Volume 53

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Techniques for Manipulating Seeds and Seedlings for High Quality Flower Seedlings©

Author: Brian E. Corr

PP: 41


Seed and seeding quality are like many things; hard to define but easy to recognize when one sees it. Seedling quality is becoming more important all the time with increasing emphasis on plug production and automation. When seeds are sown in open seedling flats it is very hard tell if germination is 70% or 90%, but a plug tray with 392 cells, which has 353 seedlings (90%) looks very different from one with 274 seedlings (70%).

Acceleration of Blueberry Selections from Tissue Culture©

Author: Emma K. Rawnsley, Shirley A. Miller

PP: 83


When micropropagated plants are first removed from culture vessels they are vulnerable to abrupt changes in environmental conditions (Kyte and Klein, 1983). The plants are extremely tender, with soft leaves and poorly developed stomata for water regulation (Zobayed et al., 1999). Transpiration losses are high and the plants wilt readily if a sudden drop in relative humidity is imposed, as for example when the lid of the vessel is removed too quickly. The plants may also be more sensitive to pathogen attack. Unless in vitro plants are acclimatized and handled carefully, losses can be high.

Factors to consider when transplanting micropropagated plants to the greenhouse have been well documented (Preece, 2001), but individual crops have specific requirements and nurseries generally develop their own methods through trial and error. HortResearch uses shoot-tip micropropagation with blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) to bulk-up plants of elite selections for evaluation. Although we

We Should Consider the Future of Japan Region Now!©

Author: Naoki Omori

PP: 429

I express much gratitude and respect to the many people who have done their best to solve the many problems associated with increasing activity of I.P.P.S. in Japan.

When I joined I.P.P.S. 10 years ago, I believed that the Japanese plant propagation and production industry would become stronger by this association.

Today, we continue our efforts to establish the spirit of "Seek & Share" in Japan. However, we still have many problems and it is very difficult to solve all of them. For example, compared to other I.P.P.S. regions there are not as many active presentations at our annual meetings.

Next year, we will hold the International Board Meeting in Japan. It is a very honorable occasion for all of us. We will have the opportunity to showcase Japanese horticultural activities to our overseas I.P.P.S. friends. From this international meeting, I want our overseas friends to know us, our horticulture, and to develop a deeper understanding of I.P.P.S. activities in Japan. Currently, Japanese

The Effect of Time, Cultivar, and Grafting Method on Graft Compatibility in Persimmon (Diospyros)©

Author: Eak P. Simkhada, Hiroshi Gemma

PP: 430

The formation of the graft union between scions of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) cultivars ‘Fuyu’ and ‘Hiratanenashi’ grafted on D. lotus and D. kaki rootstocks was studied. When studied over time, cultivar, and grafting method, visible differences in graft union formation were observed. Based on the results, late July to August was the best time to conduct budding operations and the best overall method to use was chip budding. ‘Fuyu’ budded on D. kaki showed the highest compatibility in contrast to other combinations tested. It would appear that the best time for veneer (shoot) grafting was April. ‘Fuyu’ when grafted on D. kaki showed the best compatibility. In the initial stage, both D. kaki and D. lotus developed callus and cambial cells in a similar manner, but the rate of growth was higher and faster with D. kaki than D. lotus combinations. The callus cells showed an irregular appearance and the cell walls seem to be thinner than the callus cells on the homograft union. In later stages, strength of the union was reduced and the tree weakened in ‘Fuyu’ grafted on D. lotus combinations.
The Effect of Abscisic Acid on Growth Promotion©

Author: Nozawa Gloria Toshie, Yutaka Hirata, Yasuo Kamuro, Masaru Shibat

PP: 435

The involvement of gibberellins (GA) in plant growth promotion, stem elongation by stimulating cell division and elongation, and stimulation of bolting and flowering response under long days are widely known functions. Another hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), originally known as a hormone responsible for stimulation of stomata closure because of water stress (environmental response) and induction and maintenance of seed dormancy, is considered a growth inhibitor. Recently, research has shown a reverse effect of the natural type of ABA [(S)-(+)-Abscisic acid], which has shown an early differentiation of bud and flower promotion depending on the timing of application. Until recently, the synthetic racemic mixture of ABA (RABA) was used in research studies examining its physiological response and/or effects. This has lead to potential incorrect information obtained regarding ABA function (Kamuro, 1994). Because the natural type of ABA (SABA) was expensive to produce and apply to evaluate its functions was difficult. However, with the development of an inexpensive technique to synthesize SABA, it can now be artificially produced on a large scale at a moderate price.

The effects of exogenous ABA differ with species. In this work a mixture of SABA and GA was applied at a low concentrations to long-day, short-day, and day-neutral plants. Flower bud differentiation and flowering in long-day plants was promoted by application of these hormones. However, in short-day plants flowering was not promoted, but vigorous plant growth was induced. This suggests that SABA and GA interact and have synergetic effects on growth and flowering in plants. We expect that these results are applicable to increases in plant propagation and production.

Propagation of Ornamental Cultivars of Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in vitro©

Author: Masnaori Tomita

PP: 440

Two ornamental cultivars of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.) were used as donor plants. For callus induction, cotyledon segments obtained in vitro were cultivated on one-half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus formation was superior with ‘Dwarf Foxy’ in comparison to ‘Sutton s Apricot’. The effect of NAA and BAP on adventitious bud formation from callus segments was tested. Benzylaminopurine was essential for adventitious bud formation from callus. Adventitious bud formation and subsequent shoot growth were vigorous on media supplemented 1.0 or 3.16 µM BAP. The best result obtained from ‘Dwarf Foxy’ on the medium containing 3.16 µM BAP supplemented with 1.0 µM NAA.
The Type Specimen of Kurokami-ran (Ponerorchis graminifolia var. kurokamiana) Found©

Author: Masnaori Tomita

PP: 445

The type specimen of Ponerorchis graminifolia var. kurokamiana (Basionym: Orchis kurokamiana) was found in the herbarium of the Department of Botany, National Science Museum, Tokyo. This will become very useful data when orchid breeders wish to investigate Ponerorchis hybrids.
Recommendation for the Romanization of Japanese by International Standard (ISO 3602)©

Author: Yoshitaka Ueda, Masnaori Tomita

PP: 451

When translating a Japanese plant name to English, in order to keep and register Japanese meanings in English name, it is desirable that the name shall be correctly transliterated into Latin alphabet and to keep the position of the original name. Transliteration should avoid generating multiple meanings and an ambiguous meaning. International Standard 3602 system would be more useful than the modified Hepburn systems, when translating Japanese language into the Latin alphabet.
President's Welcoming Remarks©

Author: Jim Johnson

PP: 465

Welcome to the International Plant Propagators' Society's 53rd meeting of seeking and sharing. If members from other regions could please stand, I would also like to recognize those individuals who have made a bit longer of a trip to attend our annual meeting.

There are a number of individuals who have expended a great deal of energy and time to put this meeting together. I would like the Site Committee to please stand and I would like all of us to thank the Co-Chairs: Dale Pierson, Carol Lorenz, and Steve Effner, and their committee members; Roger Coggeshall, Evie King, Steve Jones, Ron Kujawski, Mike Maneri, Brian Maynard, Cathy Neal, and Chris Rogers. Thank you for your efforts. I would also like to thank Alan Jones, our 1st Vice-President and Program Committee Chair, and Tom Intven, our 2nd Vice-President and Poster Chair, for their efforts. We again have Dave Sanford and Scott Clark working the AV system and I thank them as well.

Since we last gathered, we have lost Leonard

If You Don't Have It, You Can't Use It: Water Issues at Prides Corner Farm©

Author: Michael R. Emmons

PP: 466

With the advent of container nursery production and the importance of having sufficient drainage and porosity within these containers the necessity for having larger amounts of water became essential to the quality and survival of these crops. Knowing how much will be needed can be a crapshoot because different years vary in temperature and natural rainfall. Most nurseries should consider their worst case scenario that is if it didn't rain a drop for June, July, and August, traditionally the three most intense watering months, what would you need. The reality is many of us don't do that and some years we find ourselves wondering, hoping, praying, and commiserating over whether there will be enough water to go around or will this finally be the year it all catches up to you. The bottom line is we do what we have to do because death is not an option and there are already far too many people standing in unemployment lines.

Yearly statistics are one way to determine water needs. Yet I heard

Invasive Plants: This is OUR Problem, Too©

Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 469


Within the last decade most of us have become aware that the issue of invasive species has become important for the nursery industry. In retrospect, it appears the nursery industry has responded appropriately and remarkably quickly to the invasive plant issue. But the real game has only just begun.

Because our industry affects the market availability of invasive plants, much of the focus is on us. We have the honor of being the major target for regulation and legislation.

Seed Production Levels and Seedling Traits of Berberis thunbergii Cultivars©

Author: Jonathan M. Lehrer, Mark H. Brand

PP: 472

Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) is both a widespread invasive plant and an important horticultural crop in the form of various ornamental cultivars. Little research has previously been dedicated to evaluating the invasive potential of current commercial cultivars and/or developing new sterile forms that lack potential invasiveness. A research program initiated at the University of Connecticut combines both of these elements.

Initial results indicate that B. thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea’ and ‘Rose Glow’ demonstrate gross seed production and levels of seed production per canopy volume similar to or greater than naturalized wild-type Japanese barberry. Values for ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ (syn. ‘Crimson Pygmy’) and ‘Aurea’ are reduced. The foliage color of seedlings derived from ‘Atropurpurea’, ‘Rose Glow’, and ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ varies widely from specimen to specimen, with some plants producing overwhelming percentages of purple seedlings and others yielding large percentages of green seedlings.

Acclimatizing Tissue Culture Plants: Reducing the Shock©

Author: John F. Seelye, Garry K. Burge, Ed R. Morgan

PP: 85


Many tissue culture milestones have been achieved over the past 50 years (Gamborg, 2002), with micropropagation established as a commercially viable form of vegetative propagation since the 1970s. Although many species are propagated using this technology there are still many more species that are either recalcitrant or cannot be cost-effectively propagated by tissue culture. Consequently, the commercial application of tissue culture propagation is restricted to mass propagating, high value, superior genotypes, and/or high health lines.

Plant tissue culture relies on growing microbe-free plant material in a sterile environment, in conjunction with defined media containing nutrients, growth promoters, and a carbohydrate source. Typically plant tissue culture is carried out on

Just Because They Are Native Doesn't Mean They Are Easy©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 477


Over the past 25 years there has been a continuous and ever increasing chorus of calls for more native plants in the landscape. Actually the call has been heard. In reviewing the offerings listed in the Plant and Supply Locator (2003) there are some 390 nurseries offering more than 550 different forms of native plants. In some parts of the country such as the Rockies and California native plants have often been a staple of the plant pallet primarily because they can readily fit into the landscape environmental niche. However, even where native plants are most useful there are always situations where highly desirable native plants just will not succeed. The objective here is to highlight some of these plants and explain and encourage nurseries and researchers to explore ways to overcome some of the problems associated with the production of some of the more desirable native plants.

Seedling Growing Innovations in Oregon©

Author: Michael Anderson

PP: 481

Carlton Plants produces bare-root trees, shrubs, and seedlings on 2000 acres in Oregon's Willamette Valley. About 4 million seedlings are grown annually in open ground seedbeds, pots, and raised seedboxes. Seedbed production accounts about 95% of the total, produced on 35 acres.

Twenty years ago most liners were purchased and propagation facilities were limited to one greenhouse and about 2 acres of seedbeds; the current goal is to produce 99% of all in-house planting needs as well as seedlings and liners for sales.

