traditional interest for you — specific ideas that you might implement to help you do a better job in the coming growing season.

The Potential for New Auxins: Evaluation of Indole-3-Succinic Acid©

Author: William R. Graves and Jyotsna Sharma

PP: 257


Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was described in the mid-1930s. It is the principal, most abundant, and most physiologically relevant natural auxin (Thimann and Went, 1934; Thimann and Koepfli 1935; Blazich, 1988; Armstrong et al., 2002; Taiz and Zeiger, 2002). At high concentrations, IAA and other auxins enhance adventitious root formation, which is of paramount importance to horticultural practitioners who rely on the initiation of adventitious roots when propagating plants asexually.

After the discovery of IAA, synthetic auxins were discovered or developed. Potency and stability account for the widespread use of these chemicals. Asexual propagation of many plants without synthetic auxins is almost unimaginable. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) are commonly used auxins today, but some plants are not responsive. Perhaps certain plants lack chemical receptors necessary for any form of auxin to be effective at promoting roots on detached stems. But it is at least equally plausible that new chemical forms of auxin could be developed that will overcome recalcitrance. Variation in the efficacy of known auxins among species justifies efforts to develop and evaluate alternative auxins. Indeed, the potential value of new auxins has been recognized for at least two decades (Blazich, 1988).

The New Generations of Capillary Mats: Aquamat and Aquathermat©

Author: Sylvain Hélie

PP: 260


Capillary mats have been used by grower almost for more than 75 years. They were made of different types of fiber such as wool, cotton, and more recently with synthetic fibers like fiber glass polypropylene, polyester, and acrylic. Their use was principally to get uniform watering on greenhouses benches. This is also one reason they are still needed by grower, but they lost some popularity due to important problems of disease and algae propagation into their open structure that is remaining wet all the time, and evaporating water at the same time. In fact, capillary mats were never popular on their ability to save water because they never did so, but mainly to save time in getting a uniform crop. Growers are facing now more water and energy restrictions than never, and we would like to present you the new generation of capillary mat that can really save water and energy and solve major disease, runoff, and environmental problems.

Softwood Propagation "How We Do I" at Sheridan Nurseries©

Author: Jody Edwards

PP: 266

Good afternoon and thank you for having me here. As mentioned my name is Jody Edwards, I work for Sheridan Nurseries and have been with them for close to 10 years working in their propagation facility. Currently my title is Assistant Manager of Operations which is a fancy way for saying that I plan and coordinate the taxa and quantities to be propagated for the company’s shrubs and evergreens. We are currently propagating over 350 taxa of woody plants and starting to dip our toe into the pond of perennial propagation as well.

Today I’ve been asked to speak about softwood propagation and will let you in on "How we do it. " We propagate 1.5 million plants every year. 1 million of those plants are made as softwood cuttings throughout the spring, summer, and fall months, which are mostly shrubs, perennials, and broadleaf evergreens. The other 500,000 are conifers made as hardwood cuttings in the winter.

Vegetative Propagation of Cuttings of Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)©

Author: R. Christian Cash

PP: 270


Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii) has been used in many parts of the world as a Christmas tree, forest tree, and landscape plant. Much of the need for Douglas-fir is for reforestation and as such seed propagation is common and relatively easy. The Christmas tree and landscape industries have been limited in the development of commercially available cultivars of Douglas-fir due to difficulties with vegetatively reproducing clones of desired unique plants. Mass production by vegetative propagation has been successful but limited to "bulking up" seed supplies of elite families of Douglas-fir for the forest industry (Richie, 1993). High percentage rooting has been limited to propagating from juvenile seedlings. Success is significantly reduced with rooting of cuttings when stock plants experience their first dormancy as a seedling. Mature cuttings not only are difficult to root but the resulting plants are often very plagiotropic (horizontal) in growth causing plants to have undesirable form.

Auxin Application via Foliar Sprays©

Author: Samuel R. Drahn

PP: 274


Over the past 6 years Bailey Nurseries, Inc. has been delivering IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) to unrooted cuttings in a couple of ways; manual basal dips before planting and overhead sprays after planting is complete. Careful, repetitive trialing has shown us that many of the taxa respond equally as well to being sprayed with water soluble IBA after sticking instead of the traditional hand dip method that we have used for years. In both our Minnesota and Oregon propagation facilities the shift in delivery method has been driven by a desire to reduce our employees’ exposure to chemicals, develop a more streamlined and sanitary approach to propagation, and to reduce the labor costs associated with rooting hormone applications. All of these goals need to be met while maintaining our standards of high quality, well-rooted cuttings. Using Hortis IBA water soluble salts has helped us reach these objectives with many of our taxa.

Cutting Propagation of Coniferous Forest Trees in Quebec

Author: Michel Rioux, Denise Tousignant, Mohammed S. Lamhamedi, and Fabi

PP: 278

Mass cutting propagation of forest species is widely used in many different countries for reproducing elite material from the best controlled crosses. The production of coniferous plants from cuttings has continued to increase since 1989, when the Cutting Propagation Centre at the Pépinière forestiere de Saint-Modeste (Saint-Modeste Forest Nursery) was established. White spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss), black spruce (P. mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.), Norway spruce (P. abies [L.] Korst.) and hybrid larch (Larix xmarschlinsii Coaz.) are now propagated at the centre using two unique and complementary systems (Bouturathèques and double-walled enclosures) developed by the Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Québec (MRNFQ). A collaboration between the researchers at the Direction de la recherche forestiere (Forest Research Directorate) and practitioners at the Direction générale des pépinières et des stations piscicoles (Nurseries and Fish Farms Directorate), has led to refined cultural scenarios to meet the demands of each species (stock plant culture, rooting of cuttings and transplanting geared toward the production of large-sized plants). The integration of somatic embryogenesis, development of new production scenarios, and characterization of controlled crosses are presently receiving particular attention. In 2007, the provincial objective is to produce, via cutting propagation, 5.15 million of the 150 million conifer seedlings destined for reforestation in Québec.
Effect of Light and Cutting Age on Rooting in Quercus bicolor, Quercus robur, and Quercus macrocarpa Cuttings©

Author: J. Naalamle Amissah and Nina Bassuk

PP: 286

This study investigated the effect of light and etiolation with or without stem banding on rooting in Quercus robur, Q. macrocarpa, and Q. bicolor cuttings. Percent rooting in Q. bicolor and Q. robur cuttings, taken from greenhouse-grown stock plants averaged 84.9% and 63.8%, respectively. In a second experiment using field-grown stock plants, cuttings were taken at 3-week intervals, from four light and stem banding treatment groups. In Q. bicolor cuttings, rooting response was significantly increased by stock plant etiolation (p < 0.01) and early cutting age (p < 0.0001), but not stem banding (p > 0.05). Rooting decreased (p < 0.0001) as cuttings aged across treatments with an overall rooting percentage of 62.3% at 3 weeks, decreasing to 10.3% at 6 weeks and 4.7% by the 9th week. In a later field experiment, rooting response in Q. macrocarpa cuttings was improved by taking cuttings at 2 weeks after etiolation treatment.
Propagation Pathology: The Basics©

Author: Margery Daughtrey

PP: 293

Control of disease in propagation begins with sanitation. A clean source of plant material and a clean growing area are both essential. Preventing leaf spots in stock plants will help to reduce diseases of cuttings during propagation. Fungal spores are the inoculum for most of the common diseases. Additional fungal structures, such as chlamydospores and sclerotia, are designed as survival structures and are difficult to eliminate from the greenhouse environment. Inspect cuttings before sticking, and eliminate any with suspicious symptoms. Avoid any practice that brings soil in from outdoors or moves it from the greenhouse floor up to crop level. A hose end dropped to the floor should be disinfested before use. Bench surfaces should be cleanable — smooth metal or plastic surfaces are best — wood can harbor pathogens, and cannot be adequately disinfested.

A propagation house should be kept separate from the rest of the nursery, and traffic through it should be minimal. A foot dip with daily-refreshed disinfectant is a good way to set a tone of high sanitation standards for all who enter.

Propagating Daphne©

Author: Carol Yee

PP: 296

Ten years ago I first learned the miracle of plant propagation from my friend Bill Callina, chief bottle washer at New England Wildflowers Society Garden in the Woods. He went with me to the swamp to collect the sphagnum, helped me drag an old aquarium up the cellar steps and showed me how to stick rhododendron cuttings in a terrarium. When half of them grew roots, success went to my head.

I was soon screeching to a stop by the side of the road, jumping out of the car, Felcos in hand, and hauling home a myriad of unknown genera. It?s taken a few years to identify all that stuff and some of it still grows at my home in Connecticut. Some needed several applications of Roundup before it would go away! Boy, those invasive plants sure do smell good! Having no real direction back then, I became known as one of those "she?ll try anything" people and the recipient of garbage bags full of intriguing and mysterious cuttings. In one of those bags came my first Daphne branches.

For those uninitiated souls, the genus Daphne consists of 50 species ranging in origin from Europe to Asia, from the Caucasus to Siberia, from Zones 4 to 7. Daphne can be deciduous or evergreen. To my knowledge, all are extremely fragrant and all have a very bad (and in my opinion) somewhat undeserved reputation for "sudden death syndrome. "

New Misters for Propagation: Automation and Water Quality Issues©

Author: Stephanie Burnett

PP: 299

NEW MIST NOZZLES Older styles of mist nozzles, such as flora mist nozzles, typically produce large droplets of water (Table 1) and have flow rates as high as 11.4 L?min-1. Newer options available include fog-type mist nozzles. They may cost up to $10, but have several advantages over traditional mist nozzles. The droplet size produced by fog systems tends to be much smaller than that produced by older mist nozzles (Table 1). The actual diameter of droplets will vary slightly depending on the style of fog nozzle you purchase. But, smaller diameter droplets are a benefit because they have a lower surface area to volume ratio. This means that they evaporate much more rapidly and completely and thus more effectively humidify and cool the air. They also tend to have lower flow rates and would likely waste less water than older nozzles. In some cases, fog nozzles will automatically shut off under low water pressures to prevent water from continually dripping onto substrate and leaf surfaces between mist cycles.
Hardwood Cuttings Revisited©

Author: Chuck Davis

PP: 302

Good afternoon. It’s a true honor and privilege to address the IPPS Eastern Region today. My name is Chuck Davis and I am the propagation manager at the Kankakee Nursery Company. We are located 60 miles south of Chicago, Illinois. I’d like to begin by referencing the title of my talk "Hardwood Cutting Revisited. " The "revisited" part relates to a previous talk given to this society in Cleveland, Ohio at the 8th annual meeting in December of 1958 by one of the founding members of the Kankakee Nursery, Philip Worth. In reviewing his discussion of fall stuck hardwoods it was evident that the techniques have not significantly changed in the last 50 years. However, with the advent of increased softwood production and tissue culture the popularity certainly has. Let’s take another look at this old method and hopefully give you some ideas for your own propagation needs.
Propagation of Some Underused North American Woody Taxa©

Author: Jyotsna Sharma and William R. Graves

PP: 304


Ornamental attributes of many native shrubs and small trees have been recognized, but some taxa remain rare in commerce, and little information on propagation is available. Availability of plants for restoration projects also remains limited while the demand for propagules for such projects is on the rise. Many species with horticultural merit also have become rare in the wild, in part due to destruction of their natural habitat for anthropogenic use, and at times because of over collection of wild plants from natural areas. Such losses prevent horticultural assessment of native plants and increase our reliance on non-native species that do not reflect a region’s natural heritage, may become invasive, or may introduce pests and pathogens. Use of native plants in natural and managed landscapes can help contribute to preserving the overall biodiversity and the within-species genetic diversity of indigenous taxa while providing attractive alternatives to the more common, homogeneous landscapes.

Approximately two-thirds of North American woody species exhibit some form of seed dormancy (Schopmeyer, 1974), and inhibitors to germination can develop at various times during seed development (Bradbeer, 1988).

New and Exciting Hardy Grasses©

Author: Martin Quinn

PP: 308


To fully respect the planet we live on and the communities in which we dwell, we must understand the immediate, and specific, place where we live and work. People are more environmentally conscious than ever before as we learn to work in cooperation — rather than competition — with nature. Recent drought conditions in Canada, for example, have made us very conscious of the value of our water supply. We now have a very heightened awareness of the delicacy of our ecosystems.

As horticulturalists, and plant propagators, we continually look for ways to work in harmony with local climate and soil conditions. The upfront costs involved in making the shift to more natural plantings is offset by the considerable savings to be achieved in long-term maintenance.

A tall grass prairie, for example, which the first European settlers in North America described as a sea of amber waves, is composed of plants that belong and are rooted in the North American climate zones where they flourish and propagate easily.

Hardy Orchids and Peonies From In Vitro Culture©

Author: Caroline Constabel

PP: 313


Some believe the orchid family to be the most evolved because orchids have adapted to attract specific pollinators and/or to marginal conditions where other plants can’t grow. This specificity to pollinators and habitat has also made orchids vulnerable to extinction when their habitat or that of their pollinators is disturbed. All orchids have been placed under protection of CITES, the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species. This document regulates the international shipping of all orchids. Orchids that have been micropropagated or hybrids between species are issued a CITES certificate along with a phytosanitary certificate with no additional difficulty.

