Volume 55

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Environmentally Sustainable Production Systems for Producing Ornamental Plants©

Author: John Bunker

PP: 41


Since man has been producing crops on earth there has been constant evolution adapting to changes, including demand for increased production to service population increases and other changes. These changes include intensive monoculture of crops, mechanization, new improved cultivars as a result of breeding and selection, to increase yields and to develop resistance to pests and include the discovery and the use of agricultural chemicals.

In the 21st century as horticultural producers we face the same global issues: pressure on margins, increasing legislative changes (which we need to adapt to) with regulatory requirements on occupational health and safety and environment. In addition there are the ever-changing demands in the marketplace both at consumer and commercial levels. At no other point has there been so much change.

Currently in the State of Queensland there is a major focus on the consumption of energy, water, and waste output with current population growth and

Sharing Simple, Inexpensive Ideas From Nursery Producers©

Author: Ken Tilt, Jeff Sibley

PP: 75

Nursery producers are farmers that are known for their independence and have made their successes through conservative money management and carefully "growing into their businesses." Most nurseries are small family operations and not backed by large corporate investors. They have had to be very innovative and frugal in developing their businesses. The following is a collection of 23 practical, inexpensive ideas that nurseries have developed to help their nurseries compete successfully.

Some times descriptions of these innovations do not offer a complete vision of the ideas. Photographs of each of these ideas and some additional ones that time and space did not allow are available on-line at <www.ag.auburn.edu/landscape>; from this page look for the "Ideas" button.

The nursery industry is very important to the economy of Alabama. It is the number one economic agricultural crop. Over 850 nurseries and greenhouses generate $250 million wholesale farm-gate dollars ($1.4 billion ZAR) to the

New Introductions from Europe©

Author: Gert Fortgens

PP: 405

Tres and Shrubs
  • Aralia elata ‘Golden Umbrella’. Wide gold leafmargin, more vigorous grower than ‘Aureomarginata’ and easier to propagate, no scorching of leaves in summer.
  • Berberis thunbergii ‘Admiration’. From Czech Republic, dense dome shape; young shoots orangebrown colored, leafmargin wide gold rim.
  • Buxus microphylla ‘Peergold’, Golden Dream™ boxwood. Found as a variegated sport on ‘Faulkner’, leaf margins in summer bright gold, in winter yellowish green, young shoots and wintercolor orange-bronze, habit rounded.
  • Corylus avellana ‘Anny's Purple Dream'. A compact form with deep-purple-colored foliage. Ideal for grafting.
  • Forsythia ×intermedia ‘Goldraush’. A German selection with a great advantage over many other Forsythia's; the flowers are formed on the young (1st year's) shoots. The flowers are very large and deep yellow.
  • Hebe ‘Heartbreaker’PBR. A compact-growing hebe, foliage grey-green with a cream-colored margin. Foliage turns purple from October to May. Withstands only mild frosts.
New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander, Andrea Bonville, Allen Bush, Jeremy Deppe, Chuck

PP: 407

Abelia × grandiflora ‘Kaleidoscope’

Origin: ‘Kaleidoscope’ was selected in North Carolina, from a plant of Abelia ‘Little Richard’.

Protection Status: Plant Patent Applied For

Hardiness: USDA Zone 6 to 9

Bloom: Light pink buds open to small, white tubular flowers, which persist in fall.

Foliage: Leaves are variegated and emerge bright yellow with a light green center in the spring and gradually change to golden yellow with a green center in the summer. Fall foliage is a combination of golden yellow, bright orange, and fiery red. Foliage does not scorch or bleach in full sun. Stem color of new growth is bright red.

Habit: Low, mounded, compact, extremely dense. 2 ft to 2½ ft tall by 3 ft to 3½wide.

Propagation: Roots easily from softwood cuttings. 1000–1500 ppm K-IBA. License required to propagate.

Culture: Full sun to partial shade. Best in full sun. Will tolerate all but heavy, poorly drained soil and extremely high pH. Requires little or no pruning. High fertility increases foliage

Softwood Cutting Propagation of Native Lauraceae (Lindera benzoin and Sassafras albidum) as Alternatives to Invasive Horticulture Plants©

Author: Jenna Sicuranza, Nick Castrataro, Bill Johnson, Brian Maynard

PP: 415


The topic of invasive plants is hotly debated in horticulture. Plant nurseries and horticultural institutions are often identified as sources for a high percentage of invasive plants. Enormous pressure is put on nurseries to discontinue sales of certain high-profile invasive plants, many of which represent large portions of plant sales. In some New England states legislation prohibiting sales of certain invasive plants has been enacted; in others, voluntary action is encouraged. In either case, the potential economic loss to the industry is great. Therefore, the production of non-invasive alternatives to invasive plants is a priority. While native plants are not the only alternatives, they do offer other associated benefits, such as attracting native wildlife. In addition, native plants are becoming more popular with consumers and represent a growing niche market. Native plants have been so far relatively unexplored by the industry; exploring their horticultural

Propagation of Woody Plants Through "Long" Cuttings©

Author: Jelle Hiemstra, Bart van der Sluis

PP: 417


Development of a quick method for vegetative propagation with a higher rate of rooting than the present methods.

The Development of Verticillium-Resistant Acer Rootstocks©

Author: Jelle Heimstra, Bart van der Sluis

PP: 421


To develop rootstocks for Acer platanoides that are resistant to Verticillium dahliae.

  • Verticillium wilt affects many shade trees including Acer, Aesculus, Catalpa, Fraxinus, Prunus, Robinia, Syringa, and Ulmus species.
  • Norway maple (A. platanoides) is one of the major hosts.
  • Young plants in tree nurseries as well as older plants in urban or rural plantings are affected (Fig. 1).
Cultivar Trials at Applied Plant Research©

Author: Margareth Hop

PP: 423


Applied Plant Research in Boskoop (The Netherlands) has several trials of woody plants and herbaceous perennials each year. The aim of these trials is to find out which cultivars are the best for growers and home gardeners. Trials usually run for several years. During this time, the identity of the plant is verified and accurately described, photographed, and documented. Information about differences in cultivation requirements and use is gathered, in many cases in cooperation with researchers in other countries. Besides the ornamental value, we look at ease of propagation, winter hardiness, resistance to pests and diseases, etc. Finally an evaluation committee of nurserymen also judges the plants. The results of the trials and the test committee are published in several Dutch magazines for nurserymen, landscapers, and gardeners.

Use of Paper-Mill Sludges and Municipal Compost in Nursery Substrates©

Author: Calvin Chong, Peter Purvis

PP: 428

Municipal compost (Hicklenton et al., 2000) and both raw and composted papermill sludges (Campbell et al., 1991; Chong and Cline, 1994) are increasingly being promoted for use in nursery substrates. This study compared raw paper-mill sludge with various composts derived from paper-mill sludges (two sources) and municipal waste (one source), and determined optimum rates of these materials in binary mixtures with bark or hemp chips. The chemical composition of these materials is shown in Table 1.

Silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba ‘Elegantissima" syn. ‘Argenteo-marginata’), forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia ‘Lynwood Variety’), and weigela (Weigela ‘Red Prince’) were grown in #2 (6-L) containers filled with 100% bark or bark mixed with 20%, 40%, or 60% by volume each of raw paper-mill sludge (RB group); Bio Soil

Interspecific Hybridization of a White-Flowered, Cold-Hardy Alstroemeria©

Author: Elizabeth Kollman, Dr. Mark Bridgen

PP: 433

Alstroemeria, the Inca lily or lily-of-the-Incas, is becoming a popular garden plant in the United States. In past years, the primary interest in Alstroemeria has been for its cut flowers. However, recent cold-hardy introductions (U.S.D.A. hardiness Zone 5) have expanded the interest of this colorful plant as a garden perennial throughout the United States. Previously, garden interests were restricted to warmer zones in the southern United States where Alstroemeria could overwinter. This research describes a breeding procedure that has been used with the objective to develop a cold-hardy, white-flowered Alstroemeria. The interspecific hybrids were bred with the use of in ovulo-embryo rescue. Reciprocal crosses were made between several white-flowered cultivars and the cold-hardy Chilean species, Alstroemeria aurea during 2004 and 2005. Ovaries were collected 10–23 days after hand pollination, and their ovules were aseptically excised. Ovules were placed in vitro on 25% Murashige and
The Effects of Nitrogen Level and Mist Frequency on Rooting of Three Phlox Species©

Author: Sinclair A. Adam Jr.

PP: 434

Growers and propagators are working to reduce nutrient losses from sites and to improve nutrient use efficiency for reduced environmental impact and for production efficiency (Hartmann, et al., 2000). Woody cuttings in mist systems have demonstrated benefits from the addition of nutrients in the mist, but many herbaceous perennials are undocumented with respect to nutrient requirements in mist systems (Hartmann, et al., 2000; Rowe and Cregg, 2002). Phlox species are popular herbaceous perennials typically produced from stem cuttings (Armitage, 1997). Phlox glaberrima ‘Morris Berd’ is a perennial plant of increasing interest, is easy (to moderately easy) to produce from cuttings, and blooms mid-spring to early summer. Phlox paniculata ‘David’ was The Perennial Plant Association's perennial plant of the year in 2002 and is a popular summer-blooming garden phlox with powdery mildew resistance (Perry and Adam, Jr., 1994). Phlox paniculata typically takes a slightly longer period to root and is
Severe Cutback of Stock Plant Influences Rooting in Shoots of Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa©

Author: Naalamle Amissah, Nina Bassuk

PP: 436

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of severe stock plant cutback on rooting in two oak species Quercus bicolor and Q. macrocarpa. Fieldgrown plants were either cutback leaving a 0.04-m (1.6-inch) stump above soil level or left intact (not cutback) ˜ 1.7 m (66.9 inches) tall. Shoots arising from cutback treatments and intact plants were layered using a field layering technique and air layering, respectively. The rooting traits measured in this experiment were rooting percentage and the number of roots per shoot. Results showed significantly higher rooting percentages in layered propagules arising from severely cutback plants in both species ( ˜ 77% in Q. bicolor and ˜ 70% in Q. macrocarpa) compared with air-layered shoots arising from intact plants (1% in Q. bicolor and 0% in Q. macrocarpa). Overall, pre-treatment etiolation increased rooting in shoots arising from cutback stock plants in both species. The results for the average number of roots per shoot mirrored that of rooting.
Specialisation — Advantages and Disadvantages Compared©

Author: Peter Bingham

PP: 79

Over the past 50 years there have been a number of changes in the nursery trade. One of the most significant is the trend towards specialisation in one form or other. On my own nursery in the late 1970s we grew conifers, shrubs, roses, alpines, and heathers, covering over 1,000 cultivars, and sold to both wholesale and retail customers. The nursery now covers 10 times the area but we only grow heathers, less than 10 species, around 100 cultivars, three pot sizes, only two compost mixes, and are strictly wholesale only. Based on our own experience and those of other nurseries that I have visited, the following are some of my observations.
A Comprehensive Echinacea Germplasm Collection Located at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa

Author: Joe-Ann H. McCoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeffrey D. Carstens

PP: 439

Echinacea is a well-established, high-value crop, both as an ornamental and dietary supplement. A comprehensive collection of Echinacea germplasm is currently held at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, and is available via seed distribution for research purposes <http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs>. The NCRPIS's mission includes: (1) The conservation of genetically diverse crop germplasm through collection and acquisition; (2) The conduct of germplasm-related research; and (3) The encouragement of the use of the germplasm collections and associated information for research, crop improvement, and product development.

Representing all nine species collected throughout their respective North American geographic ranges, the Echinacea collection includes 159 accessions (Table 1). Extensive morphological characterization data associated with the collection have been assembled and are available to researchers to aid in selection criteria. The

The Grafting of Cedrus libani ‘Pendula’ onto Picea abies©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 441


Grafting is an age-old practice and dates back to the writings of Plato and perhaps beyond. People have worked on the grafting of plants for a long time, and some techniques have certainly stood the test of time. One common thing is the occurrence of intraspecific grafts.

It is not unusual to find Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. ×paradisi or C. reticulata. Nor is it difficult to find any number of different rose species being grafted onto Rosa multiflora. This close matching of the different species can take place due to the high degree of kinship that being in the same genus provides. There is no sure guarantee of success because plant taxonomy can develop into highly distinct subgroups within a genus that inhibits or makes some graft combinations unsuitable, such as grafts between members of Acer that belong to the subgroup platanoides and those that belong to macrantha series. Sometimes it can be even more extreme with Acer rubrum cultivars often exhibiting severe

A Taxonomic Revision of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis f. pendula and Implications for Rootstock Selection for Grafting©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 443


In the last 5 years the genus and species of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and its cultivars have undergone a large taxonomic revision. This revision was fully warranted and justified both from a taxonomic point of view as well as from a horticultural perspective.

The genus and species of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis as of 2004 (Little et al., 2004) has now been changed to Callitropsis nootkatensis (Little, Schwarzbach, Adams & Hsieh). Earlier revisions of the genus changed the formal name to Xanthocyparis nootkatensis (Farjon & Harder) (Farjon et al., 2002), but subsequent work and approval of the International Committee for Binomial Nomenclature has verified the genus to be Callitropsis (Wikipedia, 2005).

This is of significance to propagators, horticulturalists, and plant breeders due to confusion created by the original grouping of Callitropsis nootkatensis in the genus, Chamaecyparis and referred to for many years as Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D.Don) Spach. However,

Grafting of Prunus davidiana: Possibilites for Production©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 446

Prunus davidiana (Carr) Franch., David's peach, is a large deciduous tree from central and Northern China. Griffiths (1994) gives it a hardiness rating of Zone 4, and it exercises considerable potential for use in the Midwest and western states as a possible flowering ornamental tree.

The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania has a large specimen that is in decline after being in place for some 40+ years. Since the tree is destined for take down, an effort was initiated to preserve the original plant via propagation. Due to the age of the tree it seemed futile to try to propagate it via cuttings because the nearest branches to the ground were some 15 ft up. Instead it was thought that grafting should be accomplished initially and then growing on the grafts to provide suitable material for cutting propagation in the near future.

Propagation of Osmanthus armatus From Hardwood Cuttings©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 448


Osmanthus armatus Diels is a large holly-like evergreen shrub from 2—4 m and approximately the same spread. The oblong ovate leaves (7—14 cm) are dark green and glossy and are heavily toothed. They are quite stiff and are generally inflexible. New growth has reddish tints. Like other members of the genus, the flowering of O. armatus is pronounced, with a strong fragrance. Griffiths (1994) lists the presence of purple fruit, but observation of isolated plants over a number of years has failed to find any fruit. It is possible that like some other members of the Oleacea the plant could be dioecious or self-sterile. Hardiness is listed as a Zone 7, but plants in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have stood the test of time and are fully a Zone 6. It is not encountered frequently in the landscape, and perhaps this is because it is essentially a very large evergreen bush, although on large estates or plantings it could have a significant presence. Ideally it should be placed so that

Mespilus canescens a Newly Discovered Species: Propagation by Grafting onto Crataegus©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 449


Mespilus canescens (Sterns medlar) was discovered in 1990 in the 22-acre Konecny Grove Natural Area in Arkansas (Center for Plant Conservation, 2005). Phipps (1991) documented M. canescens to be an additional new species to the heretofore single genus and species, M. germanica, a European plant.