The species grown range from Acer to Zelkova; seed for production is about 50% purchased and 50% collected. A seed orchard has been established to provide a substantial boost to in-house collections.

Seedling ground is cover cropped for 2 years between crops, using buckwheat, corn, wheat, and hybrid Sudan grass. Prior to sowing soil tests are done and the soil amended with lime and fertilizer as needed. Mocap is applied as well for control of soil-born insects.

Fogging Systems: Selection, Installation and Operation©

Author: John W. Bartok Jr

PP: 483

Fog is an alternative evaporative cooling method to the fan and pad system. Fog is also used for germination and propagation. Its advantages include more uniform cooling throughout the greenhouse, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs. For propagation, a high relative humidity can be maintained without saturating the growing medium.
Ever Tried Oasis Blocks in Propagation? Believe it or Not They Work!©

Author: W. David Thompson

PP: 486

As propagators, we are faced with many challenges in today's production techniques. The main one, for us, is allowable space.

Many nurseries use the direct stick method into 2¼ inch to 6-inch pots, which cuts down on potting labor. The most common occurring problem with this method is the percentage of plants that do not root. This can lead to lost dollars not only in wasted space, but also in labor, heat, pots, and soil. We constantly look for alternatives and positive results in the stages of rooting cuttings, and the time and space it takes to get them to a finished product.

In the last 3 years we have tried many forms of oasis blocks to obtain good rooting percentages. We feel that the oasis wedge system, with 102 units per tray, is the most successful. These sit very well in a 1020 flat. The procedures for using these wedges are very simple. The wedge flats are presoaked to base saturation and stored in a cool environment to keep them from drying out. Our cuttings go through

Ellepots: Another Tool in Our Propagation Chest©

Author: Cheryl Andrzejewski

PP: 487

Ellepots originated in Denmark. They are constructed of biodegradable nonwoven paper. Pot sizes range from 15 to 100 mm. Worldwide, approximately 4.5 billion pots are produced per year.

How They Are Made. Pots are vacuumed filled mechanically with peat-based medium. The pots are made as a continuous tube and after filling the filled tubes are cut to size. After cutting the Ellepots are placed in flats for transportation (Fig. 1).

Advantages Are Numerous.

  • Root penetration
  • Choice of pH and nutritive value
  • Biodegradable paper
  • Quick to water
  • Excellent drainage system
  • Aeration is the key
  • Rooting time is reduced by 3–12 days
  • Less plastic waste
  • Delivered ready to use
  • Allows for air root pruning
  • Made to order
  • Modest water consumption
  • Less transplant shock
Propagation of Enkianthus perulatus ‘J. L. Pennock’©

Author: Shelley Dillard

PP: 488

Enkianthus perulatus ‘J. L. Pennock’, J. L. Pennock white Enkianthus, is a highly sought after ornamental shrub closely related to the commonly grown E. campanulatus. The white enkianthus has pure white urn-shaped flowers in late spring. The foliage is bright green, appearing whorled on the tips of the branches. The leaves turn a brilliant scarlet-red in the autumn, rivaling nyssa or winged euonymus.

‘J.L. Pennock’ white enkianthus is even more exceptional than the species because of its extended season of fall color. The fall color begins with a blush of burgundy in September, becomes deeper into October, and finally turns dark red to scarlet in November. Because of this extended period of display, in 1990 it was awarded the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society's Gold Medal, and has also been patented. The original plant at the Morris Arboretum is approximately 12 ft tall and 21 ft wide having grown at the Arboretum since 1920.

After many years of dismal trials, consistent propagation

Hydrogen Peroxide in Propagation©

Author: Tonya Albert

PP: 489

The propagation area at Spring Meadow Nursery is approximately 2 acres of heated concrete floors. We propagate in a gutter-connected range and a new open-roofed Westbrook range. We direct stick our cuttings into production flats or plug flats, which are moved into the propagating houses and placed directly on the heated concrete floors. An environment such as this allows us to easily sanitize propagation areas between crops. However, it also facilitates the growth of algae not only on the floors and walls, but also on the plant material.

Due to the growth of algae on the floors and the top of the soil on our container plants and plugs we saw an increase in fungus-gnat populations, as well as the inability of water to sufficiently penetrate the algae layer during irrigation. We began to research a cost effective and efficient method for dealing with this problem. The most well known product on the market was Zerotol, but with a cost of $1050 per 30-gal drum plus delivery, it did

The Use of Stolon Pieces to Propagate Roses and Other Material©

Author: Robert Osborne

PP: 490


At the 1998 Eastern Region meeting I gave a paper that outlined our attempts to propagate difficult-to-root roses from stolon pieces (Osborne, 1998) (Editor's Note:In the earlier paper the author used the terminology root pieces which are anatomically stolons). This paper is a report on our subsequent investigations into the use of stolon pieces as a system for propagating roses and other genera. We have refined and changed our system since our initial attempts and would like to describe the process we currently use.

Chip Budding Aralia©

Author: Richard A. Jaynes

PP: 495

Aralia elata and A. spinosa, love them or hate them, they are not for the faint hearted. The common names, Hercules-club or devil's-walking-stick, refer to the stout stems covered with sharp thorns — only the devil could clasp it! The huge, doubly compound leaves, up to a meter long, are actually quite delicate in appearance, in contrast to the stark, bold, thorny stalks seen in winter. The solid greenleafed species have a place in the landscape, but the variegated aralias, all A. elata selections, are guaranteed to attract attention. The three cultivars most commonly encountered are ‘Variegata’, ‘Aureovariegata’, and ‘Silver Umbrella’.

Variegated forms sold in the U.S.A. are mostly propagated in the Netherlands and are retailed here by mail order nurseries. Two-year-old plants, +/-30 cm, typically retail for as much as $155, plus shipping.

We have chip budded plants for several years, anytime from January through March. We have grown rootstock from seed. However, Aralia suckers readily

Influence of Bottom Heat and Mulch on Rooting of Evergreen Cuttings©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 496

During greenhouse winter propagation, stem cuttings of arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), Hetz juniper (Juniperus virginiana ‘Hetzii’), Hick's yew (Taxus ×media ‘Hicksii’), Ramlosa juniper (Juniperus chinensis ‘Ramlosa’), Savin juniper (Juniperus sabina), and Tamarix juniper (Juniperus sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’) were rooted with low (12 ± 2 °C) or high (21 ± 2 °C) bottom heat in a 1 perlite : 1 sand (v/v) medium. The medium was left uncovered or mulched with clear polyethylene (poly), white poly, Microfoam, or aluminum foil. In terms of percent rooting, Hick's yew, Hetz juniper, Savin juniper, and Ramlosa juniper rooted better with low bottom heat, and Tamarix juniper and arborvitae with high bottom heat. Compared with the uncovered medium, Tamarix juniper rooted better under clear poly but less under white poly; Ramlosa juniper rooted better under clear poly, white poly, and aluminum mulches. Rooting of the other taxa was unresponsive to mulch. For each taxa, an inverse relationship was observed between percent rooting and percent of callused (unrooted) cutting.
Leaf Variegation and Plant Chimeras©

Author: Garry K. Burge, Ed R. Morgan, John F. Seelye

PP: 91


Many of our ornamental cultivars have been selected for characteristics of their foliage. This includes foliage colour (e.g., golden Ulmus glabra and Podocarpus totara selections, purple Fagus sylvatica selections) and a wide range of leaf variegation patterns. These patterns include spots or maculations (e.g., Begonia maculata, Zantedeschia elliottiana), stripes (e.g., many Phormium selections), and differences in leaf colour between the leaf margin and mid region.

Leaf variegation can be induced by viruses (e.g., some Abutilon selections) and nutrient disorders. However, the leaf variegation observed in most of our ornamental cultivars selected for foliage characteristics is genetically controlled (Marcotrigiano, 1997). These variegation patterns can be divided into cell lineage or non-cell lineage types. It is important to understand these types of genetically controlled variegation, as their propagation requirements and stability are very different (Tilney-Bassett,

New Rootstocks for the Nursery Industry©

Author: Michael Scott

PP: 501

In driving through the urban landscape one notices that not all trees perform equally well; in particular some of the more popular ornamentals are some of the worst offenders. Crabapples for one are subject to a myriad of problems such as suckering, diseases, and insects. Typically in the past ornamental plants have been budded or grafted, but even in moving toward own root propagation of trees this only solves one problem and arbitrarily at that — the problem of suckering. Any suckers that do grow up are the same as the top of the plant and will not then overgrow the budded part of the tree thus making it less desirable. Problems of ornamental plants and in particular the Roseaceae, tend to mimic fruit trees, so why not take a leaf out of the fruit tree grower's books, where similar problems have been addressed by scientific institutions backed by industry dollars researching and developing new plants. I would like to talk to you today about seven rootstocks namely: Prunus cerasifera
Adapting Commercial Production Techniques to Botanical Garden Propagation©

Author: Bruce Blevins

PP: 505

Walking through the propagation range a few evenings ago, I had a brief but satisfying sense of accomplishment as I made my weekly "state of the prop" assessment. Usually these surveys only result in two page "To Do" lists and mild pangs of panic over how in the world to get it all done. But on that night as I looked in on the 30 growing spaces that make up our 33,000 ft2 of glasshouses, the changes in approach to propagation and production, introduced through nearly 4 years of constant effort, were clearly evident. The standards of a well run, commercial production nursery: uniformity, consistency, predictability, and efficiency, had begun to take hold in this aging, inadequate, and overstuffed botanical garden facility. Finally!

The New York Botanical Garden, a National Historic Landmark and a museum of plants, was established in Bronx, New York over 100 years ago. Its 250 acres include display gardens, plant collections, 50 acres of original forest and the spectacular Enid A. Haupt

If Walt Disney Was A Propagator, How Would He Have Reached His Customers?©

Author: John Stanley

PP: 508


Propagation is one of the oldest skills, it has been practised since man stopped roaming the earth and started settling in one spot. Seeds or cuttings were germinated or rooted, plants sold or grown on, and eventually a finished plant became a valuable commodity in the economy.

It has always been the way of doing things, should it be the way of the future?

The world is changing rapidly. One hundred years ago the entrepreneur was the farmer or grower, during the last century it became the manufacturer, and in the new century it is the idea maker who is changing the world.

Entrepreneurs, such as Walt Disney, Richard Branson (Virgin), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Anita Roddick (Body Shop) have challenged the way things are done in their respective industries; none of them saw the opportunities in horticulture. If they had, would they have done things differently?

Alas, these personalities are not with us for this presentation, all we can offer is conjecture on how they

Galax: A Crop for the Future?©

Author: Richard E. Bir, Joseph L. Conner

PP: 511


Galax (Galax urceolata, formerly Galax aphylla) is a low-growing evergreen herbaceous perennial native to the southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to West Virgina. Native habitat is moderate to dense shade in relatively dry, infertile forest soils. Under natural growing conditions, galax leaves that are exposed to light, such as during winter in deciduous forests, often turn maroon-red. Following the spring return of deciduous forest foliage, galax leaf color turns back to green. White flowers are borne in late spring in a raceme on a nonbracteate scape, thus the common name wandflower (Cullina, 2000). Foliage typically lasts two growing seasons then dies in the third. Drought tolerance in lab tests is akin to survivor plants from the Sonoran desert (Newfeld, 2002).

