Volume 54

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Exports — An Australian's Perspective©

Author: Greg McPhee

PP: 43

Australia and South Africa have many things in common when it comes to export. We are both in the Southern Hemisphere and as such crop production is counter-seasonal from North America, Europe, and Asia. We are both a long way away from those markets and need to develop good supply chain processes to be able to participate. Also we both are believers that we need to look outwards for a future in the world economy.
Legionnaires Disease: A Risk for Propagators©

Author: Greg McPhee

PP: 85

Legionnaire's disease should be of interest if not concern for nursery propagators. It is a real disease risk and you should be taking steps to reduce your exposure. Now I have your undivided attention there is a bigger story to be told, so that you are better aware of the risks and see how you can limit your exposure.

Legionnaire's disease is caused by a group of bacteria, with most of the deaths coming from Legionella pneumophila and L. longbeachae. It was first described in 1976 when a group of American Legion veterans became ill after attending a meeting in Philadelphia; 221 fell ill with a few days of the meeting and 34 died as a result. You can see why people get worried about it.

However, you should not jump to the conclusion that this is a new disease. These bacteria have been isolated and found worldwide. It is through advances in medical science that identification was obtained and the causative agent specified more clearly. Also contributing to the "newness" of

Trees of Interest at The Holden Arboretum©

Author: Charles Tubesing

PP: 412

The Holden Arboretum, begun in 1931, comprises 3400 acres. Of these, approximately 600 acres are occupied by woody plant collections and gardens. The remaining acreage consists of woodlands and managed meadows and includes two areas, Little Mountain and Stebbins Gulch, which have been designated as National Natural Landmarks. Holden's Mission Statement, revised in 2001, addresses both our horticultural and natural resources: "The Holden Arboretum connects people with nature for inspiration and enjoyment, fosters learning, and promotes conservation."

In the mission statement, nature refers to living things, with a focus on plants both in cultivation and in the wild. One of the methods by which we will achieve our mission is through "Acquiring, displaying, and maintaining documented horticultural collections." Holden's horticultural collections consist of over 6000 different kinds of plants, 4400 of these being woody plants. A listing of the plants in our collection can be accessed from

Elm Selections From The Morton Arboretum©

Author: Kris R. Bachtell

PP: 416


Elms were a major nursery product in the early 20th century. American elm (Ulmus americana), in particular, was the dominant tree in most street tree and park plantings in the northern United States of America. It was not uncommon for an entire city to have a majority of its community plantings comprised of American elms. Because of the many attributes the American elm possessed, it was viewed as the "perfect" tree. It was easily propagated and cultivated, readily transplanted, possessed an incredibly broad range of environmental tolerances, and developed a classic cathedral-like form. Unfortunately, it was extremely vulnerable to Dutch Elm Disease (DED). During the early 1960s in the Midwest, hundreds of thousands of trees were killed by DED, halting the planting and production of this once-valuable tree.

Today, as a result of a number of selecting and breeding programs, a completely new generation of elms is becoming available for use in the Green Industry.

Genetic Improvement of Woody Landscape Plants: Case Studies in Viburnum©

Author: William A. Hoch, Brent H. McCown

PP: 421


The genus Viburnum represents a group of highly diverse ornamental plants, which fill many landscape niches. Viburnums possess a wide range of ornamental characteristics, including showy flowers (some fragrant), attractive foliage, colorful and persistent fruit, pleasing habit, and striking fall color.

The goal of this breeding project is to combine the divergent ornamental characteristics of V. lantana (fruit display and hardiness) and V. carlesii (fragrant flowers, compact habit, and attractive fall color) into novel ornamental clones.

Promoting Woody Plants Through Print and the Web©

Author: Tim Wood

PP: 424


As growers, we are a lot more comfortable growing plants than marketing plants. But selling plants and making a decent profit is more complex and sophisticated than it used to be. The days of typing up and mailing out a price list are long gone. Placing a classified advertisement in the back of American Nurseryman is not sufficient. Our marketing skills need to be as well developed as our growing skills.

Every business needs to a strategic business and marketing plan that defines the business and its products, and which can be easily conveyed to the customer. If Spring Meadow's marketing has been effective, then you all know that we are a propagation nursery that specializes in new flowering shrubs. If our new plant promotions have been effective, then you know that our Proven Winner ColorChoice introductions are bold, colorful, and every bit as showy as a perennial. At least those are my intentions.

What defines your business and your products? What message are you

New Seedling Techniques for Woody Plants©

Author: Mic Armstrong

PP: 427

Earlier this year I attended a conference on seedling root development in Eugene, Oregon. I believe there was only one other nursery represented from the shade and ornamental industry.

The interesting thing about a conference on roots is that it has never, to my knowledge, been done before. It wasn't really a fun conference, mostly because root research is extremely difficult to do and not everyone agrees on even basic concepts, but that made it a great meeting (Jacobs, et al; 2005). There were several forestry propagators in the group, some foresters, and the rest were research scientists from around the world. There was even a Yorkshire man who presented a paper on root systems comparing Quercus rubra seedlings grown from plugs to those from bare root (Wilson, 2004).

Tree seedlings are grown for a range of purposes — they may be for commercial forestry, for conservation, restoration, or erosion control. They are grown as an understock

Hardy Shrub Rose Research Trials©

Author: Laura G. Jull

PP: 429


Roses are among the most popular plants in the United States among amateur and professional gardeners. Traditionally garden roses (floribunda, grandiflora, and hybrid tea) have attracted the majority of market attention, however, the care and attention required to grow them successfully has spawned a demand for rose taxa that require less intensive management, i.e., hardy shrub roses. The climatic conditions of the upper Midwest can make garden rose culture a challenge. High summer humidity and sub-zero winter temperatures can cause numerous disease problems and lack of winter hardiness. In addition, homeowners and green industry professionals would like roses that have a reduced reliance upon pesticides without sacrificing plant vigor, health, and flowering.

Characteristics of hardy shrub roses such as cold hardiness, repeat flowering, and pest resistance make them attractive choices for modern landscapes, yet not all cultivars exhibit these desirable

A Brief Discussion of Rooted Cutting Propagation at Mitsch Nursery With Focus on Conifers©

Author: Susan D. Jones

PP: 434


I have been asked to discuss methods of rooting "difficult-to-root" conifers at Mitsch Nursery. Let me start by explaining a few things about the nursery history and how our program has evolved, as that may give more insight into how some of our methods were developed, than any of the actual formulas.

Mitsch Nursery began as a project of a few trays of plants on the sun porch of the small Arts and Crafts-inspired house that now houses the nursery office. John left school in the 8th grade, and with his parents' help, began to sell rooted cuttings that he had propagated. Little by little his project required more space, until he eventually bought the property from his father, and ran Mitsch Nursery for over 40 years. The industry was young, and he was able to develop relationships with like-minded plant's people all over the country in order to acquire, trial, and disseminate new ornamental plants.

It is interesting and important to note here that neither John

Plant Curiosities from Log House Plants©

Author: Alice Doyle

PP: 439


A little background about Log House Plants and how we started. We were in our senior year of college — 1974 — when we found our place in the woods east of Cottage Grove on Dorena Lake. It was a beautiful farm on Rat Creek with a back forty, a donkey, and a log house built in 1929. We started our first greenhouse, naming our wholesale nursery Log House Plants and then our retail bookstore on Main Street, called The Bookmine, in Cottage Grove. We were 24 years old. Rat Creek is a wonderful place to be.

Over the last 30 years our business has flourished. We grow 2500 taxa of annuals, perennials, vegetables, and herbs for the fine independent nurseries of the Northwest plus a few premiere nurseries in California. We love the hunt for and hybridizing. We listen carefully to demand, and we follow our own interests. We are encouraged by our clientele to be creative.

Last fall, for the first time, a few Log House world exclusive offerings were available to discriminating gardeners

Propagating New Hostas at Shady Oaks Nursery©

Author: Hans Hansen

PP: 446

Shady Oaks has been producing hostas since 1982 with the establishment of a retail nursery specializing in perennial plants that perform well in the shade. In 1984 a 5-acre parcel was purchased to grow and propagate field-grown hostas. These plants were dug and shipped to customers who ordered through the mailorder catalog, or potted and were available to walk-in trade.

In 1993 the tissue culture lab in the basement of the owner's home with two lab technicians produced enough plant material to publish a wholesale price list. In 1994 the lab expanded to the present location. Currently the tissue culture lab has a transfer room that houses six laminar-flow hoods. The hoods are made in-house and consist of Plexiglass sides and a stainless steel base that can be sterilized. Positive air movement ensures a work area free from pathogens and technicians contaminating the cultures. A fan forces air through two filters including a HEPA™ filter to remove bacteria and mold spores. Each lab

Difficult-to-Propagate Perennials©

Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 447

Gentiana acaulis. Spring or trumpet gentian produces an evergreen mat up to 1 m spread. Propagation is usually by seeding; the seed requires a cold period. The germinating seedlings are too small in the 1st year to transplant and even in the 2nd year they are not larger than 3 mm. Plants will not flower until at least the 4th year after transplanting. The plants can be divided but increase is poor because most stolons are not rooted. However there are latent root primordia, which under mist produce a good root systems. Unrooted stolons planted in May to June will have roots by the beginning of August and can be potted up; the rooting mix is 1 Grow mix : 1 fine Turface (v/v). The mist system is in a shaded polyhouse and on every 15 min for between 1 and 3 sec depending on temperature. The rosette size determines how soon a plant flowers, the larger the better.

Gentiana septemfida. This is a fall gentian, it is deciduous except for resting buds at ground level. It is a somewhat

Using Nutrition Effectively During Propagation©

Author: Donald McPherson

PP: 88


The benefit of incorporating controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) in the propagation media of woody stock from cuttings has been affirmed by extensive research over the last 2 decades, yet it is not universally adopted. This may be due to poor performance, in some grower evaluations, as a result of using inappropriate fertiliser formats, or application rates. Since trials on CRFs began, the use of multi-cell trays, and direct sticking into small tube pots, has become more common. These new techniques present extra challenges requiring special consideration. This paper outlines potential methods for achieving uniform distribution of the CRFs, in relatively small media volumes, at a rate that does not inhibit root development resulting from high initial salinity.

Our Experience with Branding©

Author: Kees Govers

PP: 449


Branding in the horticultural industry is one of the hot topics that we as business owners have to deal with. Everyone has an opinion and not two people think alike on this issue.

My presentation is going to explore three questions that I hope to answer for you. They are:

  • Does branding sell more product?
  • Can branding your company or product make your small or mid-sized operation more profitable?
  • How do you go about creating and establishing a brand?
Vendor-Assisted Marketing for Perennial Growers©

Author: Michael Emmons

PP: 453

Marketing a product or product line is not a new concept for most non-plant-oriented businesses. Almost everything we touch in our daily lives has some form of marketing slant. Whether its is the hamburger we buy at a fast food chain or beer we buy in the store there is some form of marketing to help entice the consumer to buy the product. For some reason our industry has been be slow to embrace the marketing concept. To some it is a demeaning or even desperate way to sell their plants. Many in our industry still have the "Quality Always Sells" mentality. Twenty-five or 30 years ago when there was less selection available, fewer nurseries were growing fewer plants than today, which created more of as sellers market. Today there are many factors at play that demand better information and service to sell plant material. First and foremost, there are lots of great nurseries growing high quality plant material. Therefore you could have the best plants on the planet but without
Systems for Success: Mechanization of B&B Production©

Author: Dwight Hughes

PP: 456


I compare our business to a large wheel with six spokes (Fig. 1). The hub is time management. We have scrutinized every step of our operation to eliminate wasted time and wasted steps. We've also invested in equipment that reduces the labor needed for each task we perform.

The Wheel of Success. The six spokes on the wheel are:
  • The first, and most important, spoke is employees. Motivated, interested, trained, skilled people are the energy that propels a company.
  • The second spoke represents management's decisions on money and resources.
  • The third spoke is quality products. Many Americans still respect, and will pay for, quality. There's almost no substitute for quality in a service-oriented landscape company.
  • Machinery and equipment constitute the fourth spoke. If you recruit and train a high-quality work force, and employers give them respectable equipment to work with, expect a synergistic outcome. Our company usually produces twice as much revenue, per person, as
Efficiencies from Rolling Bench Propagation©

Author: Bill Van Belle

PP: 465


I feel honored to be able to share this presentation with you this morning here at the Eastern Region. I have been a member of the Western Region for many years so I have always been taking. It is now a pleasure to give in return. There are a number of basics, which influence our decisions. People are very important to us. We believe that people should be loved and things used. The problems arise when things are loved and people are used. People comfort is very important to us. The rolling bench equipment is available "off the shelf" in the Netherlands where a number of liner producers are using it. To the best of my knowledge we are the only nursery propagators in North America using it. The goal is to bring the work to the people, rather than having employees spread all over the nursery. This eliminates what I call "walking time" — to lunchrooms, washrooms, or telephones. With the rolling benches most of the work can be done in an ergonomically

New Ideas from J.C. Bakker & Sons Nursery©

Author: John Bakker III

PP: 471

Before I start, I would like to bring greetings from Gerry Dehaan who was supposed to be bringing this presentation. Gerry this year is celebrating his 20th anniversary and promised to take his wife Joyce somewhere special. Gerry had I.P.P.S. in mind but it didn't fly with Joyce. Some guys have got to get their priorities straight.

At any rate it is good to be here. In this talk I would like to briefly share with you just a few of the things that are happening at Bakker Nurseries these days. Many of the new ideas I will touch on, are not really new, but are simply improvements on old ideas. The first topic, a portable water source, is something we have had around for many years. It is a piece of equipment that gets used a lot and we felt there was room for some improvements. Our old water wagon worked well but was getting tired. So it was time to build new. I would like to go over some of the features on this new system. The most outstanding feature on this unit is the mechanical

Air-Conditioned Cutting Room and Other Facility Enhancements©

Author: Robert Kuszmaul

PP: 475


D&B Plants offers potted starter plant material from woody ornamental taxa. The nursery is located in southeastern Michigan, with a customer base in the Midwest and eastern states. The following will be a brief discussion on the use of air conditioning and floor heat in our cutting room, and other facility enhancements.

On-Demand Color Label Printing System©

Author: Gary Knosher

PP: 476

In retail garden centers, it seems the need for an informational picture label accompanying the plant is as important as the quality or size of the plant itself. I have been told by some of our garden center customers that plants with quality picture labels will outsell plants without picture labels. Retail consumers can be easily swayed to choose the plant with the pretty picture label over plants with no labels or labels that contain only text. In recent years it has become the responsibility of the grower to develop these labels and have them manufactured and printed by companies that specialize in this process, and then purchase and warehouse the labels that will be needed for the upcoming sales season. When all goes according to plan, then the system works satisfactorily, as long as someone with great attention to detail manages the process. However, minimum order quantities of labels, changes in production, liner substitutions, and changes in consumer trends, often create a
Propagation of Rhus copallina var. latifolia ‘Morton’©

Author: David Stephenson

PP: 478


From the 1981 proceedings, the article by Mr. Richard E. Cross, "Propagation and production of Rhus typhina ‘Dissecta’ (syn. ‘Laciniata’)" (Cross, 1981), gave me a place to start. In the article it was suggested that stem cuttings will not work and, though inconsistent, root cuttings will produce. The cuttings should be collected from dormant plants, cuttings length should be about 4 inches, and it is important to protect the cuttings from too much moisture (dryer is better) and freezing until field planting in May.

New and Exciting Plants©

Author: Chris Hansen

PP: 479

The following is list of plant discussed in Chris Hansen's presentation.
A New Idea: Company and Consortium Research©

Author: Wilbert G. Ronald

PP: 481


I want to use the next few minutes to challenge you with a new idea. Some of you may be doing something similar to us, but I find we are one of the few Canadian nursery companies active in both plant breeding, propagation research, and research consortiums. Our work is more than commercialization or finding plants in arboretums although we have commercialized two potentillas.