Orchids that are successfully pollinated develop a capsule that may contain thousands to millions of seeds. These tiny seeds are easily carried by wind or float on water and thus orchids are found on all continents except Antarctica. With an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 species worldwide, orchids are the largest flowering plant family. Adding to this species diversity, are the even larger number of hybrids that have been made between species.

Tissue Culture of Perennials©

Author: Paul Nihot

PP: 317


Tissue culture refers to the culture of complete plants or, more often, excised plant organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient medium. The techniques for successful tissue culture were developed in the previous century: growth under sterile conditions, satisfactory inorganic and organic nutrients, and plant growth regulators. Tissue culture has been utilised in horticulture for the removal of pathogens (by meristem culture), various biotechnological breeding techniques (among others, embryo rescue, genetic engineering), and vegetative propagation. In this paper I will focus on vegetative propagation in tissue culture, also referred to as micropropagation. This technology was established in the 1950s and 1960s, with the first commercialization immediately following. Rapid growth of micropropagation occurred through to the 1990s, and ever since, growth has been steady, both with respect to the total numbers of plants produced, and the number of micropropagated crops.

Tender Perennials: More Than Just Expensive Annuals©

Author: John Valleau

PP: 321

Good afternoon everyone. I’d like to thank I.P.P.S. for inviting me here today to share but a glimpse of the very interesting and diverse world of tender perennials. The term "Tender Perennial" is basically an attempt by the grower and retailer to draw awareness to a unique and distinctive group of plants that might otherwise be overlooked. These plants do not necessarily have a whole lot in common with each other, botanically speaking.

What the term really means is that a certain plant is hardy somewhere warmer than where you live. Using this assumption, it’s easy to then understand this term is a catchall group that might include herbaceous and evergreen perennials, semitropical and tropical woody plants, bulbs, palms, ferns, grasses, succulents, and even water plants.

Germination of Difficult Perennial Seed©

Author: Allen R. Pyle

PP: 323


Although seed can be an economical way to propagate perennials, propagating perennials from seed is not without its challenges. Seed size and shape varies tremendously among species, and small or irregular seed can be challenging to handle and sow, whether by hand or with automated equipment.

In addition, perennial seed can be contaminated with weed seeds, debris, or other materials. Finally, it is not uncommon to see extremely wide variation in germination and vigor among different seed lots of a given perennial species, particularly those that have dormancy mechanisms. Together, these characteristics can make consistent success germinating perennials challenging for growers.


Moisture, temperature, and light are the three primary keys to germinating perennial seed. The goal with moisture management is to provide sufficient moisture for germination, without over saturating the media. Oversaturation reduces oxygen levels, slows growth, and promotes disease.

Zero Energy Greenhouses©

Author: Pete Hendriksen

PP: 332

  • Greenhouse concepts
  • Airco Greenhouse, objectives and tools
  • New growth insights
  • Result from field trials
  • Examples of up and running projects
  • Aircomatic
Entrepreneurship and Creativity
  • Dutch government has set the objective: Horticulture should be an energy-neutral industry by 2020
  • New vision: greenhouse as energy source
  • Ever-ongoing quest for cost reduction
  • Trial and error approach (Innogrow, Knowhouse, etc.)
  • Mutual effort: Synergie platform (Growers, government, research, and suppliers)
The Real Costs and Savings of Alternative Energy and Conservation©

Author: Jeffrey Chambers

PP: 337

In order to develop a better real-world understanding of the true costs and potential savings of different energy conservation technologies, a detailed study of multiple commercial greenhouse facilities was performed. To do this, energy audits were performed at 22 greenhouse facilities in the Niagara and Leamington Areas (Canada) between mid-March and mid-May 2006. These facilities consisted of:
  • Six tomato growers
  • Two pepper growers
  • Five potted plants
  • Two cut flowers
  • Three bedding plants
  • Four bedding and potted flowers

A comprehensive energy auditing program was developed based on our experiences with these audited facilities and others. The auditing program is set-up to accommodate four different levels of participation (with different cost commitments).

The figure below (Fig. 1) illustrates the different levels of participation.

Dogwoods, the Next Generation©

Author: Paul Cappiello

PP: 349

This presentation was originally to cover a reasonably comprehensive list of all the new dogwoods that have hit the market in recent years. The goal was to make sure that all those out there producing dogwoods would be current in their knowledge of the genus and all its new introductions have to offer the nursery and garden world. Unfortunately, even a comprehensive list of all the new Cornus introductions of the last 6 months would take more time than is allotted here. As an example of the tremendous pace of new dogwood introduction, in the 5 months between when Don Shadow and I submitted the manuscript for the dogwood book, until I saw the first printed advance copy, I amassed a list of some 75 new C. kousa introductions; not forms we missed, but new forms listed in just that time interval.

So if complete coverage of the new forms is not realistic here, the next, and in my opinion even better option, it’s to talk about the opportunities that exist for future work. I will cite several of the newer forms and what they have brought to the table and then discuss where we might go from here.

Cornus canadensis. While this is a plant that frustrates many gardeners and producers alike, most miss the primary reasons for their failure. An examination of the circumpolar distribution of the species immediately indicates a requirement for cool growing seasons.

New Plants From the Landscape Plant Development Center©

Author: Peter Podaras

PP: 353


Founded in 1991 by Dr. Harold Pellett, the Landscape Plant Development Center is a non-profit 501c(3) organization that operates solely on contributed funds and royalties in order to promote the development of durable, cold-hardy ornamentals. After having taught for 34 years at the University of Minnesota and developing at least 25 (Table 1) well-recognized plants, he recognized how little was being devoted to the development of new durable, cold-hardy plants. First begun and still headquartered at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, the Center has a dedicated and still expanding distribution of full- and part-time researchers across the country.

The Center’s unique approach to research and development is unmatched by any other institution. It has adopted a cooperative approach to its work that consists of engaging a network of approximately 80 plant scientists from universities, research stations, and arboreta from across the globe. It provides important access to a wide range of plant collections and test sites in different geographic regions. The Center provides funds to hire research technicians for these cooperative efforts at academic institutions and arboreta and those institutions in turn, leverages the use of their existing facilities and, in many cases, the expertise of their scientists to help conduct the research.

Seed Collection and Cleaning©

Author: Charles C. Flinn

PP: 359


The process of seed collection and cleaning has many facets and considerations when the goal is to produce viable seed of a desired species that can be used for production of these desired species. The most common and economical method of producing plants is to grow them from seed. Many fine points must be considered when collecting and cleaning seed to ensure that the fruits of the collectors’ efforts will be rewarded with a bounty of clean and viable seed.

The planning process for collecting seed may begin as early as decades in advance as in the case of establishing a seed orchard expressly for that purpose or perhaps 2 years in advance when scouting the timing of pollen release with conelet production and the weather conditions associated with these events. For most people this planning involves spotting trees or shrubs with an obvious seed crop and trying to decide how to most easily collect it.

For most collectors, the crop is usually checked for proper species identification, maturation, ripening, and abscission. Consideration should also be made as to the genetic background of the trees or shrubs from which you are considering collecting. The phenotype is a good indicator of what the offspring will also look like. Very often, heavy crops of seeds are produced on some of the most unworthy specimens of their species.

Effects of Colored Light on Seed Germination©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 364


Since plants are photosynthetic organisms it is no surprise that seed germination if based upon the affects of light as well. Seed can be roughly divided into two categories, those that require light to germinate and those that germinate in the dark. Each category provides the germinating seedlings with a definitive survival strategy. Foxtail grass, Setaria sp., will not germinate unless the seed are exposed to light. Anecdotal accounts have suggested that Setaria seed has a life span of greater than 40 years and can germinate at any point along that life span provided basic environmental elements are met, which includes exposure to light.

According to Sokol and Stross (1992) the germination of most seeds, spores of ferns, lichens, mosses, and related plants is activated by brief exposures to red light. The exact mechanism is known as the phytochrome response and it is based upon the role of the various photoreceptor proteins, Phytochrome A, Phytochrome B, and Phytochrome C and how they are affected by the influx of red and far red light. The ratio of which regulates the activity of germinating seeds. In addition to the phytochromes there are other light initiating germination pigment systems, one or more for blue light and one for ultraviolet A and one for Ultraviolet B, called crytochromes (Chory, 1996). Cross (2006 Internet citation) also lists some twenty four different functions that Phytochrome activity affects in germinating and developing plants. The phytochrome and cytochrome responses to light can be modulated and influenced by a series of screening pigments in seed batches (Cone and Kendrick, 1985).

Tissue Culture Propagation: Where We Are, Where We’re Going©

Author: Paul E. Read

PP: 371

A brief history of micropropagation will be presented, followed by the current state of the art, with suggestions for further applications that may aid the modern plant propagator. The concept of totipotency, espoused by Haberlandt and named by Steward, is the foundation upon which the fundamental practices of micropropagation have been built. The basic requirements of auxin and cytokinins delineated by Thimann and Went, and Skoog’s lab, respectively, provided the impetus for research leading to the creation of micropropagation laboratories throughout the world. Commercial labs are often affiliated with nurseries or other production operations, but many, such as those producing orchids and plants for indoor use, focus entirely on micropropagation. Genetically engineered plants not only depend upon modern molecular genetics, but also require the practical application of micropropagation and plant tissue culture. Future developments will aid the determination of genetic fidelity of both micropropagated and conventionally propagated plants. Efficiencies will be achieved through use of bioreactors, flow-through photoautotrophic systems, and yet-to-be-discovered methodologies. Examples of potential applications for the practical propagator suggest that the use of micropropagation will continue to be one of many tools available to the plant propagator of the future.
The Future of Grafting©

Author: Marc Légaré

PP: 380

Grafting propagation is a fascinating thing for many peoples. Grafting techniques have existed since 17th century. Propagators grafted plants because it is (or it was) the best method to propagate some plants with a high success rate. Most nurseries grafting techniques include: T-budding, chip budding, whip and tongue graft, and side veneer graft.

I really think that whatever you decide to use, your goal is to propagate plants with the best return on investment. You also have to propagate plants which will live for a long time.

I have my idea about the future of grafting but I wanted to get viewpoints from propagators in the industry about this topic. I contacted many nursery people around the world to determine what they are thinking about the future of grafting. The answers I got were from small and large businesses located in Canada, U.S.A., France, and Belgium.

I asked questions about:

  • Grafting machines and their use.
  • Number of cuttings/hour/person, budding/hour/person, and grafts/hour/person done in the nurseries.
  • Difficulty to find good workers to do grafting.
  • Growing grafted plants or growing plants on their own roots.
  • Short- and long-term incompatibility problems with grafts.
  • Loss of knowledge due to retired workers.
  • New developments about grafting in your nurseries.
New Plant Forum©

Author: John H. Alexander III, H. William Barnes, Tim Brotzman, Jeremy D

PP: 385

  • Berberis thunbergii ‘Maria’ pp#18,082, Gold Pillar Japanese barberry
  • Berberis thunbergii ‘Talago’ ppaf, Sunjoy Gold Beret Japanese barberry
  • Buxus sempervirens ‘Mont Bruno’
  • Buxus sinica var. insularis Wee Willie Korean boxwood
  • Camellia japonica ‘Beatrix Hoyt’
  • Camellia japonica ‘Margaret Radcliff’
  • Cercis glabra
  • Helianthus ‘Capenoch Star’
  • Hibiscus syriacus ‘Notwood3’ ppaf, cbraf Blue Chiffon rose of Sharon
  • Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Lynn’ ppaf, Let’s Dance Starlight hydrangea
  • Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Robert’ ppaf, Let?s Dance Moonlight hydrangea
  • Magnolia fraseri, mountain magnolia
  • Syringa ‘Purple Haze’
  • Weigela florida ‘Carlton’ ppaf, cbraf, Ghost weigela

Berberis thunbergii ‘Maria’ pp#18,082, Gold Pillar Japanese barberry

Similar in shape to Helmond Pillar, but with bright golden foliage and red new growth. Great garden architecture. Bright orange-red autumn foliage is stunning. Proven to be burn resistant in side by side tests with other yellow leaved barberry. Certified Rust resistant. Size: 3-4 ft. USDA Zone 4. Breeder: Lucjan Kurowski of Poland.

Effects of Insulating and Shading Liquid Foam Injected Between Double Polyethylene Films on Greenhouse Microclimate and Productivity of Tomato Crop©

Author: K. Aberkani, A. Gosselin, D. de Halleux, M. Dorais, X. Hao, J. V

PP: 390

Greenhouse growers invest considerable sums to maintain adequate growing conditions in the winter. On the other hand, excess light and temperature in summer are major concerns that can reduce productivity in the greenhouse enclosure. The infusion of liquid foam between two polyethylene films (SUNARC technology) used as greenhouse covering materials is an innovative and promising method of increasing thermal insulation in the winter and can contribute to creating a favourable microclimate in the summer. Two greenhouses were used in this experiment: (1) a control greenhouse; and (2) a prototype greenhouse utilising SUNARC liquid foam technology.
Corylus fargesii: A New and Promising Introduction From China©

Author: Anthony S. Aiello and Shelley Dillard

PP: 391


As an ornamental group of plants, hazelnuts (Corylus) are grown for their showy spring catkins, ornamental habits, red-colored foliage, and as stress-tolerant street and boulevard trees (C. americana, C. avellana ‘Contorta’ and ‘Fuscorubra’, and C. colurna, respectively) (Dirr, 1998; Flint, 1997). Most of these are familiar landscape plants but less familiar is C. fargesii, a fast-growing and highly ornamental tree introduced in the mid-1990s from China into several North American arboreta.