The round, glossy leaves of galax are a valued commodity in the international florist trade because they are sturdy, attractive, and have long shelf life. It is estimated that up to 2 billion leaves

Scandinavia 2002, Observations from the Exchange Propagator©

Author: Rod R. Ackerman

PP: 513

I would like to start by thanking the members of the Scandinavian Region and all of the other plants-persons that I had the fortunate opportunity to meet while traveling across Denmark. Their openness and willingness to share information was exemplary, as well as their hospitality to a foreign visitor.

My first taste of horticulture in Denmark was obtained while walking through a residential area in Copenhagen, a chance to stretch the legs after a long flight. Knowing little of Denmark upon my arrival I was amazed by the small, but meticulous gardens kept by the residence of Copenhagen. Every yard was surrounded by a hedge (I later found out that the tradition had ancient roots, first used to control livestock, later a law to mark property lines, and now an everyday tradition). Beyond the hedges you would expect to see lawn/grass, maybe a few shrubs, but instead a wealth of plant material was found, only in the largest of "yards" could you find grass. If there wasn't room for a garden,

Recent Plant Introductions from China©

Author: Anthony S. Aiello

PP: 515

Last September I participated in a 3-week plant collecting expedition to Shanxi province, an area of north-central China, west of Beijing. The expedition was sponsored by the Beijing Botanical Garden and included colleagues from the Morton Arboretum, the United States National Arboretum, and the Chicago Botanic Garden. The trip was conducted through NACPEC, the North America China Plant Exploration Consortium, a group of eight organizations that has participated in 11 trips since 1991. The goals of this consortium are to:
  • Broaden the genetic pool of known species.
  • Extended hardiness and increase vigor.
  • Broadened adaptability to difficult microclimates.
  • Increase insect and disease resistance.
  • Conserve rare and endangered species.
  • Select improved horticultural forms.
  • Evaluate and introduce appropriate new species.
  • Facilitate exchange of information and personnel between Chinese and North American institutions.

NACPEC has visited several areas in China, ranging from Heilongjiang and

Multiplying Syringa Propagules… Easy as One, Two, Ethylene©

Author: Samuel R. Drahn

PP: 518

Growing plants generated from tissue culture is an effective way to ensure plants are true to type and to attain percentages of rooted stock sometimes difficult to obtain through traditional softwood cutting propagation. Growing plants started from tissue culture can also be expensive.

In the Spring 2001 Bailey Nurseries, Inc. began increasing the number of softwood Syringa cuttings for harvest by applying Florel® Brand Pistil, Ethephon, [(2–chlorethyl)–phosphoric acid], to juvenile stands of rooted cuttings in the greenhouses. This technique increases the number of branches per plant and allows us to maximize the propagules we are able to grow, harvest, and root for our softwood schedule. Our goal has been to reduce the number of plants we grow that are started from tissue culture, and over the past three seasons we have steadily made headway with this goal.

Beginning in mid November unrooted, Stage-2 Syringa microcuttings generated from tissue culture are delivered to our propagation

Re-inventing Sweetshrubs©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 522

The family Calycanthaceae is comprised of three genera including Chimonanthus (Asia), Calycanthus (North America and Asia), and Idiospermum (Australia). These plants are among the oldest known flowering plants with fossil records dating back to the early and mid cretaceous periods (144 to 65 million years ago) (Renner, 1999). As the Age of Dinosaurs came to an end, and the super-continent Pangea was breaking apart, these ancient plants were radiating out, leading to their modern worldwide distribution.

Although the sweetshrubs are not generally considered mainstream landscape plants, they hold great promise. The sweetshubs offer fragrant flowers, attractive foliage, broad adaptability, shade tolerance, and excellent pest resistance. Once discovered, gardeners invariably become infatuated and muse romantically about the alluring fragrance and subtle charm of sweetshrubs. No garden should be without them.

There are two species of sweetshrubs native to North America, the Carolina

A New World of Groundcovers©

Author: Fred Dabney

PP: 524

This presentation was a slide show on groundcovers with many of the groundcovers shown in Table 1 below described.
New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 530

Austrocedrus chilensis, Chilean cedar. Austrocedrus chilensis is an evergreen conifer superficially resembling plants in the Genus Thuja. It is native to Chile and Argentina and is closely related to the incense cedar, Calocedrus decurrens. It makes a tall tree with a crown that narrows to a cone. It has brown exfoliating bark and in the Northeast seems far more cold tolerant than most references indicate. In the Year 2002 during winter it withstood temperatures of near 0°F for several days without any damage. It is easy to root after several sharp cold periods and in the propagation phase is almost identical to Thuja occidentalis.

Baptisia australis var. minor (syn. B. minor). A plains native from Kansas to Northern Texas. This early spring bloomer with indigo-blue flowers fits nicely into the garden, rarely reaching over 24 inches in height compared to B. australis that often reaches up to 4 ft. Preferring a sunny location with spring moisture moisture and hot dry summers.

The Cultivar Naming Code©

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: 94


Plant breeders and selectors routinely name their new creations and this includes those involved in plant propagation and production. At some point a plant propagator may need to name a new clonal selection or a seedling that comes up in a propagation tray. This may occur almost by accident such as the appearance of a different or "better" form of a commonly propagated species. This new form may then be developed into a new cultivar and possibly given a name. Is the name just something you dream up and go with or is there actually some guidelines or system to follow? You certainly can just pick a name and commercialise with it, this happens all of the time, but another option is to take a more systematic and considered approach utilising the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (the Code) and the appropriate International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA). It should be clear that The Code and ICRAs do not provide a new cultivar with any legal or

Question Box©

Author: Deb McCown, Dick Bir.

PP: 535

MODERATOR BIR: Has anyone experienced any lower rooting percentages with the use of the herbicide Factor (at recommended rates) on boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) cultivars taken from field grown plants? We experienced stem necrosis and leaf drop during the rooting process.
Comparison of Germination Rates of Pinus strobus for Two Seed Sorting Techniques at Vans Pines Nursery©

Author: Gary Van Slooten, Zhuotian Lu

PP: 537

Pinus strobus is a major crop species for Vans Pines Nursery. We started slowly moving conifer propagation out of field seedbeds and into Jiffy forestry pellets that are propagated inside greenhouses in 1998. As 2000 was the last year we sowed conifer seeds in field seedbeds, this placed a much greater importance on our greenhouse plug production. Because greenhouse space is expensive when compared to field space, we quickly realized that greenhouse propagation cost were inversely proportional to seed lot germination rates. Higher germination allowed for more efficient use of greenhouse space thus lower plug production cost.

The problem is conifer seeds have poor germination rates. To overcome this, many plug growers like us, multiple sow 2- to 5 seeds in each cell then a few weeks later go back through and thin the crop to one tree per cell. While this solves the problem of efficient use of greenhouse space, it creates additional labor expense for thinning and wastes a lot of

New Hostas From Seeds©

Author: Clarence H. Falstad III

PP: 540


Hostas are the number-one-selling perennial in North America, and much of that is attributed to cultivar diversity as well as hardiness and ease of use in the landscape. Much of the recent interest is in new distinct cultivars. There are about 250 new cultivars registered each year bringing the current total to about 3000 different cultivars.

Hosta cultivars can be propagated by division and tissue culture, or also by seed for those few species that have a market. The diversity and unpredictability of sexual propagation does not lend to production of true-named cultivars, however it is an excellent source of new and improved cultivars.

Breaking down the various characteristics into all the possible forms shows a huge potential for different cultivars. If we examine the various attributes of hostas we find there to be conservatively 136 different traits. Assuming half of these to be linked, i.e., large plant size with large leaf size, or lance leaf shape with tapered leaf

Production of Halesia diptera var. magniflora©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 544


Halesia diptera var. magniflora is one of the best flowering forms of the genus Halesia. It is native to the lower south eastern part of the U.S.A. and usually occurs as an under story plant in well drained but fairly moist soils. The var. magniflora refers to heavy copious flowering where individual flowers are significantly larger than the species type. It is a Zone 6 to 9 plant and can conceivably occupy a considerable geographic range.

When grown alone and away from other H. diptera plants, H. diptera var. magniflora will produce seed that comes true for the large flowering characteristics. This makes seed a viable option for producing this form. Dirr (1998) in the Manual of Wood Landscape Plants says that in general cuttings of H. diptera var. magniflora cannot be rooted and from my experience this is true. It is exceedingly difficult to root cuttings of this plant and even when they are rooted they fail to thrive or even overwinter successfully.

Possibilities in the Rooting of Quercus glauca©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 546

Quercus glauca (syn. Q. myrsinifolia) is an evergreen oak from Japan, China, and Laos that is hardy to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It has leathery dark green leaves that are long and narrow, somewhat resembling a peach or willow leaf. The foliage is clean and the branching is well spaced creating an attractive ornamental tree.

There are several accessions at the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and I took on a study to understand the rooting potential of this species. Dirr (1998) says in passing that Q. glauca can be rooted with K-IBA with a 1% dip with cuttings taken in June, but he does not go into specifics.

Magnolia tripetala from Seed©

Author: David Schmidt

PP: 547


Magnolia tripetala (syn. M. virginiana var. tripetala) belongs to the Magnoliaceae family with a number of common names including: umbrella magnolia, umbrella tree, and Elkwood. Magnolia honors the French botanist Pierre Magnol; tripetala refers to the three large petaloid sepals; tree is similar to M. macrophylla.

Characteristics: Tree: Up to 30 ft tall, with an open crown. Bark: Thin and smoothish, light grey. Twigs: Thick and shiny, becoming glabrous. Leaves: Alternate, obovate 10–24 inches, and clustered near the ends of the branches creating an umbrella effect. Flowers: 6–10 inches across with 6 to 9 petals, creamy white with an unpleasant fragrance, blooms early June in the Hamilton area. Fruit: 4 inches long, cone-shaped, rosy red in October. Zones 5–8 (Dirr, 1990).

Distribution: Pennsylvania to Mississippi.

Habitat: Grows in deep, moist valley floors along streams and swamps.

Graft Compatibilities of Hornbeam (Carpinus) Species and Hybrids©

Author: Susan J. Wiegrefe

PP: 549


In the development of new plant selections it is critical to determine whether existing nursery practices are still appropriate for use during their propagation and production. For Carpinus selections of all species compositions, the standard nursery practice has been to graft them onto C. betulus (Tim Brotzman, Alan Jones, and Mark Krautmann, pers. comm.). The main reason for this has been the fact that the majority of hornbeam cultivars are from European hornbeam (C. betulus) and grafting these onto the other commonly available understock, American hornbeam (C. caroliniana) results in significant overgrowth of the understock by the scion material.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether scions of uncommon species and hybrid origins (Wiegrefe and Berg, 1998) are graft compatible and most appropriately grafted onto C. betulus or, alternatively, if some other commonly available rootstock would provide better graft compatibility and performance. The plant

Scion and Rootstock Affect on the Performance of Grafted Black Walnut Cultivars©

Author: Mark V. Coggeshall, Andrew L. Thomas, J.W. Van Sambeek

PP: 555

Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is prized for both its timber and edible nuts and has been suggested as a desirable tree species to use in agroforestry-based systems in the Midwestern U.S.A. (Garrett and McGraw, 2000). New plantings of improved cultivars will be required to fully realize the economic gains expected when managing for nut production (Jones, Mueller, and Van Sambeek, 1998). Grafting is currently the most effective method used to vegetatively propagate eastern black walnut (Coggeshall and Beineke, 1997). Yet to be defined, however, are the long-term effects of different rootstock sources on scion survival, growth, and nut productivity for this species. In California, scions of Persian walnut (J. regia) can exhibit increased vigor and pest resistance when grafted on specific rootstocks (McGranahan and Leslie, 1990). Likewise, it is possible that the use of rootstocks grown from seeds of popular black walnut cultivars might also convey some advantages in terms of
Progress in Velcro Banding Asian Maples©

Author: Nicholas Castrataro, William Johnson, Brian Maynard

PP: 557


The University of Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station is always looking for new plants to increase diversity in the Rhode Island nursery industry. Five different maple species, Acer tegmentosum, A. ukurunduense, A. capillipes, A. davidii subsp. grosseri (syn. A. grosseri-davidii) , and A. tschonoskii are new to this area and are being tested for culture and propagation. In 2003 the five maple species were propagated using a banding technique that uses Velcro strips and an early dose of rooting hormone to see if it can enhance adventitious root formation. These maples are believed to be hard to form adventitious roots on. The goal of this project is to increase the rooting percent of these plants so they can be distributed to local nurseries.