We made a company goal to develop new plants by using our plant royalty income to finance further plant breeding. Secondly we have sought to develop certain industry government research consortiums to deal with specific sectors. Our key to success is to have a staff member dedicated to leading up the program of research and development. In our case we have a university graduate in forestry that has over 25 years in practical horticulture and nursery experience. The introduction of Plant Breeders Rights (PBR) in Canada about 1990 gave similar breeder protection as the U.S.A. plant patent and enabled

Environmental Control at Proteaflora©

Author: Andrew Mathews

PP: 90

Proteaflora is a wholesale nursery producing potted Proteaceous plants for cutflower growers, retail nurseries, garden centers, and landscapers.

Production is from cuttings and plants are grown in many size containers for between 6 months and 3 years.

The traditional method of growing motherstock plants for the supply of cuttings is to establish an in-ground orchard. The drawbacks of this method in our climate are:

  • Periods of prolonged rainfall make conditions favorable for leaf fungal pathogens such as Elsinoe and Coleroa.
  • No control over growth.

Proteaflora has established motherstock in containers grown under plastic cover. The plants are grown on wire benches and are irrigated with drippers. This ensures the foliage always remains dry. The greenhouses in which the plants are grown have roll up sides and roof ventilation. This helps reduce humidity build-up and minimize Botrytis


The advantages of growing motherstock using this system are:

  • Dry foliage virtually eliminates all the
International Uniformity of Plant Names©

Author: Marco H.A. Hoffman

PP: 483


The intensification of the international trade in nursery products underlines the need for uniformity in the naming of cultivated plants. The new editions of the international List of Names of Perennials and List of Names of Woody Plants together form a huge step in the right direction. The prime aim of both books is to achieve worldwide uniformity in the nomenclature of these plants. Every 5 years new editions will occur.

  • List of Names of Woody Plants (green book) contain the preferred botanical names and most used synonyms of over 17,000 woody nursery plants.
  • List of Names of Perennials (yellow book) contain the preferred botanical names and most used synonyms of over 14,000 perennials.
  • The above two books provide the preferred botanical names and most used synonyms and trademarks.

It is most gratifying that both these reference works have been recognised by the ENA (European Nursery Association) as the European standard works on the nomenclature of nursery plants

New and Exciting Plants from Around the World©

Author: Geoff Needham

PP: 484

Chairman, I felt privileged and was delighted to be asked two years ago to participate in this 2004 annual meeting of the Eastern Region, North America, of the International Plant Propagators' Society. International Plant Propagators' Society meetings are always so well planned — stimulating, educational, and always enjoyable. I hope that my contribution will rise to the occasion!

I must declare at the outset PlantHaven's interest in the patented plants that we represent, some of which I will be presenting today. Having said that, we love what we do since our work requires us to work closely with the most creative breeders and the most enterprising growers. Ultimately, our role and purpose is to apply our skills and resources to assist both of these groups to exploit and share the profit potential of great new plants.

We are able to do this because the U.S.A. has a plant patent system, which, importantly, was not created simply for the breeder. In general, countries provide systems of

New Plants for Cold Climates©

Author: Wilbert G. Ronald

PP: 487


Monarda cultivar have become very popular in both dwarf forms and mildew resistant forms. The goal of the Agriculture Canada breeding consortium is to develop dwarf, mid height and tall plant forms. ‘Coral Reef’ was the fi rst introduction in the taller form. The next two introductions will be in the mid height category. Bailey Nurseries Inc. in St. Paul, Minnesota would be your U.S.A. source for ‘Coral Reef’. All of these monarda are suited for Zones 2 to 5. Propagation is from softwood cuttings or divisions. All plants will be patented and ‘Coral Reef’ is now available for licensing from Bailey Nurseries Inc. (U.S.A.) or our company (Canada).

New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 488

Abelia × grandiflora ‘Panache’ ppaf, cbraf, SILVER ANNIVERSARY™ abelia. Distinct, clean silver- to cream-margined variegated foliage and white flowers. Attractive hints of pink and red coloration in stems and foliage. A neat low-growing plant, that resulted as a sport of A. ‘Prostrata’. Discovered by Minier Nursery of France. The propagation of, and or the sale of, plant parts is prohibited without a license. Patent/trademark tag required. Zone 6, 3 ft, gr 1, full sun to partial shade.

Agastache 'Black Adder'. This decidedly hardy Agastache brings a new color to the palatte with its long racemes of smokey red violet flowers that never seem to stop coming. It remains compact in a container with an early pinch and is in flower from June to frost. It has survived wet and dry, warm and cold winters in Pennsylvania, where it has been in the ground and terra cotta pots since Spring 2000. Hardiness north of Zone 6 is unknown, but we suspect it is similar to A. foeniculum.

Culture: Full

Cold Hardiness Evaluation of Cornus kousa Provenances©

Author: Anthony S. Aiello

PP: 494


For the past quarter-century one of the primary missions of the Morris Arboretum has been domestic and international plant exploration and introduction. The goals of this plant exploration program are to:

  • Broaden the genetic pool of known species
  • Extend hardiness and increase vigor
  • Broaden adaptability to difficult microclimates
  • Increase insect and disease resistance
  • Conserve rare species
  • Select improved horticultural forms
  • Evaluate and introduce appropriate new species

In pursuit of these goals, in the late 1970s the Arboretum identified regions around the world with climates similar to that of Philadelphia and we have been systematically targeting these areas for plant exploration and collection. As a result, since 1979 we have participated in 18 plant-collecting trips, to the following areas:

  • Korea: 1979, 1981, 1984, 1989, 1991
  • China: 1981, 1991, 1993, 1994 (2), 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002
  • Southern Appalachian Mountains: 2000
  • Armenia: 2002
  • Republic of Georgia: 2004
"Fertil" Plugs for Winter Propagation at Canadale Nurseries Ltd.©

Author: Tom Intven

PP: 498

For the last 3 winters we have propagated our hardwood evergreen cuttings in "Fertil" plugs, manufactured in France, with tremendous success. Rooting percentages have increased dramatically, especially on hard-to-root items like Tsuga and Chamaecyparis obtusa. Transplant shock is minimized.

The unique design, contents, and manufacturing procedure are responsible. Rooting media is rolled like a cigar, and then individual plugs are cut minimizing compaction of ingredients. The hexagonal plug holder allows for good airflow around the plug. The medium ingredients, largely peat, vermiculite, perlite as well as an effective surfactant, provide superior rooting environment.

Hand watering is done during the rooting period from October to March to better control moisture. Once rooting has been achieved, automated mist/watering systems take over.

Species which have exhibited 98% plus rooting consistently are: Chamaecyparis pisifera, C. obtusa, all Juniperus, Microbiota decussata, all Taxus, all

The University of Kentucky's Virtual Arboretum©

Author: R.E. Durham, R.L. Geneve, C.G. Cassady, S. Dutton

PP: 499


The University of Kentucky (U.K.) Department of Horticulture hosts an instructional activities web page (<www.uky.edu/Ag/Horticulture/teacher.html>) informally referred to as the virtual arboretum. The web site is primarily meant to help teachers expose students to outdoor classrooms where students can become excited about plants and ecology. However, others involved in gardening and wishing to know more about Kentucky's ecology will find the site interesting as well. Some of the activities direct students to the on-campus arboretum, while others can be performed at any location.

The Virtual Arboretum currently involves two broad topics, Kentucky native trees and butterfly gardening. Several learning activities are available for each topic. This paper will describe several activities of the Virtual Arboretum.

Effective Restoration at the Grass Roots©

Author: Lynda L. Boyer

PP: 501


The importance of protecting and restoring native habitats within the Willamette Valley has become apparent to many public agencies, nonprofits, and private landowners. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of native seed available for restoration projects. Heritage Seedlings, hoping to fill this void, has begun the propagation of native Willamette Valley grasses and forbs for seed production. Currently, there are 9 acres in production with 67 different taxa. The taxa range from upland and wet prairie to mixed woodland. Since there has been new urgency placed on upland prairie habitat, the emphasis will be to produce seed from these taxa in large quantities. Table 1 lists the taxa in propagation. Some of the seed will be used for restorations occurring on farm property. Excess seed will be listed for sale on the Native Seed Network.

A Comparison of Battery Operated Irrigation Controllers Merits, Benefits, and Usage©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 505

With the newer developments of integrated circuits and digital technologies, portable irrigation controllers can be effectively utilized. Such clocks are economical, generally reliable, weather proof, and operate on commonly obtained batteries such as C cells, AA, 9V, and D cells. These clocks come in a range of forms and functions from simple irrigation one time a day for the analog versions to up to six times a day for the more complex digital versions. They also come in two forms for the actual control of the water flow. One is a mechanical version which utilizes a small electric motor to actuate the valve and the other uses standard solenoid technology with a magnetic plunger which shuts the valve on and off in the same manner as standard irrigation valves utilizing 12- or 24-volt systems.

The fully programmable digital clocks that utilize solenoids are superior to all others (Galcon and DIG) but can be quite expensive, however their performance is unflawed and can last for many

Pteroceltis tartarinowii: An Elm Family Relative witPteroceltis An Elm Family Relative with Potential for the Urban Landscape©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 507


Pteroceltis tartarinowii Maxim is a large member of the Ulmaceae from Northern and Central China with characteristics intermediate between that of true elms, (Ulmus) and hackberries (Celtis). It makes a large tree with Celtis-like foliage and strong tree character much like elms. It is hardy to at least Zone 6 and some authorities place it in Zone 5 (Griffiths, 1994) for hardiness but there is some question if it can be produced further north than Philadelphia. Although provenance may have a direct bearing on this and hardier forms from the limits of its natural range could be suitable for points in the Midwest. The typical pests and diseases that afflict both elms and hackberries do not bother it and it remains clean and blemish free in Philadelphia. A mature tree is stately with soft bright green foliage and rough bark which peels in large flakes revealing lighter bark underneath giving the overall appearance of a patchwork of various colors. Although traditionally

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation Effects on Plants©

Author: Brian R. Jordan, Rainer W. Hofmann

PP: 91


The visible spectrum of light (400–700 nm) provides energy for photosynthesis and also information for plant growth and development through photoreceptor molecules (Briggs et al., 2001; Jordan et al., 1986; Nagy and Schäfer, 2002; Short and Briggs, 1994). At shorter wavelengths than the visible spectra is the ultraviolet (UV) region. This region is divided into three wavebands: UV-A (320–380 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-C (< 280 nm). The passage of UV-A radiation is not restricted by stratospheric ozone and therefore passes through to the earth's surface. UV-C is lethal to biological systems and completely removed by the ozone layer. UV-B radiation, however, is removed to some extent by the ozone layer, but recent depletion in stratospheric ozone is allowing an increase in UV-B to impact on the biosphere. It is the increase in UV-B that is of concern to agriculture, horticulture, and ecosystems. This increase in UV-B has the potential to damage plants, change the development,

Propagation of Clematis fremontii and Related Species from Seed©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 508


Clematis fremontii Wats is a nonvining species of Clematis found in the high plains of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. It makes a very stout perennial that although diminutive approaches a shrub in form and texture. Being from the west central part of the United States it is naturally accustomed to long period of drought and heat during late spring into fall. As with all clematis and other members of the Ranunculaceae the entire plant is poisonous and is rarely a victim of herbivores. This can make the plant the bane of many high plains cattle ranchers as the cattle will either eat the plant and become deathly ill or eat everything else but it so that in the wild there is little or no competition to impede its distribution, particularly in cow pastures. It does have a good side however in that it provides a multitude of blue to purple blue-bell-shaped flowers that hang down and are considered to be quite handsome. The flowers with respect to most other shrubby type

Propagation of Alangium platanifolium and Alangium platanifolium var. macrophyllum©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 510


The genus Alangium comprises 17 species of shrub or shrub like trees with the majority being tropical and ranging from Africa to China and to Eastern Australia. Most of the species of Alangium are considered to be tropical with Zone 9 or 10 for a hardiness classification. However, A. platanifolium and A. platanifolium var. macrophyllum are hardy to Zone 6 and might have a value in the landscape for Zones 6 and higher.

The trees are relatively fast growing and have no serious pests at least in the Northeastern portion of the U.S.A. The species name platanifolium refers to the leaves having a superficial resemblance to Platanus, although the degree of similarity is perhaps a challenge for the imagination, the name does indicate a Platanus or Acer look. They are generally 3 to 5 lobed and have a long petiole. Flowering occurs in cymes and the individual flowers resemble a very, very small honeysuckle flower, which are white. The fruit is a drupe but of those plants I have

Low Maintenance Plants and a Soil Mix for Roadside Planters in the Northeast©

Author: Nicholas Castrataro, Brian Maynard, William Johnson

PP: 511


The Rhode Island Department of Transportation and the University of Rhode Island are collaborating to develop low maintenance plant and soil combinations for use in bridge and bike path concrete planters in Providence, Rhode Island. Green roof plant and soil technologies combined with sub-irrigation are being tested in replicated concrete mesocosms (scaled-down versions of the actual planters). We are evaluating three mineral-based soil mixtures and 10 plant taxa selected from over 40 accessions. The goal of the work is to develop a planting scheme and soil mixture that offers a range of textures, colors, and multi-season interest, while requiring minimal maintenance and little or no supplemental irrigation.

Development of a Rooted Cutting Propagation Method for Prunus serotina©

Author: Paula M. Pijut, Carolina Espinosa

PP: 513


Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only native Prunus species (southeastern Canada and throughout the eastern United States) that is of high commercial value for timber and sawlog production. Black cherry wood is highly valued in North America for cabinets, furniture, fine veneer, and architectural woodwork. Hardwood lumber mills are constantly seeking high-quality sources of this fine hardwood species because stands of large, straight-stemmed black cherry trees are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Forest inventories conducted in the largest commercial range of black cherry (Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and New York) estimate the volume of black cherry growing stock on timberland at 120.6 million m3, with an average annual harvest of 1.4 million m3. Attack by several species of insects causes gum defects in black cherry, resulting in reduced timber quality, especially for veneer.

Vegetative or clonal reproduction of a commercially important hardwood

Missouri Gravel Bed and a Pot-in-Pot System Superior to White Polyethylene and Foam for Overwintering Syringa pubescens subsp. patula Liners©

Author: Steven D. Kirk, Chris J. Starbuck, J.W. Van Sambeek

PP: 516

The production of containerized nursery stock started in southern California because of its mild climate and long growing season (Whitcomb, 1987). As production of containerized stock moved into areas of the country with harsher climates, methods of overwintering were developed to protect plants from winter damage. Proper winter protection in the production of container-grown woody plants is crucial because a plant is no hardier than its root system (Patterson, 1936; Mathers, 2003). Unlike stems, roots exhibit little dormancy and can grow anytime soil temperatures permit (Romberger, 1963). Young roots tend to grow on the outside edge of the root ball in contact with the container wall. Because young roots are less hardy than mature roots, they are often the first to suffer winter injury (Mathers, 2003). When overwintering practices do not adequately protect young roots, new root regeneration in the spring is retarded resulting in plants that flush later and grow slower. To ensure that
Flower Buds for Container-Grown Hybrid Rhododendron©

Author: Richard E. Bir, Joseph L. Conner

PP: 522


Hybrid rhododendrons with flower buds or in flower are most attractive to retail customers. However, many cultivars do not readily produce flower buds on hybrid rhododendron plants in #3 and smaller containers. Bir and Conner (1998) reported increasing the number of flower buds per plant under growing conditions at multiple nurseries using plant growth regulators, but many growers remain reluctant to adopt new practices into their production system.

Traditionally, many North Carolina mountain growers have applied a phosphorus nutrition source in addition to normal controlled-release fertilizers to increase flower bud set on container-grown hybrid rhododendrons. This was based on unpublished research with field-grown rhododendrons conducted by Dr. J. E. Shelton in the 1970s (North Carolina State University, 455 Research Drive, Fletcher, North Carolina 28732).