Further work by Phipps et al. (1991) demonstrated that isozyme analysis positively grouped the new plant as a Mespilus species. However, Dickinson et al. (2000) suggests that due to the close relationship of M. canescens to Crataegus there is some DNA evidence to suggest that it might be of hybrid origin. Further evidence of the kinship to Crataegus is given credence by noting that both M. canescens and a number of Crataegus have 20 stamens. Dickinson (2000) also mentions that M. canescens is almost indistinguishable from many Crataegus species, although it does lack thorns. Further evidence supporting the kinship of Crataegus to Mespilus is offered by Griffiths (1994) who lists

Somatic Embryo Development in Willow Oak©

Author: S. Wells, S.T. Kester, R.L. Geneve

PP: 451


Willow oak (Quercus phellos) is an important landscape plant and forestry tree generally propagated by seed for commercial production. Recent propagation of willow oak has been through cuttings taken from juvenile stock plants; however this does not allow for selection of mature characteristics such as autumn color, tree shape, winter hardiness, or ease of production. Somatic embryogenesis would allow for the mature mother plant to be rejuvenated into a juvenile form for cutting propagation while still having the clonal characteristics desired (Geneve et al., 2003).

Somatic embryogenesis has been reported in a number of oak species, with the majority of the work being performed in English (Q. robur) and cork oak (Q. suber). In these species, the frequency of somatic embryo induction is between 80% and 100% from immature zygotic embryo explants but less than 15% using seedling leaf tissue (Wilhelm, 2000). However, regardless of the initial source,

Breeding Rebloom Diploid Daylilies in Colors Other Than Yellow and Gold©

Author: Darrel Apps

PP: 454

There are different scenarios to use in describing rebloom daylilies:
  1. One-time repeaters—those that send up two flower stalks (scapes) in succession (usually 2–3 weeks apart) from one ramet usually after winter or a cold period.
  2. Daylilies that send up one scape per mature ramet with rebloom coming later in the season from newly maturing ramets (mostly in evergreen daylilies not requiring a cold period).
  3. Daylilies that produce as many as 3 or 4 flower scapes in succession from one ramet (most of these plants are dormants and require a cold period—‘Stella de Oro’, ‘Happy Returns’, ‘Early And Often’, and ‘Rosy Returns’ are examples). Sometimes this third type of rebloom is described as continuous bloom.

Rebloom amount and frequency in all of these types can be affected by the amount of sunlight, moisture content of the growing medium, levels of fertilization, and maturity of the clumps (frequent dividing enhances rebloom).

In the 1970s most of the existing cultivars that rebloomed were in
What You Need to Know About Viruses©

Author: Michael A. Yoshimura

PP: 459

Viruses are acellular infectious agents made up of a nucleic acid core and surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses are inert or inactive when not inside a host cell.


Viruses are very small and cannot be seen even with the aide of a light microscope. We measure viruses in units of nanometers, a billionth of a meter.

New Propagation Facilities at Monrovia Nursery, Visalia, California©

Author: Jeremy Bahne

PP: 462


To meet propagation needs for Monrovia's current expansion, work is under way to construct additional propagation facilities at the Visalia, California location. The projects include a 4-acre glass greenhouse that is nearing completion and a 4-acre retractable shade house that was recently completed. The new facilities will provide Monrovia with increased flexibility and operational efficiency.

Adaptation — The Secret of Survival of the Biota Through Geological Time©

Author: Mary E. White

PP: 85

Look at The Mallee and the eucalypt that gives it its name, and at the river red gums, the eucalypt icons of the Murray — closely related but so distinctly different because of their specific habitat characteristics — and you see how adaptation and survival are connected.

Co-evolution of the biota and the environment has been the story throughout the 425 million years that terrestrial life has been evolving on Earth. Natural selection has favoured the individuals best adapted to their current environments, and at times of change has promoted those with ability to adapt to the changing circumstances. Imagine the difficulties encountered by the first plants on the land — having a green algal ancestor and all that that implied; no longer surrounded and supported by water and able to absorb nutrients from it; exposed to evaporation, sunburn, and weather changes. Without the symbiotic help from fungi from the start they would never have made the transition and the world would have been a very

General Session I: Question and Answer Session©

Author: Kristin Yanker-Hansen

PP: 464

Kirstin Yanker-Hansen: Can plants develop resistance to viruses and does the health of the soil help?
The Best Treatment Combination for Air Layering Litchis©

Author: Michelle Kong

PP: 466


Litchis (Litchi chinensis)are a popular tropical fruit in many Asian countries. In the United States, litchis cost $3.99–$7.99 per pound or more depending upon the time of year and the location. Once the litchi tree is established, it can produce 500–1000 pounds of fruit each year, with prime production when it is 20–40 years old. Litchi trees are difficult to propagate. Litchi trees propagated by seed would not have predictable fruit quality because of genetic variation. They would take 10–15 years to set fruit, whereas air layers only take 3–5 years to set fruit. Litchi air layers typically take 3–6 months to root. To find out if roots could be produced more quickly, an experiment was performed on a small litchi orchard at the Calimoya Orchard in Goleta, California in 2005.

Propagation of Arbutus "Marina" by Air-Layering©

Author: Celeste Whitlow, David Hannings

PP: 469


Arbutus ‘Marina’ is a strikingly attractive California-hybridized shrub grown and sold in nurseries, often pruned into multitrunk or standard form. The appearance of ‘Marina’ is evocative of the madrone (A. menziesii), a powerfully beautiful California native tree. Unlike the madrone, the ‘Marina’ fits a wide range of landscaping needs and is resilient to most human care. While the madrone is not as adaptable as the ‘Marina’ and rarely survives outside of its native environment, the ‘Marina’ can survive in good- or poor-quality soil, in a xeriscape, or in the middle of an irrigated lawn used as a small tree or screening shrub and is a viable option for those who want to echo the California native landscape in their own landscapes.

The higher cost and limited availability of the ‘Marina’ is primarily because it is recalcitrant to propagation by seed and cuttings. The ‘Marina’ is available to growers from specialty propagators as micropropagated plantlets, liners from micropropagated

Improving Handling and Rooting of Thunbergia alata©

Author: Joseph Coelho, David Hannings, J. Wyatt Brown, Matt Ritter

PP: 472


Thunbergia alata, common name "black-eyed Susan vine," is an increasingly popular ornamental vine named for the black eyes of its miniature flowers. Thunbergia alata is commonly propagated by seed and stem-and-two-leaf nodal cuttings. Large-scale cutting production of T. alata is performed in Costa Rica by Ball Flora Plant. Many of the cuttings experience leaf disintegration and literal melting usually within the first week of planting, resulting in failure to root and death. A study was launched to examine factors affecting the rooting of T. alata Sunny™ Lemon Star black-eyed Susan PPAF vine cuttings.

General Session II: Question and Answer Session©


PP: 477

Dieter Louter: Did you girdle all the way around?
Disease and Pest Avoidance and Control in Cutting Production©

Author: Gail Shafer

PP: 479


Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and insect pests adversely affect cutting production, and it pays to avoid and/or control them. Why are we concerned with diseases in cutting production? Aesthetics is one reason. We deal in ornamental products, and our customers would have a hard time selling virus-infected, symptomatic plants. We ship to many countries around the world and have to meet each country':s phytosanitary requirements prior to shipping. The presence of disease may affect a plant's ability to root, grow, and flower in a satisfactory manner. In the worst case these infections can lead to plant death.

Why are we concerned with insect pests? Again, aesthetics is important to our customers. Thrips-riddled flowers and foliage is a hard sell. Shipping to other countries we have to meet their import requirements. Insects can transmit some diseases very efficiently.

Trials with Natural Growth Promoting Products©

Author: John Keller

PP: 481


Commercial nurseries are often approached by companies promoting products that enhance plant growth. These may be derived from natural products such as seaweed extracts, fish waste, humic substances, vitamins, etc. Various seaweed extracts are currently on the market and have been shown to increase root development, improve plant growth, and increase yield. Humic substances are commercially available and are reported to improve nutrient uptake and promote rooting. It is important to carefully test these products in order to assess their true value under production nursery conditions. We have tested natural growth-promoting products with varying results. This report summarizes the results of several trials with these types of products.

Selection of Mycorrhizal Fungi for California Native Plants©

Author: Lea Corkidi, Mike Evans, Jeff Bohn

PP: 489

The main objective of mycorrhizal inoculation at the Tree of Life Nursery is the propagation of healthy seedlings and cuttings of California native plants suitable to be transplanted in ornamental home gardens and restoration and revegetation sites. The symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves the ability of plants to cope with environmental stress by facilitating nutrient uptake (Smith and Read, 1997), by increasing tolerance to drought and salt stress (Auge, 2001), and resistance against soil pathogens (Azcon-Aguilar et al., 2002), and by enhancing soil aggregation (Caravaca et al., 2002).

In contrast to native ecosystems where mycorrhizas are so common, soilless mixes used in nurseries for plant propagation do not contain propagules of mycorrhizal fungi (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea, 1997). To incorporate mycorrhizal technology in nursery conditions it must be kept in mind that mycorrhizal associations are three-way interactions between plants, fungi, and growing

General Session III: Question and Answer Session©


PP: 490

Nevin Smith: I've heard anecdotally about the toxic effects of nursery soil when it's relatively fresh because of the phenols in the various barks and in our case, redwood sawdust, on mycorrhizae, and I wonder whether you've found it pays to delay mycorrhizae inoculation for weeks or months or have you found no effect with the VAM8?
Best Management Practices at Monrovia Growers to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum©

Author: John Keller

PP: 491

Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of Ramorum Blight or Sudden Oak Death, is a quarantine organism. Nurseries found to be infected with P. ramorum face significant financial and regulatory consequences. In response to the 2004 infection of its Azusa, California nursery, Monrovia Growers developed a set of about 50 best management practices (BMP) to prevent the introduction and spread of P. ramorum. These practices are used at all six Monrovia Growers locations. The BMP are in addition to those practices required for maintenance of our Compliance Agreement for Nurseries Shipping Host and Associated-host Plants of Phytophthora ramorum Interstate as per the Federal Order Restricting Movement of Nursery Stock from California, Oregon, and Washington Nurseries, 22 Dec. 2004 <www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/pramorum/>. Many of these BMP are similar to those listed on the California Oak Mortality Task Force web site <www.suddenoakdeath.org>.
Making Us "Future-Proof" — The Evolving Role of Horticulture©

Author: Elizabeth G. Heij

PP: 88

While this is not a scientific paper, it does examine the role of our science in the context of a profound socioeconomic change now gathering momentum around us. Although the process will be slow, this change will ultimately affect both the nature of our science and the way it is applied.

Let's reflect for a moment on the energy budget associated with our sector of "industrial metabolism" — the chain that begins in our research laboratories and ends with the application of our science in horticulture, agriculture, forestry, and conservation. Think, for example, of the lights, heating, and equipment used in laboratories, glasshouses, and propagation nurseries. Think of industrial chemicals, sterilizers, and fertilizers — of tractors, trucks, and other transport. There is little we do today that is not completely dependent on the burning or conversion of fossil fuels. But fossil fuels are a finite resource — and, not only that, there is now almost universal scientific acceptance that their

Bryophytes and Soil Acidification Effects on Trees: The Case of Sudden Oak Death©

Author: Lee F. Klinger

PP: 493

Pathologists investigating the recent death of many oak trees in northern California have concluded that the problem is due to a new plant disease, dubbed sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the fungal pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. While not disputing that P. ramorum is involved in the final demise of many oaks, there are a growing number of experts who do not agree that this pathogen is the fundamental cause of the decline. They point out that most of the dying oaks in SOD-affected forests show no expression of P. ramorum. Instead, they suggest that acidic conditions create mineral imbalances and deficiencies in soils that weaken the trees, raising their susceptibility to secondary pests and pathogens. Here I present evidence that, due to fire suppression, there has been progressive acidification of oak forests, leading to greater incidence of disease. This helps us understand both why the SOD phenomenon is occurring now and what can be done to solve the problem.

The etiology of SOD in California coincides closely with the symptoms of decline seen in aging forest ecosystems elsewhere. Dieback starts with the upper and outer branches in the crown, showing a pattern of wilting and browning of leaves along with dying small branches and progressively spreading to the lower parts of the crown over several years. The decline affects many kinds of oaks, as well as bays, buckeyes, and pines, hitting mainly the larger trees in mixed-oak savannas and forests, most of which have been under strict fire control for more than 50 years. Areas near the coast and those experiencing frequent seasonal fog are especially hard hit by SOD. Affected trees tend to occur in mature forests (>100 years old) and are usually found in association with a heavy cover of mosses and lichens. Moss mats have been shown in both laboratory and field studies to be associated with the mortality of underlying fine roots and mycorrhizae, which leads to water and nutrient stress and reduced radial growth in nearby trees. Mosses and lichens are also observed to degrade the trees protective bark layer, allowing for pests/pathogens to more easily infest/infect the tree.

Data on pH from 28,577 soil samples taken from a wide range of landscaped and agricultural soils in California indicate that only 10.2% of the soils are acidic (pH < 6.0). Data on samples taken from disease site soils (mostly with SOD) indicates that 79.2% of these soils are acidic (median pH = 5.7; n = 136). Soils from the disease sites were also found to be consistently low in Ca and very high in soluble Al and Fe. Spatial analysis reveals a strong coastal gradient in soil pH with the lowest pH values found near the coast. Strong coastal gradients are also apparent in soil Ca, which is lowest near the coast, and in soil Al, which is highest near the coast.

These results lend further support to the theory that systemic acidification is adversely affecting the health of the trees and soils, predisposing trees to infection by the SOD pathogen. It is recommended, thus, that the scope of SOD research be expanded to include studies of acidification by mosses and lichens in the context of forest and soil ecology.

Selecting the Right Herbicide for Nursery and Landscape Use©

Author: Robert P. Rice Jr.

PP: 504

For many weed control practitioners in the nursery and landscape industries, chemical weed control means the use of a common pre-emergent herbicide such as Ronstar and a post-emergent treatment with Roundup. The relative safety, effectiveness, and low cost of chemical weed control when compared with hand weeding limits their consideration of other options.