Although it was virtually unknown in North America prior to 1996, C. fargesii is now well-established in several American arboreta as a result of seed collected by the North American China Plant Exploration Consortium’s (NACPEC) 1996 expedition to Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, in the People’s Republic of China. The trees have highly attractive bark patterning, exfoliating to reveal patches of copper and russet, and this ornamental characteristic rivals the most attractive birches. In 2005 additional seed was collected on NACPEC’s expedition to Gansu province (Aiello, 2006).

The Seed Herbarium Image Projectc

Author: Julie McIntosh Shapiro, J.H. Alexander III, and T.C. Ward

PP: 396

The Arboretum’s living collection contains more than 15,000 individual plants belonging to more than 9000 accessions that represent nearly 4500 taxa. More than one-third of the collection is of plants from known wild origin.

Approximately 40 years ago, Alfred Fordham, propagator at the Arnold Arboretum from 1958 to 1976, began to develop a seed herbarium.

Today, there are 2104 specimens in the seed herbarium, 1878 of which are from accessioned plants found in the living collection. Of the latter, over 472 originate from Arboretum plants of known wild origin.

All images include seed measurements, and reference to the record and accession numbers of the specimen pictured. This information, information, along with all other plant related information is stored in a BG-Base database.

The International Plant Propagators’ Society and My Nursery Career: Blast from the Past©

Author: David H. Bakker Sr.

PP: 399

At the turn of the century, my grandfather told me he collected Rosa canina stems in the wild and budded them to order. As a boy, growing up during World War II in Europe, my father’s nursery was destroyed by an inundation of 3 ft of water and a severe winter that killed all stock. During the war my first crop was tobacco plants from select seed. I sold the plants wrapped in newsprint to the farmers. These events impacted me, yet were all influential in my development as a nurseryman.

After the war, when I was 16, I went to horticultural school while working in a fruit tree nursery that taught me to bud and graft (scars are still on my fingers). They were generous to teach me. The information about soil management gained at the horticultural school still comes back.

My father decided to go to North America where we were fortunate to land in an area that had nurseries. He and I worked at this fruit tree nursery that sold rosebushes as well. During the depression my dad burned 30,000 rose bushes twice over. He vowed he would never grow roses again. Yet, ironically, it was the one of the first items we propagated in Canada.

Hardy Cactus for the Northeastern U.S.A. and Canada©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 402


The Northeastern portions of the United States or America and Canada offer many environments that accommodate a host of diverse plant species, and taxa. Unfortunately little is available commercially in the family Cactaceae the exception of Opuntia humifusa (Fig. 1), which occurs naturally from Florida to New Jersey and therefore suited for the Northeastern climate variations. Trial gardens at Lorax Farms and Meadowbrook Farms (Meadowbrook, Pennsylvania) have shown that cacti are adaptable to this region if given particular attention to cultural conditions.

Breeding Cold Hardy Hibiscus: Techniques and Suggestions©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 407


The genus Hibiscus has approximately 41 species that range from tropical herbaceous and woody plants to cold-hardy herbaceous and woody plants. Colors range from white, yellow, pinks, orange, red, purple, and near blue. Colored foliage and cutleaf forms add to the mix. Many of the new forms of H. syriacus from the National Arboretum are sterile as are two selections from the Winterthur Museum and Gardens, ‘Tosca’ and ‘Lohengrin’. Breeding efforts have centered on the production of sterile, seedless selections of H. syriacus which is the main species used by the late Dr. Don Egolf at the National Arboretum and the late Hal Bruce at Winterthur Museum and Gardens. But to date the colors for sterile cultlivars so far have been white, pink, magenta, and light lavender with no sterile forms with blue flowers. The intent here is to begin the initial phases to breed a blue flowered sterile form of H. syriacus.

Some Fundamentals for Breeding Rudbeckia Species©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 409

INTRODUCTION The genus Rudbeckia is in the family Asteracea and comprises approximately 30 species. All are native to North America. The species mix is biased toward long-lived perennials but there are a few that are short-lived perennials and one species, R. hirta is an annual. The perennials species most encountered are R. fulgida and its several varieties, deamii, sullvantii, fulgida, and speciosa. Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullvantii is a very prominent garden plant represented by the well known cultivar Goldsturm. The true name being R. fulgida var. sullvantii cv. Goldsturm. Other rudbeckia garden plants that are frequently encountered are R. fulgida var. fulgida and R. subtomentosa. Rudbeckia hirta has given rise to numerous cultivars and it serves as the flag ship for most breeding efforts even though it is an annual. Its flower variations and colors exceed all of the other perennial forms for range.
Plectranthus: A Genus Chosen for New Plant Development Through Tissue Culture and Somaclonal Variation©

Author: Ockert Greyvenstein and Mark Bridgen

PP: 412


Plectranthus, an Old World genus, is a group of herbaceous plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family and consists of about 350 known species distributed throughout summer rainfall areas of Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia, and a few of the Pacific islands (Van Jaarsveld, 2006). Plectranthus are mostly soft, low-growing semi-succulent to succulent herbs or shrubs, some with unusually beautiful tubular flowers ranging in color from blue, violet, white, and pink (Brits et al., 2001). The name Plectranthus literally means spurflower (plectron = spur and anthos = flower) and refers to the spur at the base of the corolla tube of Plectranthus fruiticosus.

This species was the first plant in this genus to be described (Codd, 1975). This name is confusing because only a couple of the species in the genus have this spur. Plectranthus is a very diverse group of plants with some of the species converging into other genera. DNA studies are needed to clarify some of the taxonomic confusion within this genus.

Vascular Weed Control in Container Production Using Select Non-chemical Top-dress Treatments©

Author: R. Andrew Burtt, David A. Heleba, and Dr. Mark C. Starrett

PP: 414

Vascular weeds are a major problem in nursery container production, leading to expensive hand weeding and the application of chemical herbicides for their removal. Weeds compete with the crop being produced for water, nutrients, and light, resulting in stunted crops, increased inputs for production and potential loss in profits. Six non-chemical top-dress treatments were tested for their suppressive and preventative qualities against four different weed species common to container nursery production. Twenty seeds each of Cardamine hirsuta, Epilobium ciliatum, Sagina procumbens, and Senecio vulgaris were sown in Classic 200-containers filled with a conventional potting mix, fertilized with a time-release fertilizer, and top-dress treatments were applied either before or after weed seeds were sown. These treatments consist of buckwheat hulls, cocoa shells, coir fiber discs, geotextile discs, pine bark mulch, rice hulls, or controls which lack any top-dress treatment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse where a diurnal temperature flux was utilized and supplemental HID lighting was used to promote a long-day environment. The objective of this study was to replicate common weed pressures typical in a production nursery and determine which top-dress treatments were most successful in preventing and/or suppressing the establishment of these weed seedlings. Effectiveness of treatments was assessed by determining the survival of weed seedlings at 30 days following sowing. Results indicate that buckwheat hulls and rice hulls have the greatest effect in controlling weed growth in containers for the weed species C. hirsuta, E. ciliatum, and S. procumbens.
Comparison of Auxin-Talc Treatments in Apple Graft Union Formation©

Author: Cole Downing, Mark Starrett, Philip Lintilhac, and John Bennink

PP: 417

Auxin (IAA) is a plant produced chemical that is commercially available in synthetic form (IBA and NAA) for rooting cuttings. Liquid auxin formulations have been shown to increase grafting success, but to date auxin in a powdered talc formulation has not been researched. In this experiment the wounded region of the scion was treated with select concentrations of auxin-talc formulations. The graft union was periodically analyzed indirectly using a hydraulic conductivity meter to determine rates of healing among treatments. Auxin applications did not shorten the time to budbreak and in some cases actually slowed budbreak. Results indicated that Hormodin 3 (8000 ppm IBA) suppressed rootstock suckering and initially produced larger shoots on the scion when compared to other treatments and the control. However, by the time the study was terminated, there did not appear to be any visual differences between treatments in regard to shoot lengths.
Use of the High Performance Growth Mat Hydro-Switch in Ornamental and Forestry Nurseries in Quebec©

Author: Marylaine de Chantal, Marc Fecteau, Mario Comtois, Gilles Cadott

PP: 423


One of the most important environmental challenges of the modern grower will be the optimal use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. For this, new water management approaches need to be developed. The actual project focused on methods to reduce water and fertilizer use in nursery production. During summer and Fall 2004, 11 nurseries have tried the new capillary mat Hydro-Switch growth mat in their own growing conditions. These trials gave the opportunity to see how the capillary mat performed under different water management and crops. The first goal of these trials was to measure plant growth under conventional water managements compared with the growth with the new capillary mat Hydro-Switch growth mat. The second goal was to compare the water use with different water treatments.

William Flemer III (1922-2007) Princeton Nurseries©

Author: Alan Jones

PP: 426

  • I.P.P.S. Member for 55 years
  • Award of Merit Recipient Eastern Region, North America
  • Fellow Recipient Eastern Region, North America
  • Past President Eastern Region, North America

Nurseryman and Propagator

A member of I.P.P.S. since 1952 (a year after the Society was founded) Bill Flemer lived the I.P.P.S. motto "To Seek and Share." He was talked into joining I.P.P.S. by his good friend and founding member Jim Wells.

A very active member of I.P.P.S. for many years, Bill presented over 25 papers to the Society and was always ready to answer questions raised by members during meetings. His extensive knowledge of plants and his tireless efforts to improve plant cultivars for the industry led him to introduce over 60 trees and shrubs.

Bill was a walking encyclopedia of plants, propagation, and production techniques. As part of his plant development program he was heavily involved in the development of new and more effective propagation and production techniques. Bill lectured widely on nursery management, plant propagation, woody plant breeding, and shade tree selection and use.

Mound Layering of Rhododendron flammeum (Michx.) Sargent (Oconee Azalea)©

Author: Jeff R. Jones, Anthony V. Lebude, Thomas G. Ranney, and Joe Conn

PP: 429

Deciduous azaleas (Rhododendron species) can often be difficult to root from stem cuttings. Mound layering is an in-field propagation whereby stock plants are severely hedged and emerging shoots are covered with substrate allowing for adventitious root formation. Subsequent roots grow into the surrounding substrate and rooted stems can then be severed from the stock plant. The objective of this study was to determine if R. flammeum could be successfully propagated by mound layering and if the additional treatments of indolebutyric acid (IBA) or wounding affected rooting or root system quality. Mounding treatments were applied in March and June. Additional treatments of wounding and IBA application were applied, in a factorial arrangement, to stock plants that were mounded in June. The March mounding treatment resulted in 64% rooting, 10 rooted cuttings per mound, and produced a high percentage of symmetric root systems with an average root collar diameter of 6 mm (0.24 in.). Wounding and IBA application did not affect rooting or root system quality of plants mounded in June. The June mounding treatment resulted in average of 51% rooting, 6 rooted cuttings per mound, and a mean root collar diameter of 4.8 mm (0.2 in.).
Evaluating Fungicides for Effective Control of Anthracnose on Euonymus fortunei ©

Author: Jennifer Llewellyn and Michael Celetti

PP: 433


Anthracnose caused by the ubiquitous fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a very serious disease on Euonymus fortunei, particularly on cultivars such as ‘Emerald Gaiety’ and ‘Emerald ‘n’ Gold’. The disease causes leaf spots and stem cankers (Fig. 1), often resulting in leaf drop and stem dieback, and is often confused with low temperature injury (Fig. 2). Ontario nursery growers have reported losses of up to 60% in susceptible cultivars. In Canada, there is only one fungicide (Daconil) registered for anthracnose management on Euonymus. In any integrated pest management program, the rotation of fungicides with different modes of action (chemical families) is imperative for long-term disease management.

The purpose of this study was to: 1) follow disease incidence as it progresses throughout the growing season and 2) identify foliar fungicides that reduce the incidence of euonymus anthracnose and can be used in rotation with Daconil.

Effect of 6-Benzylaminopurine on the In Vitro Growth of Alstroemeria ‘Freedom’, ‘Liberty’, and ‘Sweet Laura’ During the Stage of Multiplication©

Author: Eduardo A. Olate, Paula A. Villalobos, Constanza A. Sepulveda, a

PP: 437

Rhizomes of Alstroemeria hybrids can be efficiently multiplied under in vitro conditions using liquid media. The use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) has demonstrated to increase the growth and the rate of multiplication of rhizomes on several hybrid cultivars of this species. In addition, there is an increasing interest in developing automated in vitro systems for ornamental plants, such as Alstroemeria and other herbaceous perennials.
An Exciting Life in Horticulture©

Author: Peter Orum

PP: 438

We don ’t have much influence on where and to whom we are born, but we do have a lot of influence on what we do with our lives, even from a relatively early age. I was born in the country of Denmark, to a horticulturist father and a mother who came from farming.