A test was established to evaluate the effectiveness of Sumagic foliar sprays compared with top dressing 0-46-0 in

Photoperiod and Stock Plant Age Effects on Rhizome, Shoot, and Stolon Initiation From Achimenes Leaf-petiole Cuttings©

Author: Chad Miller, Mark Bridgen

PP: 523


Achimenes, commonly known as the hot water plant, magic plant, or monkey facedpansy, is member of the Gesneriaceae. There are 25 species native to subtropical forest regions of Central America and northern South America (Brickell and Zuk, 1996). Although Achimenes have been cultivated since the late 1700s, their popularity has waned and surged. Recently, however, there has been a renewed interest with newer cultivars. Achimenes are well suited for use as a pot plant, in mixed containers, and as a hanging basket (De Hertogh and Le Nard, 1993).

Flowers of Achimenes develop from the leaf axils and are born singly or in multiples. Flowers can be single or double. Achimenes bloom continuously throughout the summer in a wide spectrum of colors; reds, yellows, pinks, blues, violets, and whites. Corollas are fi ve lobed bilaterally symmetric or zygomorphic and are 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Flowers have short peduncles with a wide-spread calyx, and 5 stamens. The long, two-lobed

Assessing Christmas Tree Planting Procedures©

Author: Ricky M. Bates, James C. Sellmer, David A. Despot

PP: 529


Christmas tree growers in the Northeast United States utilize a range of methods for planting conifers, including motorized augers, mechanical planters, and hand planting with shovels or planting bars. Varying levels of weed control are employed prior to planting and supplemental irrigation is rarely used. Sub-optimal site topography and soil characteristics often increase the stress levels experienced by the stock during this critical establishment period. Tree mortality can be high under these conditions, particularly during drought years. Growers are increasingly adopting the use of commercial root treatments prior to planting in an effort to improve tree survival and growth. The objectives of this project were to (1) assess the impact of planting method on tree survival and growth, and (2) assess the impact of several commercial root treatments on tree survival and growth.

Medium Development, Micropropagation, and Acclimatization of Difficult-to-Propagate Hazelnut (Corylus sp.) Hybrids©

Author: Paul E. Read, Virginia I. Miller, Mehmet Nuri Nas

PP: 531

A series of hybrid hazelnuts have gained interest as potential alternative crops for farmers in mid-western U.S.A. These hybrids possess tolerance to the harsh winter temperatures of the region and are relatively disease resistant, but they are difficult to propagate by conventional methods. Successful micropropagation has been achieved in our laboratory for selected genotypes by employing a medium based in part on the composition of the hazelnut kernel (Nas and Read, 2004). Acclimatization and subsequent establishment in the field proved to initially be an obstacle, but direct rooting of the microcuttings in rehydrated compressed peat pellets under conditions of high humidity, moderate light, and temperature led to successful production of potted plants of 0.5 to 1 m in height. Use of direct rooting in special plastic containers, together with a regimen of dilute nutrient sprays has facilitated more efficient and rapid multiplication, resulting in improved potential for scaled-up acclimatization and field establishment of the micropropagated hazelnut hybrids. Field plantings have been made in several locations and are being evaluated for trueness to type, winter survival, disease tolerance, growth characteristics, and productivity.
Propagation and Acclimatization of ‘Norton’ Grapevine©

Author: Paul E. Read, Brant B. Bigger

PP: 535

Difficulty is often experienced by commercial propagators in propagating the ‘Norton’ grapevine (Vitis aestivalis, also known as ‘Cynthiana’) by cuttings, the normally employed method of grapevine multiplication. Therefore, we endeavored to propagate ‘Norton’ by micropropagation. Cultures were readily established in vitro by placing axillary buds taken from 3-year-old greenhousegrown potted vines on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4 µM benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mg thiamine per liter. When in vitro-derived axillar-derived axillary buds were cultured on various levels of BA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), excellent multiplication was obtained when 4 to 8 µM BA was included in the medium. Naphthaleneacetic acid had little effect on shoot number or number of nodes per shoot. Plantlets were simultaneously acclimated and rooted ex vitro in rehydrated compressed peat pellets (Jiffy-9). Rooting was nearly 100% and over 90% of rooted microcuttings were successfully established in the greenhouse and later transferred to the field.
Environmental Control©

Author: Kevin Harford

PP: 96


For a plant to achieve optimum growth and the meeting of all the plant's requirements, a number of environmental requirements must be in balance. This balance changes for different types of plants, therefore environmental control is essential for profitable production. Plants require management of light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients.

Container Crop Response to Two Spent-Mushroom-Compost Media Treated with Acid-Reaction Chemicals©

Author: Calvin Chong, Danny L. Rinker

PP: 538

During the past 20 years, researchers have been advocating the use of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in potting mixes (Chong and Rinker, 1994). The high pH (8.0–8.2 with 5.5–7.0 recommended for most crops) of Ontario generated SMC make this organic byproduct less desirable for use as amendment in potting mixes. Plant response to pH reduction in initially high pH media has been reviewed by Bishko et al. (2003) and Fisher et al. (2003). This study compared the response of three container-grown species to two SMC-amended mixes treated with nitric acid and various rates of sulfur.

Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri ‘Coral Bounty’), forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia ‘Lynwood), and weigela (Weigela ‘Nana Variegata’) were grown from plug-rooted liners through one season in #2 containers filled with either 2 SMS : 1 sawdust or 1 SMS : 2 sawdust (v/v). Each mix was pre-incorporated with powdered sulfur at rates of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 kg·m-3. Plants were trickle-irrigated with 2 L of water per day

Three Waste-Derived Composts Compared in Container Substrates©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 541

Organic wastes and composts are increasingly being advocated for use in potting mixes (Chong, 1999; Hoitink, 1999). Before these materials can become widely accepted by commercial producers, it is important to demonstrate efficacy in a wider assortment of usage and mix ratios.

This study compared the response of dogwood (Cornus alba ‘Sibirica’), forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia ‘Lynwood’), and weigela (Weigela ‘Nana Variegata’) grown for one season in #2 containers filled with one of 18 waste-derived substrates. The substrates were formulated from spent mushroom compost (SMC), turkey litter compost (TLC), and municipal waste compost (MWC), each at rates of 25%, 33%, and 50% (by volume) mixed respectively with 50%, 33%, and 25% paper mill sludge (PMS), plus 25%, 33%, and 25% of a supplemental ingredient [bark (B) or sand (S)]. There were also two control mixes: 100% bark and 80 bark : 15 peat : 5 topsoil (by volume), a proven nursery mix. Nutricote 16-10-10 T140 controlled-release fertilizer

My Trip to Denmark and Sweden as the 2003 Exchange Propagator©

Author: Stephanie Solt

PP: 545

Imagine my amazement when I received a call from Margot Bridgen, Eastern Region Executive Secretary, telling me that I had been selected to be the Exchange Propagator to Scandinavia for 2003! What an honor! Many thanks to the Eastern Region Board of Directors! What follows is an account of my trip to Denmark and Sweden in September of 2003.

Following Margot's phone call, I received an e-mail from Lars Sangaard, Secretary/Treasurer of I.P.P.S. Scandinavian Region, asking me what I wanted to see and do. Since I am relatively new to the art of propagation, I asked to see a broad representation of what Denmark had to offer. In addition, I wanted to see gardens since part of my job entails garden design. Finally, I wanted to learn about Denmark's history, culture, and people. Many thanks to Lars for patiently answering all my questions!

We (my husband and I) left Washington, D.C. at 7:30 PM 13 Sept. and flew overnight on Scandinavian Airlines to Copenhagen, arriving early Sunday morning 14

Establishment of Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) from Seed and Rhizome©

Author: Michael Knudson, Nancy Jensen, Rachel Bergsagel, Wayne Duckwitz,

PP: 550


Prairie cordgrass is a warm-season perennial grass. It is native to most of the prairies of most of the United States and Canada. It has an average height of 3 to 8 ft. The leaf blades, 3 to 13 mm wide and up to 30 inches long, are coarse, very tough, and thick. The margins of the leaf are serrated and sharp. Stems are stiff. It is strongly rhizomatous with very tough, scaly rhizomes. Seedheads are composed of 10 to 20 spikes attached to the main stem. Each spike has up to 40 spikelets, all-growing in two rows on the side of the spike away from the stem. The seeds are fl at, paper-like with barbed awns that attach firmly to fur or fabric. There are approximately 183,000 seeds per pound. It is also known as ripgut, cordgrass, marsh grass, slough grass, fresh water cordgrass, and broadleaf.

Use of Humidifan for Propagation of Softwood Cuttings©

Author: Timothy Mercer, Julia Fiske

PP: 553


New England Wetland Plants (NEWP) is a native plant nursery in Amherst, Massachusetts. New England Wetland Plants propagates almost all-native plant material sold from local native sources. In the early stages of the nursery it was apparent rooting softwood cuttings would be a method of propagating many shrubs. Either a fog or mist system was to be installed within a peaked poly house with roll-up sides. Due to water constraints, the volume of water required to run a mist system would be problematic. Research showed the potential advantages of rooting success using fog. In 1996, a Jaybird Humidifan was purchased and installed.

The goal with fog is to maintain a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 100% without saturating the media. Fluctuations in outside temperature, humidity, and cloud cover can effect the fog chamber environment throughout the day. If the fog is not monitored and humidity and temperature not optimally maintained, the results can be catastrophic. Entire

The Forest Nurseries in Northeast China©

Author: Shen Hailong

PP: 555

The forest region of northeast China includes the forest areas of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning Provinces and the forest area in the eastern part of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. It is the largest forest region and the most important timber production base in China.

There are very good forest nurseries in this forest region of Northeast China. It is said that if you want to find good nurseries in China, go to the forest region of Northeast China. There are 83 forest industry enterprises (state-owned and managed) in the forest region of Northeast China and each county in the region has its own forestry bureau. Each enterprise and forestry bureau holds one or two standard nurseries with relatively good facilities. For example, Hongwei Nursery in Lushuihe Forest Industry Enterprise in Jilin Province houses a small meteorological station; facilities for employee's rest such as a small park; and rooms for stay and short rest; facilities for seedling growing such as seed cellar,


Author: Diane Dunn, Bob Smart, Bill Turk

PP: 563


The 29th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society-Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Hyatt Regency, Greenville, South Carolina, with President Diane Dunn presiding.

Color Explosion: Growing Azaleas From Seed©

Author: Robert (Buddy) Lee

PP: 564


Evergreen azaleas can be grown easily from seed. Although the process can be meticulous and time consuming, it can be extremely rewarding. There are no absolute correct or concrete guidelines for this process; however, there are accepted procedures and conditions that can be successfully incorporated into most situations.

Plant-Water Relationships for Woody Ornamental Crops©

Author: Eric Johnson

PP: 566


The management of plant-water relationships has a tremendous bearing on the development of adventitious roots and the subsequent development of a healthy root system. Plant-water relationships and their specific impact on rooting of cuttings have been studied for over a hundred years with contributions that have greatly changed the way we propagate plants today. With the development of intermittent mist systems and more sophisticated environmental controls, plant propagators are realizing higher levels of rooting success leading to the development and introduction of many new plant cultivars, formerly considered impossible or economically unviable to propagate. Proper management of plant-water relationships entails maintaining a proper balance between air and water in the propagation media, on the leaf surface, and in the environment surrounding the cutting. Of course, the physiology is much more complex, but for the purposes of this study, we will look at the direct

Solutions for Pot-in-Pot Root Escape, Root Circling, and Heat Shock at Harvest©

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Andy C. Whitcomb

PP: 573


Heat, cold, and blow-over have been major problems plaguing plant production in the unnatural environment of man-made containers. In their natural environment, roots are protected by the insulating effect of soil and surface debris. Sensitivity to temperature extremes by plant roots appears to vary only modestly among species. Developing the pot-in-pot system (P+P) by installing a "socket" pot in the ground and inserting a production pot inside — seemed the golden solution for insulating container rootballs from temperature extremes. However, in many locations, P+P has turned out to be more akin to iron pyrites.

The pot-in-pot system was first tried with high expectations starting in 1973 (Hogan et al., 1974). Most tree species grew well a clay loam or a sandy clay loam soil. However, after two growing seasons with extensive rain periods, initial P+P studies ended with many dead plants. So P+P was written off as a good idea that did not work. The concept next surfaced, when

Looking at Controlled Environments with a Focus on Europe©

Author: Vince Wylaars

PP: 101


Our experience with controlled environments started 7 to 8 years ago. The essence of it was that we wanted to remove the hassle of remembering and forgetting to open the vents as the temperature changed through the day. We installed an environment- control computer in one of our series of tunnel houses and also installed weather stations outdoors to record information on rain, wind, light, humidity, and indoors for light, carbon dioxide, temperature, and humidity. The computer controlled the heating, lighting, fogging, and ventilation equipment.

Since then we have traveled extensively to get ideas about new technology. We saw the sophistication of environmental control systems that both European and American growers were using and believed that they had a place within our company. This technology has been developed due to several factors. I believe it has arisen from the need to grow higher quality products to service a more demanding market. Secondly mechanical

×Chitalpa: The Next Generation©

Author: Richard T. Olsen, Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 578

Hybridizations between distantly related taxa are often sterile and are a barrier in breeding programs for the development of improved hybrids. One way to overcome this barrier is through the development of allopolyploid forms of sterile hybrids. In this study, we compared the pollen fertility and reproductive behavior of diploid ×Chitalpa tashkentensis Elias & Wis. ‘Pink Dawn’ and induced allopolyploid ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’. Pollen fertility was analyzed using aceto-carmine staining techniques and pollen germination tests. Female fertility was assessed through a series of controlled crosses between diploid and allopolyploid ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’ and diploid Catalpa and Chilopsis. Diploid ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’ were both male and female sterile, whereas allopolyploid ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’ had pollen germination equal to that of Catalpa and Chilopsis. Allopolyploid ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’ also demonstrated restored female fertility as seen in successful pollinations and fruit set. The restoration of fertility in ×C. tashkentensis ‘Pink Dawn’ allows for the development of a breeding program for the introduction of new and improved cultivars of ×Chitalpa.
Starch Utilization During In Vitro Rooting of Easy- and Difficult-to-Acclimatize Sea Oats (Uniola paniculata) Genotypes©

Author: Carmen Valero-Aracama, Michael E. Kane, Nancy L. Philman, Sandra

PP: 582

Starch content was evaluated during microcutting in vitro rooting of an easy- (EK 16-3) and difficult-to-acclimatize (EK 11-1) genotypes of Uniola paniculata L. (sea oats), a native dune species of the southeastern U.S.A. Excluding Week 0, EK 11-1 plantlets exhibited greater shoot starch reserves than EK 16-3. Starch content was lower in roots than in shoots at Weeks 6 and 9 and, during root elongation, root starch content decreased in both genotypes. The difficult-to-acclimatize genotype (EK 11-1) exhibited a lower shoot to root dry weight ratio and reduced leaf development compared to the easy-to-acclimatize genotype (EK 16-3). Sugar and starch reserves are reported to be critical for successful acclimatization. However, these results indicate that, while starch content is higher in EK 11-1 plantlets, it is insufficient for successful ex vitro acclimatization. This may be the result of a higher energy requirement of the extensive root system and the absence of photosynthetically competent leaves ex vitro.
Seeking and Sharing Ideas from the Orient©

Author: Ken Tilt, Fred Garrett

PP: 587


In the spirit of IPPS, this article shares some of our experiences as IPPS-SRNA international representatives to the Japanese International Plant Propagator's Conference, in Sept. 2004. This was a working trip to do the business of the IPPS, but it is customary for the host country to share their industry and culture with their guests. Representatives have an opportunity to get to know each other in an informal setting. They discuss opportunities and society concerns on the bus and at meals before entering into formal dialogue during the IPPS International Board meeting. It is a great format that serves the IPPS well.