Actually, a more careful look at herbicide choices can reap benefits in lowering weed control costs, possibly improving quality of control, and decreasing environmental and safety concerns. For each application situation a different herbicide or herbicide combination may perform better, and the extra effort in evaluating the situation will pay for itself. The first step is to determine the weed spectrum that will need to be controlled as well as the mix of ornamental species that might be present in the treated areas. References such as The Nursery and Landscape Weed Control Manual (Rice, 2001) and the Turf and Ornamental Reference

General Session IV: Question and Answer Session


PP: 506

Kristin Yanker-Hansen: Have you done any work with tropical forests?
Notes on Propagation of Various Tropical Woody Ornamentals©

Author: Richard A. Criley

PP: 507

Auxin series, ranging from 0 to 7500 ppm, were evaluated on eight tropical woody ornamental materials as laboratory exercises for a class in plant propagation. The auxins were either indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) used alone or the commercial preparation Dip 'N Grow® (1% IBA and 0.5% NAA). Terminal cuttings were taken in late fall, rooted under intermittent mist during low light winter conditions, and evaluated 6 to 8 weeks later in most cases. Rooting percentages and a rooting index based on root mass were determined. Optimum auxin concentrations were: 1000 ppm for Acalypha wilkesiana (dwarf copper-leaf), 6250 ppm for Aglaia odorata, 500 ppm for Duranta erecta ‘Alba’, 6000 ppm for Galphimia gracilis, 1500 ppm for Ilex vomitoria ‘Stoke's Dwarf’, 6000 ppm for a Rhododendron aurigeranum × R. herzogii hybrid, 2500 ppm for Thunbergia erecta, and 1200 to 2250 for Gardenia brighamii.
The Microprogation and Reintroduction into an Open Environment of Sterile Plumeria rubra Adult and Seedling Tissue©

Author: William S. Miller, Richard A. Criley

PP: 512

Plumeria, a tropical woody ornamental with attractive fragrant flowers, has been transported around the world and has recently become a collector's plant. New seed-derived cultivars are being introduced wherever the plant can be grown, but increase tends to be slow despite the ease of rooting of cuttings and grafting. Early efforts to tissue culture adult plant material were frustrated by microbial contamination. This study was initiated to determine efficient ways to micropropagate seedling and adult tissues. Six media based on the Murashige and Skoog medium with various amendments were evaluated. Juvenile tissue from seedlings derived from seed that had been surface sterilized and planted into sterile medium was used as an explant source, while adult tissues were derived from meristems dissected from axillary buds that were forced by decapitation of the main stem. Juvenile tissues were successfully subcultured in a Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with Gamborg vitamins, 1 mg·L-1 benzylaminopurine, 1 mg·L-1 AgNO3, 500 mg·L-1 casein hydrolysate, 20 g&middotL-1 glucose, and 5 g&middotL-1 agar. Rooting was also achieved in this medium. Adult tissue was slower to develop but demonstrated growth on a meduim containing 1 mg·L-1 kinetin. The use of AgNO3 in the medium appeared to inhibit callus production and enhance shoot regeneration. Upon transfer into nonsterile conditions 82% of plantlets survived.
The Propagation of Uluhe Fern (Dicranopteris linearis): Vegetative Versus Spores©

Author: Ethan A. Romanchak, Richard A. Criley, Nellie Sugii

PP: 517

Uluhe fern, Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) is an indigenous fern of the Hawaiian Islands. Because there is no established propagation method for this fern, a survey of propagation methods was conducted to determine a protocol suitable for large-scale production. For vegetative propagation, a layering and a division trial were performed in healthy, wild populations. The layering trial tested different concentrations of auxin. Rooted rhizomes and aboveground fern parts were transplanted from the wild into 3-gal pots for the division trial. Preliminary results have yielded no viable asexual method of propagation. For sexual propagation, aseptic cultures were established from spore germination on Steeves Medium (Steeves et al., 1955). Sporophyte genesis in aseptic culture has occurred, though sporophyte growth in vivo has not yet been measured. Preliminary results suggest that the successful propagation and production of uluhe fern will result from propagation by spores.
Propagating Native Plants for the Hopi Nation©

Author: Thomas D. Landis, David R. Dreesen, Jeremy R. Pinto, R. Kasten D

PP: 520


The Hopi reservation is located in northeast Arizona (Fig. 1) where the tribe has been working to eradicate exotic salt-cedar (Tamarix ramosissima Leneb.[Tamaricaceae]) and Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.[Elaeagnaceae]) from streams and wetlands. Although only comprising about 2% of the reservation, these riparian and wetland communities are ecologically and culturally valuable for livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, traditional gathering, and ceremonial use (Lomadafkie, 2003). Even though the initial eradications were successful, the salt-cedar is already resprouting. Consequently, the tribe asked the U.S.D.A. Forest Service for help in propagating willows and cottonwoods to plant in these areas at the first Intertribal Nursery Council meeting in 2001.

General Session V: Question and Answer Session©


PP: 523

Mike Bone: I've worked with the tray-on-tray arrangement you mentioned and had problems with irrigations washing out the soil. I found you can take 50% shade cloth to place between the trays and the roots will grow through that into the bottom tray. This will also reduce soil compaction of the bottom tray by the top tray. Tom Landis: Thank you, that's good information. I'm anxious to see what we get with the oak and any of those species that are bunching or cloning species; you'd think it would work very well.
Evaluation of Seedling Quality and Planting Tools for Successful Establishment of Tropical Hardwoods©

Author: J.G. Mexal, P. Negreros-Castillo, R.A. Cuevas Rangel, R. Moreno

PP: 524

Tropical forests are endangered from overexploitation of valuable timber species, especially Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) and Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany). These species naturally regenerate poorly, and artificial regeneration often results in poor survival. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of planting tools and stocktypes on survival and early growth of these valuable hardwoods in enrichment plantings in Quintana Roo, México. Planting tools had no effect on seedling performance, although the local tool or "talacho" was preferred to the KB planting bar and flat, tree-dibble bar for making the planting hole. Seedling quality as measured by initial seedling diameter had a strong impact on both survival and growth at 28 months for both species. Stock type recommendations for enrichment plantings of mahogany and Spanish cedar are discussed and compared to recommendations for open field plantings.
General Session VI: Question and Answer Session©


PP: 531

Dale Pollard: I was under the impression that once you slashed and burned a jungle forest area it really didn't rejuvenate itself very effectively, but you mentioned that it does. I was wondering whether you could elaborate on that?
Horticultural Education as a Life-Changing Experience©

Author: Bronwen M. Rowse

PP: 93

Photosynthesis is the link for all life, it is in fact the true meaning of life and much bigger than 42 (Adams, 1979). The simple conversion of the energy of the sun into plant food by green plants is the basis of life, as we understand it.

This understanding is shared by all humanity and has been for all time; every culture is linked to this simply for survival. Every living creature is bound by this special ability of plants. Our cultures all recognise this, remember harvest festivals? All societies hold this knowledge as common and it is a part of each human — it links us all.

The modern lifestyle, with urbanisation, overcrowding, and daily living stress, has meant for many people that these natural links are lost or obliterated. We all know we can unwind and feel better if we walk in a park or find a connection to green plants. Touch horticulture and you instantly connect with this link, to every other life form, and to your true self. Thus discovering a true connectedness or



PP: 535

MONDAY MORNING, 24 October, 2005

The 30th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society — Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Hilton/University of Florida Conference Center Gainesville, Florida, with President Bill Turk presiding.

New Plants for the South©

Author: Ted Stephens

PP: 536


As a smaller nursery in the playing field of many giants, we have found our niche in the marketplace by offering new or newer selections that are not readily available from larger nurseries. It is quite a challenge to find new cultivars, which will tolerate both the heat and humidity of the U.S.A. Deep South. Probably more of a challenge than finding a plant that will tolerate the ambient air temperature is finding one that will tolerate our warm, damp, late-summer soil temperatures. More often than not, if a selection fails, it is due to root problems, usually a fungus, rather than any problem above the soil line. Often, the geographical origin of a plant will have much to do with its adaptability. It has been our experience that species that are native to Chile will almost inevitably succumb, whereas plants native to New Zealand, with a similar climate, will often perform admirably. Hence, proper trialing is eminently important. Of course, being able to mass propagate a

Growing Quality Trees for Southeastern Landscapes©

Author: Michael Marshall

PP: 542


Florida tree nurseries have experienced significant changes in production demands during the last decade. Factors leading to these changes include publication of the 2nd edition of the Florida Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants, increased demand, and increased buyer sophistication. The publication of the 2nd edition of the Florida Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants has had a tremendous effect on the level of quality that buyers are requesting and expecting. Simultaneously, there has been a large increase in demand due to seemingly endless development. This demand, while helping the industry in some ways, has also led to a large number of nursery expansions, and new large nurseries are entering the market. Increased buyer sophistication has meant that many architects and developers are more aware and much more specific about species, cultivars, and the production method they prefer when specifying trees. All of these changes have forced nurseries to change their

Grafting Deciduous Plants: Before and Aftercare©

Author: Brian L. Upchurch

PP: 546


Discussions about grafting ornamental plants often concern only the techniques or the mechanics of the grafting process. The focus usually involves the type of graft used or perhaps the materials used. The grafting process itself cannot be overlooked or minimized — it is essential in every aspect to the success of the graft. Other equally important factors cannot be ignored. The informed selection of the proper rootstock, the preparation of the rootstock prior to grafting, the collection and care of scion material, and the aftercare of the completed graft are also extremely critical to the success of the grafter. All components of the grafting equation must be addressed to ensure the end result will be successful. In this paper, I wish to place the emphasis on the steps leading up to grafting and the aftercare of the graft. The focus here will also be on winter or dormant bench grafting.

Impact of Nitrogen Concentration on Stock Plant Yield and Cutting Performance of ‘Purple Small Leaf’ and ‘Raspberry Ice’ Bougainvilleas©

Author: Christopher B. Cerveny, James L. Gibson, James E. Barrett

PP: 550

Effects of nitrogen (N) concentration on yield, cutting quality, and rooting performance were investigated to establish a nitrogen-based fertility program for bougainvillea stock plants. Stock plants of ‘Raspberry Ice’ and ‘Purple Small Leaf’ were fertigated with N at concentrations of 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1. Overall ‘Purple Small Leaf’ stock plants produced more and longer cuttings than ‘Raspberry Ice’, however rooting performance was better with ‘Raspberry Ice’. The greatest cutting yields were achieved with N at 200 mg·L-1, and shorter cuttings with smaller leaf areas occurred when stock plants were fertilized with N at 100 mg·L-1. Cutting diameter was not influenced by N concentration. Undesirable leachate nitrate nitrogen values were observed from stock plants fertilized with N at 300 mg·L-1 after cuttings were harvested 14 and 22 weeks after potting. Based on these results, stock plants of ‘Raspberry Ice’ and ‘Purple Small Leaf’ should be fertilized with N at 100 to 200 mg·L-1.
Evaluation of Quinoclamine and Diuron for Postemergence Control of Liverwort©

Author: Adam F. Newby, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R. Wehtje, James E. Alt

PP: 556


Marchantia polymorpha, also known as liverwort, has established itself as a primary weed in nursery production within the Southern United States. It is well adapted to nursery environments and especially propagation environments. Liverwort thrive in low UV light, high fertility, high moisture, and high humidity environments (Svenson, 2002). Therefore liverwort is especially problematic in shaded areas with frequent irrigation.

Liverwort is a physiologically primitive plant with no vascular system. Instead of leaves, it has leaf-like structures known as thalli that grow in prostrate form along the medium surface. Liverwort propagates both sexually and asexually. During the sporophytic life cycle, it propagates sexually when archegonia fertilize antheridia to form a sporophyte. The archegonia and antheridia are each borne on stalks that rise above the thalli. Microscopic spores are released and give rise to the gametophytic life cycle in which the plant propagates asexually

Pinebark Mini-Nuggets Provide Effective Weed Control in Nursery Crops Grown in Large Containers©

Author: Ben M. Richardson1, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R. Wehtje, Glenn B

PP: 561

While the market for large plants increases steadily, weed control in large containers presents new production problems for growers. Preemergence herbicides are inefficient in large containers due to nontarget loss, and hand weeding is expensive. Mulches can provide an alternative. Experiments were conducted to evaluate fresh pine bark nuggets for weed control in 7-gal containers. Gardenia were seeded with oxalis and crapemyrtle with bittercress. Treatments consisted of mulch applied at 0, 3.8, and 7.7 cm (0, 1.5, and 3.0 inches) and seeding was done before or after mulch. A separate group of treatments were included similar to the above except that a granular preemergence herbicide was applied after mulch application. Growth of gardenia and crapemyrtle were similar regardless of mulch depth. Season long weed control was obtained in all treatments when mulch was applied at 7.6 cm (3 inch) depth.
A Propagator's Notebook©

Author: Charlotte LeBlanc

PP: 566


A number of months ago a former employer, James Gilbert of Gilbert's Nursery, suggested that I might consider giving a talk for this year's I.P.P.S. program. I decided he was right. Year after year I have come with notebook in hand to eagerly seek the knowledge and wisdom so generously offered by others. It's time I shared. I have been a member of I.P.P.S. for 20 years now and have tried my hand at propagating since 1981 when I first went to work as an intern for Ed Kinsey at Kinsey Gardens in Knoxville. Not long ago, in the process of moving, I came across my original propagation notebook. While rereading those notes I realized how many of my early observations were still valid today. While I certainly value my formal education in horticulture, it became very apparent to me early on as I tried to put my knowledge to work that it was going to take a lot more than "book learning" to be a successful propagator. Propagation is a field that depends heavily on empirical knowledge.

Tropical Heat: New Coleus Introductions From the University of Florida©

Author: Penny Nguyen, David Clark

PP: 571


Solenostemon scutellarioides, commonly known as coleus, is a versatile annual bedding plant that is valued for its brightly colored foliage, rapid growth rate, and superior performance in landscapes in the United States of America. Surveys conducted at University of Florida at our May 2005 field day showed that 47% of the public (home gardeners and industry) choose foliage color as the main reason for buying coleus and 21% choose coleus for highly branched growth habit. A tremendous amount of variability in this crop has allowed for the selection of coleus cultivars with many novel foliage colors, growth habits, and leaf shapes. In the 2nd year of our breeding program, over 10,000 coleus seedlings were grown and evaluated in greenhouses on a 1–5 rating scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent) based on the following characteristics: bright and novel colors, consistency of color patterning, plant vigor, lateral branching, and time to induction of flowering. Seedlings that were

The China Connection — People, Plants, and Plans of a Horticultural Giant©

Author: David L. Creech

PP: 575


China's incredible growth and development in the past decade has been the subject of many television specials and print media articles. The facts and figures are astounding: Seventy-five percent of the world's cranes, 40% of the world's concrete, and 16,000 new joint ventures last year alone. China is about to become the big consumer of world oil and steel and graduates 160,000 new engineers each year. These graduates enter an economy boasting a growth rate in the double-digit range. In the midst of all this change, the central government has embraced the regreening of China's industrial base with unimaginable vigor. The "golden triangle" of eastern China is marked by the huge population that lies in and between Nanjing, Shanghai, and Ningbo — an area considered a major economic engine of Eastern China. This region has endured disturbance for thousands of years, but only in the last two decades has it seen a surge in population, the result of an amazing rural to urban migration

The Role of Clonal Propagation in Forestry and Agriculture in Australia©

Author: Peter Radke

PP: 96


Clonal propagation in the form of grafting, marcotting, cuttings, or tissue culture is not new to forestry or agriculture. In Australia today, orchards of grafted citrus trees, banana plantations based on tissue culture stock, and softwood pine plantations based on cutting production are commonplace. Nowadays who would even think of establishing a commercial citrus orchard from seed? Nevertheless, there are some areas of forestry (e.g., hardwood eucalypts and acacias) and agriculture (e.g., new crops such as essential oils) in Australia in 2005 where clonal propagation is not yet established, and this paper is directed towards these crops.

Clones are identical copies of an individual. Clones have the same set of genes as each other. Seedlings on the other hand, while derived from the same parents, are different to each other and to the parents. Each seedling has its own unique set of genes.

In Australia, hardwood forestry plantations and agricultural crops such as teatree,

Methods and Techniques to Improve Root Initiation of Cuttings©

Author: Mark Crawford

PP: 581


Plants rooted from cuttings need to have ample roots developed along the stems to provide good growth and proper anchorage. With the increase in clonal production of shade trees and large conifers, good root initiation is essential for long-term survival. Numerous nursery-produced trees were severely damaged during the hurricane season of 2004, with the majority falling over from poor root development. Adequate root initiation and development must occur during the propagation phase to assure good stability and long life of nursery-produced trees.