Spigelia marilandica Propagation: A Review©

Author: Winston C. Dunwell

PP: 560


Spigelia marilandica, Indian pink, is native to west Kentucky. Infrequent in southern Kentucky (Wharton and Barbour, 1971) it is found as a roadside plant on a range of soil types. Over it's range, Florida into east Texas, southeast Oklahoma, southwest Indiana, northwest Georgia, and east South Carolina it is common (Duncan and Duncan, 1999). The red tubular flowers with five folded lobes showing the yellow interior color are stunning; "stop people dead in their tracks" (Armitage, 1997). An average of 13 (8 to 17 on 68 stems on a 5-year-old division) of the 2 inch (5 cm) upright flowers are found on a one-sided cyme. The glossy ovate, opposite, sessile leaves add to the attractive appearance of the plant. West Kentucky plants grow 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) tall in sun or shade landscape environments. The bloom period starts in late May and continues through June, occasionally scattered blooms will occur in the fall. Rick Darke (2002) says they will re-bloom heavily if

The Name Game for New Players©

Author: Wilmien Brascamp

PP: 99

Knowledge of plants, their names, botanical features, and growing conditions, can be taught in an holistic manner that combines the positive aspects of "training on the job" with the advantages offered by the learning environment of a tertiary institution. Such education can contribute in a wider sense to the future of the horticultural industry by adopting a teaching approach that encourages creative thinking. Ways in which courses in plant knowledge and plant naming can cater to individuals with various learning styles, and the process by which they can incorporate tasks that enhance creative thinking abilities of students, are described using as an example a course entitled "Plants in the Landscape", developed at Massey University, New Zealand.
High Demand Native Plants from Maine©

Author: Steve Effner, Donglin Zhang, Stacy Ruchala

PP: 562


Interest in growing native plants has been increasing in recent years due to their countless landscape uses and value in preserving natural ecosystems (Cullina, 2000; Dreyer, 1993). To satisfy the market demand, Western Maine Nurseries, a well-established conifer liner nursery, diversified by adding a woody ornamental liner division in 1997. The initial goal was to grow potted woody liners focused on three perceived needs in the nursery trade: rare, unusual, and new introductions; superior cultivars of standard nursery stock with proven track records in extreme northern climates; and native plants with bio-mitigation applications. Of these three initial goals, native plant production has had, by far, the highest demand, accounting for up to 75% of our sales.

For the last 6 years, Western Maine Nurseries and University of Maine Horticultural Program have teamed up on the research effort on generating these native plants. The nursery is located in Fryeburg, Maine (U.S.D.A.

The Green Roof Research Program at Michigan State University©

Author: Bradley Rowe

PP: 566


As our forests and agricultural lands are replaced with impervious surfaces due to urban development, the necessity to recover green space is becoming increasingly critical for the health of our environment as well as our well being. Vegetated or green roofs are one potential remedy for this problem. Establishing plant material on rooftops provide numerous ecological and economic benefits including storm-water management, energy conservation, mitigation of the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of roofing membranes, as well as providing a more aesthetically pleasing environment to work and live.

The green roof research program at Michigan State University (MSU) was initiated in collaboration with Ford Motor Company during 2000 in an effort to advise them on the installation of a 10.6-acre extensive (shallow) green roof on a new assembly plant in Dearborn, Michigan. The objectives of our ongoing research are to evaluate plant species, propagation and

Cultivar Verification Using Molecular Techniques©

Author: Peter Del Tredici, Jianhua Li, John Alexander, Thomas Ward

PP: 568


The techniques of molecular biology are increasingly being applied to horticultural research, including cultivar verification and new cultivar breeding. In this poster we summarize two projects conducted at the Arnold Arboretum that demonstrate the application of these techniques to horticultural plants. We envision this area of research will continue to develop, and we foresee a need for collaborative efforts to establish a comprehensive database of different taxa. Such a database should be readily accessible online for the benefit of researchers, the green industry, and the general public.

Somatic Embryogenesis and Callus Induction in Willow Oak©

Author: R.L. Geneve, S.T. Kester, C. Edwards, S. Wells

PP: 570


Oaks (Quercus sp.) are important nursery and forestry species. Seed is used to propagate most oaks because they are difficult to root from cuttings and many oaks experience delayed graft incompatibility. This severely limits availability of superior cultivars for the nursery trade. The ability to propagate superior mature clones of oak would result in increased selection and therefore, profitability for oak liner and shade tree production. It would also allow growers to put existing oak cultivars on their own roots rather than attempting to graft these cultivars (i.e., Q. palustris ‘Crown Right’). In addition, development of the proposed somatic embryogenesis system would provide an appropriate system for attempts to transform mature oaks with novel genes (i.e., any potential genes developed for disease resistance to oak wilt or bacterial leaf scorch).

Although oaks are considered difficult to root from cuttings, it has been demonstrated that juvenile cuttings of oak

Hydrangea macrophylla Propagation by Hardwood Cuttings©

Author: Robert E. McNiel

PP: 573

NATURE OF WORK A study was conducted in the greenhouse at the University of Kentucky Horticulture Farm, Lexington, to determine how late into the season cuttings from Hydrangea macrophylla could be rooted in a successful manner. Stock plants were field grown under drip irrigation at the site on a Maury Silt Loam.

Cuttings 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) in length were collected and stuck on 20 Oct., 27 Nov., and 16 Dec. 2002. Cuttings taken in October were terminal cuttings while cuttings obtained in November and December were both terminal cuttings and stem tissue, which were immediately distil to the terminal cuttings (secondary). All cuttings were quick-dip treated with Wood$s Rooting Compound diluted with distilled water (1 : 10, v/v).

Cuttings were stuck into Premium Pine Park Nursery medium from Barky Beaver, Inc., Tennessee. The medium was placed into Quick Pot QP 35 T trays with cell shape 1.968 × 1.968 × 4.527 inches (50 × 50 × 115 mm). Mist was applied for 5 sec every 6 min

Rooting Potential of Fagus grandifolia Cuttings©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 575


Fagus grandifolia Ehrenb. is a very common forest tree of the Eastern U.S.A. from New England to as far south asthe southern Appalachians, with a subspecies listed as F. grandifolia var.caroliniana (Loud) Fern Redh. There is considerable interest and demand for the tree for reforestation work and for ornamental plantings. Efforts to meet the production requirements for F. grandifolia are often stymied by the inability to graft it to other Fagusspecies particularly F. sylvatica and by the consistent lack of seed. Individual trees of F. grandifolia often set seed in an unpredictable rotation with as much as 7 and 11 years between good seed set. What exactly determines when a good seed year is approaching is not readily discernable. A recent cut test of a large healthy tree showed on average of 30% sound seed. It is known though that in the case of a poor seed set there will be copious amounts of nutlets"thrown" from the tree starting in mid to late summer and by fall

Root Plug Method for the Propagation of Root Cuttings Using Commercially Available Trays©

Author: Joaquin A. Chong, James E. Faust Royal D. Heins

PP: 577


A root plug is a root cutting that regenerates from a stock plant that has been grown in a container subdivided by compartments such as plug trays. The goal of our research was to develop this root-plug method with commercially available materials.

Anemone ×hybrida ‘September Charm’, A. ×hybrida ‘Honorine Jobert’, Eryngium amethystinum, Oenothera fruticosa ‘Youngii’, Stokesia laevis ‘Blue Danube’, and S. laevis ‘Mary Gregory’ were tested in the following treatments: 200-cell,air-pruning tray (International Innovative Technology, Inc, Ridge, North Carolina U.S.A.), 128, 162, and 288 trays(Winstrip, Inc., Fletcher, North Carolina U.S.A.), 4-inch square pot (Belden Plastics, Roseville, Minnesota, U.S.A.) withthree cut-to-fit 243-X-cut trays (Blackmore, Belleville, Michigan, U.S.A.), and 4-inch square pot (Belden Plastics,Roseville, Minnesota, U.S.A.) as control for the X-cut trays. All trays were filled with a commercial mix (Fafard 3B, Agawam, Massachusetts,

Increased Rooting Percentages and Decreased Transplant Shock Using Ellepots©

Author: Gail Billingsley

PP: 579


Spring Meadow Nursery is a liner producer of a wide range of woody shrubs, both deciduous and evergreen. Softwood and hardwood cuttings are either direct rooted into a 2¼ or 4-inch cell or rooted in a 72- or 98-cell tray and then transplanted after rooting. Plants that are more difficult to root are first rooted in a plug tray and then transplanted to avoid wasted space and material. We often experienced transplant loss when shifting from plugs into 2¼ or 4-inch pots. Another challenge was shortening the cycle on plants that were slow to root into the transplant media from a plug. When researching options to both increase rooting percentages and reduce plant loss upon transplanting, we trialed several options: Oasis WEDGE® System, Jiffy-7® Forestry Pellet, and Ellepots. We found that Ellepots, distributed by Blackmore Company Inc. in Belleville, Michigan, best fulfilled our requirements for achieving

Mature Vinca minor Propagation©

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 582

Vinca minor, myrtle or periwinkle, a popular evergreen groundcover is a very difficult plant to propagate. It is very sensitive to stressing during the cutting and sticking process, it rots easily under mist, and it requires a deep well-drained propagation tray with a well-drained propagation mix. It also has a very strong juvenility factor. During the first 2 years of growth in the field it sends out long horizontal runners that naturally root from the nodes into the ground, and this node development and rooting in take place in late summer and early fall, mid-August to October, here in southern Michigan. Therefore, traditionally a 3 to 5-node cutting is taken from cuttings harvested early in the morning from the field, kept moistened and shaded, the bottom two sets of leaves are stripped, and it is stuck in a very soft, well drained, fine-particle propagation mix.

There are times when we have an older, 3- or 4-year-old field, and there are times when we need to propagate

Boxwood Propagation at Zelenka Nursery, Inc.©

Author: Michael P. Corbett

PP: 583


I will be sharing the production steps we use to produce Buxus at Zelenka Nursery, including greenhouse propagation and field grown liners. We propagate and grow our liners for our container program. We have tried several different production methods and have found the following method to be most cost effective to produce Buxus at Zelenka.

Scheduling Flowering in Metrosideros excelsa (pohutukawa)©

Author: J. Clemens, R.E. Henriod, J. Song, P.E. Jameson

PP: 104


We have been working on a number of plants native to New Zealand to bring our knowledge to a stage at which some of them could be of use in the floricultural industry, either as cut flowers or flowering pot plants. Candidates receiving the greatest attention to date have been members of the Pacific genus Metrosideros, especially the New Zealand Christmas tree or pohutukawa (M. excelsa), and the colourful native legumes Sophora (kowhai) and Clianthus (kowhai ngutukaka or kaka beak). More recently, flowering in Phormium (flax) has been studied, and we are extending our findings in Metrosideros to plants in the closely related Eucalyptus group.