This was in 1941 during the Nazi occupation of Denmark in World War II. Shortly after the war, my parents started a small nursery that never grew beyond the original two acres.

This is where I grew up, in a life with plants that had to provide our livelihood. Often that was very meager. There was a lot of love and a lot of teaching, and somehow we all liked those plants. Unfortunately, my father often liked too many that never produced for the livelihood. Since our family could not afford to send me to high school (you paid for that in those days) I was apprenticed out to a nursery in a neighboring town. Here I learned to grow many plants that I never knew about from my father?s place. The boss was good; he even grew some plants just so I could learn how to do it!

Uses and Possibilities of 40X Digital Microscope Cameras and Associated Software©

Author: Phil Oyerly

PP: 441

As stated on Spectrum Technologies, Inc. web page; ; "The IPM Scope (Fig. 1) combines advanced digital optics and LED lighting in an IPM scouting microscope that fits in the palm of your hand. Magnification of 40?140X lets you zoom in on the fine details of insects and plant disease symptoms (Figs. 2, 3, 4). Place the IPM Scope over the sample, and comfortably view the image right on your computer screen, instead of straining to look into a tiny eyepiece. Capture images, easily add labels, take measurements, and even draw right on the live image."
Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station: Past and Present©

Author: S.J. Hanlin, S.G. McClurg, and C.A.C. Gardner

PP: 443

  • Herb Spencer working in open plots in front of original wood-frame screen cages containing plants and honey bees ca 1965.
  • 1957 — Honey bees were first used to pollinate cages of carrots, beets, celery, and onion; seed production in cages (consisting of wood frames covered with screen) was compared to that in openpollinated plots of same accessions (Hoover, 1957).
  • 1970s — 50 to 70 accessions of carrots, onions, parsley, and celery were increased in cages out of total 3000 to 3500 accessions grown annually.
  • 1978 — Major improvements in 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 6 m (5 ft x 5 ft x 20 ft or "small") field cage used for controlled insect pollination including metal cage frame covered with Lumite® flat screen and development of nucleus honey bee hive box (Ellis et al., 1981).
Accelerated Tree Liner Production in Retractable Roof Greenhouses©

Author: Hannah M. Mathers and L.T. Case

PP: 449

Since 2002 trials on containerized tree liner production under retractable-roof greenhouses (RRGs) have indicated that it is possible to achieve faster production times in pot-in-pot (PiP) and field tree systems; increased crop consistency because of an improved environment and fewer losses; and new or expanded markets for higher priced, difficult-to-grow species.

In 2004, 11.4-L (3-gal) containerised tree liners grown under RRGs had 0% mortality after planting-out into nursery fields to grow on, while mortality of field bare root production Quercus rubra was 42%. Averaged over all species in the trials, RRG liners reached saleable size (50-mm caliper) 2 years sooner than bare-root liners, representing a 40% reduction in production time.

In 2006, 11.4-L containerized tree liners from RRGs had 27% mortality, while mortality from field bare-root production was 87% after potting on into 26.5-L (7-gal) containers and stood in harsh conditions in PiP fields. Averaged over all species in the trials, and from one growing season, caliper (18.9 mm) and height (166.43 cm) of RRG liners were significantly larger than bare-root liners (3.6 mm and 26 cm).

In only 4 months, between 1 May and 30 Aug. 2007, heights and calipers of 178 cm and 9.9 mm Cercis canadensis; 146 cm and 9.7 mm Tilia cordata ‘Green Spire‘; and 118.4 cm and 7.4 mm Acer x freemanii ‘Jeffersred‘, Autumn Blaze Freeman maple liners were produced at Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

This study supported our hypothesis that RRG liners can be double-cropped, accelerating production further. We are currently working with 10-mm caliper liners that are double-cropped out of RRGs to produce 50-mm-caliper PiP container trees in 2 years, representing a 67% reduction in production time compared with conventional nursery practices.

Air Root Pruning to Accelerate the Growth of Elaeagnus x ebbingei from Vegetative Cuttings©

Author: Teresa Maguire and Raja Harun

PP: 456

A study evaluated the effect of propagation in modules that allow air root pruning of lateral roots on subsequent growth of Elaeagnus x ebbingei in 2-, 3-, 5- and 12-L pots, compared with standard plug/liner pot production systems. Air root pruning promoted earlier root growth than standard liner production, enabling earlier transplanting (by 3 months) and marketing. Height, branch number, shoot, and root dry weights of plants raised in modules that allow air root pruning were significantly greater than those raised in liner pots. Unlike those produced in the liner production system, air root-pruned plants increase in size as the pot sizes increase, providing a technique of accelerating the production of large specimens.
Experience of Managing Seed Propagation for Optimum Profit at Nightpark Nursery©

Author: Thérèse Duffey

PP: 462

INTRODUCTION Nightpark Nursery was started as a family business on a green-field site in 2001, with most of the work being undertaken ourselves, including infrastructure such as roadways, tunnels, and the heated propagation facility. It is a small but expanding business specialising in young plants of grasses, perennials, and woody plants raised from seed. There is one full-time worker in addition to the author; this is boosted by two part-time workers for 6 months of the year. Plants are marketed within Ireland but also increasingly to the U.K. The main customers are wholesale nurseries selling to either the garden centre or landscape market. Most young plants are sold as large plugs. Plug sales outnumber 9-cm liners by 5 : 1. Approximately 500,000 units were produced in 2007.
Woody Plants as Cut Flowers©

Author: David Kerr and Raja Harun

PP: 466

The volume and range of species used as cut foliage crops in the cut flower market has significantly increased, with many of these species being woody garden plants. The aim of this project is to evaluate a range of new foliage species for the cut flower market by measuring yield and specification of stems produced. The species being evaluated have not been grown before in Northern Ireland, and the information recorded will allow growers to assess their potential. Interim results for Baccharis ‘Magical Star’, Bupleurum fruiticosum, Photinia x fraserii ‘Red Robin’, Hypericum ‘Magical Sweetheart’, Rosa ‘Magical Fantasy’, Salix purpurea, Salix caprea ‘Silverglow’, and Symphoricarpos species are outlined. For example, Hypericum and Symphoricarpos met the local wholesale market specification and yielded between 22 and 27 saleable stems per plant in Year 2 and Year 3, respectively, from planting.
Controlling Costs at Kingfisher Nursery©

Author: Pete Bingham

PP: 471


Whenever there is a problem on a nursery there are a number of ways of dealing with it. There are as many solutions as there are growers, but the main thing is to identify the problem and focus on it. Financial matters are no exception.

Most of us come into growing because of our interest in plants and their cultivation. The most successful growers nowadays maintain good plant health and nursery hygiene, while monitoring closely for the first signs of trouble. Everything is grown to schedule to get the best from prevailing seasonal weather conditions. They have the knowledge and equipment to take the best course of action before major problems occur; hence the final crop is of good quality, and hopefully it will sell.

If we put the same degree of focus into financial care that we put into crop care, there is potential to make savings. The worst costs are those created by unforeseen events and lack of uniformity. With careful planning these can be avoided.

This paper will focus on the approach that we use at Kingfisher Nursery, not because this is necessarily the best or only way but because we have reaped rewards and we hope the same approach will work for others.

Business Management to Increase Nursery Income©

Author: David Aylieff-Sansom

PP: 474


Increasing income is not just about charging more for your product. Achieving a higher price can help but the nursery owner?s primary task is tight control over business management.

It is vital that every month — or at the very least every quarter — you analyse how much it costs to produce, market, deliver, and sell your products. A breakdown of how much it costs to service various customers is sound business sense, because one of the most important ways of controlling costs is to understand which customers cost the least to service, which cost the most, and why those servicing costs vary. The outcome of such an analysis will provide guidance about the customers you should be putting the most or least effort into to develop. This is a fundamental ground rule that one should establish before embarking on business expansion.

The type of customer you want to concentrate on depends on whether you are aiming to be a niche market specialist or a "run of the mill" production nursery geared up for high volumes and tough competition in what may well be a price-sensitive market place. The latter is not necessarily a bad place to be, because if you can get this right then customers will come to you to work in partnership, but you really have to be mean and lean.

Experiences in Researching and Developing New Nursery Stock Crops for both Small and Large Nurseries©

Author: Paul Green

PP: 476


The author runs Green?s Leaves, a small business producing specialist plants selling to landscapers and to the general public at plant fairs, and works part-time in the new plants R&D department of Wyevale Nurseries, a large wholesale nursery stock business.

As a supplier of garden centre stock, Wyevale Nurseries is constantly being asked about new plants being offered in the latest catalogue, whether new to cultivation, new to the nursery, or new to production in commercial numbers.

The Royal Horticulture Society Plant Finder lists more than 70,000 plants available from nurseries in the U.K., which just shows what a comparatively small number of lines the average individual nursery can offer. While customers have been conditioned to expect new plants (by promotion material from nurseries, constant release of new varieties, and greater media interest), there needs to be a strict process to ensure only worthwhile plants are added to a nursery?s list.

Experiences in Launching a New Plant Product Range©

Author: Pat Mc Donnell

PP: 478


Springfield Nurseries is a small nursery specialising in fruit trees. I developed a miniature apple tree product range that we called "Coronet. " It has been on the market since 1998 and is now selling in Ireland, U.K., and Europe. This paper shares our experiences in product innovation using Coronet as an example.

Product innovation is the development of a new product or the restyling of an existing one. It could involve changing the appearance of a plant so that it has, for example, brighter colours or more flowers. It could also involve changing the image of a plant so that the market perceives it as having a higher value.


During the 1980s and 1990s the apple trees supplied to garden centres would end up as large trees, up to 5 m high and wide, in consumers’ gardens.

Propagation of the Unique and Diverse Western Australian Flora©

Author: Amanda Shade

PP: 481


Western Australia has a world-renowned, highly diverse, and unique flora, with approximately 12,000 known taxa of vascular plants from over 220 families (Paczkowska and Chapman, 2000). Major families represented include Myrtaceae, Proteaceae, Mimosaceae, Epacridaceae, and Papilionaceae. This diverse flora has adapted to a wide range of habitats, soil types, and climatic conditions, from subtropical, deserts, and sand plains to eucalyptus forests, coastal heath, and mallee country. The southwest corner of the state in particular has extremely high diversity, with many endemic species. Unfortunately it also has many rare and threatened species, giving it the status of being Australia?s only globally recognised biodiversity hotspot.

Kings Park is a 406-ha urban park that receives almost 5 million visitors a year. It includes a large area of remnant bushland (260 ha) with its own unique biodiversity and is also the home of Western Australia?s 17-ha state botanic garden.

Propagation in the Chiquibul Rainforest, Belize©

Author: Edward Miles

PP: 485


This paper is based on work carried out at Las Cuevas Research Station, Belize, during a 6-week work placement, as part of the author’s Bachelor of Science Honours Degree, in Horticulture with Plantsmanship, at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (RBGE) and Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, sponsored by RBGE and Maya Forest Enterprises, in Summer 2007.

The Chiquibul Rainforest AND Las Cuevas Research Station

The Chiquibul Forest Reserve and National Park of Belize is located in the Maya mountain range in the west of the country and bordering with Guatemala. The rainforest lies at the centre of the tri-national Maya Forest, the largest remaining intact tropical forest north of the Amazon, and includes the countries of Mexico and Guatemala. Covering an area of more than 500,000 ha, the Chiquibul Forest is the largest protected area within Belize. Its rich diversity of plant and animal species makes this natural reserve an important area of biodiversity.

Natural Habitats of Cacti and Other Succulents in Mexico©

Author: Silvia Villegas-Navarro

PP: 490


As a Kew Diploma in Horticulture student I had the opportunity to travel to Mexico to research the natural habitats and growing conditions of cacti and succulents and to study the genus Pinguicula, widely represented in this country.

Mexico covers about 2 million km2, bordered by the U.S.A. in the north and by Guatemala and Belize in the southeast. There are five general geographical regions: Baja California and the Buried Ranges of northwest Mexico; the central plateau and the bordering Sierra Madre; the Gulf Coast plain and Yucatan Peninsula; the trans-Mexican volcanic belt; and the highlands of south Mexico.

The climate varies from arid and semi-arid to humid and semi-humid under the influence of trade winds and cyclones and a wide range of elevations from sea level to 5700 m. Summer is in theory the rainy season, but the precipitation varies notably from place to place.

The Role of Botanic Gardens in Propagation for Conservation or Profit©

Author: Leigh Morris

PP: 492


This paper highlights the vast array of propagation and nursery production being carried out by botanic gardens for the conservation of plant collections; for training and education; and even for the production of plants for sale. Botanic garden staff members possess a huge amount of nursery knowledge and skill, but unfortunately within the U.K. there are relatively few examples of botanic gardens linking with the commercial nursery industry. This paper concludes by identifying an area of potential collaboration between nurseries and botanic gardens.


The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) is one of the world’s leading botanic gardens, and its work is representative of that carried out by many other botanic gardens. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh’s overall mission is to "explore and explain the world of plants, " which is achieved in five main ways.

Pre-Conference Paper: How Do We Get New Bamboos?©

Author: Ned Jaquith

PP: 503

We buy or trade for them. We can bring new bamboos from overseas, but that requires an import facility and a permit, not a quick or easy task. We can grow from seed if available, and the problem with this is the availability of seed. And, with the very long period between bamboo flowering, seed availability is rare. Watching for sports in existing plants is also a choice.