Stability of trees has been of concern to foresters for many years, particularly in areas of high winds and heavy snowfall in western Canada and Scandinavia. Tree toppling became a major problem in the 1980s when seedling production shifted from field to container-grown trees. Poor root regeneration and stability led to the development of copper-treated containers and later to air-pruning propagation trays and pots. Most forest

Optimizing the Water Relations of Cuttings During Propagation©

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr.

PP: 585


It is important to remember that water is the universal solvent. It brings minerals from the roots for biosynthesis within the leaf. About 1%–2% of water utilized is needed for photosynthesis and plant growth, while the remaining 98% of water is lost to transpiration and the subsequent cooling of leaves. Evaporative cooling occurs during transpiration as water passes from a liquid to gaseous phase (vapor). Transpiration is the "engine" that pulls (lifts) water up from the roots. Unlike people, who can move and find a more comfortable location, a plant lacks mobility, so it needs to do its best to reduce the heat load, which it does through transpiration. There is tremendous pressure (tension) that occurs in the top of a 100 m (300 ft) redwood tree (Sequoia) in the movement of water from the roots into the tops of these tall trees. The pressure in the xylem (part of the plumbing system of the plant) can exceed 250 psi, which is some 18 times

Educating the Next Generation of Propagators©

Author: Ozzie Coor

PP: 593

Good morning and welcome to Gainesville!

To Seek and To Share — the motto of IPPS. This motto is the foundation of my presentation today. As we reach the first half of the first decade of the twenty-first century, I offer this challenge: (1) let us do our very best to educate the next generation of plant propagators, and (2) let us inspire these young people to a level above and beyond our own.

To achieve this objective, we must be steadfast and untiring. The future of plant propagation rests in our hands and, ultimately, in the hands of those we teach in the coming days, weeks, months, and years. The road to successful education should be never-ending, and room must be reserved to broaden this road and to keep the flow of information moving forward.

There are two main lanes in this road to the education of the next generation of propagators: one is the formal education, while the other is practical experience acquired from areas other than formal education — such as on-the-job learning

Propagation Decisions in a Fluid Market©

Author: Jim Berry

PP: 595


My friends John and Carol recently bought their first home in a very nice section of Dunwoody, Georgia, close to Atlanta. The home was dated but was large and beautiful. The landscape also was very 1985! The corners were marked by two over-trimmed Nellie R. Steven hollies. The foundation plantings had over-trimmed Cleyera and Ilex cornuta ‘Compacta’. The landscape sorely needed a makeover. I thought that the family who sold the home and the family who purchased the home would not want these three ornamentals in their next landscape.

Close to my home is an upscale golf community, which was started 10 years ago. Landscapes for those homes older than 5 years are basically green and boring, with a limited plant palette of holly, crepe myrtle, and maybe a groundcover juniper. Newer homes contain a vast number of species and lots of color, and the total effect is that of a garden, not a landscape. Theses homeowners use mixed color, tropical vines, tropical foliage, shrub roses,

Propagation of New Introductions©

Author: Mark Griffith

PP: 598


New plants have become the driving force in ornamental horticulture in the 2000s. They provide excitement for the veteran nurseryman to the casual gardener. A new trend, in the slow-to-change nursery business, is to aggressively market our products to the end consumer. The new plants, brand names, colored containers, colored tags, and large timed releases are all part of the equation. The large timed release is where Griffith Propagation Nursery becomes involved. We work with many nurseries and plant patent agents to get the new liner plants to the wholesale growers in sufficient numbers so that they will have a finished product ready for the preplanned release to the public. It is not uncommon that the quantities required are close to 400,000 liners.

The production of the new plants requires large amounts of space and facilities. In 2002 we purchased an abandoned hog farm that had been idle for 10 years. The 13-ha (32-acre) tract included nine parlors approximately

A Water Quality Issue: Opportunity or Opponent?©

Author: Tom Yeager, Ken Kuhl

PP: 601


How often have you heard the phrases "don't blame me I didn't do it" or "it will never happen to me"? This is often our first reaction when someone communicates discomforting information and could have been the response of the nursery industry in Broward County Florida when asked by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to help reduce the concentration of total phosphorus in surface water discharged to the Everglades. The Everglades Forever Act (http://www.sfwmd.gov/org/wrp/wrp_evg/projects/efa.html) stipulated that water in the Everglades Protection Area should be 10 ppb total phosphorus; however, canal waters of the C-11 West Basin flowing into the Everglades Protection Area currently exceed 10 ppb.

A water quality issue similar to this could involve your nursery in the future. The publicity of environmental consequences resulting from container plant production has become more commonplace in urban and rural areas. Consequently, the nursery industry is usually

Bouncing Back: Lessons Learned from Hurricanes©

Author: Tacy Callies

PP: 604


According to weather experts, 1995 marked the start of a new cycle of increased hurricane activity that is predicted to last for 30 years. If the 2004 and 2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons are any indication of this trend, the bad news is that we've got 20 more years to go. The good news, however, is that there are plenty of steps we can take to help protect our businesses.

Propagation of a South African Arid Zone Plant — Lithops©

Author: Jac Duif

PP: 100

I have decided to talk to you about Lithops, which are indigenous to South Africa and found mostly in dry rocky areas. Lithops are of the Mesembryanthemaceae family. The plants consist of a pair of thick fleshy leaves which make them very adaptable to dry and arid conditions. Flower colours of Lithops are mainly shades of yellow and white (Fig. 1).

South Africa has had some famous Lithops collectors, and one of them was Prof. Desmond T. Cole. He has written many papers and also a book titled Lithops, Flowering Stones. Two years ago, Mr. Frik du Plooy took over his whole collection, and he is still growing and maintaining it. Presently there are 37 known species in South Africa with over 200 subspecies and varieties. These were collected from over 700 documented locations.

The main reason for my decision to talk about this subject is that a friend of mine, Hans Blaquiere, started growing Lithops 2 years ago for the overseas market, and it really fascinated me. Hans bought a second-hand

Propagation Strategies to Support a Wide Hybridization Breeding Program Within the Chamelaucium Alliance©

Author: Chris Newell, Digby Growns, Chris McMullan

PP: 102


The activities of the Floriculture Group are focused on the selection and development of the West Australian flora with the object of improving industry capacity. Breeding within the Chamelaucium alliance is our most advanced activity, however we also work on a range of other species within genera such as Grevillea, Geleznowia, Boronia, Banksia, Dampiera, and a range of arid zone daisies.

Our breeding activities with the Chamelaucium alliance have focused on wide hybridization within a group of five related genera including Chamelaucium sp., Verticordia sp., Actinodium sp., Pileanthus sp., and Darwinia sp. The objective of the breeding program is to introduce novel cut flowers and amenity plants to industry. We assess hybrids on the basis of flower color, shape, and stem architecture as well as flowering time, productivity and post harvest performance. Some plants are tested for use in the flowering pot-plant section of the nursery industry and scheduling experiments are

Shoot Dieback of Geraldton Wax©

Author: Naomi Diplock, Victor Galea

PP: 105

Geraldton wax has been observed exhibiting signs of shoot dieback. This disease causes the plant to die back from the tips, often leading to whole plant death. This disease is a problem in all stages of production, but is worst during propagation when the young plants are most susceptible to disease.

Isolation studies proved the fungus Colletotrichum sp. to be the cause of this disease. It was found that Colletotrichum sp. is not influenced by wounding; however a heat stress period and humidity are requirements for infection to occur. Fungicide trials indicated that a preventative treatment is needed for this disease to be managed. Control of this pathogen was found to be effective with the use of Amistar® when applied as a preventative treatment. This article describes a part of the experimental work carried out as an honours project: Shoot Dieback of Geraldton Wax (Diplock, 2004).

Propagation of Bougainvillea©

Author: Brian Smith

PP: 110

Bougainvillea is in the family Nyctaginaceae. The genus is comprised of 14 species of shrubs or small trees native to tropical and sub-tropical South America. Known as an evergreen woody scrambler (not a climber), with thorns enabling the plants to scramble over support. Leaves are alternately arranged on the stem. True flowers are cream and surrounded by three large, very showy bracts, which give the plants their decorative value, and occur in all colours, except blue.

Bougainvillea responds to feeding, watering, and hot weather and thrives on neglect. Bougainvillea can be planted exposed to salt-winds, they also thrive inland in hot, dry conditions, and in cooler areas in selected and sheltered sites.

Bougainvillea can be grown into trees, clipped to form hedges both small and large, grown as topiary, or espaliered. They can be grown as a standard, a ground cover, be multi-planted to create a spectacular flowering flowing massed effect, in hanging baskets to create the "wow" factor, or

Protection of Plant Novelties — An Update©

Author: Jörgen H. Selchau

PP: 48

Good Morning!

First of all, on behalf of the International Board of Directors, I want to congratulate the Southern Africa Potential Region with their success. I was personally honoured to participate in the inaugural conference and tours in November 1997. I was happy to be back again at the Conference in 2000 and have since — both as a member of the Southern African Potential Region and during the International Board Meetings — been admiring the enthusiasm and energy that has been provided by present and former members of the Board of Directors, the officers, and the local members, and I wish you every success in achieving full regional membership of our fabulous Society. We would all appreciate to SEEK and SHARE with you!

I also thank the organizers for once more inviting me back to present this paper here at the Potential Region's 8th Conference. I apologize that it is indeed some "boring legal stuff," but hopefully you will stay awake anyway!

During the early correspondence with the

Grafting Australian Native Plants — 30 Years of Progress©

Author: David Beardsell

PP: 112


In the mid 1970s, the renowned botanist/horticulturalist David L. Jones introduced me to the concept of grafting native trees. Around this time, David successfully grafted the phytophthora sensitive Hakea francisiana onto the hardy eastern Australian rootstock H. salicifolia (Beardsell et al., 1982). Also around this time Ron Barrow and Bill Molyneux of Austraflora Nursery, grafted a selection of red flowering gum, Corymbia ficifolia (syn. Eucalyptus ficifolia) onto C. maculata (syn. E. maculata), C. calophylla (syn. E. calophylla), and C. gummifera (syn. E. gummifera).

A number of other successful grafting programs were completed from the late 1970s onwards. These included grafting several hard-to-grow plants onto more hardy rootstocks, e.g., arid zone Eremophila sp. grafted onto Myoporum sp. and Prostanthera sp. onto Westringia fruticosa by the Australian National Botanic Gardens (Dawson, 1996), and Stirling Range Darwinia sp. onto D. citriodora by Doug McKenzie in

Grafting Tissue Cultures Directly onto Nursery Grown Stock©

Author: Jonathan Lidbetter, Pauline Cain

PP: 114


Tissue culture is a useful tool to rapidly multiply material, rescue embryos from novel hybrids, generate haploid plants, or genetically engineer crops. In association with heat treatment and in vitro grafting it can be used to eliminate viruses and viroids from infected material. It provides a year-round supply of vegetative material that can be quickly multiplied to provide large numbers of propagules. In some cases it can be used to restore juvenility, often in turn increasing the propagation success of cuttings taken from tissue-culture-propagated motherstock.

One of its limitations is the relative difficulty in deflasking plantlets of many species. This can be due to poor rooting of plantlets or slow root growth of taxa in association with the very soft nature of tissue cultured plants.

Grafting tissue cultures in vitro or directly onto nursery grown stock are two methods to potentially overcome these problems. Providing a vigorous or well-developed rootstock allows

"Long John" Grafts©

Author: Allen Gilbert

PP: 117


Usually when short scions (graft pieces) are grafted to any fruit tree or rootstock the scions used have only leaf buds evident. When the graft "takes" it will only produce leafy shoots, which form branches. It can then take from 3 to 5 years or more before that branch will be large enough or mature enough to produce significant amounts of fruit. This is especially so if spur pruning is the method of pruning used.

I have found that by using a different technique, selected scions with flower buds already formed on them can be encouraged to produce lots of fruit in the same season that they are grafted to the tree. The new approach I will describe developed from the success I achieved by using short scion pieces with flower buds attached, and grafting them onto apple trees. These produced some fruit on those graft pieces in the same season that the grafts were done, but I found that the longer pieces resulted in a heavier crop in the first season.

Breeding with Indigenous Citrus Species©

Author: S.R. Sykes

PP: 120


Genetic variability is the foundation for breeding new cultivars. Wild relatives and undomesticated types of exploited crop plants are often extremely important sources of genetic variability and Zagaja (1983) lists examples where these have been of unquestionable value in fruit improvement.

Although the history of planned genetic improvement of cultivated citrus is short, wild types and relatives have been valuable in breeding new cultivars, particularly rootstocks. Carrizo and Troyer citranges are important rootstocks selected from a cross between Citrus sinensis ‘Washington’ × Poncirus trifoliata. Similarly, Swingle citrumelo, another rootstock, was selected from hybrids of Citrus ×paradisi (grapefruit) × P. trifoliata.

Australian Citrus species still exist in their natural habitat. This paper describes plant-breeding activities in which Citrus species indigenous to Australia have been used to develop unique, new cultivars.

Auscitrus — The Australian Citrus Budwood Scheme©

Author: Tim Herrmann

PP: 124


Auscitrus is the trading name of the Australian Citrus Propagation Association Incorporated (ACPA). The ACPA is comprised of ten citrus and nursery industry organisations. Representatives from each of these organisations are nominated as representatives on the Auscitrus board. Auscitrus is an industry owned and operated, not-for-profit organisation. The seed and budwood scheme is entirely self-funding through seed and budwood sales. Cultivar importation, cultivar evaluation, and the maintenance of foundation trees, are funded by industry grants through Horticulture Australia Limited.

Currently Auscitrus employ a full time manager, part time administration officer, full time scientific officer (indexing), full time casual indexing assistant, full time bud cutter, full time casual bud cutter/nursery hand, plus one or two seasonal casual staff for bud cutting and fruit harvest. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) research scientists

Some Problems in Water Recycling©

Author: Stan Leach

PP: 128

Strict water regulation by the Council of Australia Governments is imminent. Tight controls in water use will make us all more frugal with Australia's limited water resources — having to make do with a lot less. We will be forced to conserve water and use it without degrading the environment. The government plans to return rivers to their original flows.

At Alstonville we are blessed with an average annual rainfall of 1600 mm, mainly falling in the first half of the year. The creek flowing through the property is unreliable and the underground water supply also proved unreliable. Water recycling was the answer. It seemed to be very expensive at the time but should give us dividends in the future. Our system has minimal effect on the environment and gives us a secure water supply.

Ten years of water recycling has revealed a range of challenging problems. We chose a 12.5-ha site for our nursery. The production area is located on a gentle slope all running down to a catchment dam. We

Water Saving, More Than Just Recycling©

Author: Garry Heyne

PP: 131


Heyne's Nurseries Pty Ltd is the oldest registered nursery in Australia. It was first established in Norwood, an Eastern Suburb of Adelaide, South Australia (SA), in 1869 and has played a prominent role in the development of the SA's nursery industry. High quality stock and good customer service have been our company's main aims since its beginning. The challenge of the 1990s was to produce this high quality stock economically, with minimal impact on the environment. In doing so the company aimed to increase water usage efficiency and to investigate the feasibility of recycling its runoff water. In 1995 our company received an $11,800 grant from the Cleaner Industries Demonstration Scheme to supplement its research.