Offshoot Production of Perennial Groundcovers in Porous Ceramic©

Author: Glenn B. Fain

PP: 591


Many groundcover plants such as Ophiopogon, Hosta, Hemerocallis, and Liriope are marketed and sold as bare-root divisions. Dividing and barerooting these plants is a labor-intensive process, whether container grown or field grown. Profile™ (Profile products LLC, Buffalo Grove, Illinois) is a calcined clay product whose base minerals are illite clay and amorphous silica. The raw product is heated in a kiln at 1500 °C+, which permanently changes the base minerals to a stable calcined clay (also called porous ceramic) particle. The resulting particles have approximately 74% pore space with half of the pores available for capillary (water holding), and the remaining half for noncapillary (air and drainage) pores. The final product also has a cation exchange capacity of 33 meq/100 g. These products have been used for many years as soil amendments in golf course greens to improve soil structure. There have been comprehensive reviews on these and other soil

Photography Tips for Those Involved in the Nursery Industry©

Author: Todd Davis

PP: 594


The need for quality photography is often overlooked by the nursery industry. Photos are sometimes the only way that growers can show products to their clients. So it's obvious that having good pictures is important. As the industry increases its focus on marketing, the need for good photography intensifies. You can't produce attractive catalogs, tags, banners, posters, etc., without good photography. By learning the basics of good photography and how to shoot good plant photos, nursery growers can, indirectly, improve sales and their bottom lines.

Waste is a Terrible Thing to Mind©

Author: Jeff L. Sibley, David M. Cole, Wenliang Lu

PP: 596


Selection of substrates for horticultural use is often based on cost, availability, ease of handling, and consistency. Peat and pine or other types of bark are common substrate components for nursery growers in the United States. Availability and cost of peat and pinebark is greatly affected by the timber industry, transportation, and/or environmental conditions such that the supply can be inconsistent or unpredictable. Future supply of pinebark is predicted to be further constricted as papermills relocate outside of the United States or to regions of the country where freight costs will prohibit nursery use of the material. Additionally, pinebark use as a biofuel is increasing as EPA regulations requiring reduction in fossil fuels hit full stride early next year (Lu et al., 2004).

The phrase "One man's waste is another man's treasure" certainly applies to materials we find useful for various horticultural applications. Alternative products as substrate blending components

Population Control: Developing Non-Invasive Nursery Crops©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 604


There has been considerable debate over the impact of invasive exotic plants and the best approach to address this problem. The problem, briefly, is that some nonnative plants are weedy to the point of being invasive, i.e., they naturalize over large areas, displace native plants, and disrupt natural ecosystems (Westbrook, 1998). There are many examples of exotic plants that fit this category. Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) has displaced the native shrub layer in 1 million ha (2.4 million acres) in the Southern United States. Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) has invaded 404,700 ha (1 million acres) in Oregon alone.

The nursery industry has been a significant contributor of invasive plants. Of 235 invasive woody plants in North America, it has been estimated that 85% were introduced for ornamental and landscape purposes (Reichard and Hamilton, 1997). Some of these species are still being produced and sold. Concern and awareness over the threat of invasive plants has

Propagation of Live Oaks©

Author: Charles Hudson

PP: 608


Propagation of live oaks by cuttings is a relatively new practice and can be very time consuming. Initial selections of cultivars may not yield high enough percentages to justify production. Adventitious root development may not occur at the desired rate, and sometimes not at all. Evaluations of these cultivars, starting from cutting propagation systems, can take several years.

Minimizing Nutrient and Pesticide Exodus: A Collaborative Nursery and Floriculture Initiative Research Project©

Author: Ted Whitwell

PP: 610


Production of high quality landscape and greenhouse container plants in the least amount of time with minimal costs necessitates the use of significant quantities of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. The availability of abundant water and nutrients provides optimum growing conditions for landscape plants and weeds, insects, and diseases. The high densities of a single plant species can result in rapid and devastating outbreaks of pests. While some progress in adopting IPM strategies are evident, weed, disease, and insect control measures are too often used on calendar- based schedules. Applications of pesticides are targeted at the prevention rather than the control of pests as economical damaging thresholds are very low for container-grown plants.

Plant production surfaces at container nurseries are commonly covered with plastics, fabric, or gravel. These surfaces facilitate placement and handling of containers and also function as a weed barrier. All ground covers

Removing Nutrients and Pesticides from Runoff Water Using Natural Systems©

Author: Milton D. Taylor, Sarah A. White, Stephen J. Klaine , Robert F.

PP: 614


Landscape plant and greenhouse production rely on an adequate supply of nutrients to achieve profitable growth rates and the application of supplemental chemicals in the form of pesticides and growth regulators to control insect pests and plant fungal and bacterial pathogens and to guide plant development. Currently, only the use of pesticides and some growth regulators, e.g., daminozide, are under regulatory agency directed use and disposal guidelines. However in the near future, state environmental agencies are likely to come under increased pressure from federal agencies and special interest groups to further improve water quality. Pollutants originating from horticultural practices will include not only pesticides and growth regulators but will include the nitrogen and phosphorus components from fertilizers. Today, horticultural enterprises are considered non-point sources of pollutants and thus have fewer regulatory requirements to meet compared to point source

Environment Harmony: The Greenhouse Environment as it Affects Pot Roses and Other Indoor Ornamentals©

Author: Brian Frost

PP: 102


Several years ago Rainbow Park Nurseries decided to grow indoor potted roses. The challenge was to produce a living bouquet of flowers. We began in our existing fiberglass clad greenhouse, equipped with gull-wing ridge vents. These provided only 15% of the floor area as venting. The house had fixed shading and an external sprayon coating to take the heat out of summer. Heating was provided by gas-fired hot air and supplementary high intensity discharge (HID) lighting was available as needed. Benching was fixed with capillary matting, but mainly overhead hand watering and liquid feeding was required. The house also had low gutter and roof height.

The 2005 Gainesville Florida Meeting of the IPPS Southern Region of North America©

Author: Alan Shapiro

PP: 618


As Local Site Chair, I want to review the 30th Annual Meeting of the IPPS Southern Region of North America, which will be held 23–26 Oct. 2005 in Gainesville, Florida. Gainesville is a college town in North Central Florida and home of the University of Florida Fighting Gators. It sits 70 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean and 53 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. We're 2 hours from Tallahassee, Orlando, and Tampa, and 90 min from Jacksonville. Ocala is just 35 miles south of us.

Alachua County is an area of rolling hills, giant moss-draped live oaks, tall loblolly pines, hay fields, lakes, and rivers. We've got cows and horse farms, corn and watermelon fields, and we have students — lots of them — with over 50,000 at the University of Florida alone.

Because we are a young vibrant community, there are many things to do in Gainesville. You can tube the Ichetucknee River, scuba dive in underwater caves at Ginnie Springs, sail or fish on Newnan's Lake, hike or bike the

Tree Production at Rennerwood©

Author: Susan Smith

PP: 622


The original 28-ha (68-acre) farm was purchased in Tennessee Colony in 1989. Tree propagation was originally done in seven 7 × 29 m (12 × 96 ft) cold frame houses. Rennerwood now occupies 152 ha (375 acres), which includes a 12-ha (30-acre) lake. Approximately 61 ha (150 acres) are currently under cultivation, with 118 greenhouses producing 3.5 million liners annually and field pads with 500,000 3.8- and 11-L (1- and 3-gal) containers.

Striving to produce a high quality liner, Rennerwood began a consulting relationship with Dr. Carl Whitcomb that continues through today.

We employ close to 60 employees annually of which a large majority are here on H2B work visas. Many of our employees have been with us for close to 8 years. We provide 75% of their health and dental insurance, along with holiday and vacation benefits. Annual bonuses are paid based on performance.

We ship liners all over the United States and have even shipped to Japan. Because of the wide range of

Clay as a Pine Bark Substrate Amendment: Past, Present, and Future©

Author: James S. Owen, Jr., Ted E. Bilderback, Stuart L. Warren

PP: 625

Soilless substrates are used extensively nationwide to produce containerized ornamental crops. The primary substrate components in the southeastern United States nursery industry are pine bark and sand. This porous, primarily inert, media provides the physical characteristics for maximum plant growth. A salable plant is quickly produced in a pine bark substrate in conjunction with high nutrient and water inputs. However, nutrient-and water-use efficiencies for these inputs are low due to the inert porous nature of the substrate. Water- and nutrient-use efficiency is a concern for growers due to increasing local, state, and federal regulation for water use, water availability, and regional environmental impact.

Substrate amendments increase bulk density, available water, air space, or nutrient retention. Amendments may also be used to replace limited substrate components, such as nonrenewable resources, i.e., peat moss. Substrate amendments that offer these attributes have been

Metallic Flea Beetle Feeding Preferences on Crape Myrtle©

Author: David W. Boyd, Jr., Cecil Pounders

PP: 628

Flea beetles in the genus Altica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are primarily a problem on crape myrtle in the nursery and not of established landscape plantings. The few published accounts of this beetle (Mizell and Knox, 1993; Byers, 1997) mention the beetle as a pest in the South. Flea beetles can cause sudden, unpredictable, and dramatic defoliation of new growth during commercial production in a region from Oklahoma to Virginia and south to the Gulf Coast.

Many flea beetle species feed on plants in only one or two families. The adult flea beetle is believed to migrate from wild herbaceous hosts in the Onagraceae and Lythraceae families. Several weed species that may grow in or around crape myrtle production nurseries can harbor flea beetles ([e.g., primroses (Oenothera sp. and Ludwigia sp.)] (Schultz et al., 2001; Pettis et al., 2004).

Female flea beetles lay their small yellow-orange eggs on the lower surfaces of the leaves of wild hosts. The larvae hatch and feed on leaf

In Vitro Regeneration of Cladrastis kentukea©

Author: Denita Hadziabdic, Robert N. Trigiano, Stephen Garton, Mark T. W

PP: 632

Axillary buds from a single Cladrastis kentukea tree were cultured initially on two media, Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS), containing 0, 1, 2, or 4 µM 6–benzylaminopurine (BA). Cultures were transferred to fresh media every 4 weeks. Elongated shoots were harvested after 39 weeks and transferred to half-strength MS medium supplemented with following concentrations of IBA: 0, 3, 30, 100, and 300 µM. The most (75%) explants rooted when exposed to the highest concentrations of IBA. Although this treatment yielded the most rooted plantlets, there was significantly higher terminal meristem abortion compared to other treatments. There were no statistical differences between the numbers of roots and total root length among all treatments.
Container and Field Evaluation of Gaillardia pulchella Production in Compost-based Media©

Author: Helen E. Danielson, Sandra B. Wilson, Richard K. Schoellhorn, Pe

PP: 637

Medium composition effects on growth of blanketflower (Gaillardia pulchella) Foug. were determined during container (greenhouse) production and subsequent field plantings. At 10 weeks, plant height and shoot dry weight were greater for plants grown in the compost-based medium or compost alone than for plants grown in the peat-based medium. However, incorporation of compost in the medium did not affect growth index, leaf greenness, flowering, root mass, or post performance in the landscape.
Liverwort Control in Nursery Production©

Author: Adam Newby, Charles Gilliam, James Altland

PP: 643


Marchantia polymorpha, commonly known as liverwort, is an emerging weed problem in propagation systems throughout the southeast U.S.A. While it has historically been reported as a problem in cooler regions of the Northeast and Pacific Northwest U.S.A., reports from Florida and Alabama indicate it is well adapted to the propagation environment in warmer climates.

Liverwort is a primitive plant that lacks stems, leaves, and a vascular system. It is identified by leaf-like structures known as thalli that grow in prostrate form along the surface. It has two alternate life cycles: a gametophytic and a sporophytic life cycle. In the sporophytic stage, a sporophyte is formed when archegonia fertilize antheridia (each borne on stalks). As many as 7 million spores per plant are developed and released. Spores give rise to the gametophytic life cycle in which the plant propagates asexually by producing gemma cups. Each gemma cup gives rise to numerous gemmae that are released to

Postemergence Oxalis Control with Diuron: Minimizing Crop Injury with Timely Irrigation©

Author: B.M. Richardson, C.H. Gilliam, G.R. Wehtje, G.B. Fain

PP: 647


Preemergence herbicides and hand weeding are the two primary methods of weed control in container nursery crops. However, supplemental hand weeding is usually required to maintain sufficient control. With increasing labor costs growers are seeking alternatives. Postemergence herbicides could provide a viable option for reducing labor costs. In the past, growers would not consider postemergence herbicides as an "over-the-top" application because of concerns of crop injury. Now many growers are willing to accept some injury if the injury occurs early in the crop cycle, the crop recovers quickly, and the herbicide application controls at least one major weed species. Recent studies have shown isoxaben (Gallery) 1.12 kg ai/ha (1 lb ai/A) to provide effective postemergence control of bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) (Altland et al., 2000); however control was more difficult with increased maturity of bittercress (Altland et al., 2000).

Oxalis (Oxalis stricta L.

Propagating Betula nigra Shiloh Splash PPAF River Birch©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney, Thomas A. Eaker, Joel A. Mowrey, Nathan P. Lyn

PP: 651


Shiloh Splash PPAF river birch (Betula nigra Shiloh Splash PPAF river birch) is a new, variegated cultivar of river birch that was discovered by Mr. John Allen at Shiloh Nursery in Harmony, North Carolina. This cultivar is distinct with its attractive leaf variegation (an ivory-yellow margin and green center) and smaller size and growth rate compared to typical river birch. Shiloh Splash PPAF river birch can be used as a shrub, hedge, or small tree. The purpose of this project was to develop propagation protocols to optimize rooting of stem cuttings.

Water: A South African Perspective©

Author: Elsa S. du Toit, David R. du Toit

PP: 104


South Africa (SA) is a very diverse country. This is true for both its population and geographic environment. As a new democracy, it faces a wide range of challenges. With this in mind, it is understandable that water and water management must be seen in a holistic view. To get a true picture of water in South Africa, it is important to understand the socio-economic situation when considering the challenges that face this new democracy.

A Current Overview of Water in Australia©

Author: David Cliffe

PP: 110


Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world with water consumption increasing dramatically as high population growth and the increased needs of irrigators continue to impact on the demand for a share of a scarce resource. This paper attempts to briefly outline the current situation in regard to supply and demand across all sectors of the community and links with a subsequent paper regarding pending inevitable changes to legislation that will impact on Australian nurseries.

Water in Australia: A Nursery Industry Perspective©

Author: Robert Chin

PP: 111


Fresh, useable water is one of Australia's, New Zealand's, and in fact the world's most precious resources. This is a given. Water is crucial in nursery production and it is a resource that we as an industry need to be aware of and conserve. We need to be "water wise", but how do we do this without sacrificing plant quality and product

Phytosanitary Regulations Regarding Imports and Exports: The Role of the South African Department of Agriculture©

Author: Corné Hattingh

PP: 48

The South African Department of Agriculture (SA DOA) is the national enquiry point of South Africa for the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (WTO-SPS Agreement). In addition, the Directorate Plant Health is the National Contact Point for the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Members of the WTO-SPS may protect the plants within their territories from harmful foreign pests for instance by setting phytosanitary regulations. South Africa complies with its WTO-SPS obligations by harmonizing its phytosanitary regulations with international standards and basing import regulations on pest risk analysis (PRA) information provided that these are consistent with the WTO-SPS Agreement.
Irrigation Systems for Soilless Media©

Author: Eldad Dolev

PP: 119


Greenhouse irrigation and cooling technologies for intensive growing are highly specialised. With growers under increasing pressure to deliver higher quality crops, to reduce costs by shortening the growth cycle, and to be able to market it on time all around the world, an irrigation strategy must be robust and efficient in order to maintain the growers' competitiveness and profitability.

Propagation of Ferns from Spores©

Author: Dolphas Wihongi

PP: 122


It is an honour to have this opportunity to share with you my findings over the past 5 years in the propagation of ferns from spores. My passion for plants began in childhood when I would work alongside my father in the garden. I have fond memories of sharing not only in the creating of our own little paradise but also the satisfaction in completing each little scene. This joy of fulfillment through creative imagination has stayed with me and about 5 years ago, shortly after starting my first job in the plant industry at Lyndale Nurseries, I received the creative challenge I could not refuse.

It happened one day after work while cutting the boss's hair, Malcolm Woolmore. He asked if I had ever thought of growing ferns, as there was a large gap in the market for them. It was like music to my ears. Immediately my imagination sprang into overdrive and I began experimenting; collecting spores, media, and designing several germination units.