Hybridization is how many new plants are created, but bamboos with such a long interval between flowering, there has been very little crossing, none in the U.S.A. or Europe as far as I know. There are thought to be a few naturally occurring hybrids. Semiarundinaria fastuosa is thought to be one. Hibanobambusa tranquillans is another. In the mountains of Costa Rica there are some chusqueas that have hybridized.

Used to the Propagator Ferris Wheel? Get Ready for a Rocket Ride©

Author: Mark Krautmann

PP: 505


Mike and Jim asked me to tee up this event and gave me lots of rope. They suggested that I might answer the question, "How did you do that?" from starting our Heritage Seedlings Nursery until today — asking me to tell our story. So my hope is to shine some light onto how we have done it. But after a generation in this business, I am convinced that success is not so much about what you do as it is about who you are.

Defining who we are will be an essential matter in the next 5–7 years because, in my own judgment, there will be more change in horticulture during this time than in the previous twenty. Just the matter of demographics — retiring current owners — will cause this. A big proportion of well-established wholesale growers and owners are in their late 50s and 60s.

Technological change will put enormous pressure on mid-sized family firms that may not have the profit in a maturing industry of price competition to invest in economies of scale, labor-saving equipment, and computer controls.

Conifer Seedling Propagation and Production©

Author: James W. Fischer

PP: 512

The basics are the same when producing conifer seedlings. We start with high-quality, clean seed. We prepare the seed for sowing and sow at the appropriate time and under the proper conditions. We irrigate as necessary, fertilize when needed, and protect our young plants from pests that could inhibit their growth. We do these things in our conifer nursery, as I am sure you all do in your various production settings.

When I was a youngster in Pittsburgh, both of my grandfathers were avid gardeners. They lived near one another and would have a friendly competition each year to see who could produce the earliest ripe tomato and the year’s biggest watermelon.

My paternal grandfather liked to grow his annual flowers from seed sown directly into his annual flowerbeds. Each year in late spring he would thin his beds to give the remaining plants room to grow and develop the optimum flower display. The surplus plants that were removed from the beds were carefully wrapped in wet newspaper and given to me to plant at home in my youth garden.

Integrating Western Native Plants to East Coast North American Environments©

Author: H. Willliam Barnes

PP: 515


With today’s considerable interest in native plants there is still much to be learned on how to bring those natives to the forefront of nursery production and utilization in the landscape. When highly desirable natives found in natural environments are displaced and brought into much more foreign locales, the degree of success can be adversely affected. Perhaps the most notable example is the arbitrary movement of high-altitude species to much lower ranges. These transitions are often fraught with difficulties and such difficulties are even more exacerbated by accompanying changes in longitude and latitude. The scope of this paper is to look at some of the problems with regards to particular species and possible suggestions on how to increase survival of non-endemic Western species to East coast environments.

Propagating With Controlled-Release Fertilizers©

Author: Samuel R. Drahn

PP: 521


What started as a way to reduce the amount of liquid fertilizer applied to the floor of our greenhouses during the production of spring annuals and forced crops has blossomed into a much more targeted and accurate way of applying nutrition. I kept looking at crops that were spaced between 50% and 88% and thinking how much liquid fertilizer was being wasted every time the injector clicked and pumped. By providing individual plants the nutrients they need instead of supplying water-soluble fertilizer to an entire growing area we can reduce the amount of fertilizer that is applied to the spaces, walkways, greenhouse ends, and voids within a group of plants. We asked ourselves what other crops were spaced or shipped at staggered times from the greenhouses. Various programs and propagation schedules began popping up. Potted liners were spaced between varieties for watering needs and shipped at different times when orders were taken.

Layering: Almost a Lost Art©

Author: Michael Anderson

PP: 523

Layering is a propagation process that is steeped in history, being a mainstay propagation tool for centuries employing highly refined techniques. Since the advent of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), a relatively recent occurrence in the annals of propagation and the even more recent arrival of tissue culture, layering has fallen into the background and is primarily found employed with Malus understock and (some) small fruit production. The finer points of layering and the specialized techniques are in danger of being lost.

Layering can be briefly described as the process wherein adventitious roots are formed on a propagule while still attached to the parent plant. Layering can take a number of forms or techniques, including simple layering, tip layering, air layering, serpentine layering, French or continuous layering, mound layering or stooling, and trench or etiolation layering. Bruce Macdonald gives an excellent overview of these sundry methods in his book Practical Woody Plant Propagation for Nursery Growers. Layering is also seen commonly in nature, occurring widely in Rubus and Hedera, among many others.

Respecting Intellectual Property, Some Advice for Professional Propagators©

Author: Michael Remmick

PP: 525


We all know that new varieties are the lifeblood of the nursery business. For many propagators, the difference between success and failure is determined by how skillful they are in getting access to new materials and then putting them into meaningful production as quickly as possible. The use of plant patents or trademarks (brands) is on the increase and their use constitutes an important way for breeders and marketers to get a return on the investment of cultivar (here after referred to as variety) development and promotion. However, the very likelihood of a propagator getting access to new varieties depends only in part on his or her technical knowledge. It also depends on how well that propagator has handled other varieties or trademarks in the past. The understanding of how patents and trademarks (collectively, intellectual property or IP) function in horticulture is, therefore, of increasing importance for propagators, in particular for those whose sole business is propagation.

This presentation is intended to briefly introduce these concepts to the new propagator, or in the case of the experienced propagator, to review them. In reviewing the rules and established practices, some potential IP pitfalls will be discussed, and finally some ideas offered that may be useful in avoiding them. Although this presentation is aimed at propagators, it is hoped that licensors of IP may find some benefit also.

Thursday Sessions I And II: Questions and Answers©


PP: 534

Jerome Kreshnam: I noticed you completely covered the bud with budding tape. Have you experimented with only wrapping above and below the bud leaving the bud exposed?
Edward H. Scanlon — Progenitor of I.P.P.S. and Other Ambitious Endeavors©

Author: Philip A. Barker

PP: 535

At various times throughout his life, after graduating in forestry from University of Michigan, Edward H. "Ed" Scanlon (1903–1976) was an urban tree manager; expediter of the hopes of other people; author, editor, and publisher; steadfast organizer of tree-related organizations; self-proclaimed wandering arborist; as well as purveyor of distinctive trees or, as he called them, Tailored® Trees. He amassed an abundance of loyal followers and a widespread legacy of Tailored® Trees now growing in cities globally. Moreover, he championed the formation of what is now the notable International Plant Propagators’ Society (I.P.P.S.).
Propagation Efficiencies at Booman Floral©

Author: James L. Booman

PP: 541

The goal of this presentation is to demonstrate how a small company can incorporate easy efficiencies to make propagation work move more smoothly.

By "efficiency" I mean any step that saves us money by lowering labor and production expense. As I see it, it’s not "how fast can we make our fingers stick the cuttings," but rather how we can protect profit.


We may be best known as breeders and propagators of new Begonia x rex-cultorum selections but, that is only the tip of the iceberg. We specialize in the novel and unusual. For example, our carnivorous plant program may be the world’s largest. We have bred and patented over 20 begonias. We hold the only patent ever granted for a carnivorous plant, ‘Cobra Nest’, patent 12,821, a highly colored Sarracenia cultivar which is easy for commercial growers to finish.

Ekstrom Nursery and Its Tools (Toys)©

Author: Jim Ekstrom

PP: 545

Ekstrom Nursery is predominantly a balled-and-burlap (B&B) nursery growing a diverse plant mix of approximately 300 taxa. Our main production is geared to a retail garden center market with some re-wholesalers. Customers are spread throughout the United States and Canada with a mix of 50% of our customers located in the east and 50% of our customers located in the west. This has proven to be a good blend for us in being able to spread our shipping through the fall, early spring, and late spring. We ship over 500 semi-trailer trucks of material from November through late April with the bulk of our shipping occurring in February and March.

When my father started the nursery in the mid 1950s, he began by growing arborvitae, juniper, and other common popular plants of the day. He was a truck-crop farmer growing berries, potatoes, and cabbage on the family farm that his father had emigrated to from Sweden in the late 1800s. He looked to a few nurserymen who were very open to give him guidance and he would always be looking for different plants he could add to help improve his mix.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, my brother and I grew up and began to help around the nursery. The assortment of plants grown increased greatly and more land was acquired.

Status of Control-Release Fertilizer and Propagation in the Pacific Northwest©

Author: George Bear

PP: 548


This presentation will briefly detail the findings of numerous production nursery visits in Oregon, Washington and the lower mainland of British Columbia. The distance traveled focused on trials, tribulations, successes, and shortcomings of control-release fertilizers (CRFs). The thought here is to present a brief picture of the role of CRFs in nursery production in the Pacific Northwest.


What is contained between the margins of this manuscript is clearly not a research paper. It contains neither new earth-shaking nor evolutionary ideas. What is briefly detailed is a refresher for those who treat knowledge of nutrition needs, horticultural production practices, and specific crop tolerances as a foregone conclusion. What is needed is an open discussion of what has changed in the way some production nurseries are using CRFs. There are more aspects to a controlled-release nutrient than just getting plants to market. Focusing on what cannot be seen may play a more prominent role in the near future than just plant nutrition. These "new" uses have come not from deep within the manufacturer’s sterile laboratories, or the brain-child of some white-coated laboratory chemist, but rather by the "trial-andkill" method of the true innovators in horticultural research, the humble grower.

Soil Fumigation With Metam Sodium at Lawyer Nursery©

Author: Robert J. Buzzo

PP: 553

Lawyer Nursery, Inc., of Plains, Montana, established itself on the West Coast in 1988 when the company purchased a 120-acre nursery site in Olympia, Washington. This property was developed as a forest nursery in the late 1960s, and was operated by an industrial forest seedling producer until 1985. During the 3-year period the property was for sale, it was leased by a local farmer to grow carrots. We have added to the land base of the nursery since we started, but it is safe to say that the original 120-acre nursery site has been intensively farmed for nearly 40 years.

We have been able to keep this site reasonably productive by rotating different kinds of crops throughout different locations at the nursery and utilizing winter and summer cover crops between nursery crop cycles. Another management practice we have utilized to control soil pathogens is soil fumigation. We used methyl bromide/chloropicrin in the early days but found it very challenging to grow deciduous seedlings after eliminating mycorrhiza from the soil profile.

Friday Session I: Questions and Answers


PP: 557

Dave Hannings: What?s the cookie cutter for?

Jim Booman: We use cookie cutters to cut the leaves.

Jim Owen: Should less controlled-release fertilizers be applied when working with plugs?

Environmental Effects on Stem-Cutting Propagation: A Brief Review©

Author: James S. Owen, Jr., and Brian K. Maynard

PP: 558


Propagules have been reproduced asexually from stem cuttings to retain desired genotypic traits using mist propagation since the 1950s (Snyder, 1965). The successful initiation and development of roots is dependent on an optimum atmospheric and edaphic (or rooting) environment. Increased success of de novo root formation came with the introduction of natural and synthetic auxins. Wounding, basal auxin application, and control of the atmospheric environment, the latter being the primary interest in research and practice, have increased rooting percentages and root quality. Applying mist irrigation or shade cloth, or enclosing the propagules in polyethylene achieves increased relative humidity, decreased irradiance, and lower air and leaf temperatures. These environmental control methods maintain cell turgor in the absence of functional roots, retaining cell competence to form root initials (Hartmann et al., 1997). Further advances in the rate of root emergence and the quality of developing roots came with studies of the edaphic environment, the most significant being that higher basal stem temperatures increase the rate of metabolic processes. In addition, researchers continually study rooting media to determine what mixtures provide an optimal ratio of air and water to root individual stem cutting of specific taxa. The combination of proper atmospheric and edaphic environment result in high percent of cuttings rooted with a quality root system.

From Lemons to Lemonade: Carlton?s Composting Program©

Author: F. Allan Elliott

PP: 565


Carlton Plants’ composting program began as a basic, small-scale program directed toward waste management. A decade later it has become a large-scale, intensely managed supply of microbe-packed compost utilized for soil building and crop enhancement. The program addresses the negative aspect of burning and disposal of nursery waste from an environmental and economical standpoint. The process has led us to a better understanding and appreciation of the value of the finished product and the impact it can have on soil enhancement and product quality. Efficiency and cost control has been gained by fine tuning the process and by utilizing the finished product to replace traditional products like bark and sawdust in our operation.

It’s a Jungle in There: Who?s Living in Your Soil?©

Author: Walter Suttle

PP: 568


Monrovia quality has been improved by paying close attention to the soils in which we grow our containerized plants. One aspect of our soils is the compost that we make and add to our soil, which gives benefits such as waste reduction and disease supressiveness. This presentation will cover the basics of how we make our compost, why a living soil is important, and the benefits that come from compost use.

Monrovia did not set out to make a great living soil. In the 1990s, Conrad Skimina, Monrovia’s Research Director, was interested in reducing the amount of waste that was generated by dumping plants. Monrovia has always had a commitment to growing healthy, high quality plants. Plants that do not meet Monrovia’s quality standards are dumped. Conrad reasoned that if the plant material were ground up, it could be added back into the soil mix, eliminating the waste disposal problem and making it a resource which could reduce the amount of bark that needed to be purchased for the soil mix.