This paper will provide information on the system of recycling water from the wetlands that Heyne's Wholesale Nursery has set up in conjunction with Salisbury Council. But more importantly, it will supply information on some of the in-house procedures taken to

Evaluating an Irrigation System Upgrade©

Author: John Messina

PP: 136


As part of a major irrigation system upgrade, Sunraysia Nurseries conducted a test of system efficiency under the Nursery and Garden Industry of Australia (NGIA) "Waterworks" program.

The program consisted of training in assessing existing system output and efficiency, and recommendations for improvements. There were two major areas that were examined:

  • An existing shadehouse with overhead "B500" sprinklers on a 4.0 m × 4.5 m spacing.
  • An existing group of polyhouses with overhead "Eindor" sprinklers on a 2.0 m × 3.2 m spacing.
Water Disinfecting Techniques for Plant Pathogen Control©

Author: William Yiasoumi

PP: 138

Water for irrigation is becoming harder to get and more expensive. In addition, the environmental performance of industries, including nursery production, is under public scrutiny. Water recycling addresses these issues but introduces challenges to embrace technologies and procedures to ensure plant-safe water reuse. The provision of disease-free water is part of this challenge.
Growing Plants in Hot Climates©

Author: Robert Chin

PP: 142


Hotter weather is one of the greatest challenges in a production or propagation nursery in Australia. Our earliest growers from Europe struggled with growing plants in Australian conditions because they were used to the cooler temperatures and lower light levels. It is very hard to grow or propagate plants well when it is so hot. This puts growers in hotter climates at a disadvantage that they need to overcome in order to compete with growers in cooler climates.

So, how do you grow and propagate plants well? What does summer mean to you in your nursery? And, what should you be doing to minimise climatic impact? It is very difficult to grow plants from climates that are so different to ours.

Water Recycling: How We Do It©

Author: Eebbie Deckys

PP: 53

Our family owns and operates a foliage nursery in subtropics on the east coast of Australia. We have been on a 10-year journey building a new nursery and learning how to recycle water. Our local agriculture department has given us a lot of support in water efficiency, but to a large extent, we were pioneers in setting up a water recycling system 10 years ago. During this presentation I'll take you through the steps we went through along the way. Quite a few things had to be added to solve problems that were unforeseen at the beginning.

The site we chose to set up our nursery is 12 ha. The production area is located on a gentle slope all running down to the catchment dam. We are blessed with an average annual rainfall of 1600 mm mainly falling in the first half of the year. The creek flowing through the property is unreliable, and the underground water supply also proved unreliable. Water recycling was the answer. It seemed to be very expensive at the time, but all water users in

A Weed or a Rose? The New Zealand Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act©

Author: Libby Harrison, Geoff Ridley

PP: 128


Williams et al. (2001) estimates that there are approximately 160 alien species that require some form of control in New Zealand, 1,900 adventive species whose weed risk status needs assessing, and a further 18,000 species in cultivation, of which at least 4,000 are listed as weeds in other countries. In 2002 Timmins and Popay estimated that 240 species of invasive weeds were threatening indigenous biodiversity and that 75% of New Zealand's environmental weeds were originally introduced as garden plants. They also estimated that there is a pool of 20,000 to 25,000 introduced plants in cultivation of which 2,100 have become naturalized, and Essler (1988) calculated that four new species are naturalised every year in the Auckland urban area. It is further estimated that:

  • 1%–2% of all introductions will become significant environmental or agricultural weeds (Williams et al., 2000);
  • Weeds have invaded nearly all types of indigenous plant communities (Williams, 1997);
Regulatory Barriers to Introducing New Plants Need to Be Minimized to Grow the New Zealand Economy©

Author: Jim Douglas

PP: 155


Exotic plants and animals have made New Zealand a wealthy country. In 2003–04, 64% of New Zealand's exports came from primary land-based industries (Table 1). These industries are almost totally built on exotic plant species. Pastoral agriculture is dominantly based on ryegrass and white clover from Europe, forestry on the Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from Western U.S.A., and horticulture dominated by kiwifruit (Actinidia) from China and apples from central Asia. Horticultural exports are made up of a much more diverse mixture of species than agriculture or forestry and over 20 fruit, 15 vegetable, and 10 ornamental species are separately itemized in the export statistics (HortResearch, 2004). All the species listed in the horticultural export statistics are exotic plants from around the world except for two native species, sphagnum moss (Sphagnum cristatum) and Pittosporum (HortResearch, 2004). Together these two

Unforeseen Consequences©

Author: Keith Hammett

PP: 160


Every person on earth has an individual view of the world. This is influenced by the culture in which we are raised, by our education, and by individual experiences as we pass through life. Misunderstandings often arise when discussing a topic if we do not checkout the other person's perceptions, or we do not clearly explain our own. I trained as a plant pathologist and converted myself into a plant breeder of both fruiting and ornamental plants. As a consequence, I have a heightened awareness of the need to balance potential benefits from importing plants against the risks. I also believe in collective custodianship, rather than the notion that naturally occurring plants or animals can be "owned" by anyone. By this, I mean that we live in a global village and have a shared responsibility to preserve biodiversity worldwide. We do not just have responsibility for the plants and animals that happened to have evolved within New Zealand.

How to Create a Strong Brand©

Author: Charlotte Henley

PP: 163


A lot of thought should go into choosing a brand name, because some marks are stronger and therefore easier to protect and enforce than others. From a marketing perspective it is tempting to select a mark that is directly descriptive in some sense of the goods or services it is to be used in relation to (for example "Hastings Native Plant Nursery" for a native plant nursery in Hastings). From a trademark perspective however, it is difficult to obtain legal protection for a descriptive mark, as it is considered that any trader should fairly be able to use a mark that is descriptive of the goods or services in relation to which it is to be used. The exception to this is that it may be possible to obtain trademark protection for a descriptive mark where there has been substantial and prolonged use of the mark.

In comparison, a mark that is fanciful, completely made up or unrelated to the particular goods or services it is to be used in relation to, is

The Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Potassium Nitrate, and Cold Stratification on the Germination of Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Seed©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas, R.A. Littler

PP: 165

A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the effects of various factors on germinating goldenseal seed. Seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (0.5 g·L-1, GA3) or potassium nitrate (2 g·L-1, KNO3) for 2, 6, 12, or 24 h, followed by periods of cold stratification at 4 °C (0, 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks). GA3 treatment accelerated the germination process with 61% of the seed germinating to the seed splitting stage in 47 days compared to 4% in the non-GA3 treatments. Neither soak time nor osmotic conditioning with KNO3 had any effect on germination. Cold temperature stratification at 4 °C had a negative effect on germination. Increasing the stratification time from 0 to 12 weeks induced secondary seed dormancy and reduced overall germination after 6 months incubation at 1 °C by 23% compared to fresh, untreated seed, which gave 80%–90% germination after 3 months. Germinating seed from all treatments was observed to be highly susceptible to disease under laboratory conditions suggesting this may also be a factor in the poor establishment of goldenseal crops in the field. The lack of seedling development following seed splitting suggests that the conditions, which favour the early germination process are different from those that promote seedling growth.

Keywords: Goldenseal, germination, gibberellic acid, stratification, Ranunculaceae, osmotic conditioning.

Using Tissue Culture to Help Develop New Crops©

Author: P.J. Fletcher, J.D. Fletcher, J.M. Follett

PP: 171


Crops, new to New Zealand, are imported for a number of reasons. They might be considered to have market potential or the ability to grow in areas where other crops struggle. Importation might also expand the range of germplasm available for plant selection. Any crop imported into New Zealand is scrutinised and regulated by Biosecurity New Zealand since its health status may be unknown. It is held in a closed quarantine facility where it undergoes rigorous pathogen testing. Frequently, the plant material is found to be infected with one or many viruses that must be eliminated before the crop can be released and research and development studies commence. This paper describes an effective and efficient in vitro system that eliminates viruses in vegetatively propagated species. The system involves heat and chemical therapies. Five successfully treated species are described. Three of these are Andean root crops that are of culinary interest: oca (Oxalis tuberosa), ulluco

Showcasing New Zealand Native Plants at Chelsea Flower Show©

Author: Trish Waugh

PP: 174


Ten years ago our company did a planning session with our business coach to determine our mission statement and vision for our business. Our vision was "to create New Zealand-style gardens and take them to the world," a heady task at the time. However, when the Ellerslie Flower Show initially approached us in 2001 to do just that we didn't hesitate to rise to the challenge. Our original team comprised Kim Jarrett, Tina Hart, Doug, and myself. Kim Jarrett is an art director in the film industry and landscape designer, my husband Doug a landscape manager, Tina Hart a scenic artist and realiser, and myself a landscape designer. We were missing something, however, and it was not until Doug and I heard Lyonel Grant speak at a Landscape Industries Association conference in Rotorua we knew what it was. Lyonel, a Maori master carver and multimedia sculptor who spoke with such passion, eloquence, and mana we knew instantly he was the next person to have on the team. The missing link

Making the Most Out of What You Grow — A Client's Perspective©

Author: Roger Milne

PP: 181


Milne's Plant Link is a plant supply company that puts together list of plants for the landscape industry and for the major plant users. We are very focused on what we do and do not get involved in design, planting, or growing. We just supply plants. There are four staff pricing and selling, an excellent backup person in administration and the support staff for inwards goods and dispatch. We have a depot in East Tamaki, Auckland, where much of the product is delivered to and dispatched from. Clients come to us for several reasons, a major one being quality. Our clients' expectations are high, so please ensure that any plants you despatch to us are of the best quality available. We are in an age when information technology is the prime importance, so communication by email is increasingly significant. We welcome emailed trade lists and replies to inquiries.

Replanting for the Future: Environmental Restoration and a Look at What Is Happening in Tauranga City©

Author: Mark Dean

PP: 182


Tauranga City Council has been committed to a programme of restoring native vegetation and developing wetlands for a number of years. This has been done in association with its storm water programme, where ponds have been built to control flooding. As Tauranga has a number of valley systems cutting through the city into the harbour, this has become a major on-going programme.

Naturally Native New Zealand Plants Ltd first grew plants specifically for revegetation in 1983. These first plants were planted into Johnson Reserve, Welcome Bay, a suburb of Tauranga City. Since the early 1990s Tauranga City has purchased and planted revegetation-grade plants each year.

In 2001 Naturally Native developed a set of plant standards. This was done to set a production standard for the nursery staff to help improve quality. However it was soon realised that the Naturally Native Plant Standard was a sound marketing tool when Councils started adopting it to use in their plant purchase

Superior Callas: More Than Just Great Flowers©

Author: John F. Seelye, Garry K. Burge, Andrew C. Mullan, Margaret E. Yo

PP: 190


In recent years callas have gained significant prominence as a fashionable international cut flower crop. Often referred to as "calla lilies," they belong to the genus Zantedeschia in the arum family (Araceae). Zantedeschia taxa are endemic to Africa, particularly the southern regions. The "flower" comprises the often-colourful spathe with a central spadix, the inflorescence, which is made up of numerous male and female flowers. Zantedeschia taxa are often classified into winter- and summer-flowering groups with Z. aethiopica and Z. odorata making up the former. In contrast to all other species, Z. aethiopica is evergreen and largely unaffected by soft rots. The summer group has a wide flower colour range including cream (e.g. Z. albomaculata), yellow (e.g., Z. elliottiana), and pink and red flowers (e.g., Z. rehmannii). Hybridization within this group has provided the many distinctive colours seen in modern callas.

Grafting of Waxflowers for Root Rot Management©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 56


The genus Chamelaucium is a genus of medium- to tall-growing shrubs endemic to the southern and central regions of Western Australia. Chamelaucium has been widely cultivated as an export cut flower crop in various regions of Australia. The locality around the Gatton Campus of the University of Queensland has a number of native flower farms growing waxflowers, and the crops produced here are amongst the earliest to flower in Australia. This gives our local growers a competitive edge over growers in other parts of Australia.

The heavy soils of the Gatton district and the high humidity and summer rainfall create a difficult management problem for soil-borne diseases such as Phytophthora cinnamomi and other related fungal organisms. Regular drenches of anti-fungal compounds are part of the management program for waxflower growers. However, despite this management practice, many growers experience heavy losses of newly planted selections of waxflower.

At the University, we

You Have a New Variety?©

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: 194


There are two themes to this paper. The first (Part A) comments on interaction between variety protection and parts of commercialisation, and the second (Part B) on two proposed new amendments to Plant Variety Rights legislation.

Pests Can Be Unintentionally Spread in New Zealand Through Commercial Transport of Nursery Plants©

Author: Mark McNeill, John Proffitt, Craig Phillips, Nigel Bell

PP: 198

This study assessed the potential for pests to be transported within New Zealand in association with deliveries of plants between commercial nurseries. Soil and litter were sampled from three deliveries of nursery plants to Christchurch, and searched for associated organisms. A diversity of nematodes, seeds, and arthropods was recovered, including trichodorid and Xiphinema nematodes, which can vector some plant viruses and currently have limited distributions in New Zealand. This small survey showed that transport of nursery plants must be an important pathway for the dispersal of a wide range of organisms within New Zealand, including across Cook Strait. The nursery plant industry could stand to directly suffer from the activity of some pest species and perhaps one of the challenges is to come up with a strategy to reduce movements of pests in association with transportation of nursery plants
Time to Rethink Some Aspects of Agriculture©

Author: Duncan Burns

PP: 203


As a long serving accredited GROWSAFE® (New Zealand Agrichemical Education Trust, PO Box 10323, Wellington) trainer I have become aware of how useful it is to remind agrichemical users to check out their basic operation methods occasionally. This presentation offers a few suggestions to help improve user safety. "Read the Label" is also fundamental advice, but this is becoming more relevant at present in New Zealand due to current legislation changes. It is interesting to note that these changes are part of a United Nations initiative to harmonise classification and labelling of chemicals globally. GROWSAFE® is the name synonymous with agrichemical training and education in New Zealand.

Sprinkler Uniformity in Greenhouses and Nurseries©

Author: Peter Savory

PP: 206


Greenhouses and nurseries aim to achieve crops that are of a consistent grade and that can be marketed evenly as one line, all at the same time. To achieve this, every plant should receive the same amount of water and at the same application rates. Many growers have long overlooked uniformity of watering systems in the greenhouse and nursery industries and many systems have grown haphazardly as properties have expanded. There are now readily available the sprinklers and the tools to easily design and supply a sprinkler irrigation system that will give the grower uniform watering from sprinkler irrigation systems.

The New Start of IPPS-Japan Region©

Author: Kaneto Aoyama

PP: 211

My name is Kaneto Aoyama, current president of IPPS-Japan.

For several years now it has been a very hard time for the gardening and horticultural producers in Japan. The membership of I.P.P.S. is working on a horticultural market with the I.P.P.S. motto that is "SEEK AND SHARE." Currently in Japan the gardening and horticultural markets are beginning to change their business style. Therefore, IPPS-Japan needs to change its management style. The membership of IPPS-Japan is also anxious for IPPS-Japan to change.