With the assistance of the I.P.P.S

New Plants from Around the World©

Author: Dick Alderden

PP: 124


My name is Dick Alderden; I come from Holland and have businesses in both Holland and Thailand. I am glad to tell you something about my job, because I absolutely love it.

I am scouting the world trying to find new or unknown plant species, which can be developed for the market. I want to provide innovation in the market by making new and previously unknown species available to consumers. My job is completely different from plant breeders who are busy trying to breed new colours from known species, like roses, chrysanthemum, and others. For example; with chrysanthemum, about 270 "new" yellow colours have been bred in Holland since after World War II. The fact is no consumer has any real interest in there being so many yellow colours in the market. However, new cultivars can make the production time shorter, optimize quality, and better the vase-life. There are a lot of worthwhile reasons to increase quality through breeding and selection.

But to the consumers yellow is

Clematis Propagation©

Author: Carole A. Scholes

PP: 131


Much valuable plant material is often wasted when clematis are propagated only in the early to mid season. Experiments were carried out and two methods have been adopted to utilize normally discarded material. It was found that flowering wood on compound dichasial cymes was almost as easy to strike as the earlier season's softwood, and useful struck cuttings, which grew away rapidly either in the current season, or the following spring were successfully produced.

In the second method described wood that would otherwise be pruned off and discarded in winter from potted stock plants is used in a modified repotting method to produce easily removed, layered plants in the stock plant pot. The stock plant is undamaged, and regenerates in spring from the base as usual for the material required for propagation in the normal method.

Three-dimensional Air Root Pruning©

Author: Peter Lawton

PP: 135

What is three-dimensional (3D) air root pruning?

Root tips growing outward and downward are guided to open-ended cusps in the container wall [and floor] and desiccate (Whitcomb, 1988). Several new roots emerge and grow to adjoining cusps and desiccate. The process repeats again and again. The rate of root tip development becomes exponential until all of the media pore space is used up. The growth of roots and the above ground tree reach equilibrium.

The Australian market for advanced trees is about 1 million trees per year that sell for about AUD$100 million. Advanced trees are 2 to 5 years old. The use of 3D air root pruning is a well-established practice in growing advanced trees. Vending bags are lowering grower costs.

Some Aspects of Stock Plant Management©

Author: Jim Rumbal

PP: 137


For a nursery to have a good stock of mother plants is like having money in the bank. An asset of guaranteed vegetative stock material gives assurance, for on-going production and continuity of supply to customers. A wide range of stock plants gives production a choice of diversity, flexibility, and peace of mind for planning ahead, and also allows the luxury of variety and change.

To yield high quality propagation material however, the mother plants have to be managed correctly to give best results, if mismanaged or neglected the mother plants can quickly become a valueless liability. At Duncan and Davies, depending on genera and species, our mother plants generally can be divided into four basic groups:

  1. In-ground, longer-term, permanent stock, planted out in stock bed rows.
  2. In-ground, short-term, nursery row, temporary stock.
  3. Containerised temporary stock:
  • From saleable potted crops where conformation trimming can yield useful cutting material or
Stock Management — The Camellia Way©

Author: Geoff Atkinson

PP: 143


With the resurgence of the Camellia, it has become far more important for us as propagators to care for, and correctly maintain our mother plants, to try and maximize production. From such simple things as the soil or mix that they grow in, to the careful timing of our pruning and cuttings, as these will all leave an everlasting effect on our stock.

Gastrodia: An Initial Evaluation of the Market Potential of This Genus in New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas E. Burgess, N. Perry

PP: 145


The genus Gastrodia, a member of the Orchidaceae family, includes over 30 species of terrestrial, deciduous, saprophytic plants native to Asia and the Western Pacific rim, from Japan through to Asia to India, and New Guinea, Australia, and New Zealand. In Asian medicine, Gastrodia (Gastrodia elata Blume) is highly regarded as a superior herb that can be taken for long periods to generally promote good health. Gastrodia elata grows throughout China and Korea, generally at altitudes above 300 m. Its large, tuberous, starchy rhizomes are used as a food and medicinal herb. Over the years, G. elata has been extensively harvested from the wild and is now an endangered species (He and Sheng, 1997). As a result, extensive research has been carried out to develop intensive cultivation techniques (Xu and Guo, 2000) and to a lesser extent to find substitute products (Dharmananda, 2002). New Zealand has three native species: G. cunninghamii Hook. f. and G. minor Petrie, which are

I.P.P.S. Stewart Island Field Trip©

Author: Robin Pagan

PP: 149


This trip was organised by the New Zealand branch of the I.P.P.S., with 40 people attending from throughout New Zealand, from Friday, 20 Feb. to Monday, 23 Feb. 2004.

As people arrived in Invercargill, they assembled at midday on Friday at Diack's Nursery, from where they went to visit a garden of threatened plants managed by Brian and Chris Rance at Otatara. The Rances have for many years been collecting plants which are vulnerable in the wild, and also run a community nursery where individuals and interest groups can come along and propagate their own plants for revegetating their land. The group then visited the Invercargill City Council Nursery to look at plants collected from the sub Antarctic Islands 12 months ago on an I.P.P.S. field trip to Auckland and Campbell Islands. At this stage, the weather was sufficiently stormy for people to start wondering if they would be able to make the crossing to Stewart Island but, at the departure terminal in Bluff, it became

The Role and Performance of Tissue-Cultured Plants at FitzGerald Nurseries©

Author: Pat FitzGerald

PP: 153


FitzGerald Nurseries has been weaning and growing plants propagated by tissue culture for the last 4 years and in this paper we aim to share our working knowledge of the facilities, staff, handling, and growing methods and overall philosophy required. Using tissue-cultured plants is a challenge but we have learned enough to lead us to believe there is a long-term future for them in our business.

Pest Risk Analysis to Determine Regulated Nonquarantine and Quarantine Pests©

Author: Jantje Moen

PP: 51

As prescribed by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is the process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of the phytosanitary measures to be taken against it. The process of PRA on plant pests is described for the purpose of preparing phytosanitary regulations by the South African National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO). This process is used to determine the regulated pests and their management options. The procedures followed in South Africa are predominantly based on ISPM Pub No. 2 (1996), International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) Pub No. 11 (2003), and ISPM Pub No. 1 (1995).
Micropropagation and Growth Regulation of Salvia greggii Variegated©

Author: Sinead Phelan, Alan Hunter Gerry Douglas

PP: 157

Micropropagation and growth regulator treatments have the potential to produce dense, compact Salvia greggii variegated commercially. We identified suitable media for shoot proliferation and rooting and studied the effects of paclobutrazol and gibberellic acid on shoot and internode length.

We achieved 100% rooting with explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 IBA. Survival of explants on weaning was 93% to 100%. High concentration of paclobutrazol in vitro reduced both the internode length and number of nodes produced per shoot. After weaning, treated shoots were not significantly shorter than those untreated.

For glasshouse-grown plants, paclobutrazol drenches significantly reduced both plant height and internode length and increased bud break but did not affect the number of nodes produced. The maximum loss of variegation was 19% in all treated plants.

Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae as a Biological Control of Vine Weevil Larvae in Growing Media©

Author: Munoo Prasad, F. Shah, Tariq Butt

PP: 163

We tested the efficacy of the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275, for the control of black vine weevil on a range of plant species and three sorts of peat growing media. Two different application methods (drench or pre-mix) and two different doses (1 × 108 conidia or 1 × 1010 conidia per litre of growing medium) were assessed. Efficacy was compared with imidacloprid, a widely used synthetic insecticide. The higher dose rate was as effective as imidacloprid for a wide range of plant species including ornamentals, strawberry, and hardy nursery stock. It was also effective in all three growing media and was effective whether applied as a drench (70%–95% control) or pre-mixed (60%–90% control) into growing media. The lower rate was not effective.
Using Composted Green Waste Materials in Growing Media©

Author: Michael J. Maher, Munoo Prasad

PP: 169

We studied the effects of mixing composted green waste (CGW) with peat on the chemical, physical, and microbial properties of the resulting growing media and on the performance of plants grown in it. Composted green waste increased the media's pH, EC, and K and bulk density and total bacterial and fungal counts. Total porosity and easily available water were reduced. The addition of young CGW to peat resulted in increased biodegradability of the peat, particularly in peat of low lignin content. Satisfactory tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings were grown in media containing up to 25% CGW. Tomato seedlings grown in compost derived from a mixture of CGW, sawdust, and spent brewer's black grain, weighed 10% less than those grown in peat. Tomato seedlings grown in a 1 compost : 1 peat (v/v) mixture weighed 8% less than those grown in peat.
Compost Teas and Crop Quality in Nursery Stock©

Author: Audrey Litterick, Christine Watson, Phil Wallace, Martin Wood

PP: 174

Compost teas and extracts are defined and their effects on the health of crops are examined with examples from recent scientific literature. Available information on the safety and efficacy of compost teas is discussed and priorities for research to develop safe effective compost teas for use in crop production systems are outlined.
The Importance of Sustainable Inputs in Plant Production©

Author: Bill Riley

PP: 178


Horticulture should be an environmentally beneficial industry but is it? Are horticultural businesses always operated with environmental awareness?

The industry's customers perceive growers as producers of products with a good environmental image. We must do all we can to propagate and grow this fragile image. "Environmental friendliness" is a vital part of our products' appeal.

Growers need to look in detail at the impacts production processes have on the environment in the widest possible way, including use of utility supplies such as energy and water but this paper concentrates on some of the more unique horticultural inputs.

The Effect of European Union Pesticide Legislation in Ireland©

Author: Anne-Marie Dillon

PP: 180


The Pesticide Control Service (PCS) of the Department of Agriculture and Food is responsible for developing and implementing the regulatory systems in Ireland for plant protection products (PPPs) and biocidal products (BPs). It also implements regulations controlling pesticide residues in food.

Plant protection products may be herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, molluscicides, growth regulators, etc. intended for use in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, home gardens, and amenity areas, on stored plant products and on land not intended for cropping. Biocidal products are substances intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, prevent the action of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means. There are 23 different biocidal product types, including wood preservatives, antifouling paints, rodenticides, disinfectants, and public health insecticides.

The most important pieces of European Union (E.U.)

Factors Affecting the Availability of Plant Protection Products in Ireland©

Author: Michael Neary

PP: 184


Today's consumers of horticultural products are very aware of issues such as food safety, environmental protection, waste management, health and safety of workers, and so on. Such factors already affect the purchasing decisions of some consumers. Growers must also ensure that the system used to deliver a horticultural product to the marketplace takes into account legislative and best practice requirements while retaining all the quality attributes that the consumer demands. It must also, in the case of a food product, be safe to eat, have no microbiological contaminants, or the presence of residues of plant protection products above permitted MRLs (maximum residue levels). The product must be produced such that no damage was caused to the environment and any waste produced was handled in line with national standards. The workers who grow, harvest, and package the product must be provided with a safe and secure work place that does not endanger their health. It is not easy

Practical Aspects of Wavelength Selective Spectral Films on Nursery Stock Production in Ireland©

Author: Christopher Heavey, Michael Maher, Alan Hunter

PP: 188

We evaluated the suitability of a number of wavelength selective spectral films for the production of nursery stock in Ireland. We clad 12 tunnels with two replicates of six films (Superstrength 600, Supergreen 720, Clarix Blue, Sterilite HDF, Superstrength 400, and Celloclim) and grew a range of bedding plants, shrubs, and soft fruit in them. We assessed the crops for a number of production and quality parameters including colour intensity, growth, earliness of flowering, and pest and disease levels. In general, we found few signifi cant differences between the films and attributed this mainly to insufficient replication. Of the significant differences we did find, Superstrength 600 and Superstrength 400 produced plants with greater colour intensity, Supergreen 720 produced plants with a higher weight of prunings and Sterilite HDF caused the earliest flowering. Superstrength 400 had a significantly higher level of pests associated with it.
Disease Management on Nurseries: Cultural Aspects and Developments in Chemistry©

Author: Patrick Gleeson

PP: 191


Disease control and prevention on nurseries has always been complex because of the diversity of plant species and cultivars, the range of cultural systems, the lengthy production periods, and the number of times plants are moved.

To add to the complexity, the globalisation of trade in ornamentals has seen the introduction of previously unknown pathogens such as Phytophthora ramorum. In Ireland, the incidence of this disease and of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), is still relatively low (Table 1a and 1b).

We are also seeing the withdrawal of many plant protection products, resulting in fewer approved products for nursery stock use. Nurseries are increasingly using substances such as nutritional chemicals, micronutrients, and plant derivatives to help manage diseases. In future growers will need to take an integrated approach involving cultural practices as well as chemical applications to prevent and control diseases.

The Ever-increasing Threat from Phytophthora Pathogen in Europe©

Author: Kevin J. Clancy

PP: 195

Phytophthora species are almost exclusively plant pathogens and Phytophthora infestans (potato blight pathogen) can be regarded as quite unrepresentative of the genus since the majority of the recognized species are virulent pathogens of plant roots rather than of aerial parts. Phytophthora pathogens are now the main risk to woody ornamental, fruit, and forest crop plants. The range of known phytophthora diseases continued to expand in Europe throughout the last century not just in an extension of the host ranges of well recognized pathogens such as P. cinnamomi but in an alarming arrival of previously unknown species such as P. ramorum and the alder phytophthora, within the last decade. The common features of these diseases are their absolute requirement for water, their great survival ability, and the lack of any realistic chemical eradication possibilities. The most reliable management practices are isolation, thorough attention to plant and soil hygiene, vigilance as regards the origin of planting material, and the destruction of infected plants. In many cases, except with P. ramorum, healthy cuttings can still be successfully taken from infected plants but total elimination of infection from contaminated soils can be achieved only by high temperature treatment. It is likely that the number of Phytophthora pathogens causing disease of economic importance will continue to increase.
Early Warning Systems©

Author: J.H. Venter

PP: 56

As movement of plants and plant products is on the increase worldwide, so is the risk of foreign organisms entering new countries. The development of early warning systems can support a country's National Plant Protection Organisation to respond to any new introduction by means of transparent communication, eradication programs, and control measures. This task requires cooperation with the private sector, research institutes, and the public to maximize the efficiency of this responsibility in order for the impact of the foreign organism to be as low as possible.
Comparison of Efficacy of a Pathogenic Fungus, a Parasitic Nematode, and Neem Seed Extract in Control of Black Vine Weevil©

Author: Michael Gaffney, Gordon Purvis Michael Gaffney, Michael Maher, R

PP: 201


The larva of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is one of the most serious pests of hardy ornamental nursery stock and soft fruit production. Larvae feeding on plant root systems can cause severe reduction in plant quality and in some cases kill the plants. Damage caused by the adults feeding on foliage is usually less important, except in cases of cosmetic injury to ornamentals. The nocturnal adults are difficult to kill using insecticides and control measures are focused on the soil-living larvae. Although effective, many organochlorine, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides are prohibited in the U.K. and Ireland for environmental and safety reasons. As a consequence, the search for new soil pest control measures has focused on biological control agents such as entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes, together with less broad-spectrum insecticidal compounds, including insect growth regulators targeted against soil-inhabiting insect larvae.

The Development of Fipronil for Vine Weevil Control in the U.K.©

Author: Alan Horgan

PP: 207

Vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, causes up to £30 million worth of damage in the U.K. ornamentals market. In 2002 the insecticide fipronil, sold as Vi-Nil, was introduced for compost incorporation. It belongs to the phenyl pyrazole insecticide group, which shows no cross-resistance with existing insecticides. An outline of its practical use is given along with suggested reasons for its rapid adoption by U.K. growers. Experience with its use to date is briefly considered. Finally, recent developments associated with long-term protection and sciarid fly control are explained.
Producing Trees for Different Market Segments at Flannery's Nurseries©

Author: Tom Sheridan

PP: 212


Flannery's Nurseries was established in 1979. The soil is a medium loam and the site has a good sloping aspect, which helps the natural soil drainage during the winter months, although we have invested in drains where necessary to improve conditions further. We located the main dispatch shed centrally within a grid system of 1-ha growing plots and cut-stone roadways throughout the site for easy access. Originally the nursery's tree production consisted of transplants, feathered whips, standards and extra heavy standards, together with roses. Currently on our 24-ha field we concentrate on growing 2-year whips for potting to produce trees from 6/8-cm to 14/16-cm standards. Concentrating on one product has enabled us to improve production systems and quality. The end result is a crop of compact, well-balanced trees suitable for all segments of the market. We aim to supply trees with a fibrous root system, strong stem, and well-branched crown.