Plants are dumped for many reasons including poor quality, over production, and broken plants. But plants are also dumped for disease, insect, or weed reasons. If the plants are to be ground up, and added back to the soil, the pest issues need to be dealt with. Skimina’s solution was to fumigate the ground-up plants, using methyl bromide. This method was very effective at eliminating the pests; in fact it eliminated everything living in the pile.

Plant Breeding Primer©

Author: Steve McCulloch

PP: 571


During the course of this article the author hopes that the reader is informed regarding the basics of plant breeding related to ornamental plants. But more importantly, the author hopes that the reader is inspired to pursue breeding plants in the future.

Many interesting and valuable ornamental plants have been hybridized by skilled, knowledgeable, and passionate amateurs. These breeders should be credited for elevating the quality and variety of ornamental plants being propagated and grown throughout the world. In fact, the bulk of the new plants introduced yearly are from amateur, yet skilled hybridizers. Ornamental horticulture is truly indebted to these talented individuals.

The interest and desire for superior plant selections in our industry has elevated the demand for these special plants. It is an exciting time to produce innovative and valuable plants.

Sure They Will Grow Here: Evaluating Hebe, Cistus, and Ceanothus in Western Oregon©

Author: Neil Bell

PP: 575

For the last several years I have been growing and evaluating Hebe, Ceanothus, Cistus, and Halimium species and cultivars in field trials in the Willamette Valley. In each of these evaluations the goals were quite straightforward. Obtain as many selections of each group as possible, plant them out side-by-side, and evaluate them for growth, flowering, and cold hardiness, as well as general landscape performance. Many of the plants being evaluated would be considered "new" to cultivation in our region, although representatives from each of these genera are used in western Oregon landscapes, as well as elsewhere on the west coast. The results we obtain would be pretty much applicable to all of these regions. None of these genera, though, are suitable in general for landscape use east of the Cascade Mountains.

The Hebe evaluation has been going on since 2000 at the Oregon State Uiversity (OSU) North Willamette Research and Extension Center (NWREC) in Aurora, Oregon. That evaluation is likely to continue through 2008. The Cistus and Halimium were evaluated in a joint planting at NWREC from 2004 through 2007. The Ceanothus is located at the Oregon Garden, and that evaluation was conducted from 2001 through 2005. The work has been supported by modest grants and assistance from several organizations.

Pieris Breeding: Continuing the Legacy of Dr. Robert Ticknor©

Author: Sven E. Svenson

PP: 580


Although Dr. Robert L. Ticknor?s horticultural biography includes much more than Pieris, Dr. Ticknor’s Pieris selections and breeding goals created many successful Pieris clones and the foundation for Pieris improvement at HortSolutions LLC. Pieris breeding and seedling growing procedures have been published (Jaynes and Ticknor, 1984; Starrett et al., 1992; Ticknor, 1988; van Hof, 1984), and similar techniques with minor adjustments are still in use. More recent Pieris breeding goals have been discussed (Svenson and Mathers, 2000; Svenson and Ticknor, 1997).

Depending upon the taxonomic (Judd, 1982; van Gelderen, 1979), or text reference (Dirr, 1990; Griffiths, 1992) one presently favors, the genus Pieris has from 7 to 20 species or more. The most widely cultivated Pieris are P. japonica (and its cultivars), P. formosa, P. floribunda, and interspecific hybrids of these three species (Bond, 1982; Bond and Lancaster 1996; Creech, 1983; Jaynes, 1975; Kruse, 1987). There is growing interest in P. phillyreifolia.

History and Update on the World of Hellebores©

Author: John E. Elsley

PP: 585


A working knowledge of the available species is of major importance in breeding programs. Sowing species seed provides potential hybridizers with variable progeny from which can be selected potential parental individuals displaying desirable characteristics. In the case of hellebores, these characteristics include both floral and foliar features combined with overall vigor.


Helleborus argutifolius. Native southern Europe/Corsica. Handsome caulescent specimen. A superb performer in the Pacific Northwest. Magnificent, variable foliage. The bold foliage creates an attractive contrast with the heavy effect of conifer foliage, i.e., Thuja.

Cultivars: ‘Janet Starnes’, speckled cream leaves; ‘Pacific Frost’, heavy cream foliage speckling.

Plant Select® at Denver Botanic Gardens©

Author: Michael Bone

PP: 588


Plant Select® is a program designed to seek out and distribute the very best plants for gardens from the high plains to the intermountain region. Plant Select® is a cooperative program administered by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Colorado State University together with landscape and nursery professionals throughout the Rocky Mountain region and beyond. Plant Select® is a private not-for-profit Colorado corporation.

Recent Introductions of New Plants from the Sino-Himalaya©

Author: Steve Hootman

PP: 590

Since the reopening of China to foreign tourists in 1980, a great deal of plant exploration has taken place in the remote and often previously unexplored regions of that vast and plant-rich country. More recently, other countries and regions have opened their own borders so that previously inaccessible places such as Tibet, Vietnam, and Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland in northeastern India have become accessible to those with the funds, constitution, and the proper connections. In my duties at the Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden (RSBG),
Saturday Session I: Questions and Answers


PP: 591

Germaine Boivin: Ceanothus has a reputation for being short-lived. What do you think about this?

Sven Svenson: The life-span of this plant is a function of where you site them. Some will be durable under any conditions while others are going to be very sensitive to site conditions.

Neil Bell: Some are definitely short-lived. I grew ‘Centennial’ and it was very short-lived. We grow them in a well-drained soil and we don?t water them or prune them.

Eric Hammond: Can you elaborate on the use of calcium on the Pieris?

Nuggets of Knowledge©

Author: Neal Funston

PP: 592

Romneya coulteri (matilija poppy/fried egg plant). At Cornflower Farms in Elk Grove, California, we specialize in California native plants and the one I?m going to briefly talk about is R. coulteri, also called the matilija poppy or the fried egg plant, because of the huge white blossom with a yellow ball of stamens, resembling a fried egg. It’s a very popular plant because of its showy flowers.
Germination Chamber Notes©

Author: Jason Julian

PP: 592

As our seed-propagated perennial program continued to expand, it became apparent that we needed a better germination environment. A germination chamber with adjustable environmental controls would help our seedling crops come up faster and with more uniform germination than the more temporary enclosures we had been using previously. A chamber would also permit larger production windows and scheduling opportunities.
Seed Leaching Notes©

Author: Jason Julian

PP: 593

Some seed contain chemical germination inhibitors that require leaching before germination can proceed. One of the groups that we have found benefit from a leaching treatment before sowing are the Mahonia taxa. In the past, we had simply placed the seed in a mesh bag and slowly run water from a hose through the seed. Success was somewhat inconsistent using this method. To more uniformly leach all of the seed, we created a new leaching system using material we had around the nursery.
Dividing Tool

Author: Jennifer Blanchard

PP: 593

At the Dayton, Oregon location of Monrovia Growers we make over 300,000 divisions of grasses, astilbes, and irises each year. One tool that we?ve found invaluable for this task is the Dexter Limelight Knife that has a 6-inch stainless steel blade. It is ergonomically designed and the bright colored handle makes it hard to lose.
Apex Versus Osmocote: Fertilizer Trial 2007©

Author: Valerie Sikkema

PP: 594

We propagate exclusively by cuttings, almost all year long, but I am going to focus on our summer softwood propagation. Our cuttings are usually taken from our container stock. We incorporate controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the soil mix. The flats are mechanically filled and dibbled, and then two cuttings are stuck into each pot. We can do up to 40,000 per day on two lines. When full, the benches are moved into the Cravo greenhouse.
Because You’re a Propagator©

Author: Randy Murphy

PP: 595

Because you?re a propagator…

Because what we might think will always stay the same, probably won’t…

Because being a Texas Rangers Fan is "Dog" Tiring…

Observations from Rooting Chocolate Cosmos from Tissue Culture©

Author: Jill Cross

PP: 596

From 1998 to 2006, we experimented with small numbers of chocolate cosmos (Cosmos atrosanguineus). It is not a plant that really fits into our standard bedding plant program, so we have chosen to take it out of production this year. I wouldn’t say we have mastered rooting this plant by any means, but I can share a few things that we have learned along the way.
Protecting Fingers During Grafting: A Demonstration©

Author: Verl L. Holden

PP: 596

With emergency room costs for a simple 5-stitch cut to a finger or thumb running $800.00 or more, a simple tape protection to hands is good insurance. Holden Wholesale Growers is using two types of tape to provide both protection and dexterity.
Fagus sylvatica for Open-Ground Production©

Author: Don Ekstrom

PP: 597

A number of years ago, I presented a paper on the summer budding of European beech cultivars using stick budding. The general timing of budding is usually July or August. The two most important factors in timing are the budwood readiness and the trees growth stage. Another way to say it would be will the bud slip into the cambium layer.

PP: 601

MONDAY MORNING, 29 October, 2007

The 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators? Society-Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 am at the Chattanooga Marriott, Chattanooga, Tennessee, with President Kay Phelps presiding.

PRESIDENT KAY PHELPS: President Phelps welcomed everyone to Chattanooga, Tennessee, for the 32nd Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators? Society - Southern Region of North America.

Increasing the Bottom Line©

Author: Tom Saunders

PP: 602


About 15 years ago, Saunders Brothers developed a spreadsheet that we use to compare the profit potential of various products we grow, or consider growing. We developed the spreadsheet by taking a tax return from a given year and expensing all costs incurred for the business in either a direct or indirect category.

Before getting into expenses, one needs to determine the units produced in a given calendar year. These units can be determined in one of two ways. You must either know the containers per cubic yard (CCY) of the container you are analyzing, or know its volume — see Figure 1. In an industry where a 13.6-L (3-gal) container is not always 3-gal, using the CCY, one can determine the cost of media in a 3-gal pot, if the containers per cubic yard are known. To generate the figure of total units produced, convert all containers into a single unit size using one container size as the base-line unit.

Getting Grafts to Take…or Why Grafts Don?t Take…or 1000 Excuses for a Poor Result!©

Author: Greg McPhee

PP: 608


I have been involved ’hands on’ in grafting for some 30 years. During this time I have experienced monumental success and failure — sometimes both within a few weeks.

Nobody likes a poor take rate. Obviously there is more to grafting success than how an individual holds their knife, but sometimes it’s easier for a nursery manager to blame the grafter than look closer at their production processes.

Simple things can make a big difference. Since my livelihood is dependent on grafting success, I have observed what can go wrong with grafting as a way to assist growers in getting the best result. I am happy to share these clues.


My talk will use the term grafting, but I am also including budding in the discussion. Grafting entails matching stems of the rootstock with stems of the scion (shoot system) — which have more than one bud. Budding is typically the transfer of a single bud with a small portion of the scion stem. But let’s keep it simple.

Sprayer Set-up and Calibration to Band Spray for Field Nursery Weed Control©

Author: Mark Halcomb

PP: 611


Cultivation or herbicides can be used to maintain a weed-free strip 30 to 46 cm (12 to 18 in.) wide during the first year of nursery production. The strip can be widened annually to a maximum of 0.6 to 0.9 m (2 to 3 ft) on each side of the row. There is no need to spray middles that can be later cultivated. Vegetation in the middle is not harmful to the nursery crop, as long as a sufficiently wide, weed-free strip is maintained in the row. Vegetated middles reduce erosion and provide support for traffic. While band spraying reduces the amount of chemical required by 33% to 50%, it can require a longer application time, since the middle must be driven 1 to 2 times with a small tractor.


While it is possible to rig a nozzle on the rear of a spray tank to spray a band along the row, the nozzle cannot be watched as easily as one mounted in front.

Propagation of Selected Clones of Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) by Stem Cuttings©

Author: John M. Wooldridge, Frank A. Blazich, and Stuart L. Warren

PP: 616

Two experiments, one utilizing softwood cuttings and the other semi-hardwood cuttings, were conducted to investigate the influence of growth stage and auxin treatment on rooting four related clones of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). The clones were C. canadensis ‘Flame’, dwarf white, and two selections (99-6-1 and 99-6-2) of an F1 generation of a cross of ‘Flame’ and dwarf white. At each growth stage, rooting responses of the clones varied and were influenced greatly by auxin treatment demonstrating the variable rooting potential of the genotypes. In both studies, C. canadensis ‘Flame’ performed well (63% rooting when treated with 5000 ppm K-IBA in the softwood study, 83% rooting when treated with 10,000 ppm K-IBA in the semi-hardwood study), indicating stem cuttings may be a commercially feasible means of propagation for ‘Flame’. For the softwood cutting study, cuttings of Dwarf white (46%) and 99-6-2 (75%) rooted best when treated with 15,000 ppm K-IBA. Softwood cuttings of 99-6-1 rooted most successfully (46%) when treated with 10,000 ppm K-IBA. Dwarf white and the F1s rooted poorly in the semi-hardwood study.
Timing of Herbicide Application Affects Weed Control©

Author: Diana R. Cochran, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R. Wehtje, and, Jame

PP: 622

This study evaluated three herbicides BroadStar (150 lb/acre), Rout (100 lb/acre), and Snapshot (200 lb/acre) applied at 0, 3, 7, and 10 days after seeding (DAS) trade gallon containers with Eclipta prostrate (syn. E. alba) (eclipta) or Chamaesyce maculata (syn. Euphorbia maculata) (spotted spurge) at 25 seeds per container. Results indicated BroadStartm herbicide (flumioxazin), Routtm herbicide (oxyfluorfen + oryzalin), and Snapshottm herbicide (trifluralin + isoxaben) applied at either 0 or 3 DAS had similar eclipta or spotted spurge control. BroadStar, Rout, and Snapshot applied at 7 or 10 DAS to containers overseeded with eclipta had 86%, 72%, and 48% reduction in weed number from 7 to 28 DAS. With spotted spurge control, weed number was reduced by 95%, 70%, and 52% at 28 DAS when BroadStar, Rout, and Snapshot were used. Data reported showed BroadStar had the greatest post-emergence control followed by Rout then Snapshot.
IPPS International Tour 2007: A Glimpse of North America©

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 627

Tuesday Washington DC some time free

Native Museum soft color, sandstone, sedimentary

Food, corn, beans squash, sunflower, and tobacco

Heron stalks, fish mid cattails

In the middle of the capitol.