In June 2005, we had our 12th Annual Conference in Mie. I would like to express my appreciation to the executive committee members for preparing the conference and all I.P.P.S. members who attended this conference. At this conference we not only had the presentation of research papers but we also had the opportunity to exchange ideas between IPPS-Japan members. If the members are to attend our conferences they will expect to get something from the meeting. To achieve this wish, we

Production of Disease-Resistant Tissue Culture Seedlings Using Endophytic Actinomycetes©

Author: Hitoshi Kunoh, Tomio Nishimura, Sachiko Hasegawa, Akane Meguro,

PP: 212

In the mid 1990s several researchers found that a number of actinomycetes inhabit a wide range of plants as either symbionts or parasites. Since then, endophytic actinomycetes have been attractive sources of novel antibiotics and growth regulators of other organisms. Actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces species, isolated from the rhizosphere have proven to be excellent biocontrol agents of soilborne plant pathogens. Such an effective activity is largely dependent on secondary metabolites produced by these organisms.

These earlier reports led us to assume that if a useful endophytic actinomycete isolated from a field-grown plant can successfully colonize tissue-cultured seedlings of the plant, the seedlings could become resistant to various plant pathogens. Because tissue culture flasks are usually axenic, such a novel technique should allow this actinomycete to colonize easily its host plant without competition and/or antagonism by any other microbes.

Twenty-five strains of endophyt

Disease Resistance and Drought Tolerance of Kalmia latifolia Induced by Endophytic Actinomycetes©

Author: Tomio Nishimura, Sachiko Hasegawa, Akane Meguro, Hitoshi Kunoh,

PP: 213

An isolate of endophytic actinomycetes, designated AOK-30, was selected as a candidate for further studies from 73 isolates obtained from field-growing mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) based on growth test on the multiplication tissue culture medium and antimicrobial activity. This isolate was identified as Streptomyces padanus based on morphological, physiological, cultural characters, and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA. It was tolerant to almost all of routinely used agrochemicals.

Application of mycelial suspension of AOK-30 to the medium surface in flasks where tissue-cultured seedlings were growing successfully induced their resistance to Pestalotia disease. Direct soil mixing of the suspension or powdered bean curd with the AOK-30 culture successfully protected transplanted seedlings from Pestalotiopsis and Rhizoctonia diseases.

Tissue-cultured seedlings turned reddish within 7–10 days after treatment with AOK-30. Osmotic pressure of protoplasts prepared from these

Current State of the Fruit-Tree Liner Nursery Industry in Japan. Report No. 1©

Author: Naoki Omori

PP: 214

Most fruit producers in Japan purchase their plants from propagation nurseries, and this makes common sense. This is especially so with newer clones in which cultivar propagation rights are protected as has occurred in many other flowering plants. I would like to discuss fruit-tree propagation in Japan, which is the beginning process of the fruit production industry.
Genetic Resources of Indigenous Citrus Species at Kinki University©

Author: Nobumasa Nito

PP: 215

From ancient times Citrus species have been used as fresh fruits, medicines, and ornamentals in Japan. Tachibana and cherry trees have been planted in the old Imperial Palace as the holy trees. Citrus is one of the most important fruit trees in the world and is cultivated in temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas.

Although the origin and time of introduction is unclear, we have many old species such as tachibana (C. tachibana), shekwasha (C. depressa), daidai (C. aurantium), yuzu (C. junos), and kabosu, koji to name some. Kishu-mikan (C. kinokuni) is one of the earliest species introduced into Japan, where it was the most popular species because of its pleasant flavor and rich fragrance during Edo era. But, Kishu-mikan was replaced by Satsuma mandarin during those 200 years. Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu) originated in Kagoshima prefecture, southern part of Kyushu Island, and has been the leading type in modern Japanese citrus industry. It produces high quality fruits without seeds i

MIYOBI: A New Fertilizer Containing Abscisic Acid©

Author: Yasuo Kamuro

PP: 216


MIYOBI is the commercial name of new fertilizer that contains the natural type of abscisic acid [SABA (S)-(+)-ABA 5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen- 1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid], and that was registered in Japan in Dec. 2003 (Table 1).

Phormiums: Production in 2005©

Author: Robert Bett

PP: 59


Multiplication rates are one of the key factors affecting volume production of Phormium cultivars around the world. Tissue culture techniques can now be harnessed to give volume production with certain cultivars in the lab. Significant improvements have been made in this field over the last 4 years in New Zealand. With the plants established and running well in tissue culture, the first obstacle to the commercial growers is acclimatising the material from the lab into the nursery environment. This paper focuses on our experience at Lyndale Nurseries with Phormium production in 2005.

Rapid In Vitro Production of Plants From Immature Seeds in Lilium japonicum©

Author: Hidehiro Inagaki, Hisao Otsuka, Yoshinori Terada

PP: 219


To control the period from sowing to flowering is important in the cultivation of seed-propagated ornamental plants. However, commercial cultivations of some plants are difficult because of their long periods from sowing to flowering. Lilium japonicum Thunb. is a wild lily native to Japan and of great potential as an ornamental plant. Although seed propagation is generally used for its mass propagation, it takes a very long time from sowing to flowering (about 6 to 7 years). Therefore, its commercial cultivation has not been established.

In this report, we investigated characteristics of seed germination and developed a new method with immature seed culture to promote seed germination and to rapidly produce plants, which allows shortening the period to flowering.

The Effect of Slits of Circle Slit Cancel Pot (CS POT)©

Author: Mikio Minamide

PP: 222

Simply speaking, the characteristics of circle slit cancel pot (called CS POT or "Tondemonai Pot") is that the slits at the bottom of the container stimulate the growth of many new healthy roots, for the slits allow the excess water from watering to drain out of the container soundly and the main root to receive sufficient air to grow well. I think my containers (Table 1) are superior to others on the point of fostering root growth.

The excessive moisture in the container causes circling of the roots, which is considered to be one of the biggest concerns when we produce containerized plants. On the inside of containers water moves along the following courses mentioned below

Hokkaido Travels for Post Tour in 2004 IPPS's International Meeting©

Author: Masaru Shibata

PP: 229

International Board Meeting is held at different regions every year by a rotation system in the eight regions. Last year, in 2004, the International Board Meeting was held in conjunction with the IPPS-Japan's Shizuoka Annual Conference. At this conference, as usual, a post-conference tour was planned. To explore the beautiful autumnal tints and great nature of Japan, I selected Hokkaido because early fall has become a popular destination at this time of year in the north island of Japan. The list of participants on the tour and my impressions are as follows.
A Plant-Growing Apparatus for Producing CO2-Dissolved Water©

Author: Akihisa Minato, Takayuki Asada

PP: 231


In this paper, we are introducing a plant-growing apparatus for producing the highly concentrated gas-dissolved water suitable for plant growth (Fig. 1). The plant-growing apparatus is characterized by: (1) a step of supplying CO2 or O2 in a pressurized state from one side separated with a permeable membrane (a hollow fiber membrane) that is permeable only to a gas and impermeable to a liquid, while causing water to flow to the other side of the permeable membrane; (2) a step of dissolving the CO2 or O2 in the water so as to reach a predetermined concentration in water; and (3) a step of intermittently supplying (atomizing and/or irrigating) CO2- or O2-dissolved water to plants, thereby promoting plant growth.

On the Utilization and Propagation of the Variations Induced by Grafting and Synthetic Artificial Chimera©

Author: Yutaka Hirata, Yuzo Ohta, Gen Hattori, Koji Okayasu, Yoshi Ohash

PP: 233

We have obtained genetic changes by using grafting and the synthesis of chimeral plants instead of obtaining transformation by other biotechnological methods (Hirata, 2004). Those results showed the potential available for the induction of genetic changes. In the present study, the phenomena for using graft transformation and chimera synthesis are summarized in pepper, brassica, citrus, and other crops.
The Role of Training and Education within the U.K. Nursery Stock Industry©

Author: Leigh Morris

PP: 237


This paper is based on my career experiences within both education and nursery production. It raises issues about the different types of training and education available to the nursery stock industry and highlights why these are fundamental within the I.P.P.S. culture of "Seek and Share."

Surprisingly, not all within the nursery trade think education is important. It is, however, fundamental in order that nurseries remain up to date and competitive within the ever-changing environment of the modern nursery stock industry. If education is carried out appropriately it can increase both quality and efficiency, motivate and develop staff, and keep businesses up to date with new ideas and technologies.

Preparing for a New Propagation Unit©

Author: Peter van Delft

PP: 243


West End Nurseries is a wholesale specialist liner nursery producing a wide range of shrubs and climbers. In 2004, production was 2 million liners, 80% of which was from cuttings and seed, 15% micropropagated plants, and 5% bought in cuttings or seedlings.

In Year 2000 we had an opportunity to change our business by investing in a new propagation facility. We knew we could not continue trading in the way we had done for previous years. The old propagation unit was highly inefficient, and the site did not lend itself to horticultural redevelopment. We purchased a neighbour's unused tomato nursery that had been redundant for more than 5 years. It included a 1970s 1,920 m2 Venlo glasshouse with potential to build an additional 2,350 m2 glasshouse. The purchase of the nursery was in order that West End Nurseries could become as self-sufficient in propagation as possible. It was becoming more difficult to buy in the plants that our customers wanted, and the cost of bought-in

Advantages of In-House Propagation at Bransford Webbs Plant Company©

Author: Karl O'Neill

PP: 247

In 2002–03, Bransford Garden Plants (now Bransford Webbs) needed to make a decision about whether to propagate in-house or buy in plugs and liners, because the old propagation unit had fallen into disrepair. The decision to propagate in-house was made for the following reasons: control of production, introduction of new lines, and to retain skills. The new unit was opened in January 2005 and consists of a 500-m2 hi-tech mist unit and a 4500-m2 liner unit, incorporating Efford sand-bed subirrigation.
Developments in the Supply Chain of Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stock for the Retail Market: A Finished Plant Grower's Perspective©

Author: Alastair Hazell

PP: 250


Darby Nursery Stock is a large wholesale nursery producing container-grown hardy nursery stock entirely for the retail market. Production started 36 years ago, and the nursery has increased in size as the U.K. garden centre market has expanded. The nursery grows a wide range of plants although specializing in Lavandula, container-grown trees, climbers, and soft fruit.

Recent changes in market requirements have led to the introduction of several promotion crops, mainly herbaceous perennials such as Salvia ×sylvestris ‘Rhapsody in Blue’, Sidalcea ‘Little Princess’, Verbascum ‘Pink Kisses’, and Veronica ‘Ulster Blue Dwarf’. The introduction of these promotion crops has in part created a change in the nursery's propagation, production, and plant buying systems.

Until recently the nursery propagated approximately 90% of its own material. The propagation department uses mist to root semi-ripe cuttings, most of which are propagated in 3.5-cm cell trays. This department has rooted

The Role of Propagation in a Small Specialist Nursery©

Author: Irene Bowron

PP: 253

When MacGregors Plants for Shade was set up as a small specialist nursery business, in-house propagation was the preferred method of production. External and internal factors led to a change in this policy and a greater reliance on purchased young stock. A recent review of the business resulted in a return to more in-house propagation.
Growing Australian and South African Native Plants in Soilless Media©

Author: Kevin Handreck

PP: 64

Much of the Australian and South African flora have evolved on soils of low fertility. Those of heathland soils have had to evolve mechanisms for growing in soils with extremely low levels of total and "plant-available" phosphorus. Application of phosphatic fertiliser to these heathland soils eventually leads to the death of these species and the invasion of weeds. From the late 1970s, it has been known that heathland species being grown in soilless potting media must be provided with only very low amounts of phosphorus. This knowledge has often been extended without question to include our entire diverse flora. However, many of our flora are not particularly sensitive to phosphorus. For good growth, they require as much phosphorus as most northern hemisphere plants. This paper explores the different requirements for phosphorus of different groups of species within our flora. It offers practical guidelines for the successful propagation and growing of these diverse groups of species in soilless media.
The Development of Sustainable Growing Media Components from Composted Specific Bio-Waste Streams©

Author: N. Bragg, T.F. Brocklehurst, A.C. Smith, M. Bhat, K.W. Waldron

PP: 256

This paper describes a feasibility study into the preservation of plant structural remains, which can then be used as components of growing media for containerised plant production. The drivers for the work are both the need to use bio-waste streams rather than disposing of them to landfill and the need to find long-term sustainable components for growing media that have properties as beneficial as the peats currently used.
Influence of Rooting Media in Cuttings Propagation of Caryopteris ×cladonensis ‘Pershore Jubilee’, Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Tuscan Blue’, Fuchsia magellanica var. molinae ‘Sharpitor&rs

Author: Suzanne O'Neill

PP: 259

The paper describes a nursery trial that aimed to ascertain the best medium for rooting and whether a peat-free medium had any significant influence on rooting. Softwood cuttings of four different plants were stuck in seven different media. The trial was replicated in the main nursery mist unit and Specialist Plant Unit (SPU) mist house. There was very little difference between rooting in each medium for each of these plants. Other factors are therefore more important when choosing a suitable medium, such as supply, cost, shelf life, and ease of handling.
Integrated Pest Management for Ornamental Protected Plants©

Author: Neil Helyer

PP: 262

Integrated pest management (IPM) brings together all aspects of pest and disease control, cultural techniques such as general hygiene, ground cover materials for weed control, monitoring with sticky traps, and tracking plant movement being the first line of defense. Biological control should be the next strategy, introducing beneficial organisms as a preventive measure or at the first sign of a pest outbreak. Environmental preventative management of the growing area may help by inhibiting plant pathogens and by providing more suitable conditions for biological control agents to work more effectively. Pesticide use, preferably with selective products, should be used only when necessary; it is best to use a pesticide when pest numbers can be clearly seen on a plant or when leaf damage is evident. Biological control works best when pest numbers and leaf marking are low as a fully fed predator will take some time to digest its food before it starts eating again. This paper will describe the IPM practices currently used for several insects and mite pests on many nurseries in the U.K.
Experiences in Propagation of Cornus mas and Cornus florida Cultivars©

Author: Norman Standbrook

PP: 268


In my experience, the propagation of these species and their cultivars has always presented problems. However, perseverance and the investigation of a number of different methods have resulted in the following grafting and cuttings techniques that have proved successful.

Cornus mas. There are many good forms of C. mas available. Cappiello and Shadow (2005) list more than 30, most of which are only obtainable from the U.S.A. I have only propagated C. mas ‘Variegata’ and C. mas ‘Aurea Elegantissima’, both of which proved to be quite difficult.

Cornus florida. Cappiello and Shadow (2005) list 135 cultivars of this species; again, not many of them are available outside of the U.S.A., where the crop is reported to be worth $50 million per year. In the U.S.A. budding is recommended as the most efficient propagation method. But this is probably not viable in the Great Britain and Ireland Region because of our more variable and unpredictable climate. Cornus florida has a reputation for being

Experiences in Propagation and Production of Grasses and Grass-Like Plants©

Author: Claire Wilson

PP: 270


C.J. Wilson Horticulture runs a liner nursery with an annual production of 200,000 9-cm liners for the wholesale nursery market. Production is predominantly grasses (more than 150 taxa) but also includes clematis, ferns, and choice perennials.

When I decided to set up a nursery in 1997, I believed grasses were a good crop, which was unexploited at the time. Initially I saw them as part of the product portfolio and also planned to grow groundcover plants such as Vinca and Hedera, spot crops of patio plants, and clematis. However, the landscape market for groundcover plants contracted, the patio plants were hard to market in quantity, and clematis propagation coincided with the busy spring period. In contrast, the six taxa of grass I initially grew proved extremely popular, and I was soon sourcing new taxa from the U.S.A. that were already popular. I learned that whatever your initial plans you need to react quickly to your customers' requirements.