There are three parts to our research on pohutukawa: overcoming juvenility in micropropagated plants (i.e., making the plants become competent to flower as soon as possible), understanding the environmental signals that trigger flowering, and working out the conditions needed to control the timing of flowering and the effects on

Potential New Garden Plants from Maine©

Author: Donglin Zhang, Steve Effner

PP: 585


New and colorful plants are the new "blood" for the horticultural trade (Armitage, 1993) Under the support of Maine Landscape and Nursery Association, University of Maine R&D, and Western Maine Nurseries, the "New Plant Production" program was established 6 years ago in the Landscape Horticulture Program in the Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental Sciences at the University of Maine in Orono, Maine. With an area as large as the five other New England States combined, plus plant lovers, plant breeders, gardeners, and horticultural professionals, Maine has great potential for new garden plants. All plants mentioned in the text have originated from our beloved Maine. They could be plants discovered in the wild or cultivated areas (natural selections) or derived from breeding, hybridization, tissue culture, and gene transformation (artificial selection) here in Maine. The purposes of this paper are to share potential new garden plants from Maine, to seek more

University of Connecticut Plant Introductions©

Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 588

Larix laricina ‘Newport Beauty’. An extremely dwarf form of eastern larch having an annual growth of 9 cm. This selection has grown to a height of 36 cm and a width of 69 cm in 10 years. Its shape is a low mound with branches reaching to the ground.

Larix laricina ‘Deborah Waxman’. In sharp contrast to ‘Newport Beauty’, ‘Deborah Waxman’ is an upright dwarf that has a more rapid rate of growth. It has attained a height of 1.5 m and a width of 1 m in 10 years. ‘Deborah Waxman’ a very attractive upright dense shrub.

Pinus strobus ‘Sea Urchin’. ‘Sea Urchin’ is a truly miniature shrub. It has very small needles, 3 cm long. After 10 years of growth it has developed into a low mound with a height of only 35 cm and a width of 55 cm. The foliage has a bluish-green appearance.

Pinus strobus ‘UConn’. This selection is relatively fast growing compared to other dwarf evergreens and is currently producing approximately 39 cm of stem growth annually. It has grown to a height of 3 m and has a diameter

Commercially Available Organic Mulches as a Weed Barrier for Container Production©

Author: Jen Llewellyn, Keith Osborne, Christine Steer-George, Jeanine We

PP: 590


For many Canadian nurseries, weed control can be a very time-consuming and costly process. Unlike the United States of America, Canada has limited access to effective chemical herbicides (Chong, 2003; Chong et al., 1989; Chong, 2003). Herbicide phytotoxicity and surface water and ground water contamination issues have renewed interest in nonchemical methods such as weed barriers (Mervosh, 1999). Growers are constantly striving to find nonchemical methods of weed control that reduce the frequency of hand weeding in our container nurseries (Calkins, et al. 1996; Chong, 2003; Chong et al., 1989; Mervosh and Abbey. 1999; Mathers, 2003). Over the past decade, mulch has increased in popularity for weed suppression in the landscape industry (Borland, 1990). Organic mulches such as wood chips and bark are attractive and effective methods of weed suppression when applied properly (Mervosh, 1999). Studies have shown that hardwood chips and pine bark mulches are effective weed

Decreasing the Production Time of Seed-grown Lilium and Dodecatheon©

Author: Catherine Thomas

PP: 593


One drawback of growing some species from seed is the length of time required to produce a plant large enough to plant out. Lilium and Dodecatheon are two species where this is the case. At the Chicago Botanic Garden we have an extensive Lilium breeding program requiring the growing of Lilium from seed. We also have natural areas where the genetic diversity of seed-grown Dodecatheon is desired. In order to produce plants of these two species in less time, two growing cycles were compacted into 1 year.

Container Crop Response to Liquid and Slow-Release Fertilisers and Substrates From Bark Wastes and Composts©

Author: K.L. McLachlan, R.P. Voroney, C. Chong, B.E. Holbein, H.-W. Liu

PP: 595

There is increasing use of bark wastes and waste-derived composts in container culture but little information on the effect of different types of fertilisers or substrate formulations. This study compared the growth response of potentilla (Potentilla fruticosa) and ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius) grown from liners in #2 containers filled with three bark-based media and three waste-derived composts (Table 1).

Plants were fertilised with either Nutryon 17N–1.7P–8.7K (17N–5P2O5–12K2O) 6-month controlled-release fertiliser incorporated (6.5 kg·m-3) before planting, or with 20N–8.7P–16.6K (20N–20P2O5–20K2O) water-soluble fertiliser at a rate of 100 ppm N twice a day every other day with the irrigation water until 15 July, then 200 ppm thereafter. Each plant received 1 L of trickle-irrigated water per container twice daily. The plants were arranged in a split-plot design with media as main plot (three replications) and both species and fertiliser as

Comparing the Growth of Gymnocladus dioica in a Pea Gravel Medium Amended With Calcined Clay or Expanded Shale©

Author: Steven D. Kirk, Chris Starbuck, J.W. Van Sambeek

PP: 599

The Missouri Gravel Bed (MGB) is a system allowing trees and shrubs to be planted bare root, in full leaf at any time of the year (Gowdy et al., 2002). Dormant plants are placed with their roots in a frequently irrigated mixture of pea gravel and sand and can be removed from the rock for transplanting to the field or to containers with outstanding survival. Because rock and sand have low cation exchange capacity, it is often difficult to maintain the pH and mineral nutrient concentration in the root environment in a range in which minerals are continuously available for root uptake. In studies with Syringa pubescens subsp. patula ‘Miss Kim’ and Nyssa sylvatica, chlorosis has been a consistent problem. Testing of leachate from the MGB bed revealed that pH was often above 7.8, partially due to alkaline irrigation water. Although the addition of iron sulfate has reduced chlorosis somewhat, it has not proved a practical solution to the nutrient availability problem.

Calcined clay and

Accelerated Japanese Maple Understock Production©

Author: Jennifer Wells, Jerry Lavallee

PP: 602


Due to production increases and understock availability, we needed to develop a program to supplement our outside suppliers in order to maintain a consistent quality of Acer palmatum understock in the desired quantities. Our goalfor this program is to grow consistently disease-free understock in quantities that can meet our production numbers. In the past we had grown understock in open beds. Seeds germinated over a 2-year period, then were lifted and potted when they reached a usable size. However, very few reached a desirable height for tall grafting. They would grow 3 to 4 inches the 1st year, then start branching the 2nd year. This method of production was abandoned due to this issue and to production decreases. Our new method allows us to produce understock where at least 80% of them are usable for tall grafts.

Three years ago, we started experimenting with a plug-style production of understock of Japanese maple. The 1st year, the crop failed

Nitrogen and Potassium Nutrition of Geraniums Grown in Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) Fertilized with Leachate from SMS©

Author: E. J. Holcomb, Charles W. Heuser, Paul H. Heinemann

PP: 604


Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) can effectively be used for the production of greenhouse and nursery crops. Young et al. (2002) demonstrated that marigolds could be grown in SMS from three sources. In this research the procedure was to take the fresh SMS and leach the soluble salts from the SMS then use the SMS immediately as a growing media amendment. The problem with this procedure was that a waste product containing high salt content was generated. Many of the salts in the SMS leachate are plant nutrients and could be supplied to the plant as a replacement for existing fertilizer nutrients. A preliminary study determined that marigolds could be grown using the SMS leachate as the primary source for fertilizer nutrients.

A New Intergeneric Hybrid Between Franklinia alatamaha and Schima argentea: ×Schimlinia floribunds (Theaceae)©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney, Thomas A. Eaker, Paul R. Fantz, Clifford R. Pa

PP: 608


Franklinia alatamaha represents a monotypic genus that was discovered originally in Georgia, U.S.A., but is now considered extinct in the wild and is maintained only in cultivation. Although Franklinia is very ornamental, with showy flowers and crimson/maroon fall foliage color, it tends to be short lived when grown as a landscape tree and is known to be susceptible to a range of root pathogens. Schima argentea is an evergreen tree that is native to Asiaand is valued for its glossy foliage, late-summer flowers, and broad adaptability in mild climates. Hybridization between these genera could potentially combine the cold hardiness and desirable ornamental characteristics of F. alatamahawith the greater adaptability, utility, and genetic diversity of S. argentea.

Green Roof Plants Mitigate Storm Water and Clean the Environment©

Author: David J. Beattie, Robert D. Berghage, Albert R. Jarrett, Harvey

PP: 609


As North America becomes more developed, increasingly large areas of land are being covered with impervious surfaces such as buildings, roads, and parking lots. When storms occur, runoff can impose a significant threat to watersheds locally and regionally. Although green roofs are not new, Germany over the last 30 years has developed extensive green roof technologies that can be applied in the U.S.A. to reduce roof runoff and watershed damage. Green — sometimes called eco — roofs are, as the name implies, thin (4– to 6-inch deep) plantings that are placed on the roof of a building. Plant size and selection depends on the depth of the roof over-burden (growing medium) and local climate, but almost always consists of winter-hardy, drought-tolerant, perennial plants. Although some information about green roofs is available, replicated performance specifics, especially as they relate to roof hydrology or the cleansing effects of green roofs, are mostly patented or proprietary,

Keys to Know How©

Author: Richard Ware

PP: 107


The gift of life is a wonderful thing, but to be blessed with the gift of propagation is a most wonderful and exciting thing indeed, especially when we know how to find the keys to unlock the gift to bring life to millions of new generations of plant material. It is only then that we can fully and properly use our gift to give us our full potential as propagators. There is more to propagation than just sticking cuttings or planting seeds. It is helpful to identify the key aspects to our propagation knowledge and how to apply them. The very foundation of our Society, which rests on the key words "seek and share" is about seeking and sharing knowledge and how we use that acquired knowledge. It is not a bad thing to be occasionally reminded of the Society's motto especially in today's competitive, business like society. We all have skills or ability in some facet of propagation and they are ours to use the best we can. We should use our skill and ability as fully and properly

Cold-Tolerant Camellias©

Author: Richard E. Bir, Joseph L. Conner

PP: 612


The ultimate in determining a plant's local production and landscape potential is to grow it. Camellias that had been determined to have cold hardiness potential were planted in clay loam soil in full sun at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station, Fletcher, North Carolina. They were 4 ft apart within the row with 6 ft between rows. There were three single plant replicates of each cultivar in a completely random design. Coldest temperature during the 3-year evaluation period was 5 °F. Plants were only irrigated during extremely dry weather. Weed management was manual plus a directed spray of Roundup or Gramoxone as needed. No fungicides or insecticides were applied at any time during the test. Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 0.5 ounces of nitrogen per plant in early spring from 17N–17P–17K.