Year-round Production and Marketing of Semi-mature Trees at SAP Nurseries©

Author: John Murphy, Grainne Murphy

PP: 214

Semi-mature trees conjure up different images for different people. For the purpose of this paper semi-mature trees are those that are 18 cm or greater in girth measured at 1 m above the ground. Traditionally these trees have been produced in the open-ground and sold rootballed in the dormant season. More recently nurseries have been potting large trees into plastic containers and growing them for two seasons to sell during late spring and summer. The most recent innovation in the production of semi-mature trees is the introduction of the Superoots Air Pots™. This system is similar to container growing but can produce a "ready to go" tree in one growing season with a superior root system.
Ten Years' Experience of Grafting Using the Hot-Pipe Callusing Technique©

Author: Chris Byrne, Gwen Byrne

PP: 217


During the past 10 years hot-pipe callusing has been used and developed as an integral part of the production system at Coilóg Nurseries. The details outlined in this paper are the principles of propagation using the system as we have experienced it during that time.

The system is not the answer to your entire bench-grafting problems. However it has helped us to streamline and organise production. It has also reduced the number of failures in the grafting programme.

Plant Selection in a Changing Climate©

Author: Mary Forrest

PP: 220


According to climatologists, the climate in Great Britain and Ireland is changing. As horticulturists we see this in our ability to grow so-called tender shrubs such as Olea (olive) outdoors and in the enhanced flowering and fruiting of shrubs such as Berberis and Rhaphiolepis. If the climate continues to change then the nursery stock industry will also have to change the range of trees and shrubs it grows for the garden centre and landscape trade.

Use of Long Cuttings to Reduce Propagation Time of Rose and Fruit Rootstocks and Street Trees©

Author: Wolfgang Spethmann

PP: 223


Difficult-to-root species and cultivars need very precise coordination of plant and culture parameters (Spethmann 1998; 2000). More than 50 factors or conditions that can be altered need to be ranked. The most important ones are effective age stage of the stock plant, sticking date, humidification method, and method of overwintering.

Factors such as substrate mixture or growth hormone have been over estimated. For example, rhododendrons have been rooted in peat but also in pure gravel; difficult-to-root oaks have been rooted in gravel, peat, peat mixtures, or perlite. The success of specific hormone concentrations or formulations varies from year to year. Many species root without any hormone, most other species could be rooted with only one or two concentrations of IBA. For many years we have used only 0.5% IBA and a 3 peat : 1 sand mix (v/v) as a substrate for all species.

The importance of cutting length has very rarely been investigated. The range is mostly 10 to

The German Debate on Native Tree Production and Use©

Author: Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh

PP: 232


Vilmorin is credited with the first testing of known-provenance pine tree seed sources around 1740: he needed a good source of timber for ships' masts. During the Industrial Revolution after the beginning of the 19th century wood was required in very large quantities, for example, to support shafts in the coal mining industry. Traditional felling of individual trees in forests was replaced with clear felling. As a result, forest tree nurseries were set up to supply saplings for reforestation.

In the middle of the 19th century the importance of seed source began to dawn on foresters. It took many years to ascertain that, for example, the so-called "Appel Pine" (named from the nursery of Conrad Appel, Darmstadt), which was grown from seed of southern French origin, was not suitable for Central Europe. In the late 19th and early 20th century Alnus glutinosa seed was collected in Belgium (Malines) from trees that were regularly pollarded for firewood — it was therefore easy

The Role of Propagation in Conserving Endangered Endemic Plants of the Virgin Islands©

Author: Martin Hamilton

PP: 235


In the last 5 years, a number of plant species in need of conservation attention have been identified in the British Virgin Islands (BVI). Zanthoxylum thomasianum (Rutaceae), Calyptranthes thomasiana, and C. kiaerskovii (Myrtaceae), which grow in Gorda Peak National Park, on Virgin Gorda, are particularly in need of help. Cordia rupicola (Boraginaceae) is also of great interest. It was discovered on Anegada Island after being thought to only exist in Puerto Rico.

Calyptranthes thomasiana and Z. thomasianum are also known to exist in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) but with few known individuals they are vulnerable. Most of the individuals of C. thomasiana are found in protected areas of the United States National Parks Service; however, this is not the case for the majority of Z. thomasianum.

A survey was necessary to determine the conservation status of these species on the islands. The evaluation of the plants and their habitats would include propagation

Behaviour Patterns of Irish Gardening Consumers©

Author: Alice McGlynn

PP: 239


To stem the increasing flow of nursery stock imports and to increase competitiveness in relation to nursery stock production, Irish growers must put more effort into marketing and product development. Fundamental to this is identifying and understanding the background and behaviour of the "true" customer — the enduser or consumer. The Bord Bia (Irish Food Board) research presented in this paper profiles the "typical" Irish gardening consumer, describes the motivation behind their gardening purchases and identifies the main factors influencing the decision process at point of purchase.

Present Position of the Irish Market. The Irish gardening market has been riding high on the strength of the overall economy — the beautiful, albeit ephemeral, Celtic Tiger. Assuming that the fickle Irish weather co-operates, sale figures are expected to remain strong for the medium term and possibly beyond. Gardening as a leisure activity is extensive among the general public and appears to be

EurepGap and Plant Propagation Material Requirements©

Author: Gerhard van der Laarse

PP: 61

Started as an initiative by retailers in 1997, the current version of the EurepGap Fruit and Vegetables document and procedures has been agreed among partners from the entire food chain. Interest from leading European Flower producers and buying retailers has lead to establishing a technical working group, which has established itself as Technical and Standards Committee for Flowers and Ornamentals. In this capacity, the group developed and tested the new normative documents for the EurepGap flower protocol. All the implementation experience from the Fruit and Vegetable standard could be utilized.

Eurep has announced the group's activities at the Bologna Conference in Oct. 2001 and launched the latest version in Amsterdam in Sept. 2003. Large schemes have announced their intention to apply for benchmarking, i.e., for official recognition by EurepGap. Stichting Milieu Programma Sierteelt (MPS) was the first such scheme to benchmark against EurepGap and is now awaiting final results.

Marketing Initiatives at Doran Nurseries©

Author: Larry Doran

PP: 244


In 2004 Doran Nurseries celebrated 25 years of growing and wholesaling heathers, mainly in the Irish market. We employ 14 staff, with 10 casuals in the peak season July and August, and the nursery covers 10 ha. We have always specialised in heathers, and have never been tempted to diversify into other crops. Instead we have looked at different means of presenting heathers to both retailers and consumers as a means of increasing sales and profits.

Over the years, we have spent many hours developing our marketing, including ideas from staff, consultants, and other nurseries. This paper shares a few of these ideas and what they have achieved.

Propagation of Myrica gale by Micropropagation and Traditional Propagation Techniques©

Author: P. MacDonald, K.P. Svoboda, J. Gemmell, R. Shearer

PP: 246


The genus Myrica consists of about 60 species of shrubs and small trees with worldwide distribution. Myrica gale is a deciduous, erect nitrogen-fixing shrub commonly found in open peat lands and along shores of sea, lakes, and streams in northern Europe and North America. Wet heath, upland moors, and swamps can support large communities. It can tolerate a wide range of pH (3.8 to 6.1) and grows at altitudes ranging from sea level to 400 m. The nameMyrica is derived from Greek,probably connected with the word "myron", meaning perfume.

It can reach a height of 0.6 to 2 m. The main stem is brown, twigs are reddish-brown with alternate sub-sessile green leaves (2 to 5 cm long), and volatile oil glands are found on both surfaces. Flowers are borne on the bare wood of the previous year's growth and appear before leaves. The plant is usually dioecious,but monoecious plants and hermaphrodite flowers also occur. The male catkins are reddish brown, 10 mm long, and appear usually in May

Applications of Biotechnology in the Nursery Stock Industry©

Author: G. C. Douglas

PP: 251


This paper summarizes developments in plant biotechnology as applied to the nursery stock sector and reviews progress in developing methods to facilitate the production of new cultivars of nursery stock by embryo rescue, somatic embryogenesis, polyploidy, and genetic modification.

Micropropagation of Calceolaria ‘Kentish Hero’ and Zauchneria californica subsp. nana ‘Dublin’©

Author: G.C. Douglas

PP: 256


Micropropagation is now widely accepted and applied in the nursery stock industry. Some large nurseries have dedicated micropropagation units while many others use specialist micropropagation companies to supply material for markets, which have been identified and developed. This paper presents two new protocols for micropropagatingCalceolaria ‘Kentish Hero’ and Zauchneria californica ‘Dublin’.

Calceloria integrifolia is an evergreen frost hardy subshrub with bright yellow flowers and is one parent in the complex C. Fruiticohybrida Group which contains the cultivar Kentish Hero with bronze to orange flowers, and a long flowering period.

Zauchneria californica subsp. nana ‘Dublin’ is well known as a hardy, late flowering perennial with bright red flowers. Viable methods to micropropagate theseplants are presented.

Opening Remarks from Incoming International President Mike Evans upon Commencement of the 2004 Annual Conference, IPPS Japan Region©

Author: Mike Evans

PP: 261

TO: The International President and IPPS Japan President Naoki Omori, IPPS Japan Region Vice President Hiroshi Gemma, and IPPS Japan Region Directors Masata Shibata and Nobumasa Nito, IPPS Japan Region members and guests.

Thank you for the invitation and the warm reception you have given the IPPS board members, spouses, and guests. We have experienced ten unforgettable days in your beautiful country. We have seen and have learned about some of the finest horticulture in the world. In addition, you have shown us incredible and unique sights, and given us many opportunities to experience your culture, both traditional and modern, and to feel your wonderful hospitality.

This is the first time the International Board of Directors has met in Japan. I speak for every participant — directors and guests from Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, North America, Scandinavia, South Africa, and Japan.

Congratulations and thank you.

We wish you a successful conference and much success in the

The World of Cacti and Succulents — Cultivars of Genera Astrophytum and Haworthia Bred in Japan©

Author: Seiichi Osada

PP: 262

The first to come to mind when one thinks of breeding work done in cacti is the introduction of grafted Gymnocalycium ‘Hibotan’ (aka red cap or moon cactus) which was developed in Japan and exported in large wholesale quantities since around 1968 for about 20 years. However propagation involves labor-intensive grafting work and currently commercially competitive production is done in places like Korea and China. Commercially available ‘Hibotan’ in Japan these days are mostly imported from those countries.

Despite such commercialization, there are special groups of cacti and succulents in Japan, which are only known to cactophiles and succulent enthusiasts.

As commonly known, the family Cactaceae is native to New World, including the U.S.A., Mexico, and South American countries. Astrophytum is a predominantly Mexican genus (partly U.S.A., in Texas) that consists of 5 or 6 species and several varieties. Haworthia, of Liliaceae family, is a large South African succulent genus of approximately

Evaluation of Graft Compatibility for Taxonomical Study in Orange Subfamily Plants©

Author: Nobumasa Nito

PP: 266

Callus tissues induced from shoot of orange subfamily plants were grafted in vitro to evaluate the genetic relationship. The graft interface between two pieces of callus which are taxonomically of a close relation was not distinguishable by anatomical observation. On the other hand, in the combinations of a more distant relationship, the graft border interface was distinct. In a combination whose relation was further in taxonomical order, the border was clear and some deposits were accumulated. In these combinations cell wall decay was observed at the contact surface of both callus cells. The contacted callus cells showed the recognition response to the graft partners. The compatible and incompatible features in grafting can provide the information on taxonomy of orange subfamily plants.
In Vitro Propagation of Cryptocoryne Species©

Author: Tomoya Araki, Hisashi Harada

PP: 266

In vitro propagation protocol for Cryptocoryne species is reported. Shoot proliferation of C. wendtii and C. pontederiifolia were promoted on Murashige and Skoog (MS) agar solidified medium supplemented with BA at higher concentrations (1 to 20 µM). Compared to solid medium, shoot proliferation was improved in liquid-shake culture. However, abnormal shoot growth was observed in both species. In C. pontederiifolia, shoot grown in liquid-shake culture showed chlorotic leaf growth. In C.wendtii, leaves were needle-like in appearance. A double-layer culture method gave high yield of normal and healthy shoots. The volume of the additional liquid medium in double-layer culture affected shoot proliferation.
Propagation of Endangered Species Pinus armandii var. amamiana by Tissue Culture©

Author: Katsuaki Ishii, Yoshihisa Hosoi, Emilio Maruyama, Seiichi Kaneta

PP: 270

For propagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz.) Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. They were cultured in vitro under different tissue culture conditions. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on ½ DCR (Gupta and Durzan 1985) medium containing BAP and they grew to shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxin. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. There were many abnormal chlorophyll germinants from seeds collected in an isolated tree.

For propagation via somatic embryos, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from mature and immature seeds of P. armandii Franch. var.i

Elicitor-Responsive Photon Emission From Plant Cells Changes in Process of Callus Propagation©

Author: Hidehiro Inagaki, Kimihiko Kato, Chizuko Kageyama, Hiroyuki Iyoz

PP: 273

All living organisms exit ultra weak-photon emission, so-called bio-photon, originating from biochemical reactions in cells. So far, we have tried to connect the condition of plants with emission levels of the bio-photon and found some changes. In this report, we show that the elicitor-responsive photon emission from callus changes widely during the callus propagation.
The South African Rural Bio-Energy Community Programme©

Author: Gideo van der Merwe

PP: 63


Agro Forest Bio Energy Association (AFBEA) together with various stakeholders and rural communities has embarked on a programme to create "renewable energy" in rural areas using a combination of:

  • Emerging farmers
  • Skills transfer
  • Degraded and marginal land
  • Agro-forestry
  • Modern technology

The programme will focus on the production of oils extracted from oil-rich tree seeds. This will create a new source of renewable energy in Southern Africa.

The role of AFBEA will be to facilitate and implement the project. Once land has been identified, AFBEA will assist each "Community Trust" to implement the programme.

A 3,000 ha portion of land dedicated to "energy plantations" could, on an annual basis yield the following:

  • Six million litres of vegetable oil, which can be used for electrical power
  • Total grown biomass of approximately 15,000,000 kg.
  • Biogas sufficient to generate 5.8 MW of electricity.
  • 5.8 million litres of bio-diesel, if the oil is refined.
  • 9 million kg of
Traditional Japanese Vegetables: An Outline of Their Research and Development in New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas

PP: 274


The 1996 census identified New Zealand as a country with a wide ethnic mix with peoples from Europe, the Pacific Islands, and Asia (Anon 2000). The Asian population, which is approximately 5% of New Zealand's total of just over 4 million, is giving the people as a whole an increasing awareness of Asian cuisine and Japanese food styles in particular. For example in Hamilton, New Zealand's largest inland city of 120,000 people, the number of Japanese restaurants has increased by 80% in the last 10 years. The increase in popularity of Japanese cuisine in New Zealand has resulted in a growing awareness and demand for the produce associated with that food style. At present many of the specialty food items such as wasabi and myoga ginger are imported as a processed product but as demand grows so too does the requirement for fresh rather than processed product.