In my view, grasses are an

Propagation of Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’©

Author: Nicholas J. Murphy

PP: 273

Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’ is a deciduous shrub or tree cultivated for foliage and flowers. It is difficult to propagate vegetatively. Grafting and hardwood cutting trials were carried out in a glasshouse at Pershore College using a hotpipe callusing system for the grafts and Malling bins for the hardwood cuttings. Four grafting techniques were used in four separate trials carried out over 3-week intervals. Two temperature treatments were used for the hardwood cutting trials. Apical wedge grafts at the earliest date resulted in the highest success rate. In the hardwood cutting trials no callus was produced and no roots were formed at either temperature, however the cooler treatment did yield more cuttings with vegetative growth than the warmer treatment.
Micropropagation of Mother Stock Plants at Walberton Nursery©

Author: Claire K. Hobbs

PP: 277


Walberton Nursery is one of the founding members of the Farplants Group. The nursery was established in 1975 and is owned by David Tristram. Its main crops are herbaceous perennials including several that have been introduced or bred on the nursery including Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Walcoreop’, Flying Saucers™ blanket flower, Crocosmia ‘Walcroy’, Walberton Yellow™ montoretia, Spiraea japonica ‘Walbuma’, Magic Carpet™ Japanese spiraea, and Erysimum ‘Fragrant Sunshine’.

The nursery has two small micropropagation laboratories on site. The first is used primarily for research and the production of virus-tested mother stock for in-house propagation and for other nurseries throughout the world. The second laboratory is currently used for the commercial production of two of our crops. In addition, there is a small isolation house where we are able to exclude the vast majority of pests and diseases and grow on plants from the laboratory ready for sale or use on the nursery.

Use of Cost Analysis to Improve Nursery Profitability©

Author: Will George

PP: 281


It is now possible to calculate the cost of every line of nursery stock on an individual nursery. The ease and accuracy of these costs will depend on the detail and quality of data collected by the nursery. In such a short paper it is not possible to fully cover all aspects of nursery stock costs. This paper will examine the most important factors that affect profitability and highlight the effects of time, space (crop density), yield, and waste on the profitability of nursery stock. The ways and means of allocating labour costs will also be reviewed.

Current Performance Within the Industry. Over the last few years the U.K. nursery stock industry has come under severe financial pressure. This has a number of causes. The market has slowed down due to adverse weather during key seasons and changes in consumer buying, resulting in over-production, both in the U.K. and in countries that export to the U.K. Many crops have been offered at low prices just to clear the backlog of plants.

Experience of Applying Lean Manufacturing on a Container Nursery©

Author: Gill Dowling

PP: 288


Lean manufacturing is about improving efficiency and productivity and decreasing waste in the workplace. By following seven sequential improvement steps a business can save time and costs in all areas of activity.

In implementing lean manufacturing at Lowaters Nursery, our aim, as managers and supervisors, was to involve staff in tracking the time taken, movements involved, and cost of propagation by cuttings from the moment the secateurs were picked up by the person obtaining the propagation material to the moment the finished plant was put onto the lorry for despatch to the customer. We worked with the staff involved to identify where efficiency improvements could be made. We were amazed at the results.

Propagation and Cultivation of Arctostaphylos in Relation to the Environment in its Natural Habitat in California, U.S.A.©

Author: Lucy Hart

PP: 291


The Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship helped to fund a visit to California to study native plants in their natural habitats and in cultivation. Throughout my study I observed Arctostaphylos, commonly known as manzanita, growing naturally and was able to relate the natural habitats to cultivation conditions in botanic gardens and commercial nurseries where I learnt about the propagation and production of members of the genus.

Arctostaphylos is a fundamental genus to California, found almost exclusively in the state, with different species occupying a range of habitats. It is a member of the Ericaceae and is closely related to Arbutus, sharing the same subfamily, Arbutoideae. The generic name is derived from two Greek words — arktos meaning bear and stuphule, a grape. The common name, manzanita (popularly used in California today) is Spanish for "little apple" from the appearance of its berry. There are approximately 60 species, of which several have many subspecies due to

Breeding and Selection of Brachychiton©

Author: Des Boorman

PP: 68


Why Brachychiton?

  • Beautiful trees naturally
  • Ornamental trunks and foliage
  • Free flowering
  • Colours, white, red, pink, orange, and greenish
  • Flowers up to 50 mm long and 40 mm wide in some species
  • Many are deciduous flowering plants
  • Flowering period can be many months
  • Drought tolerant
  • Not likely to become weeds

These make ideal characteristics for breeding.

One Nurseryman's Perspective on the Changing U.K. Nursery Trade©

Author: Peter Catt

PP: 295

How you create a nursery business depends on individual circumstances: what one has to work with, how much money is available, how hard one is prepared to work, how tolerant or helpful one's partners are, how old one is, and what one's aims and ambitions are.

I had two starts with my own nursery. The first was in equal partnership with a financial partner. When that partner decided it was time to sell, we parted company and I bought a field and continued the business on my own. I had enough money to put up my first greenhouse and brought some polytunnels, stock, and equipment with me from the earlier business. I was prepared to work hard, and my wife was tolerant. I was 40 years old and at last had achieved my ambition of owning my own nursery.

However, owning the nursery was not enough in itself. I had started the first nursery with the aim of being a rhododendron specialist, grafting rhododendrons and propagating dwarf rhododendrons and azaleas from cuttings. I widened the crop range

Modern Ways of In Vitro Propagation©

Author: Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide

PP: 299


Ever since Murashige and Skoog (1962) published their famous nutrient medium based on the analysis of tobacco ashes in 1962, there has been a steady increase of in vitro propagated plants throughout the world. In the beginning only a modest number of plants could be propagated. Today, only a few species are still considered to be recalcitrant, and we believe that all plants can be propagated by in vitro culture — in principle. There are still many challenges to overcome, especially since productive in vitro propagation (hence plant transformation) in many species is genotype-dependant. There are still some recalcitrant species as well, e.g., Cyclamen persicum. This species can be propagated in vitro from leaf discs and through somatic embryogenesis from ovules. However, both these methods are still a challenge with obstacles to be overcome to be efficient. Our experience with somatic embryogenesis is that embryogenic callus is easily induced from immature embryos as

Somatic Embryogenesis in Schlumbergera truncata©

Author: Ezz Al-Dein Al-Ramamneh, Sridevy Sriskandarajah, Margrethe Serek

PP: 308


Cacti are dicotyledonous perennial plants with specialised features adapted for survival in arid and other climatic conditions. Schlumbergera, popularly known as "Christmas cactus" or "Thanksgiving cactus," is an epiphyte native to forests in Brazil. These cacti are grown as flowering potted plants (Boyle, 1997).

The conventional methods of propagation are often inadequate to meet the commercial demands for those cacti that exhibit low rates of seed production, germination, growth, or lateral branching. In vitro propagation is a potential alternative for production of these plants (Hubstenberger et al., 1992). While axillary and adventitious shoots in Schlumbergera and Rhipsalidopsis have been produced in vitro from phylloclade explants and callus cultures and from shoot tips, the frequency at which these shoots are produced is still low and unsatisfactory.

The greatest importance of somatic embryos is its practical application in largescale vegetative propagation.

Campanula (Campanulaceae) in Nature and in Pots©

Author: Gert Jensen, Rune Harboe Nielsen, Arne Skytt Andersen

PP: 310

The Genus Campanula L. comprises some 320 species mainly found in the Mediterranean region, the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe, and a few species scattered in other areas of the world. A few of these beautiful plants have been cultivated as garden and rockery plants for a long time. During the late 1980s some Danish growers adapted C. carpatica and C. poscharskyana among others to pot culture in a combination production schedule in and out of greenhouses. Some selection and breeding took place yielding better and more flowers; also the cultivation practices were improved to give better postproduction shelf life. These species still comprise a large part of the about 10 million Campanula plants produced in Denmark each year.

It has been the goal of our company to constantly improve and find new products; thus a program for collecting and breeding of new cultivars of Campanula has been established.

This program aims to utilize the enormous variation found in nature within as well as among the separate species. This variation is a result of natural selection due to differences in microclimate, soil, and other edaphic features of the growing place. And the differences within a species can result in visible as well as intrinsic features such as longevity of flowers, variations in growth potential, vegetative propagation potential, and demands for special treatment, e.g., for floral induction. The visible differences may be related to flower size, leaf arrangement, and characteristics. Sometimes there is such large variations that one wonders if the plants belong to the same species.

These variations seldom appear in collections in botanical gardens; therefore it is imperative for a serious breeder to get out in nature and observe and if possible collect seeds and plants from different locations to be included in the breeding program of a given species.

The breeding program has resulted in several new cultivars of C. cochlearifolia, C. × haylodgensis, and C. portenschlagiana.

President's Welcoming Remarks©

Author: Tom Intven

PP: 321

I'd like to welcome all attendees; in particular members from other regions—we have members from the Southern and the Western regions. We would also like to warmly welcome attendees from Chile, the Netherlands, and Belgium, and nonmembers and students. In particular we'd like to recognize and welcome new members. Would all new members please stand and be recognized. Ladies and Gentlemen can we please show our welcome with applause.

At this time I would like to recognize the Local Site Committee for all their hard work. Chair: Jim Johnson and Members Darrel Apps, Denny Blew, Joe Kiefer, Ted Kiefer, Andy Mackay, Ed Overdevest, Roger Ruske, and George Smith. I know how much work has gone into it. Please join me in congratulating and thanking the Local Site Committee for a job well done.

A special thanks to Steve Castorani for a terrific program; Steve, your efforts took the dual track program to a new level, not only offering simultaneous talks on woody plants and perennials but also, for

Exciting Developments in the World of Cornus©

Author: Elwin R. Orton, Thomas J. Molnar

PP: 322

An attractive harbinger of spring, our native eastern flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, is one of the most highly prized species of small flowering trees. However, in many areas where it is grown, the plants fail to prosper due to their high susceptibility to the ravages of the common dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula. Plants of C. kousa, native to China, Japan, and Korea, are highly resistant to this insect pest but became popular rather slowly in the United States as the period of floral display is about 1 month later than that of plants of C. florida.

In the Woody Ornamentals Breeding Program at Cook College/NJAES at Rutgers University, interspecific hybridization of C. kousa × C. florida in 1970 resulted in the introduction of six F1 hybrids, all of which provide an attractive floral display during a time period that is intermediate to that of the two parental species. All six hybrids are very vigorous, exhibit high resistance to the common dogwood borer and to Discula

Developments in Production and Use of Trees, Shrubs, and Perennials©

Author: Gert Fortgens

PP: 325

The nursery trade currently is faced with some problems in The Netherlands.

These include:

  1. There are currently too many taxa of plants to choose from. This is creating problems for both nurseries and gardeners. This has resulted from:
    1. Too many NEW NEW NEW plants.
    2. Too many old (and/or unknown) plants.

    Therefore, this has resulted in the need to distinguish products by marketing tools: labels, pots, and trays.

  2. Pests and diseases.
    1. Problems in nurseries.
    2. Problems in urban and rural areas.

    What needs to happen: we need to spread the risks by diversifying production and plant a wider range of plants.

  3. Trends in gardening are causing problems and include the following:
    1. Less-is-more garden design with use of fewer plants (are perennials "out&quot?).
    2. Bringing inside living room outside: this has led to plants in pots with lots of hardware/furniture.
    3. Short-term gardening.
    4. Buying visually attractive plants only.

To overcome the above problems, consumers need more

Some Common Misconceptions About Seed Dormancy©

Author: Robert L. Geneve

PP: 327


Dormancy is a condition where seeds will not germinate even when the environmental conditions (water, temperature, light, and aeration) are permissive for germination (Hartmann et al., 2002). Seed dormancy prevents immediate germination but also regulates the time, conditions, and place where germination will occur. In nature, different kinds of primary dormancy have evolved to aid the survival of a species by programming germination for particularly favorable times in the annual seasonal cycle. Horticulturists apply dormancy-release treatments to facilitate the cultivation of dormant species. The objective of this paper is to describe the major types of seed dormancy and present some of the common misconceptions associated with these dormancy types (Table 1).

Chanticleer — A Plant-Geek Pleasure Garden©

Author: R. William Thomas

PP: 331

Chanticleer is a pleasure garden with a staff of creative, design-oriented plant geeks. Located 20 min. west of Philadelphia, Chanticleer was the estate of the Rosengarten family from 1912–1990. When the last owner, Adolph Rosengarten, Jr., died in 1990, the property of majestic trees and beautiful lawns was turned over to a Foundation to be run as a public garden. Almost all of the "garden" development has happened in the last 15 years. The design, with a strong emphasis on plants, has been led by staff.

A tour of Chanticleer begins in the Teacup Garden, named after its central water feature. Here, as in most of the property, foliage color and texture provide most of the interest, with flowers as accents. Light colors, such as chartreuse, orange, and silver, play off various shades of purple throughout the garden. Here in the Teacup Garden, glaucous agaves grow near purple alternantheras, and Dichondra argentea ‘Silver Falls’ cascades below Cordyline australis ‘Red Sensation’. A new plant

Rooting Cuttings Hydroponically in Compost Tea and Wastewater©

Author: C. Chong, J. Yang, B. Holbein, H.-W. Liu, R.P. Voroney, H. Zhou

PP: 333

Cuttings of sage, currant, euonymus, and weigela were rooted in aerated compost tea, anaerobic digestion process wastewater, and a control nutrient solution, each diluted to various electrical conductivity (salt) levels between 0 and 0.5 dS·m-1. For sage, the highest percent rooting, root number, and root length occurred at 0.34, 0.38, and 0.30 dS·m-1, respectively. Values for the other species varied from 0.25 to 0.5 dS·m-1 depending on rooting criterion. Despite these differences, trends in rooting tended to be similar with the three solution sources. The results indicate that, with proper dilution to reduce salts, compost tea and wastewater can be recycled as irrigation water or nutrient source for cuttings during propagation.
New Plants From New Zealand©

Author: Malcolm Woolmore

PP: 71


Lyndale specialises in the propagation of a wide range of ornamental plants with strong associations to the breeding, sourcing, and protection of new cultivars.

With a population of just 4 million, New Zealand businesses have evolved to look at the world market as the natural area to expand into, as the domestic market is small. Lyndale is no different and, with a production that hovers around the 3 million units mark, needed to explore other market possibilities if the business was to continue to grow.

The business of exporting live plants between countries is by no means easy, and it is getting bureaucratically more difficult seemingly daily. Lyndale's approach to this problem has been to develop the intellectual property of plant cultivars and offer new selections through an international network of agents. Each international market block has the right (predominantly) to self-propagate, distribute, and commercialise within their own defined market boundaries; hence

Plant Propagation — Industry and Development©

Author: Romel Flores

PP: 338


Propagation is one of the oldest skills; it has been practiced since man stopped roaming the earth and started settling in one spot. Seeds or cuttings were germinated or rooted, plants sold or grown on, and eventually a finished plant became a valuable commodity in the economy. Perhaps at this moment the man thought this was the future of this activity.

As everybody knows the world has changed and will continue changing very rapidly. One hundred years ago the entrepreneur was the farmer or grower; during the last century it became the manufacturer, and in the new century it is the idea maker who is changing the world.