Vast array apparel apparent

Beaded skin dresses finely crafted, moccasins, papoose cradles

Ceremonial belts, collars many many more, galore.

Dumbarton Oaks Gardens huge trees

White oaks, willow oaks, large-leaf beech

Osage orange fruits like tennis balls strew the court

Flower borders mums, asters too brimming

Beautiful butterflies through

Large pebble mosaic wheat sheaf

What you sow, so shall you reap

Baring calamities drought, fungi, critters

For us sheep.

Pine Tree Substrate: A Promising Alternative to Peat Moss and Pine Bark©

Author: Robert D. Wright and Brian E. Jackson

PP: 632


After 4 years of research and development at Virginia Tech, pine-tree substrate (WoodGro) shows excellent promise as an alternative and renewable container substrate for nursery and greenhouse crop production (Wright and Browder, 2005; Wright et al., 2006; Wright et al., 2008). Pine-tree substrate is competitively priced, locally available, and of consistent high quality. This is a totally different approach to container substrate production in that a new material is created for use as a container substrate rather than mining peat (P) (a nonrenewable resource) or using pine bark (PB) or some other industry by-product. The development of a new substrate for container-grown nursery crops is very timely since the availability of PB is currently unpredictable due to reduced forestry production and its increased use as fuel and landscape mulch (Lu et al., 2006). Further, the cost of peat substrates continues to rise due to transportation and growing environmental concerns over the mining of P bogs in Canada and Europe. This paper reports the current status of our research including the manufacturing process, physical properties, cost, growth trials, wood toxicity, fertility management, and post-transplant landscape evaluation.

Implications of the Spring Freeze of 2007©

Author: Alan Windham

PP: 636


Spring 2007 in Tennessee was drier than normal, but otherwise plants in nurseries and landscapes were in very good shape. According to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of the greening of the canopy of the forest collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at the Walker Branch Watershed in Oak Ridge, Tennessee — green-up of vegetation was 3 weeks earlier than in 2006. This was due to higher than normal temperatures. In most regions of the state, temperatures had reached temperatures of 21 to 27 oC (70 to 80 oF) by late March. During the first week of April, flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) was in full bloom.

Who Am I?: Plant Identification©

Author: Clive Larkman

PP: 638

" What’s in a name? That which we call a rose

By any other name would smell as sweet."

(from William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet)


I want to talk to you today about plant nomenclature. A good word that is nearly as hard to pronounce as many of the plant names we have to use. It literally means a system of plant names. In reality it is a complex process whereby everyone in the world can talk about plants with some level of assurance that they are discussing the same thing. The subject is far too big for me to cover in my short time today. Indeed it is big enough for a whole course at university level or theme for a whole conference.

Breeding Non-Invasive Nursery Crops©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas A. Eaker, Nathan P.

PP: 643


Concern and awareness over invasive plants continues to grow. Most states have formed exotic plant pest councils (http://www.invasivespecies.gov/other/orgcounci. shtml) and many agencies, organizations, and individuals have developed and distributed "black lists" of plants that they feel should not be grown. Many of these lists include plants that are currently being produced by the nursery industry. The Connecticut legislature passed Public Act 04-203 in 2004 prohibiting the importing, moving, selling, purchasing, transplanting, cultivating, or distributing of 81 different plants with penalties of up to $100 per individual plant. In 2005, the Commissioner of Agriculture in New Hampshire adopted an Invasive Species Rule (3800) prohibiting the collection, transportation, selling, distribution, propagation, and transplanting of 21 plants with a number of economically important nursery crops (e.g., Acer platanoides (Norway maple), Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), and Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus) included. More recently, in 2007, the Suffolk County legislature, Long Island, passed an invasive plant law that forbids the sale, propagation, and introduction of plants on a "Do Not Sell" list: (http://www. co.suffolk.ny.us/legis/resos2007/i1144-07.htm). Most likely, other states and counties will follow suit.

Rooting Stewartia and Native Azaleas Using Softwood Cuttings©

Author: Margie Y. Jenkins

PP: 646


Jenkins Farm and Nursery, L.L.C. is a medium-sized wholesale nursery located in southeast Louisiana that produces both field- and container-grown plants. In the beginning of the container operation in the mid-1970s, a goal of our nursery was to grow native, old unavailable, new and unusual plant taxa for the landscape trade. Liners of most of these were very hard to come by, if not impossible. Hence, it was up to the nursery to propagate them from seeds and cuttings.

My first experience of growing native azaleas from seed was in 1969, and I have been growing them ever since. I tried rooting azaleas from cuttings with practically no success. I read everything I could get my hands on, tried what was recommended and had about the same results. Many years ago, our local Azalea Society Chapter members made a trip to the Gloster Aboretum in Mississippi in the spring when the native azaleas were in full bloom.

Liner Production of Ternstroemia gymnanthera©

Author: Jeff Howell

PP: 648


At some point, back in the dim recesses of history, the plant correctly known as Ternstroemia gymnanthera was misidentified as Cleyera japonica. I have no idea how this happened, but it did and for all practical purposes the names have effectively been swapped, probably for all time to come. Although I am fully aware of this already muddled picture, the following is a step-by-step narrative detailing how we grow our T. gymnanthera (Japanese cleyera) liners.

What Molecular Genetics Can Do for the Nursery Industry©

Author: Sandra M. Reed

PP: 650


Recent advancements in plant molecular genetics have mainly been applied to field crops, but are also pertinent to ornamentals. This talk will address four areas in which molecular genetics has the greatest chance of impacting the nursery industry: hybrid verification, plant identification, marker-assisted breeding, and development of transgenic plants.


Interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations are often made in breeding programs for the purpose of combining the best traits from two species; however, it may take several years before progeny develop features that identify them as hybrids. Molecular markers, which are small fragments of DNA, can be used for verifying hybridity even at the seedling stage. This process involves looking for markers that are specific to each parental parent and then examining putative hybrids for the presence of markers from both parents. These markers are frequently visualized as bands on gels.

The Secret Is in the Sauce: Monitoring EC, pH, and Nutrients in Container Leachates©

Author: Ted Bilderback

PP: 654


Every nursery needs to have someone who routinely checks electrical conductivity (EC) also called soluble salts, and pH of container crops, potting inventories, and irrigation water. Checking EC and pH should be considered part of the quality control and scouting program in the nursery. Results from testing three to five containers in an irrigation zone each week can be used to schedule irrigation the following week. Comparing leachate solution collected from containers to water collected from irrigation nozzles provides a good insight into nutrient levels in the containers. Checking EC and pH of nursery crops grown in containers doesn?t have to be time consuming, complicated, or difficult. The intention of this presentation is to review the procedure and update growers on the Virginia Tech Extraction Method (VTEM), also called the PourThru extraction procedure (Wright, 1986; Yeager et al., 2007).

Dispelling Myths in Plant Propagation Information©

Author: Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 657


A myth can be defined as "a fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology. " The word "myth" often brings to mind stories of characters or creatures of folklore that are generally accepted as fictional, but may also refer to modern-day beliefs or stories ("urban legends" or "urban myths") whose origins may or may not be based on actual fact. The concept of a myth can be extended to our belief system on how things should be done. We can use this idea to help examine the validity of information that we utilize and perpetuate in plant propagation practices. We should especially be on the lookout for myths in plant propagation information when we hear comments such as "That’s the way we?ve always done it, " "That’s how I was taught to do it, " or "That’s what the books say."

Plant Hunting in Mexico©

Author: Dave Creech

PP: 660


My first plant hunting sojourns into the mountains and deserts of northern Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s were led by Lynn Lowrey (1917?1997). Lynn was a special person, a big part of the colorful history of Texas horticulturists who made a difference in the state (http://plantanswers.tamu.edu/heroes/lowrey.html). He made many trips into Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s, usually alone or with a friend, and always with the mission to find seed, cuttings and plants for trial in Texas. Rules for bringing plants in from Mexico were simpler back then. The U.S.D.A. A.P.H.I.S. agents at the border were sometimes cheerful and accommodating, sometimes less so. When problems occurred, Lynn would linger along the border for a few days visiting the U.S.D.A. office often to check on the progress of inspection and to encourage the release of some, if not all, of his cache. Usually it worked; sometimes it didn?t.

How Can Your Nursery Benefit From Mechanization?©

Author: Scott A. Langlois, Patricia R. Knight, Christine H. Coker, Bened

PP: 666


Of all the various ingredients that go into the operation of a nursery/greenhouse, labor is generally viewed as not only the largest single component of cost, but also one of the most difficult ingredients to manage. This difficulty is brought about by many reasons. Whether we consider availability, skill, training, aptitude, retention, attendance or productivity, attempting to effectively manage a critical business component with so many variables and uncertainties has driven many business owners, green or otherwise, to look toward mechanized alternatives that can reduce labor costs and associated difficulties. This trend will certainly continue as two opposing forces do battle on the nursery front. On one hand, the nursery and greenhouse industry remains the fastest growing segment of U.S.A. agriculture (American Nursery and Landscape Association, 2007). On the other, availability of qualified skilled laborers to support these operations remains a concern for growers; with the potential for this concern to grow exponentially in the near future. While the addition of mechanization can offer positive results to a nursery/greenhouse grower, the decision to invest in this technology should be well thought out and treated with the same importance as any other key business decision. Rather than delve into the endless range of mechanization options available on the market, the author will address areas which should be considered when establishing a mechanization strategy.

The Basics of H2A Temporary Agricultural Workers©

Author: Hiram Baldwin

PP: 670


There is currently a shortage of workers in the U.S.A. who are willing to work in agriculture. If you have used local migrant labor, you may have received a letter from the Social Security Administration that says that the social security number that you have submitted does not match the name with which you submitted it. As of now, how to handle a mismatch letter is in our court system. You have probably also heard or read that the Border Patrol is stepping up enforcement, not only along the borders, but also locally. With U.S.A. workers unwilling to perform manual labor and the potential to lose migrant workers whose Social Security numbers do not match, the agricultural workforce is very unstable. You have probably seen the stories predicting vegetables and fruit will rot in the field because there is no one to pick it.

Reducing Fertilization in Gerbera Production Enhances Host Plant Resistance to Western Flower Thrips©

Author: James D. Spiers, Fred T. Davies, Jr., Chuanjiu He, and Terri W.