A 10-point system was established for evaluating plant performance with 10 = dead plant and 0 = no damage to any part of any plant due to cold or wind. Stem dieback,

Needle Retention of Concolor Fir from Four Seed Sources©

Author: Ricky M. Bates, James C. Sellmer, David A. Despot

PP: 614


Concolor or white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. and Glend.] Lindl.) is a high-elevation tree native to the Sierra Nevada Mountains and southern Rocky Mountains. In recent years, interest has developed in the use of concolor fir as a Christmas tree in the Eastern United States. Concolor fir is generally considered to have high quality foliage, excellent aroma, good form, and a relatively rapid growth rate. In addition, many Christmas tree growers market concolor fir as a landscape plant. However, one of the most important qualities of any Christmas tree species is the ability to maintain a fresh appearance for a reasonably long display period. Christmas tree postharvest quality deteriorates over time and is a function of water status (Chastagner, 1986). Common postharvest quality problems include premature needle drop, poor foliage color, fragrance loss, and reduced branch flexibility (Hinesley, 1984). Little is known concerning the postharvest characteristics of

Human Issues in Horticulture©

Author: Diane Relf

PP: 109


Human issues in horticulture involve refocusing research from the traditional areas of the mechanisms of plant growth and the production and maintenance of crops to understanding of the humans who produce and utilize the plants, the role that plants have in life quality, and the application of horticulture to all aspects of daily life. It has only been in the last 25 years that a significant amount of research has been accumulated in this aspect of horticulture. Research from a number of areas, including environmental psychology, urban forestry, horticulture, landscape architecture, and health care is causing professionals and policy makers to consider the role of horticulture in human life quality. Professionals associated with urban issues working in such areas as housing, public policy, community and economic development, policing, education, sanitation, and public health are beginning to recognize and promote benefits that urban forestry/horticulture can provide.

One World of Propagation©

Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 115

Our mission is sexual and reproductive. Our focus is the plant kingdom of the universe. Our motto is to seek and to share.

We are the International Plant Propagators' Society. A unique group of people passionately bound together in our pursuit of excellence, to seek and to share our love of plants.

Our membership crosses the human barriers of society, religion, and language, social and economic status. It also joins together in respect; industry and academia, government and private, professional and amateur, joined in a fervent desire to seek and to share the venue of beauty and peace of mind that plants can offer each of us and society.

We travel with, and to friends, to learn and to grow in our careers, by observing how others propagate, grow, and use plants. Suddenly in a moment of ecstasy we discover a new and exciting plant — all in the encompassing fellowship of a seeking and sharing society.

Those of you, who are of a religious nature, remember God's call to Isaiah using all five

Eucalypt Seedling Hardiness to Low Temperature: A Synthesis©

Author: Dugald C. Close, Phil H. Brown, Mark J. Hovenden, Chris L. Beadl

PP: 116

This review describes research into the effects of low temperature induced photodamage on seedling performance and survival in the nursery and soon after planting. Photodamage to seedlings is more common after planting than in the nursery, but cases of severe damage have been recorded in nurseries. In one case, seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus were damaged in the nursery between 1000 and 1030 h after overnight frost, when light flux density was high but air temperature was still low. Seedlings within the tray bed that were shaded at this time by the shadehouse infrastructure did not suffer photodamage. The nursery now has an automated system where the extendable shadecloth is moved into place once air temperature drops below 10 °C. Management to reduce photodamage in the nursery may not be needed in all situations, but nursery managers need to be aware that production practices in the nursery can have a major impact on seedling susceptibility to photodamage when planted in the field.

A frost event after planting caused moderate and severe photodamage, respectively, to E. nitens and E. globulus. Eucalyptus globulus had 25% mortality. Shadecloth tree shelters did not affect minimum temperature but prevented photodamage by reducing exposure to bright morning sunlight after frosts. Nutrient deprived "red" seedlings had no photodamage.

Red leaves have accumulated anthocyanin that is located immediately below the leaf epidermis and screens light between 400 and 590 nm that would otherwise contribute to photodamage. Anthocyanin accumulation was also an indicator of greater activity of excess light-energy dissipating xanthophyll-cycle and antioxidant production. Nutrient-deprivation in the nursery reduced photosynthetic capacity and induced acclimation to photodamage, hardening them to potential photodamage soon after planting onto cold sites. The nursery practice of nutrient-deprivation is a useful tool for managing photodamage risk.

Temperate Treatment of Flower Bulbs: Manipulating Flowering Times©

Author: Paul Vonk

PP: 50


In order to understand how the flowering time of bulbs can be manipulated, it is critical to comprehend that bulbs are perennials, and that their life cycle is generated by temperature. Our discussion here is limited to winter bulbs, and they are named thus as they require cold temperature to activate their flowering cycle.

Manipulating Flowering Time. If a commercial grower were to be totally dependent on nature's built-in clock in bulbs, he/she would be forced to flood the market with his/her whole crop of tulip (Tulipa sp.) blooms during a single week in spring-time and so depress the market price to a catastrophic level. No grower of tulips would survive. This problem cannot be solved by simply planting the tulip bulb earlier or later in autumn, because the bulb is too clever to fall for this trick. It will stubbornly catch up if it is planted too late, or slow down if it is planted too early. It will still flower in that same week in springtime.

In order to fool the

Biology and Management of Nursery Weeds©

Author: Joseph C. Neal

PP: 120


The cost of weed control in nurseries in the United States of America has been estimated to be between $2,389 and $5,506 (about $3700 and $8470 AU$) per ha per year (Gilliam et al., 1990; Darden and Neal, 1999) but may be as high as $96,000 per ha (about $148,000 AU$ per ha) when difficult to remove weeds such as bittercress (Cardamine sp.) and liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) are present (Mathers, 1996). Research has shown that preemergence herbicides currently labeled for use in container nurseries are effective on the common nursery weeds (Judge and Neal 2001; Ruter and Glaze, 1992; Whitwell and Kalmowitz, 1989). Yet, despite frequent herbicide applications, weeds continue to emerge and must be removed by hand, a laborious and expensive process. To reduce weed control costs, nursery managers need to implement an integrated weed management program that includes an understanding of the target weeds and the available weed management options.

Improving Plantation Eucalypts: The Role of Vegetative Propagation©

Author: Helen Smith

PP: 124


State Forests of NSW reinitiated their tree improvement program for plantation eucalypts for the north coast of NSW in 1994. Previous work in the 1960s and 1970s resulted in the planting of a number of species and provenance trials (Johnson and Stanton, 1993) and one seedling seed orchard for Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden (flooded gum) near Coffs Harbour. Initial research on vegetative propagation of E. grandis was carried out by State Forests of NSW (previously Forestry Commission of NSW) in mid 1960s to early 1970s (Forestry Commission of NSW Internal File, 1964–1977). Cuttings were struck from seedlings, coppice on girdled and felled trees in the field and potted seedlings, and maintained as hedges in a glasshouse for up to 5 years. Although a small number of clones were used in the work, strike rates of between 67% and 100% were often achieved. Field trial plantings were established, with plants of E. grandis propagated by cuttings and micropropagation (plants

The Successful Propagation of Eucomis comosa ‘Purple’©

Author: Janis C. House

PP: 128

As a propagator at the Diggers Garden club many requests each month are made for the production of new and exciting lines for both addition in our gardens and also for listing in future plant catalogues. The requests come in the form of a single 6-inch pot left at the propagation-room door, or often as an article left on my desk, an article torn from the latest industry journal highlighting a new way to do something or a plant that we simply just must have. A lover of plants I am and the thrill of success with something new, something, never cracked, something never propagated by myself, and most undeniably something that someone says that I won't be able to grow, is a feeling that I will never tire of.

The request for Eucomis comosa ‘Purple’ came in the form of a black plastic bag housing several bulbs the size of small basketballs. Arriving in late 2001 these bulbs were planted into a herbaceous border at Heronswood where they still stand today. This paper details my work that lead to the successful propagation of E. comosa ‘Purple’.

A Perspective on the Need for Intensive Breeding Programs for Ornamental Plants and the Role of Biotechnology©

Author: Brent McCown, Bill Hoch

PP: 132


One aspect about ornamental horticulture that is so enticing is the vast diversity of plants we have available with which to work. Most of these plants are unique selections or cultivars. If one asks the question "where do most of our cultivars come from?", the answer is not the same as one would get if the question addressed most agronomic, forestry, or vegetable crops. Our selections of ornamentals, especially woody genera, most likely are derived from chance finds or selections gleaned from the landscape or production fields by observant horticulturists. This source contrasts with the agronomic/forestry/vegetable producers, which most likely develop their selections utilizing intensive, structured breeding programs. Another question then arises: Should we use intensive, structured breeding programs more commonly to improve our perennial and woody ornamentals?

One obstacle to using intensive breeding for woody plants is the biology of perennial plants. The longer life

pH and Alkalinity are Different©

Author: Kevin A Handreck

PP: 135

Often when I ask growers what the alkalinity of their irrigation water is, I get a response something like: "It's about 6.5." This might be a correct answer to the question: "What is the pH of your irrigation water", but it is not the correct answer to a question about alkalinity. The correct answer to a question about alkalinity will be a number in the range about 20 to 350. Let me explain.

Irrigation water is never absolutely pure H2O. The water always has ions dissolved in it. These ions include such cations as sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) and the anions chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO42-), and bicarbonate (HCO3-). The concentrations of these ions and their relative proportions vary enormously amongst water supplies.

Thus rainwater caught in a dam in the higher-rainfall parts of the country will usually have low concentrations of all of these ions (and hence will have a low salinity). Its pH might be something like 6.9 and its bicarbonate concentration might be 20

Integrating a Tissue Culture Laboratory into a Nursery©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 137


The successful introduction of many Australian native plants in tissue culture in commercial volumes has been full of pitfalls. Many papers have been published outlining research into the initiation and growth of native flowering plants but we are still to see large numbers of these plants in the commercial nursery and flower trade. Examples of plants such as Ptilotus, Clianthus, Blandfordia, and Platycerium are examples of native plants, which have been the subject of significant research, but we are yet to see any significant numbers of these plants available within the nursery and cut flower industries. Obviously, published research has not translated into commercial production of these plants.

There have also been some success stories with the introduction of some native plants into tissue culture production. Anigozanthos, Asplenium, and Nephrolepis obliterata ‘Kimberley Queen’. However, there is clearly a major gulf between the small-scale success in a research project

Managing Pathogenic Fungi with Other Fungi — Trichoderma©

Author: G.R. Leeson

PP: 142


Horticultural practices can be very disruptive to the natural biological balances that exist in nature, particularly insect and soil microbe balances. When the balance is disrupted, only the most robust and highly adaptive organisms tend to dominate. In most cases the new inhabitants are the unwanted pests and diseases. Due to the increasing environmental and social pressures being placed on horticulturalist to control pests and diseases more sustainably, chemical control options are becoming very unpopular. This has opened the door to the use of integrated pest management (IPM) practices and other biological control agent (BCA) options.

Today there is a wide range of commercially available predatory and parasitising insects that can be introduced into farming systems to control insects. There is also a range of bacteria and entomopathogenic fungi that have been developed for the purpose of insect control including Bacillus thuringiensis strains, B. subtilis strains,

A Fast and Reliable Method of Plant Propagation©

Author: Robyn Madeley

PP: 146


I often trim the trays of plants in 2-inch tubes and I noticed that some of the trimmings fell on top of the potting mix in the tubes and if I left them there they took root quite quickly. So I decided to duplicate the process in the igloo environment and I was amazed to see how quickly the clippings took root in the controlled environment. So I started trialling various sorts of plants and was very pleased to see how well this worked. About a year after I had started trialling this I was very interested to read Ian Gordon's article (2001) in the Australian Horticulture magazine and while his methods were similar, his method required a much more sophisticated setup than I had available. The beauty of this method is that it requires very little cost and labour to set it up and means that large numbers of plants can be propagated very quickly and cheaply. It is not applicable for all plants but I think I can demonstrate that it certainly works very well with

Propagation of Camellia sinensis var. sayamakaori©

Author: Ralph Scott

PP: 148


Camellia sinensis var. sayamakaori is one of the cultivars used in Japan to produce green tea. The variety Sayamakaori is one of the cultivars imported into Tasmania about 10 or 12 years ago. In our experimental trials with three of these cultivars, we have found this one the best to grow in our area.