This has tied in well with Crop & Food Research's new crops programme which has evaluated a range of specialist vegetable

Effects of Cyanogenic Glycosides and Their Breakdown Products on Callus Growth of Three Prunus Species©

Author: Charles W. Heuser, Jr

PP: 278

The effects of the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, and their breakdown products, cyanide and benzaldehyde, on callus derived from peach (Prunus persica ‘Poly’), sand cherry (P. besseyi), and Nanking cherry (P. tomentosa) were compared. Prunasin (D-mandelonitrile-ß-D-glucoside) inhibited the growth of sand and Nanking cherries but not peach. Amyygdalin (D-mandelonitrile- ß-D-gentiobioside) did not show strong inhibition of the callus cultures. All three species were inhibited by sodium cyanide with sand cherry and Nanking cherry showing the strongest inhibition. Sand cherry and Nanking cherry similarly showed greater sensitivity to benzaldehyde, another catabolite of prunasin. The greater sensitivity of sand and Nanking cherries to the cyanogenic glycoside, prunasin, suggests that it may be an important factor in the peach graft incompatibility with sand and Nanking cherries.
Commercialization of the South African Bush Tea, Athrixia phylicoides©

Author: E.S. du Toit

PP: 283


South Africa has a rich diversity of indigenous plants and is ranked as one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world. Athrixia phylicoides is one of many plants, which is being harvested from the wild and due to its demand it has become threatened.

Athrixia phylicoides belongs to the family Asteraceae and its common name is bush tea, zulu tea, or bushman tea. It grows in the eastern mountain ranges of SA (Kwazulu-Natal), Eastern Cape, and in Zimbabwe (Van Wyk and Gericke, 2000). This small shrub (±1 m in height) is branched with thin woolly stems and has small, dark green pointed leaves with white hairy backs. It bears small mauve pink daisy flowers with a bright yellow centre (Roberts, 1990) from autumn to winter.

The local people use it for the following purposes (Roberts, 1990; Van Wyk and Gericke, 2000):

  • Headaches, stomach aches, influenza, infested wounds, asthma, tuberculosis, and ulcers
  • Blood purifier: to cleanse the veins, kidneys, womb, and
Effect of Culture Media, Gelling Agents and Plant Growth Regulators on the Regeneration of Dwarf Pomegranate (Punica granatum var. nana)©

Author: Shingo Terakami, Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Sumiko Sugaya, Hiroshi Gemm

PP: 288


Perennial fruit crops are unable to flower or produce fruits for years from seedlings. This condition, lacking reproductive capability, is defined as juvenility. A long juvenile phase is serious constraint in traditional breeding and cultivation. Juvenility in perennial fruit crops is in need of greater research because being able to reduce the juvenile phase would lead to faster development of new cultivars in agricultural industries.

Dwarf pomegranate bears fruit within 1 year from seed, shows perpetual growth in a greenhouse, and shoot regeneration occurs easily (Omura et al., 1987b). In pomegranate, many studies of shoot regeneration have been performed (Omura et al., 1987a; Moriguchi et al., 1987; Jaidka and Mehra, 1986; Naik et al., 1999; 2000).

To elucidate juvenility, dwarf pomegranate seems to be a useful model species by using gene transfer technique. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a gram-negative soil bacterium and is capable of transferring T-DNA. Transferred

The Vegetative Propagation Technology of Eustoma©

Author: Masahiro Hayami

PP: 295


About 15 years ago, the cut flower Eustoma started to become popular in Japan. However, the stability of the floral color, especially the colors of bicolor types of Eustoma were not stable because Eustoma is propagated from seeds. For the purpose of developing a stable method of vegetative propagation of Eustoma, both tissue culture and cutting methods were examined. By way of those experiments, we found the change of the floral color was mainly due to environmental conditions (not due to the propagation method). But tissue culture is a useful method for this species, and cutting propagation is a useful method for propagating rare selections of Eustoma.

The characteristics of our propagation method of Eustoma are as follows:

    1) For shoot tip culture, a basal medium containing half concentration of Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium inorganic salts, 30 g·L-1 of glucose, 4 g·L-1 Gellum gum, pH5.8, and phytohormone free is suitable. After 60 days, buds sprouted and shoots
Breeding of Pot Plants in Denmark: A Survey©

Author: Kell Kristiansen, John Larsen, Henrik F. Brødsgaard

PP: 299


Breeding is the creation of new cultivars and is in principle very simple. First, the wanted characteristics of the new cultivar are described. Among existing cultivars, those closest to the desired are selected and used to create genetic variation. Most often, the variation is made by controlled hybridisation, but mutagenesis, transformation, and protoplast fusion may be alternatives. The genetic variation can be recognised as differences among the offspring obtained after, e.g., crossings. The most interesting plants among the progeny are selected for further testing. Selection and testing are repeated and for each time the number of genetically different clones/lines are reduced and the number of plants within each clone/line is increased. Plant patenting and commercial production can be initiated after completion of testing. The principles and the actual way of breeding pot plants of Aster novi-belgii are shown in Table 1.

Introducing DNA Finger Printing in Breeding of Kalanchoë©

Author: Anita Mortensen

PP: 303

Knud Jepsen A/S has carried out plant breeding and clonal selection in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and other Kalanchoe species for a very long time. Commercial breeding has produced many cultivars that conform to the broad phenotype of, for example, flower colour, size, and form as well as leaf morphology. The selection and identification of cultivars has until now been based on morphological and physiological characteristics only. However, the phenotype is only partially determined by the genetic information. The impact of the genotype can be masked by environmental factors. By using molecular identification techniques it becomes possible to detect directly specific fragments of genetic information and to follow these fragments in crossing experiments. Also the control of patent rights may be more efficient.

Several important traits are controlled by a relatively large number of loci; each makes a contribution to produce the final phenotype value of the trait. Such loci are called

Protection of Plant Novelties©

Author: Jörgen H. Selchau

PP: 307


English terminology often uses the abbreviations PVP (Plant Variety Protection), PVR (Plant Variety Rights), or PBR (Plant Breeders' Rights), which is a protection offered by means of either a national or territorial legislation of plant novelties or breeders' rights.

Most of the existing PVR systems are based on one of the versions of the UPOV Convention; UPOV, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, is an intergovernmental organization with headquarters in Geneva (Switzerland). The first Convention adopted by this organization dates from 1961. It was revised in 1972, 1978, and 1991. There are at the moment 55 members in UPOV, of which Singapore is the latest one.

Other recent member states in Asia are China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Kirgizistan. Many countries in the world have adopted PVR legislation, which — although partly inspired by it — is not in all aspects in conformity with the UPOV system.

The subject matter of a

Organic Substrate Mixes for Potted Plants — Are They a Realistic Alternative?©

Author: Kai Lønne Nielsen

PP: 312


Choice of growing media and nutritional strategy is the greatest challenges when a grower considers changing to organic ornamental production. Potted plants need continued access to plant nutrients during their development. Thus production routines allowing both functional inputs of nutrients before start of plant production and supplemental nutrition with water-soluble organic nutrients during production are needed. The first steps in making an organic potting plant production medium would be to test the available and certified organic growing media on the market integrating the know-how on mycorrhiza, composting technology, and the use of nutrient buffers (e.g., Hansen and Nielsen, 1999; Jensen and Leth, 1998; Nielsen and Rasmussen, 2000). The aim should be to develop uniform, homogeneous, and high quality organic substrates. At the same time water and nutrition technologies should be adapted to the special demands of an organic production, since organically bound

Micropropagation and Biotechnology in Forestry: Preliminary Results From the Danish Christmas Tree Improvement Programme©

Author: Michel M.H. Kristensen, Jens I. Find, Peter Krogstrup

PP: 315


The principal methods of micropropagation (in vitro propagation or tissue culture) are axillary budding, induction of adventitious buds, and somatic embryogenesis (where individual cultured cells or small groups of cells undergo development resembling that of the zygotic embryo. These methods are very expensive compared to conventional vegetative propagation due to the costly equipment and the technical staff that is needed to perform the techniques. An additional disadvantage of micropropagation is that it may lead to unwanted genetic alterations, e.g., somaclonal variation (George, 1993; Barbara, 1984). However in vitro propagation technology of forest trees has several potential benefits:

  • Allow mass propagation of trees that are difficult to propagate by conventional means.
  • Provides suitable material, e.g., somatic embryos for cryostorage in liquid nitrogen, permitting year-long field evaluation of stored clones.
  • Micropropagation, e.g., somatic embryogenesis,
Essential Oils: Are They Worth Considering as an Alternative Crop?©

Author: R.A. Learmonth

PP: 69

The South Africa (SA) essential oil industry, in 2004, is poised to become a significant player in the international essential oil market.

Its beginnings can be traced back to the 1950 when the CSIR archives show numerous requests for assistance and some early research. The citrus and eucalyptus essential-oil productions developed first, largely due to various pioneers but it was not until the 1990s that the SA farming community showed significant interest in essential-oil farming. This revival can be attributed to many political, economic, market, and technical factors. The intensive research programme of the CSIR into the scientific and market development needs of a SA essential-oil industry played a major role, supported by Biosys Ltd., United Kingdom, now the major share holder of Biosys Plant Extracts (Pry) Ltd.

Well established commercial farmers can, in 2004, annually produce and sell about R10 million worth of essential oils and the potential for growth is exciting.

Effect of Reduction in Ammonium Nitrate of Murashige and Skoog Medium on In Vitro Rooting from the Shoots of Some Horticultural Plants©

Author: T. Yamamoto

PP: 321

The formation of adventitious roots in vitro is very important for obtaining good transplants by micropropagation. Horticultural plants differ greatly in rooting ability in vitro. In some plants, the shoots are capable of rooting easily in hormone-free medium. In other plants, auxins such as naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or indolebutyric acid (IBA) are necessary for in vitro rooting. On the other hand, it has been our experience that a reduction in the concentration of an inorganic salt in the medium promotes the rooting from the shoots in vitro. For example, in Anthurium (George, 1996) and apple trees [Sriskandarajah et al.1990] a reduction in ammonium nitrate of Murashige and Skoog, (1962), (MS) medium promoted in vitro rooting from the shoots.

The present paper describes the promotion of in vitro rooting of three genera of horticultural plants, Lupinus, Delphinium, and Platycodon by a reduction in ammonium nitrate in the MS media.

With two species (texensis and polyphyllus) of

Plant Tissue Culture and Plant Improvement: Some Recent Findings from Experiments with Schlumbergera, Hatiora (Rhipsalidopsis), and Campanula©

Author: Sridevy Sriskandarajah, Margrethe Serek

PP: 323


Plant tissue culture techniques have applications to a wide range of species and such usage has increased dramatically over the past twenty or so years. Techniques used include regeneration of cells, tissues, protoplasts, organs, embryos, ovules, microspores, anthers, etc. More recently, applications of these techniques have been extended to improve existing cultivars. Tissue culture techniques applied to plant improvement gives the opportunity to introduce genes across species. In addition, selection of somaclones through variation created by the tissue culture techniques themselves or those induced by mutagenic agents could also be used for creating new varieties.

Several ornamental plants suffer from sensitivity to exogenous ethylene, and it results in premature bud drop and early flower senescence. Anti-ethylene compounds such as silver thiosulfate, which are harmful and costly, are being used by the growers to reduce the above problems. However, the growers are very

Investigation on Regeneration From Seedling Tissues of Campanula carpatica©

Author: Eline Kirk Mørk, Sridevy Sriskandarajah, Margrethe Serek

PP: 326

Genetic transformation of several plant species by using useful genes is becoming more and more popular. All in vitro transformation protocols require efficient regeneration systems for the chosen plant. Efficient regeneration methods would make a large number of plant cells regenerative and make them more receptive to genetic modification. The efficient methods will also help to speed up the recovery of the whole plants from the transformed cells or tissues.

Totipotency is one of the main properties of plant cells, which ensures the possibility of survival of the plants under stressed conditions. In nature, this characteristic proves itself most distinctly in the ability of plants to use various pathways of vegetative reproduction and in the possibility of fast restoration of the lost or stress-damaged parts of shoots and roots. In in vitro conditions, practically any living cell with a nucleus can begin cell division and form callus or suspension culture, if it is placed on a

Use of Root Promoting Substances and Procedures: Why and How?©

Author: Arne Skytt Andersen

PP: 328


A review of the basic plant physiological events occurring when a cutting is forming roots shows that first a wounding of the stem or leaf must take place. This wounding initiates among other an increased production of ethylene. During the last 70 years the activity of ethylene in the root initiation processes has been controversial and numerous contradictory reports have been published: ethylene enhances root formation, has no effect, or inhibits. Many of the differing results can be ascribed to methodological shortcomings: time of administration, controls, and presence or absence of preformed root initials in the plant material under investigation. It is now definitely proven, that ethylene is necessary, albeit in very minute quantities for the initial atypical cell divisions, which are a prerequisite for root initiation in cuttings (Boot et al., 2003). The effects of ethylene are of very short duration; higher concentrations and long time exposures are

Auxin, Bottom Heat, and Time of Propagation Affect the Adventitious Rooting of Leucophyllum candidum ‘Silver Cloud’®

Author: Jack J. Kelly

PP: 335


Leucophyllum candidum ‘Silver Cloud’ is a woody shrub in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort) family and is grown as an ornamental in the desert regions of the Southwestern U.S. and throughout the world in areas with similar climates. Given its popularity and ability to thrive under low-water regimes, it has become a popular part of many plant palettes. The plant is propagated from softwood cuttings to maintain the clonal integrity of the species. Leucophyllum candidum ‘Silver Cloud’ is considered an elite clone of the plant and can be recalcitrant to rooting. Rooting percentages below 50% for this clone are not uncommon in commercial nurseries. Information on asexual propagation of Leucophyllum species is scarce. Nutritional status of stock plants is important, as rooting of cuttings was enhanced by maintaining the leaf tissue of stock plants at a level of>2% nitrogen (Simpson and Hipp, 1982). The objectives of the study presented here were to investigate the influence of the

Actinorhizae and Ceanothus Growing®

Author: Shengjun Lu

PP: 336


Plants in the genus Ceanothus grow in rocky and sandy areas. Because of their nitrogen-fixing ability and also because they are pioneer species, Ceanothus plants are extremely important in dryland ecological restoration.

Ceanothus plants form symbioses with bacteria in the genus Frankia. The actinomycetes nodulate eight plant families representing about 25 genera, collectively called actinorhizal plants (Baker and Schwintzer, 1990). Actinomycetes possess fungal-like structures, including septate filamentous hyphae, vesicles, sporangia, and spores. The bacteria invade root hair cells by the formation of an infection thread (Berg, 1999). Actinorhizae provide plants a ready supply of nitrogen, water, and nutrients, as well as elevated disease resistance.

In nursery conditions, plants in the genus Alnus form actinorhizae with air-borne inocula. However, Ceanothus plants do not form actinorhizae even though native stands exist in adjacent forests.

The goal of our experiments

An Overview of Coastal California Protea Production®

Author: Jeff Rosendale

PP: 339


The Proteaceae family consists of over 1400 species, with the Protea genus itself containing 150 species. The name protea comes from Greek mythology and the god Proteus, who was able to change into many different forms. This name is reflected in the multitude of exotic and spectacular inflorescence forms exhibited by this genus. Forms that can vary greatly in color and size with some flowers being up to 12 inches in height or diameter. The largest array of genera and species is found in South Africa, followed next in number by Australia.