Entrepreneurs such as Walt Disney, Richard Branson, and Howard Shultz, among others, have changed the way things are done in their respective industries; none of them saw the opportunities in horticulture. If they had, would they have done things differently?

None of these personalities are with us for this presentation; all we can offer is conjecture on how

From Propagation to Finish: Container Production at Princeton Nurseries©

Author: Baldomero Aparicio

PP: 340


Princeton Nurseries enjoys a rich legacy of improved plant introductions. The nursery introduced some of the most celebrated trees in American horticulture. The seedling program at Princeton Nurseries is the first step on a plant journey to our high-density container and specimen fields. William Flemer III made many of his famous selections in our seedbeds. To name a few: Ulmus americana ‘Princeton’, Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘Shademaster’, Acer rubrum ‘October Glory’, Tilia cordata ‘Greenspire’, Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’, and Princeton Nurseries latest introduction, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala ‘Ruby Slippers’. In the future, it is important to carry on this tradition of excellence.

The propagation department at Princeton Nurseries is responsible for all cuttings propagated, bare-root grafts, potted grafts, and tissue culture transplants.

Propagating Asclepias tuberosa from Seed: The Process©

Author: Francisco Castillo

PP: 343


Midwest Groundcovers is a wholesale nursery specializing in the production of groundcovers, ornamental shrubbery, perennials, and natives. A large portion of our perennial stock is propagated through division and softwood cuttings, but others, which cannot be produced in this method, rely on seeds to propagate. Asclepias tuberosa is one of those unique plants that is difficult to propagate vegetatively from cuttings but has a high percentage when using seed. In the past we used to buy in divisions, but quickly found that we would lose more then 50% of the crop within 2 to 3 weeks of planting. It was soon decided that an alternative method was needed to produce this plant. Seed propagation seemed the most logical step to take so we began by trialing this technique by directly seeding into 1-gal containers. Immediately we saw great success with 100% of the crop surviving and flourishing. We understand that planting Asclepias in this method doesn't produce a large quantity of

Nutrition and Management of Perennial Stock Plants©

Author: Sinclair A. Adam Jr

PP: 348


Nutritional management is an area of concern for producers of horticultural products due to basic production requirements and environmental impact. With an increased public focus on environmental issues, fertility inputs should be carefully regulated. Nitrogen is an element used widely in horticulture and can be applied in considerable amounts both in horticulture and agriculture (Mengel and Kirkby, 2001). The federal limit for nitrate levels in water is 10 mg·L-1 (10 ppm N), and nitrogen is a non-point-source type of pollution that is impacting water quality in the U.S.A. (Fenn, et al., 1998; Gustafson and Wang, 2002). A growing number of states have laws regulating run-off (and leached materials) from agricultural and horticultural operations, and states that don't yet have laws regarding containment of plant nutrients probably will have them soon (Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001; Lea- Cox, 2001). From typical perennials fed at 136 ppm N, leachate can contain 1 to 96 mg·L-1 nitrate

Germination of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’©

Author: Allen R. Pyle

PP: 355


Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’ is a popular, award-winning perennial. It has consistently remained a top-three-selling perennial at Raker over the last 10 years. Raker annually produces in excess of 2 million ‘Goldsturm’ plugs from seed.

Like many perennials, consistent success with germinating Rudbeckia ‘Goldsturm’ is challenging, as germination and seed vigor can vary significantly from seed lot to seed lot, regardless of supplier. In our experience, ‘Goldsturm’ germination typically ranges from 20%–80% for standard lots.

Propagation of Sarracenia Species©

Author: Randolph A. Heffner

PP: 356


The notion that the Sarraceniaceae family of carnivorous plants evolved recently in geological time can be attributed to a complete lack of any fossil records (D'Amato, 1998). Most carnivorous plants evolved modified leaves as a survival mechanism to supplement low mineral and nutrient levels. Low nutrient availability within the root zone is due to the inherent wet, mineral deficient, acidic, peaty soils of the habitats in which they are found. North America has probably the widest range of carnivorous plants in the world — most Sarracenia species are found in the southeast United States of America (Schnell, 2002). Charles Darwin, among others, studied carnivores and published Insectivorous Plants in the 1875.

Carnivorous plants have developed various methods to capture animals; primarily these techniques of capture can be divided into "passive" and "active" methods. All Sarracenias use the passive method of "pitfall." In order to be considered a "carnivorous plant," a plant must

Asters in the Mid-Atlantic Region: Performance Evaluation and Recommendations for Landscape Use©

Author: Jeanne Frett, Victor Piatt

PP: 361


Those of you who have kept abreast of recent changes in nomenclature will find it surprising that the topic of this presentation is eastern North American asters, since the taxonomists now state that the genus Aster is restricted to Eurasia. Those species that were formerly classified as being in the genus Aster have now been divided into separate genera, including: Symphyotrichum, Ionactis, Eurybia, Sericocarpus, Doellingeria, Ampelaster, and Oclemena.

In 1994, Dr. Guy Nesom, a research botanist, attempted to reclassify the genus into a number of smaller units based on morphology (form and structure) and chromosomes. He concluded that none of the American so-called asters were closely related to Eurasian asters. This was initially met with skepticism, but subsequent molecular and taxonomic research supported Nesom's hypothesis. At Mt. Cuba we have decided to adopt these new names in our plant record system and signage. However, in this presentation, I will continue to list

Utilization of Global Assets for the Production of Nursery Products©

Author: David B Kirwan

PP: 368


Foremostco, Inc (FMSTCO) is a leading grower/distributor of ornamental plants, annuals, perennials, foliage, and landscape material to the floriculture industry. Currently importing 20% of all plants brought into the country.

FMSTCO provides a steady supply and wide array of year-round availability of cuttings (rooted and unrooted), vegetative and tissue cultured liners, air-layered plants, seeds, bulbs, canes, and rhizomes.

FMSTCO has an organized sourcing network throughout Malaysia, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Mexico, Brazil, Israel, South Africa, Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, Holland, Germany, Belgium, New Zealand, Australia, as well as Canada and the U.S.A.

FMSTCO directly employs 200 people with another 2300 directly associated to the operations that provide products to the company, utilizing about 5000 acres of production area.

FMSTCO maintains an automated, around-the-clock logistics

Epimedium: Back to Basics©

Author: Anthony Eversmier

PP: 371


Propagating a new plant is just as challenging as remembering how to produce more familiar plants on a daily schedule. When learning a new plant, I try to keep the concept basic and true to how the plant grows in nature.

In Spring 1995 we started growing Epimedium. It was not until 1996 that we started experimenting with the idea of propagation. Early production of 1-qt material was purchased in from an outside source and potted for final sale. We decided to try propagation as a means of reducing price and servicing our customer with a better quality product.

Early propagation was successful by division, but the total yields were low and the cultivars were few. We needed a project for our winter propagation schedule, and Epimedium was just the kind of project that could fill a greenhouse in a 2-week timeframe. Propagation and production usually occurs in late November just prior to our Anemone and Astilbe crop production in early December.

Our experimenting over the years

Update on Micropropagation of Trillium Taxa

Author: S.L. Kitto, David Opalka, Jesse Sinanan

PP: 374

Our laboratory works on the development of micropropagation protocols for trilliums with the objective of making superior cultivars available to the gardening public. Superior trillium cultivars can have unique flower color, double flowers, or special leaf variegation or be fast multipliers. We can establish trilliums in culture from vegetative material. We can proliferate the rhizomes in culture and produce thousands of rhizomes in a much shorter time frame than under field conditions. The current stumbling block appears to be physiological and centered on the in vitro-proliferated trillium mini-rhizomes. We will report on three recent areas of research: (1) refinement of the surface disinfestation protocols, (2) visualization of mini-rhizome initiation and proliferation, and (3) qualification of carbohydrate reserves within in vitrogenerated rhizomes with respect to in vitro and ex vitro treatments.
An Insight into an Accredited Potting Mix Supplier in Australia©

Author: Shaun Windrim

PP: 73


Debco (<www.debco.com.au>) is a leading potting mix supplier on the east coast of Australia, with manufacturing sites in both New South Wales and Victoria. The company started out selling cow and poultry manures in 1972, but soon evolved over those earlier years to manufacture potting mix primarily from graded, composted Pinus radiata pinebark. Other, lesser components included in the matrix depending upon the plant type are coir/coconut fibre and clean quartz sand. This gave potting manufacturing a sophisticated edge as it transformed itself from an art and product made in situ to a science by introducing physical and chemical requirements according to an Australian Standard for potting mixes AS 3743-1996.

Judge Them by Their Appearance: Trialing Landscape Shrubs at Longwood Gardens

Author: Debbie Metrustry

PP: 375

General Introduction

The shrub trials at Longwood Gardens were started in 1997 with the objective to provide information to the industry and amateur growers alike on what happens to a plant after it leaves the nursery — in other words, to answer the question: "how well does it do in a typical landscape situation?" The difference between our trials and others, and our strength as we see it, is that as well as being conducted over a long period of time, we use a great range of people to evaluate these plants. Our evaluators include students, staff, and volunteers, who between them demonstrate a variety of horticultural expertise and experience: they are our representative sample of the general gardening public. This makes for a reliable and exciting long-term study.

Conifer Propagation©

Author: George Smith

PP: 378


Propagation of rooted cuttings at Blue Sterling Nursery has always been a top priority both to ensure proper cultivar nomenclature and as a means to control quality. We have used many different methods and experimented many different ways. Out of the many factors to consider while propagating, timing and the space needed were definitely the biggest. The balancing of space available vs. amount needed always seemed to be an issue. Then there was the timing aspect to think about; plants all have a time when taking cuttings is most successful. And all of this is still somewhat based on actual demand or potential demand of that item years before it is saleable. With owners (Jim and Barb) always traveling across the globe searching for new and unusual plants, there always seemed to be more things added. It was very common to receive one 6-inch plant with the expectation of getting 500 cuttings ASAP because of the potential sales value. When talking about a dwarf cultivar it

Understock—Keys to Success©

Author: Brad Thompson

PP: 380


There are three important parts to grafting. First would be the selection and quality of understock, this is the most important. Second would be the actual grafting and after care during the graft heeling process. Third and final would be the first year of growing in its selected pot and growth environment.

Cutting Propagation of Large Leaf Rhododendrons and Deciduous Azaleas©

Author: Henry "Hank" Schannen

PP: 382


RareFind Nursery is a specialty nursery in central New Jersey. Our customer base is internet mail order, retail at the nursery, and high-end landscapers. We carry over 2,000 plants, half of which are rhododendrons and azaleas. Propagating our own rhododendrons is a necessity, due to the fact that our list contains cultivars not available elsewhere. Many of our plants are being propagated for the first time; therefore there is no rooting track record, as there is for standards such as ‘Roseum Elegans’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Catawbiense Album’. In fact we rarely sell these standards, which are easily rooted. We do purchase tissue culture plants, which account for perhaps 50 of the 1,000 or so rhododendron and azalea cultivars we typically stock. Therefore we must root our own, usually in smaller lots, for which we are often "flying blind" with little specific cultivar experience. In a given year we root approximately 10,000 rhododendrons, but we rotate our list of plants and limit it to

Chip Budding Hard-to-Root Magnolias©

Author: Richard Hesselein

PP: 384

For many years, magnolias have been one of my favorite groups of plants. Their glorious spring flowers, with a variety of shapes, colors, degrees of fragrance and bloom time, make them as a group some of spring's most magnificent flowering plants.

Not all magnolias are easy to propagate by cuttings. In fact, some have proven to be so difficult that the low percentage of success renders them virtually not economical to reproduce. At Pleasant Run Nursery, we propagate our magnolias by the method of chip budding. This has proven to be so successful that we rarely fall below a 90% bud take. Over the years, we have learned a few techniques, which have helped to keep our percentage of take consistently high.

In the spring, we purchase bare-root Magnolia kobus seedlings, which we immediately pot up in containers. We prefer to use M. kobus over M. acuminata because our bud take is significantly better with this species. The size of understock that we prefer is 3/16 inch or ¼ inch in caliper;

Correlation of Growing Degree Days and the Timing of Cuttings©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 386


The proper timing for taking cuttings is essential for good propagation results. It is well known that some plants have very narrow time frames in which cuttings can be taken with any degree of success. Some obvious examples are Euonymous alatus and Syringa vulgaris; if the cutting wood is allowed to mature beyond a certain point, the percentage of rooted cuttings declines greatly. Alternatively, if cuttings of some plants are taken too early in the season, carbohydrates and essential cellular components are not in sufficient quantity to allow for good rooting. Therefore it is critical that the time frame for taking cuttings be watched closely. Violate the time frame, and deleterious results can be quickly found. For instance, Scabiosa and asters make two types of growth: one is strictly vegetative and the other gives rise to flowering. Cuttings taken of flowering shoots will often root, flower, and then die; they will not set the needed basal rosettes or buds that will

Propagating Wild-Collected Seed of Woody Species©

Author: Shelley Dillard

PP: 393

In propagation by seeds, the goal of the propagator is to obtain the highest germination percentage possible and one that will hopefully result in a healthy plant. Germination rates are affected by the time of collection, cleaning procedures, storage, moisture content of the seed, and other factors in addition to the treatments given to the seed to induce germination. These are factors that cannot always be controlled, particularly in wild-collected seeds.

The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania has a long history of domestic and international plant exploration and seed collection (Aiello, 2004). Among the goals of these explorations is to obtain new sources of germplasm for common species of plants, as well as to obtain seed from unusual or less common species. Plants propagated are added to the Arboretum's living collection and distributed to other institutions and nurseries.

A recent trip to the Republic of Georgia produced seeds from species such as Abies nordmanniana

Plant Exploration: Gamble for the Big Payoffs©

Author: James Harbage

PP: 395

Longwood Gardens is a world premier horticultural display garden created by Pierre DuPont between 1906 and 1954. The gardens opened to the public in 1956. About 250 acres out of a total 1050 are display gardens open to public viewing and include about 4 acres of heated conservatories. The display gardens have over 10,000 plant accessions in a mixture of permanent and seasonal plantings. There are an additional 3,000 plus accessions in research trials at any given time. The seasonal plantings are changed an average of four times per year outdoors and six times per year in the conservatories.

Longwood Gardens has engaged in plant exploration since 1956 and has sponsored over 50 trips to as many countries in the past 50 years. Expeditions have encompassed every continent except Antarctica.

Cutting Edge Perennials: No Bandages Provided!!!©

Author: Stephanie Cohen

PP: 398

Below is listed the plants discussed during the presentation.
Plants and Substrates Are the Heart of the Green Roof©

Author: David J. Beattie, Robert D. Berghage, Edmund Snodgrass

PP: 400

Although ground-level garden perennials have the widest range of landscape uses, the building roof presents a new and unique environment and opportunity where a wide range of perennials can not only beautify, but also serve several unique environmental functions, including storm water management and urban heat island reduction.

Green roofs, sometimes called eco-roofs, are roofs planted with vegetation and have been used for centuries, especially those characterized by deep soil layers. Examples include 5000-year-old passage tombs in Ireland covered with sod roofs. Settlers in Nebraska covered their roofs with sod, and more recently the rooftop gardens of Rockefeller Center have created an oasis in the center of Manhattan. These deep roof-type gardens have served a number of protective and aesthetic functions. They are usually constructed with soils more than 1 ft deep and have been designated, in the modern vernacular, as intensive roof gardens.

About 30 years ago, a new type of green