Propagation and Cultivation of Selected Central Australian Wildflowers©

Author: Tim L. Collins

PP: 149


Central Australia is home to over 2000 species of plants, many of which exhibit remarkable adaptations to the harsh climate. Rain may not fall for long periods and then arrive in flooding quantities. Plants have evolved under these conditions and many survive the dry times by reproducing and growing opportunistically. The deserts are known to produce masses of ephemeral flowering plants after autumn and winter rain (Urban, 1990), which transform the desert landscape with a variety of flower forms and colour.

The first impression of a visitor to Central Australia is usually the vast scale of the landscape and the drabness of the dominant schlerophyllous (Jessop et al., 1981) vegetation. These visitors are unlikely to witness the floral bounty of rare precipitation. These reproductive events occur during the cooler months of the year when heavy rains cause dormant seeds to emerge and grow.

The Botany Team at the Alice Springs Desert Park is using some of the

The Relationship Between Structure and Function in Seed Dispersal and Seed Germination©

Author: P.J. Robbertse

PP: 53

A seed can be defined as a dormant embryonic plant, neatly packed in a seed coat together with nutrient reserves required during germination. In structural terms, there is a vast variation in the size and shape of the embryo, the composition and quantity of the nutrient reserves, the construction of the seed coat and in some seeds also other floral structures surrounding the mature seed. These "other structures" are often included in the concept seed and to avoid any confusion, the term "propagule" is used when referring to such seeds. In this paper the term seed will be used in the strict sense and any additional structures surrounding the seed proper will be described and related to a possible function. The discussion will focus mostly on seeds of indigenous plant species, including seeds with arils, recalcitrant seeds, seed dormancy (exogenous and endogenous dormancy), seed banks, seeds of parasitic plants, and orchid seed.
Propagation of Grevillea©

Author: Santi Krisantini, Margaret Johnston, Richard R. Williams, Christ

PP: 154

Grevillea (Proteaceae) is a native Australian genus with high commercial value as landscape ornamentals, and they are known to be difficult to root. There has been only limited research into the propagation of Grevillea. The effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the rooting G. ‘Poorinda Royal Mantle’ in winter, spring and summer was evaluated at University of Queensland Gatton, southern Queensland, in order to determine the rooting ability of this species in different seasons. The effect of cutting type, i.e. tip and stem cuttings, and method of auxin application, i.e., top and basal application, were also tested on G. ‘Poorinda Royal Mantle’ and G. ‘Coastal Dawn’. Grevillea ‘Poorinda Royal Mantle’ demonstrated a seasonal rooting and was more responsive than G. ‘Coastal Dawn’ to the applied IBA. Stem cuttings had a higher survival than tip cuttings, but tip cuttings had a higher capacity to root. Top application of auxin at low concentration (1 g·L-1) in G. ‘Poorinda Royal Mantle’ in spring resulted in a significantly higher rooting percentage than basal application at the same concentration. These findings could be useful for setting up a practical propagation protocol on Grevillea.
Breeding and Selection of Brachychiton©

Author: Des Boorman

PP: 159


Why Brachychiton?

  • Beautiful trees naturally.
  • Ornamental trunks and foliage.
  • Free flowering.
  • Colours, white, red, pink, orange, and greenish.
  • Flowers up to 50 mm long and 40 mm wide in some species.
  • Many are deciduous flowerers.
  • Flowering period can be many months.
  • Drought tolerant.
  • Not likely to become weeds.
  • These make ideal characteristics for breeding.

Some Drawbacks. Some species may have flowers that upon falling could be a slip hazard to pedestrians and motorcycles. Brachychiton discolor F. Muell is such a species that produces muscilaginous excretions from fallen flowers. This results in an extremely slippery surface when it falls onto hard-paved areas.

Substantial juvenility periods may hinder breeding and assessment programs.

Unconventional Pesticides©

Author: Deborah D. McCown

PP: 161

The pesticides I want to talk about are being termed "bio-rational pesticides". The term did make me pause to consider if all the chemicals we have been using are by defi nition bio-irrational pesticides.

Our single biggest selling plant is Amelanchier or juneberry. It is a native American small tree that has four-season interest; white flowers in April, edible fruits in June, excellent red fall color, and attractive smooth gray bark in winter. The problem with Amelanchier is that it is very susceptible to powdery mildew. We can have a greenhouse filled with lilac, the plant we think of as a magnet and indicator for powdery mildew. The lilac will be perfectly clean while the Amelanchier get mildew seemingly overnight. We had been using a rotational spray of Cleary's 3336 and Milban and have been getting mixed results. We were also having trouble with occasional root rot in our summer-blooming azalea transplants. At that point we began to

Temperature and Quality in South African Bulb Production©

Author: Elsa S. du Toit

PP: 164


Floriculture is emerging as a high-value industry in many sub-Saharan economies where it contributes to creating employment and generating foreign exchange (World Bank, 1996). The flower bulb industry as a sector of the floriculture industry comprises two subsectors, namely dry bulb sales directly for the public and bulbs for the so-called "forcing sector" (production of cut flowers and potted bulbs under controlled conditions). Because flower bulbs have an important share in the floriculture industry, and the worldwide demand (sales) for cut flowers and potted plants rise by about 3% to 5% annually, forcing of bulbs became an important industry (Kleijn and Heybroek, 1992).

Rapid Multiplication of Grapevines©

Author: Wayne B. Farquhar

PP: 169


Demand for new grape (Vitis) cultivars and improved selections some from overseas is increasing. This is driven in part by the branding strategies and product differentiation requirements of wineries. Current propagation practices result in long lag times of up to 11 years for production of new planting material. The Australian wine industry required a more rapid way to meet local and overseas market demands for new and improved cultivars. Reducing the time it takes to make new cultivars and improved selections available to industry could only do this.

The Concept of Urban Horticulture, and Its Implications in the World of Plant Propagation©

Author: John A. Wott

PP: 172

The world of ecosystems, interdependence of organisms, and interdisciplinary studies were all terms that began to take on new meaning in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, the Center for Urban Horticulture (CUH) became the first formal academic and outreach institution affiliated with a major university to actually create a place where the traditional plant sciences were mingled with the social sciences. It embraced the idea of interdisciplinary studies and ecology.

Physical development of the CUH began in 1984 and four new buildings completed the site in 1987 with all the funds provided by private donors. CUH has served as a model for many other such programs in the years hence by providing a place where faculty, students, and the public can work together to create a showplace for environmental horticulture and urban forestry.

During the 1990s and into the beginning of this millennium, the program grew to include the contributions of seven full time faculty. Graduate enrollment

The Peatering Out Project©

Author: Arnie Rainbow

PP: 177


In the U.K., horticulture is under pressure from major retailers and conservation groups to phase out its use of peat, which has for 40 years been the main component of growing media. Antagonism between peat producers and conservationists has only impeded progress. Many growers, disillusioned by experiences with alternative ingredients introduced in the late 1980s feel bewildered by current options.

Three years ago the author entered a partnership, called Peatering Out, with horticultural consultant John Adlams to undertake research that would help ease the nursery industry through what we felt was an inevitable change.

Peatering Out focuses on the use of green compost (composted green waste/ composted yard waste) because:

  • Availability is expected to become sufficient.
  • Quality is growing rapidly.
  • Recent research shows its potential is much greater than once supposed.
  • It is competitively priced.

High nutrient levels in green compost can be turned from a problem

Progress in Irrigation Management and Scheduling for Container Nursery Stock©

Author: Chris Burgess, Beulah Long, Shirley Foster, Ken Blyth

PP: 183


Water is no longer a cheap and unlimited resource for U.K. nurseries. Growers are being forced to re-evaluate how efficiently they are using water because of new restrictions on obtaining extraction licences, increasing costs of mains water, and legislation affecting supply and the fate of drainage water. However, there are always other economic benefits from improving water management through improved productivity, crop quality, and labour savings.

This review covers some recent work undertaken at Horticulture Research International (HRI) Efford, including part of a 4-year LINK project involving other research and industry partners. It concentrates on improving efficiency of water delivery and use in container-grown crops, including scheduling systems. Other equally important measures not covered here, but which should nevertheless be considered within an integrated water management policy for nurseries, include rainwater harvesting, runoff water recapture, and

Facing the Challenge of Wild Flower Production©

Author: Linda Laxton

PP: 189


The nursery was started in 1986 with the help of a government enterprise grant. For this I needed to fulfil certain requirements including 6 months unemployment and having £1000 in the bank. A bank loan was also obtained.


A plant is considered a wild native of the U.K. if it has been present since the last ice age. One dictionary definition is "a flowering plant that grows in a natural, uncultivated state/the flower of such a plant." The Wild Flower Society says "A species unplanted and uncultivated." These days most of the general public believe a wild flower is anything not in a garden that you can see on a walk, and a recent book lists 50 species horticulturists would consider alien weeds. A campaign for "county flowers", by the conservation charity Plantlife, lists eight species that have only arrived in the U.K. in the last 100 or so years.

There are other examples of confusion. The charity suggests dandelion for Cardiff — but which

Propagation and Promotion at Bransford Garden Plants©

Author: Andrew Dyson

PP: 191


The last decade has proved to be one of considerable change for Bransford, both in the company's structure and within our product range, which now consists of an ever-increasing number of promotional plants. This transition began in the early 1990s with the introduction of Hebe ‘Rosie’ and Hebe ‘Mohawk’, Purple Pixe® hebe (syn. Hebe ‘Purple Pixie’) which with their distinctive coloured pots and eye-catching point-of-sale material, proved to be hugely successful. Their popularity is reflected in the fact that they still remain among the best sellers within the promotional calendar. In subsequent years the company has seen a rise in the number of heavily promoted lines within the range and, in particular, the introduction of new plants with their own specific promotional programmes.

These changes have posed plenty of challenges for the business and not least for propagation staff. Trialling new plants and producing sufficient liners for a promotional run have been two of

Greenhouse Technology©

Author: Brian van Niekerk

PP: 53

Greenhouse technology has improved dramatically over the years. Two of the main criteria that have influenced the ability to grow crop in the greenhouse are the type of structure and the material covering the structure.
Commercialising Plants from an Australian Perspective©

Author: Clive Larkman

PP: 193


My father started Larkman Nurseries in 1984 as a part time interest. When he died in 1989 I had to learn about running a nursery.

At that stage we were producing around 300,000 tubes (5-cm liners) across a range of 600 plant taxa. In 2002/03 we produced 1.8 million tubes across a range of 2500 taxa. Our target within the next 4 years is 4 million tubes.

At the time of writing we operate on a small 2-ha site with seven propagation tunnels (500 m2) and 16 poly/shade houses (1700 m2). Our new site is 10.5 ha with 6300 m2 of poly/shade houses. We will be converting the poly houses at the current site to propagation.

We are the second largest specialist tube nursery in Australia. We have the largest range and are known for Lavandula, Rosmarinus, Salvia, Heuchera, Hosta, Geranium, and perennial plant production.

Herbaceous Perennial Production in Poland©

Author: Jacek Marcinkowski

PP: 198

Production of garden perennials is developing rapidly in Poland, because of the introduction of container technology in the early seventies, the development of garden centre chains, the expanding home market, and increasing export opportunities. This paper analyses the author's research into the trends in the Polish herbaceous perennial industry over the past 30 years. More than 2000 species and cultivars are listed by nurseries' lists, but their frequency varies. Production is spread all over the country and was estimated at about 500,000 container plants in the year 1989 increasing to more than 5 million in 2000. There is a potential to increase both the range and production volume further.
Refining Root Propagation Techniques©

Author: Paul Howling

PP: 203


As a leading producer of herbaceous perennials in the U.K., Howard Nurseries Ltd. (formerly Howard and Kooij's Nurseries) has always used root cuttings as one of the principle means of propagation. Many herbaceous genera lend themselves to propagation from roots. Commercially, root cuttings are a low-tech solution, capable of giving speedy increases in numbers with much less hassle than many propagators assume. Even highly skilled propagators who visit our nursery appear to regard propagation from roots with an air of muck and mysticism. In fact it is a very simple and effective technique if managed properly.