Over the last several decades, California growers have been commercially producing proteas extensively for the cut flower trade and to a lesser extent for the nursery and landscape trade. Commercial cut flowers are shipped worldwide, while plants produced for the nursery and landscape trade are sold in a market that, for the most part, is limited to the Mediterranean climate of coastal central and southern California. The majority of



PP: 341

Ed McCulloch: Did you determine what percentage of native soil in the nursery soil was needed for effective inoculation?
Comparison of Mist, Fog, and Electrostatic Fog for Vegetative Propagation of Difficult-to-Root Plants®

Author: Richard Y. Evans, Wesley P. Hackett, Fernanda Larraín

PP: 343

There is an expanding market for nursery-produced native California plants, but their production is limited because many are difficult to propagate from cuttings. We are studying two barriers to successful propagation: low competence of stem cuttings from source plants and deterioration of cuttings due to environmental conditions during rooting. The primary objectives of the project are to test methods for improving the competence of difficult-to-root species by the manipulation of stock plants, and to test novel fog chambers to enhance the rooting environment. We used three types of bottom-heated propagation benches: standard mist benches and fan-and-pad-cooled fog chambers with either standard or electrostatic fog nozzles. Leafy cuttings of Carpenteria californica, Dendromecon rigida, Garrya elliptica ‘Evie’ and G. elliptica ‘James Roof’, Rhamnus californica ‘Eve Case’, Ribes speciosum, and Romneya coulteri were taken from containergrown stock plants maintained in either a greenhouse or a lath house or from plants in the University of California Davis Arboretum. We found no consistent effect of either propagation bench type or concentration of IBA on rooting percentage. Higher rooting percentages were obtained from greenhouse-grown plants and plants growing outdoors yielded the lowest rooting percentages. The highest rooting percentages for most species (from 48% for G. elliptica ‘Evie’ to 80% for C. californica) were obtained from cuttings taken in January from plants grown under HID lamps in a greenhouse. However, it is not clear whether the lower rooting percentages in other seasons were due to cutting source material or inadequate environmental control in the propagation chambers. Rooting percentages for Rhamnus cuttings were consistently high, averaging 81% across all experimental conditions. Average rooting percentages in fog chambers over time for the other species were 44% for Carpenteria, 5% for Dendromecon, 38% for G. elliptica ‘Evie’, 32% for G. elliptica ‘James Roof’, and 23% for Romneya. Propagation of Ribes in the fog chambers was unsuccessful.
Using Computer Control System in Tissue Culture Plant Acclimatization®

Author: Borek Busta

PP: 347


Briggs Nursery, a Washington State wholesale grower of perennials and woody ornamentals, produces 7 million plants annually in its tissue culture (TC) laboratory. The product line consists of some 700 cultivars in 125 genera. This diversity, combined with a range of pot and plug-tray types and sizes, as well as the highly sensitive nature of TC plant material, diverse rates of development, climatic requirements, varying uniformity, vigor and performance of cultures, and year-round production cycle make special demands on the acclimatization process. The size and complexity of acclimatization greenhouses and the need for round-the-clock flexibility with often rapidly changing weather, crop type, potting media, energy, and labor costs etc. makes an integrated, computerized control system a logical choice in an effort to manage acclimatization operation efficiently.

In the last decade, the integrated computer control systems specifically designed for horticulture have grown

Media Properties©

Author: Kevin Handreck

PP: 75


This is a "back-to-basics" talk. I will briefly highlight the most important properties that any growing medium must have. You must have quantitative data for these properties for any growing medium you use or are thinking of using. Time constraints do not permit me to discuss the properties flowability, bulk density, sulfur supply, potassium supply, salinity, and cost.

Irrigation Runoff From Nurseries: Addressing the Conditional Agriculture Waiver in California®

Author: Lorence R. Oki

PP: 350


California nursery growers are faced with many challenges, not only in running a profitable business, but also in growing marketable crops. Among these challenges are complying with laws regulating both business and production practices. With the adoption of Conditional Waivers for Irrigated Agriculture in California, there is additional pressure to protect the natural waters in the State of California from pollutants that may be carried in runoff that results from the irrigation of crops.

Propagation and Plant Sales Community College Style®

Author: Ernie Wasson

PP: 355

The year 2004 marks the 26th year of our annual plant sale at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California. The sale is always held on Mother's Day weekend which is usually near the peak of retail spring season in the Monterey Bay region approximately 100 miles south of San Francisco. We keep our prices close to the prevailing local market but never higher. The sale has become one of the long-standing must-attend "local annual events".
Koala Blooms: New Australian Plants for California Gardens®

Author: Brett Hall, Melinda Johnson

PP: 358

Each year The Arboretum at University California Santa Cruz (UCSC) works closely with growers in Australia and here in California to introduce new plants through a unique program called Koala Blooms. In this collaborative effort, many impressive Australian plant cultivars are evaluated for their beauty, durability in landscape situations, potential for invasiveness, performance in nursery conditions, and sturdiness with regard to drought, weather extremes, and soil pathogens. From all the choice plants selected and trialed, only a few are introduced each year. The program generates a small income to support the Arboretum.

The Koala Blooms program had its roots in the mid 1970s, when Rodger and Gwen Elliot, of Melbourne, Australia, sent their first shipment of Australian plants from their native plants nursery to the UCSC Arboretum; plants have been arriving ever since. The enthusiasm for native plants has attracted Australians to the California countryside and Californians to the

Propagation of Trochodendron aralioides®

Author: Guy Meacham

PP: 362

Native to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, Trochodendron aralioides, the wheel tree, is a wonderful evergreen tree with a "tropical look" that's hardy to U.S.D.A. Zone 6. It does better in partial shade than full sun and does require some summer moisture to look its best.

For the past 2 years I've been trying to propagate this plant from both seeds and cuttings. Following is a summary of my progress so far.

Stepping up Greenhouse Sanitation®

Author: Ryan Hall

PP: 363


Disease and insect problems can cause severe economical damage to floriculture and nursery crops. One of the most recent examples of a large-scale disease that devastated geranium crops in North America was the Ralstonia outbreak. Ralstonia gave many growers a wake-up call on the importance of keeping greenhouses, mother stock, and irrigation water clean of pathogens and vectors. With the help and guidelines from large-scale breeders, Pacific Plug and Liner implemented strict sanitation protocols to help avoid and manage future disease problems.



PP: 365

Molly Anderson: How much do you spend on advertising for your plant sale?
A Seedy Business®

Author: Ginny Hunt

PP: 366

There are many advantages to growing plants from seed. Satisfying plant curiosity observing genetic diversity, and sheer novelty are all good reasons to try plants from seed. The proliferation of liner nurseries providing (very attractive) plant material to a wide range of nurseries has made growing crops from seed almost essential to maintain a unique selection of plants.

My mailorder seed business, Seedhunt, was started in 1996, in an effort to provide seeds of plants that do well in Mediterranean climates that were not commonly available in commercial seed catalogs. Emphasis is on perennials and annuals and the current list includes about 60 annuals, 73 Salvia species or cultivars, with the remainder made up of bulbs, some grasses, perennials, and a few shrubs. About a third are plants native to California. Seeds are gathered from cultivated plants.

My very small nursery and garden is set on about 1½ acres in Watsonville, California. The climate is very benign. Soil is medium to

Salvia Propagation®

Author: Kathleen Navarez

PP: 368

In 1989, I started as a garden assistant growing cut flowers for the farmers market. In my search for new and different material for bouquets, my fellow propagator, Christine Dye, and I came across Salvia gesneriiflora ‘Tequila’ on a field trip to the Huntington Botanic Gardens in Los Angeles, California. At that moment my passion for salvias began. In 1989 we grew only three sages for our sale — S. elegans, S. leucantha, and S. microphylla. At Cabrillo College we propagate and grow salvias from all over the world for our annual Mothers Day plant sale. This year we offered a selection of 173 species and cultivars.<
Mist Propagation of Citrus®

Author: Don Dillon, Jr.

PP: 370

Propagation of Citrus is most commonly done by budding a desired scion cultivar [orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon(C. limon), lime (C. aurantiifolia and C. latifolia), mandarin (C. reticulata Mandarin Group), etc.] onto seedlings from desired rootstock taxa. Another method of propagating Citrus is twig grafting, which is a vegetative method. This is done by making a cutting of the desired scion cultivar and a cutting of the rootstock and grafting the two together. The propagation material is then placed under mist with bottom heat to generate roots and heal the graft union.

Twig grafting was described by Halma (1931) and is mentioned in The Citrus Industry, Volume II, published in 1948. This method of propagation has advantages and disadvantages, like many methods of propagation. Advantages include rapid reproduction of material, as a new plant can be generated in as little as 12 week. Disadvantages include the need for a large budwood supply, as many more buds per tree are used with



PP: 371

Dave Hannings: Was it necessary to have leaves on both the rootstock and scion to be successful?
Potting Media Constituents©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 78


Major advances in potting mix formulation and nutrition have taken place over the past 30 years. In my early horticultural training in Scotland I was indoctrinated into the delights of working with the loam-based John Innes composts. I can recall potting up plants into clay pots using John Innes composts that resulted in a very heavy end product.

The move into plastic pots in the mid 1960s was a great step forward but it took growers quite a while to come to terms with the watering required with the nonporous plastic pots. The next major trend was the move to loamless composts. This trend was the result of the success of the University of California (U.C.) mixes of the 1950s. These soil-free mixes performed well in plastic pots and there was a major international movement away from soil-based mixes in the 1960s and 1970s.

The UC mixes consisted of varying proportions of peat and sand. The most widely used mix comprised peat and sand (3 : 1, v/v). This was widely used in

Mimulus aurantiacus: Taming the Sticky Monkeyflower for Everyday Gardens®

Author: Richard Persoff

PP: 372

For 18 years, ongoing collections of Mimulus aurantiacus have been bred and backcrossed to overcome numerous horticultural challenges. Breeding goals and strategies have progressed from garden survival, water tolerance, and hardiness to developing compact and branching growth habit.
New Plant Introductions®

Author: Luen Miller

PP: 376

Brugmansia ‘Miner’s Claim’ PPAF, angel’s trumpet. This is a new variegated form of ‘Frosty Pink’ found in our nursery by our Sacramento area sales representative, Keith Miner. It has broad creamy-yellow to ivory-white margins and the same soft, relaxed habit as its parent. Flowers are salmon-pink and seem to initiate under long days. The late afternoon and evening fragrance is intense and relatively light, the same as that of ‘Frosty Pink.’ But this is a great foliage plant even if it never blooms. We have had endless comments about this plant from those who have seen it in our nursery and it has finally been released.

Kaempferia grandifolia, peacock ginger. This plant is sometimes treated as a species, and is not a hybrid. This is one of the most robust of the peacock gingers. This variety can grow up to 2 ft tall and 3 ft wide, with broadly oval leaves to almost 2 ft long by 8 inches wide forming a basal rosette. The more heat and humidity the faster they emerge and the larger and



PP: 380

Douglas Justice: What's the name of that ginger relative?
President's Welcoming Remarks©

Author: Alan Jones

PP: 383

Welcome to Milwaukee. I am Alan Jones, President of Eastern Region, North America of I.P.P.S. and it is my honor and pleasure to welcome you to the 54th annual meeting of the Society.

This year's meeting is unique in that it is the first time we have had concurrent sessions offering specifically woody plant and perennial plant topics. We are very interested in hearing if this is a format we need to continue in the future.

I would like to welcome all those attending their first meeting either as a new member or as a guest, as well as members from other I.P.P.S. regions. I would also like to congratulate the Eastern Region member who has traveled the farthest — Dr. Hailong Shen from Harbin, China.

A meeting like this is no easy task to put together. The work that goes on behind the scenes is enormous. I would like to thank the local site committee for all their efforts in planning and coordinating events for this meeting. The local site committee is led by Deb McCown who worked with Ron

What's New in the World of Perennials: Trends in Perennials©

Author: Steven Still

PP: 384


In beginning a look at the trends in perennials, one should quickly review the history of perennials. Perennials have always been part of the green industry but their importance has been cyclic. Perennials, including ornamental grasses, were available in catalogs of the Victorian period. In the early part of the 20th century until the late 1970s, perennials were produced by classical perennial nurseries, i.e., those producing only perennials. These nurseries were fairly stable in their production but the value (sales) was not at a level that would entice other types of nurseries to produce perennials. Obviously, this situation has changed. Early nurseries included Martin Viette Nursery on Long Island, New York; Wayside Gardens, Mentor, Ohio; and Sunbeam Gardens, Westlake, Ohio, to name a few.

There are two other areas that help illustrate the history of perennials and present perennial trends. The first is in the area of publications or books about perennials. In 1973

Perennial Seed Propagation and Helleborus©

Author: Allen Bush

PP: 388

  • Plant selection and breeding can produce seeds that germinate uniformly with normal greenhouse temperatures.
  • Normal moist-cold treatments will not do any harm to hardy herbaceous perennial seeds. Fluctuating temperatures can be helpful both in the warm greenhouse and during the moist-cold period.
  • Sowing seeds and immediately subjecting them to freezing temperatures below -7 °C (20 °F) will often kill the embryos. Seeds can be subjected to colder temperatures but need a slow acclimatization (Jelitto, 1996).

Dormancy Can Have Various Causes

  1. Embryo unripe or physiologically inactive.
  2. Seed coat may be mechanically difficult to penetrate: impermeable to water and gases (i.e., oxygen).
  3. Presence of inhibitors (germination inhibiting substances) such as phytohormones — also known as growth regulators, e.g., abscissic acids.

These three types may occur alone or in combination, Helleborus seed germination involves a

Native Wildflower and Grass Propagation Information©

Author: Neil Diboll

PP: 391


Herbaceous native perennials include wildflowers, grasses, sedges, and rushes. Most can be readily propagated from seed. Some exhibit complex seed dormancies and are best propagated by root division or stem cuttings. This paper will focus on propagation of wildflowers and grasses using seed, as this is the commonly used, but often misunderstood method of producing native herbaceous perennials. The methods described herein are based upon our 30 years of experience at Prairie Nursery in propagating a wide variety of native plants from seed.

Most native perennials require that their seed be pretreated to break dormancy prior to seeding. Seed treatments or planting methods that we use to overcome seed dormancy and improve seed germination and growth include:

  1. Dry Stratification. Seed is exposed to freezing temperatures for 30 or more days.
  2. Moist Stratification. Seed is mixed with a damp inert substrate and stored in a refrigerated environment at 34–36 °F (1–2 °C).
What's New in the World of Coneflowers (Echinacea)©

Author: Jim Ault

PP: 402


Coneflowers (Echinacea) are members of the aster or daisy family (Asteraceae). Depending on the taxonomy system utilized, there are nine species, all of which are native to North America (McGregor, 1968). Three of these species, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea, are of commercial interest for their reputed medicinal properties (Sari et al., 1999). The coneflowers are also popular garden and cut flower subjects. Plants can remain in bloom for long periods of time in garden settings, are quite drought tolerant once established, are adaptable to a range of soil types and pH, and are hardy from U.S.D.A. Zones 3–8. The flowers attract butterflies and honeybees, and the seeds attract birds such as goldfinches. One species, E. purpurea, the purple coneflower, is widely cultivated as an ornamental. In its myriad selected forms, it can range from 18 inches to 5 ft in height, and will produce for 2 months or longer numerous flowering heads with showy ray flowers

Exploring for New Perennials in Northern China©

Author: Harlan Hamernik

PP: 406


"Why China?" is the question often asked by the non-plant-nut. The answer, of course, is that the climate and soils are very similar to the U.S.A. and many Chinese plants have cousins here; i.e., Betula, Ulmus, Pinus, Abies, Tilia, Populus, Rosa, Clematis, Scutellaria, Quercus, etc. They have evolved from the same roots, but on the opposite side of the globe and so they have different interesting and ornamental characteristics, as do the Penstemon species that inhabit opposite slopes of the tall mountains in Colorado and Utah.

Because we know the North American relatives, it is easier to evaluate, breed, and select the Asian counterparts in less time. It's not difficult to put a herbaceous perennial on the market in 5 or 6 years and certain shrubs and trees in 10–12 years.

Of course, there are some down sides.

  • It's a long hard trip.
  • The language barrier; you don't easily learn Chinese and even that won't help you communicate with the Tibetans, Mongols, and Uygers, so you
Propagation of Giant Cane (Arundinaria gigantea) Using Rhizome Cuttings©

Author: James J. Zaczek, Karl W.J. Williard, Sara G. Baer, John W. Groni

PP: 408


There is a great deal of interest in the ecological restoration of giant cane or switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.), a North American native bamboo. A member of the Poaceae family, the species is a component of bottomland and riparian forest ecosystems ranging from southern Maryland west to southern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, south to central Florida, and west to Texas (Marsh, 1977; Simon, 1986). Giant cane dominated communities better known as canebreaks formerly occupied extensive areas throughout the region (Smart et al., 1960; Platt and Brantley, 1993) but land conversion has greatly reduced canebreak ecosystems to a fraction of their former extent. Canebreaks are now considered to be a critically endangered ecosystem that hosts a number of rare wildlife species (Platt and Brantley, 1997; Bell, 2000; Platt et al., 2001). Giant cane growing along streams, lakes, and wetlands can serve as a filter that enhances water quality, stabilizes stream