PP: 674

Western flower thrips (WFT) is one of the most damaging pests, world-wide, to ornamental crops. Plant nutrition can play a role in host plant resistance to WFT and in the possible reduction of pesticide usage. This study determined how gerbera host plant resistance is enhanced when nutrient availability is reduced, as determined by an increase in chemical defenses and a reduction in WFT feeding and abundance. We tested three fertility levels that consisted of 0X, 0.3X, or 1X (200 ppm N) the recommended fertilization rate for gerbera. Reducing fertilization increased the total phenolics, which are constitutive secondary metabolites that negatively affect insect feeding. In addition, the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA), which is a plant hormone that regulates the induced defense response to insect feeding, was greater when fertilization was reduced. The enhanced chemical defenses in lower fertility plants resulted in reduced WFT abundance and feeding damage. Vegetative biomass was reduced in lower fertility plants, but flower production and the number of days to pollen shed were similar for gerberas receiving 1X and 0.3X fertilization. Thus, WFT-free plants that received 1X or 0.3X fertility were rated as marketable. Hence, reducing fertilization to a moderate level in gerbera production, which also increased flower peduncle length, can enhance resistance to WFT, while maintaining adequate plant quality.
Pine Tree Substrate: Fertility Requirements for Nursery and Greenhouse Crops©

Author: Brian E. Jackson and Robert D. Wright

PP: 680

As the cost and supply of container substrates continue to be an issue for nursery and greenhouse growers, recent research has focused on the use of wood as a possible material to replace the traditional peat moss (P) and pine bark (PB) substrates currently in use. A pine tree substrate (PTS) has recently been developed from whole processed delimbed loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) for use as a container substrate in horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization (a possible reason for higher fertilizer requirements for PTS) in PTS compared to P and PB. Pine tree substrate, P, and PB were filled into containers (fallow) and fertilized with 200 ppm N prior to incubation for N-immobilization determination. Substrate CO2 efflux was measured to assess the microbial activity occurring in each substrate as an indicator for the potential of microbial immobilization of N. Marigold (Tagetes ‘Inca Gold’) seedlings were potted in each substrate and fertilized similarly for plant growth determinations. Over the 4-week experiment P had approximately 13% of the available substrate N immobilized followed by PB with 29% and PTS had the highest at 68%. Substrate CO2 efflux rates were twice as high in PTS than in PB and nearly five times as high as in P indicating higher microbial activity. Plant growth was highest in P and lowest in PTS. Results indicate that the high microbial activity, and thereby higher N immobilization that occurs in PTS, is a likely reason for the reduced plant growth compared to P and PB. With increased N applications to PTS during crop production plant growth is similar to that of P and PB.
Performance of Container-Grown Loropetalum Grown in Clean Chip Residual Substrate©

Author: Cheryl R. Boyer, Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibl

PP: 685

The idea of using forest residuals is gaining in popularity as a replacement for pine bark (PB) in nursery crop substrates due to reduced availability of PB. Clean chip residual (CCR) is a by-product of in-field forestry harvesting practices. This material, composed of roughly 50% wood, 40% bark, and 10% needles has been shown to produce annual plants and perennials similar in size to plants grown in pine bark. This study evaluated the growth of woody ornamentals grown in CCR or PB over the course of 1 year. Four woody species were tested; Loropetalum chinensis f. rubrum, Lagerstroemia ‘Hopi’, Rhododendron ‘Fashion’, and Buddleja davidii ‘Black Knight’ta for Loropetalum show that plants grown in CCR had similar or greater growth than plants grown in PB. These results indicate that CCR can support the growth of woody ornamentals in a similar fashion to traditional pine bark substrates and is a viable option for the nursery industry.
Optimum Fertilization for Production of Containerized Seabeach Amaranth (Amananthus pumilus)©

Author: Daniel S. Norden, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, and David

PP: 692

Seeds of seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus Raf.) in dry storage at 4 °C since Nov. 2003, were removed from storage in Feb. 2005 and graded. Half the graded seeds were stratified (moist-prechilled) for 90 days at 4 °C. The remaining seeds were returned to dry storage at 4 °C. After 89 days these seeds were removed from storage and placed in a solution of K-GA3 at 1000 mg·L-1 for 24 h. After treatment, both groups of seeds were sown in containers of two differing volumes, 139 or 635 cm3, with a substrate of peat and pine bark (1 : 1, v/v) amended with one of two rates of pulverized dolomitic limestone (2.24 or 4.48 kg·m-1). The containers were maintained in a greenhouse and after seedling emergence, seedlings were fertilized with a 20N?4.4P?8.2K (20N?10P2O5?20K2O) acidic, water soluble fertilizer or a 15N?2.2P?12.3K (15N?5P2O5?15K2O) basic, water soluble fertilizer. Each fertilizer was applied thrice weekly at N application rates (NARs) of 75, 150, 225, or 300 mg·L-1. In June 2005, 8 weeks after sowing of seeds the study was terminated and data recorded. Regardless of fertilizer, acidic or basic, top dry weight and leaf area of seabeach amaranth increased linearly with increasing NAR, and maximum top dry weight and leaf area occurred with N at 300 mg·L-1. In contrast, root dry weight was unaffected by NAR. Seabeach amaranth can be produced successfully in containerized production with maximum top growth occurring with N at 300 mg·L-1 provided by an acidic or basic fertilizer having a 4.5N?1P?1.9K or 6.8N?1P?5.6K ratio, respectively.
Inducing Polyploidy in Rhododendron Seedlings©

Author: Jeff R. Jones, Thomas G. Ranney, and Thomas A. Eaker

PP: 697

Induction of polyploidy can be a valuable technique for breeding programs and developing improved nursery crops. Rhododendron seedlings, derived from controlled crosses, were treated with a single drop containing a 50-µM suspension of oryzalin in a warm agar mixture to temporarily inhibit mitosis and induce polyploidy. Multiple (1, 2, 3, or 4) applications, separated by 4 day intervals, were compared to determine the best efficacy. Ploidy analysis was completed using flow cytometry. This technique was successful in producing a range of polyploids including tetraploids, octoploids, and mixaploids (cytochimeras). The optimal treatment to induce tetraploidy was taxa dependent, but typically ranged from 2?4 applications.
Characterizing Air and Water Content of Soilless Substrates to Optimize Root Growth©

Author: Félix R. Arguedas, John D. Lea-Cox, Andrew G. Ristvey

PP: 701

The physical properties of soilless substrates should be well characterized, since it is well-known that it is the ratio of air:water that most influences root growth, and overall plant growth in container production. However, other factors such as container height, geometry, and substrate handling can also have a profound effect on these variables. We tested the performance of Ech2O capacitance sensors and their ability to accurately monitor water content in a range of soilless substrates with differing physical properties. Desorption curves were generated for each substrate with simultaneous readings, using 5-cm and 20-cm sensors and a custom-built desorption table. The precision of these sensors was confirmed with all soilless substrates tested, although the results revealed that a surprising amount of the total water in these substrates was beyond the commonly accepted range of readily-available water for plants in containers. We are now confident that we can use these sensors, to more precisely schedule irrigation water applications, using the desorption curves from the data we derived in these studies.
Cercis Breeding at the U.S. National Arboretum: Improving Redbud Rootability and Combining Other Traits of Interest©

Author: David Kidwell-Slak and Margaret Pooler

PP: 709

The genus Cercis (redbud or Judas tree) is a morphologically and biogeographically diverse group with high ornamental appeal. A variety of ornamental traits have been discovered and selected for in the native eastern redbud (C. canadensis). These traits include varied leaf morphology, unique flower color, and diverse habit. Almost all eastern redbud cultivars are graft-propagated due to difficulties with rooting. Grafting is a time-intensive and costly method to obtain clonal (or cultivar) material. In contrast, various species native to Asia have been found to be easier to root than C. canadensis. Preliminary work at the U.S. National Arboretum (USNA) suggests that it may be possible to combine the rootability of the Asian species with the ornamental character(s) of the native species. Such interspecific hybridization presents an avenue to improve the nursery production of eastern redbud while also expanding the ornamental and environmental qualities of the entire group.
Horticulture in My Life: It Started From the Production of Miniature Roses©

Author: Takashi Ohnishi

PP: 713

After 2 years of studying rose production and marketing in Osaka, I began to produce pot roses in 1973. From the beginning, it was very hard for me to dig the soil with a spade every day for production and transplanting over 100,000 roses. After 15 years of such hard works, for reasons of my health, I began to consider a job change. At that time, I was very impressed to see the wonderful production system of very pretty miniature roses in Holland, and firmly determined to produce such roses. First, I built a greenhouse of 1000 m2 in area. Since no one had succeeded in the year-round production of miniature rose through cuttings in Japan, I had to do everything by trial and error. The cutting method did not work well; therefore, it took 10 years to achieve stable production. I built a new greenhouse every year and now I have a total of 2.2 ha of greenhouses. At present, both the quality and quantity of miniature roses produced in my nursery are said to be the highest level in Japan. In addition, now I have begun to produce garden roses. However, I think our current production system for garden rose plants must be improved to supply garden roses with high quality.
Field Trip in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan©

Author: Takuya Tetsumura

PP: 714

The 14th Annual Conference of IPPS Japan Region was held in Miyazaki from 16 to 18 Nov. 2007. There were 48 participants, and eight papers were presented in the session.

On the 3rd day, 18 Nov. 2006, 40 participants enjoyed the field trip in the middle of Miyazaki prefecture. It was a very fine and warm day. After driving the Hitotsuba Road along the Pacific, the group visited Nippon Grand Cover Co., Ltd., which has a 4.6-ha nursery field planted with 750,000 potted plants such as ivies (Hedera), Juniperus, and Chamaecyparis (Figs. 1a, b, c).

These nursery plants are sold all over Japan. Moreover, it introduces novel plants eagerly. Its main worry is typhoons striking Miyazaki several times a year. When the weather report announces a typhoon will be moving into the Miyazaki area, the staff takes off the plastic film covering all the greenhouses in order to stave off the complete destruction of the greenhouses.

Grafting Red-Flowering Gum: Trying a New Method©

Author: Michael Gleeson

PP: 718


Red-flowering gum, Corymbia ficifolia, is a small native tree from the south west corner of Western Australia. It is a very popular garden plant in Australia and is used extensively for street tree plantings and as a garden specimen tree. Corymbia ficifolia has been traditionally grown from seed. Over the last 20 years or so many selected seedlings and some hybrids have been isolated and registered. The issue of red-flowering gum propagation however has posed some problems. Corymbia is a genus that is difficult if not impossible to grow from cuttings and therefore grafting offers the only viable method of commercial production of these desirable clones.

The grafting method used by the majority of producers in Australia is the top cleft graft. This method however has been found to be inconsistent with a poor success; a 30% success is considered acceptable by many.

Micropropagation of Garlic (Allium sativum) by Bulblet Chipping In Vitro©

Author: Takayuki Kato, Wakanori Amaki, Kusukazu Yamamoto, Yuuzou Toukura

PP: 721


Garlic (Allium sativum) is well known as one of the noticeable foods which have many medicinal effects for human health from ancient times. In Mie Prefecture, a local cultivar ‘Iki-wase’ traditionally has been cultivated. Recently, it has been shown that this cultivar has highly effective functions as an antioxidant. Because of this, we decided to develop a rapid and effective propagation method for ‘Iki-wase’. Several tissue culture methods have been reported. However, those methods have some problems, such as the occurrence of somatic variation (Luciani et al., 2006), the need for long-term cultivation (Nagakubo et al., 1993), and the necessity of mastering skillful techniques (Ayabe and Sumi, 1998). In this report, we tried to apply the bulblet chipping method used for nerine (Ezura, 1993) and amaryllis (Yanagawa, 1988) to multiply garlic bulbs rapidly without somatic variations.

Tissue Culture of Male Sterile Sugi Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) for the Solution of the Pollen Allergy Problem©

Author: Katsuaki Ishii, Toru Taniguchi, Miyoko Tsubomura, and Teiji Kond

PP: 725


Sugi cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) is an important conifer tree for industrial plantation production in Japan. Forty five percent of man-made forests in Japan is comprised of sugi cedar. However, a pollen allergy problem caused by sugi cedar and hinoki cypress is currently serious. For the solution of pollinosis, production of non-pollen male sterile clones by tissue culture is considered as one option. A complete pollen sterile sugi cedar was found in Toyama prefecture, Japan (Taira et al., 1993). By the year 2007, more than 20 individual clones of pollen sterile sugi cedar have been found in Toyama, Niigata, Fukushima, Aomori, Kanagawa, and Ibaraki prefectures, Japan. Here we describe the screening of surface sterilization, initial culture, and subculture media for tissue culture of male sterile sugi cedar.

Let?s Enjoy Japanese Old Citrus Cultivars©

Author: Nobumasa Nito

PP: 727

Citrus is one of the most important fruit trees in the world and grows in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical areas. From ancient times Citrus species have been used as fresh fruits, and for cooking, medicines, and ornamentals in Japan. Although the origin and time of introduction is unclear, many old species such as tachibana [Citrus tachibana (Makino) Tanaka], koji (C. leiocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka), shekwasha (C. depressa Hayata), daidai (C. aurantium L.), yuzu [C. junos (Sieb.) C. Tanaka], and kabosu (C. sphaerocarpa Tanaka) have been traditionally cultivated in Japan.
Using Capsaicin as a Less Toxic Insecticide©

Author: Masanori Tomita, Hiroshi Endo

PP: 728

To evaluate capsaicin as a pest control material in plant cultivation, chili pepper ‘Takano-tsume’ (Capsicum annum var. parvo-acuminatum) was used as material for capsaicin extraction and research. The chili pepper extract was effective at decreasing the density of both spider mites and aphids. The mixture of chili pepper extract with a low concentration of neem extract was more effective. There were no negative effects on growth of seedlings when spraying chili pepper extract repeatedly.
Regeneration of Platycodon grandiflorum Through Adventitious Shoots Formation From Cotyledon and Hypocotyl Explants©

Author: Tomohide Yamamoto and Takeshi Hirao

PP: 735

An efficient protocol for mass propagation of Platycodon grandiflorum ‘Samidare- murasaki’ and ‘Sentimental Blue’ was developed using explants divided into two halves of expanded cotyledon and hypocotyl segments. The direct formation of shoots from these explants was most active on the Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (1 mg·L-1) and NAA (0.1 mg·L-1). In this research, 20?23 shoots were initiated from cotyledon explant and 8?9 shoots were initiated from hypocotyl segment 6 weeks after the beginning of culture. Most of adventitious shoots were directly formed at the proximal cut end of proximal half of a cotyledon, and successively at the proximal cut end of distal half. The distal cut end of the hypocotyl was more active in the formation of adventitious shoots than the proximal cut end. Rooting of the adventitious shoots was promoted in the MS medium supplemented with IBA (1 mg·L-1), while NAA (0.1 mg·L-1) had little effect on the rooting. After acclimatization, the regenerated plants grew normally and flowered in a greenhouse.