Recent years have seen many changes to propagation systems. Open-ground and low-tunnel systems have given way to glasshouses; mist and bottom heat have been joined by tissue culture; modular trays have replaced seed flats and boxes. At Howard Nurseries Ltd., techniques for production from root cuttings have been adapted in accordance with these trends. This paper

Recruiting and Training Tomorrow's Propagators©

Author: Ken Turner

PP: 208


The Problem. Everyone in commercial horticulture is finding it difficult to recruit new staff at all levels — but especially those with an ability to learn essential skills and who have an aptitude to supervise and manage. As I.P.P.S. members we all enjoy our work within the horticulture industry, especially where it is linked to propagation. But very few of today's young people see horticulture as a rewarding career.

The Reasons. There are many reasons for this but chief among these is that horticulture is not seen for what it is, an industry that improves everybody's quality of life. In short it does not have an appealing image. This is in part because horticulture is linked, in most peoples' minds, to agriculture with its associated problems. In addition, parents and mentors, including those in the careers service, see employment in a vocational industry that requires manual skills as a failure.

Within the United Kingdom there has been a financial incentive to keep all

A Career at Last©

Author: Margaret A. Sheward

PP: 210


A career in horticulture had never been a consideration until I was in my mid-thirties and even then it just evolved, rather than being part of some predetermined plan.

For as long as I can remember I have had an interest in plants. One of my earliest memories and first attempts at propagation was germinating and growing a broad bean in a jar, from there I progressed to mustard and cress which was even better as this could be eaten a few days after sowing.

Also, as a child I remember eagerly awaiting the new seed catalogue each autumn, looking through the pages of perfect vegetables and all those colourful flowers that could be yours for the price of a packet of seeds. Through those years of growing up I was never happier than when I was ‘helping’ my Father on his allotment.

At school there was absolutely no reference to horticulture as a possible career. Rural studies, where pupils were allowed into the greenhouse, was only for those who were less able, such was the

Propagation and Marketing of Regional Fruit Varieties©

Author: Kevin D. Croucher

PP: 213


It's been said of me that I like trees and dogs more than I like people. I apparently used to gurgle at trees from my pram as a baby. Therefore, it's probably no surprise that I ended up establishing my own tree nursery. However, ending up growing one of the largest ranges of fruit trees in Britain was a combination of accident and good fortune.

When I started Thornhayes Nursery, it was my intention just to grow ornamentals, although I had an interest in fruit trees from growing fruit on a domestic level, including some of the less common West Country varieties. However, at the same time as I started my new business, the whole subject of orchards and old fruit varieties came to the fore nationally. The charity Common Ground had initiated a national Apple Day in October 1990 as part of its campaign for local distinctiveness. Subsequently, the government increased Countryside Commission expenditure on its Countryside Stewardship Scheme and extended it to include orchard

Work Experience and Nursery Tour in New Zealand©

Author: David Hide

PP: 218


Much of my time in New Zealand was spent as a volunteer at Taupo Native Plant Nursery. It has been a nursery for 40 years — for the first 30 years it was run by the Department of Conservation. In 1993 it was privatised but, under its current manager and part owner, Philip Smith, retains its remit to provide native plants for the restoration of scenic reserves, forests, and national parks. Re-vegetation projects are booming thanks to investment by the recently elected government, which is working to reverse the conservation threats to the country's internationally important native plants and wildlife.

As a result of this interest Taupo Native Plant Nursery is expanding rapidly and produces more than 2 million plants on a site of 20 ha with a staff of more than 30. Mr. Smith has structured the nursery with a number of key managers and one or two full-time staff employed to strengthen each team. The remainder of the workforce is casual labour.

Results From Some Research on Spectral Filters in the United Kingdom©

Author: Les Lane

PP: 223


There has been a vast body of research on spectral filters, using small-scale trials, going back many years, some of which is listed in Table 1 (Table 1 with acknowledgement to Leigh Morris). However, it is only in recent years that the technology has become available to incorporate these spectral filters into commercially produced PE films for cladding horticultural structures. Most of the work reviewed in this paper uses films developed by the author and the manufacturer Plastika Kritis, together with some films from other suppliers. The key point for the grower is the spectral transmission of the film, not who makes it. The paper reviews three main areas of research:

  1. Pest and Disease Control. How to Use spectral filters to control whitefly, which is the vector for tobacco mosaic virus, and aphids without using pesticides. (XL Horticulture has copyright on, the term "photological control" to describe this property of its films).
  2. In Micropropagation.
Common Faults in Mist Propagation System Design and Operation©

Author: Iain G. Thorne

PP: 232


Since 1936, when G.E.L. Spencer first set out the basic concept of mist propagation (MacDonald, 1986; Welch, 1970), most professional propagators have had some grasp of the principles involved. However, in this author's opinion they often manage to turn an essentially simple concept into a technical and commercial headache.

Mist systems are too often poorly designed and operated. The commonest examples of this are:

  • Inadequate water-pressure, giving poor atomisation of water droplets.
  • Mist-lines and nozzles spaced incorrectly.
  • Nozzles too close to protective structures, thus inhibiting the diffusion of mist across the propagation area.
  • Drips from nozzles and air in pipe work.
  • Poor maintenance routines.

Too dry an atmosphere and too much water in the rooting medium make the management of a mist unit unnecessarily difficult. The two problems are often linked.

Great attention should be paid to the chemical properties of the water used. Welch set out his views and

Tissue Culture in the Nursery Industry©

Author: Alan Hunter

PP: 236

Tissue culture has limited application in the nursery industry for several reasons, but where it is applicable, both vegetative propagation efficiency and plant health status may be enhanced. Additionally, it may be used to rejuvenate aged material and also to generate novel but commercially valuable plants. Successful tissue culture of woody species is a difficult and slow process because of the many difficulties that have been encountered at the various stages of the process - culture initiation, regeneration, rooting, and acclimatisation. Additionally, plant physiological factors also impact on the process. For many woody subjects it is cheaper to propagate conventionally. Thus, protocols for many genera remain to be developed.
Environmentally Responsible Plant Production©

Author: Johan Gerber

PP: 55


For many years the use of naturally produced organic pesticides have been debated against the use of synthetically produced organic and chemical agricultural remedies. Which direction is the right one to take? The use of organically certified products on the one hand resulted in produce that carries a high premium and affordable to the minority elite, where as the use of more economical chemical pesticides produce affordable produce for the masses. Technology at present is so advanced that today's chemical formulations available on the world market are in many cases less hazardous compared to many natural substances found in nature. At the same time many organic and biological pesticide formulations have become more affordable. Before selecting products for use in production one needs to do an assessment of risk.

Should pesticides be allowed that are isolated from nature (natural organic) or synthetically produced? Which of these pesticides should be made available for

Plant Collecting in Chile©

Author: Stuart Priest

PP: 242


The purpose of my visit was to search for and collect hardy ferns, which were of potential interest to the U.K. and European markets. The idea arose from a meeting with Anja George, who was a member of a delegation of Chilean growers who visited the U.K. in 1999. She was to act as my host and guide for some of my time in Chile. This paper reports some of the highlights of places visited and plants seen. A full report is available to Mary Helliar patrons.

Chile is a long, thin country with a wonderful range of habitats. It is 4329 km long and extends through more degrees of latitude than any other country in the world. It is a land of great contrasts and extremes. In the north, the great Atacama Desert is the driest place on Earth. In the east runs the snow-capped Andean mountain range, which is the world's longest range of mountains. In the extreme south are snow, ice, and constant freezing winds across Tierra Del Fuego and around Cape Horn. To the west sits the mighty

Conference 2003 Scandinavian Region©

Author: Arne Skytt Andersen

PP: 249


The conference was held in Skåne, the southern part of Sweden with its base in the folk high school in Östra Grevie. Several excursions with built in lectures were undertaken to points and industries of importance for the subject of the conference: Rooting Substrates. Following is a resume of the lectures and discussions. Throughout the conference a main theme overshadowed most other concerns: Quality of the main substrate (medium) component — Sphagnum peat moss.

This concern seems to be an unending and difficult task for researchers and media producers alike, as it has been for the past 50 years, since this natural product came into general use as the sole medium component for potted plants and nursery stock. Finn Rehnström gave an excellent overview of the developments during the last 50 years in the use of Sphagnum peat moss and other materials for growing plants in pots and containers.

Several reports covered recent research and ongoing projects


Author: Randy Jacobs

PP: 255

MONDAY MORNING, 6 OCTOBER, 2003 The Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Menger Hotel, San Antonio, Texas with President Randy Jacobs presiding.
Up With Pots — Solutions for Heat, Cold, and Blow-over Problems©

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Andy C. Whitcomb

PP: 255


Containers confine plant root systems to a specific volume of growth medium. Containers provide a neat and practical system for production, shipping, and handling. Plants in containers are the overwhelming preference by the gardening public. Nevertheless, growing plants in containers also provides an assortment of unique challenges, particularly, heat, cold, and blow-over. Roots of terrestrial plants evolved in soil and were often insulated by leaf liter and other debris over the surface. As a result, roots are far more sensitive to both heat and cold compared to plant tops (Barney, 1947; Havis, 1976; Nightingale, 1935; Shirley, 1936; Studer et al., 1978; Tinga, 1977). Plants that blow over do not get watered, topdressed fertilizer is spilled, roots on the exposed side of the container can be killed by heat; in some cases foliage and stem damage can occur, and if plants are actively growing and not returned to the upright position promptly distorted growth may result. An

New Landscape Plants for the South©

Author: Dave Creech, Dawn Parish

PP: 264


This report is an update from a previous article in the I.P.P.S. Proceedings (Creech, 2001). The SFA Mast Arboretum in Nacogdoches, Texas is in Zone 8 with an average annual rainfall of 1219 mm (48 inches). June through August is characteristically hot and dry. In recorded history, 1 Sept. 2000 was the record high, 44.4 °C (112 °F), and 23 Dec. 1989 was the record low -17.8 °C (0 °F). Soils are generally well drained, slightly acidic, and the native flora is dominated by pine, oak, river birch, sweetgum, sycamore, Florida maple, hornbeam, elm, hackberry, pecan, and hickory.

Taiwan Flowering Cherry (Prunus campanulata) Propagation: Seeding or Cuttings?©

Author: Christine J. McCoy

PP: 270


Chestnut Hill Tree Farm specializes in low-chilling-hour fruit and flowering trees for the Southern U.S.A. Florida has mild winters, with little cold weather. Historically fruit and flowering trees typically require long periods of chilling during the winter. The taxa available were not adapted to Florida because they did not accumulate their chilling-hour requirements, which are necessary for fruit and flower production. A chilling hour occurs when buds of a plant are exposed for 1 h to temperatures of 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F) (about the temperature of a household refrigerator). Partial chilling hours can be accumulated at temperatures slightly above the range and down to but not below freezing. The lower the chilling hour requirement the quicker a tree can overcome dormancy requirements, "break bud" and have normal floral development.

Dr. Wayne Sherman, a Professor Emeritus at the University of Florida, was a lowchill stone and pome fruit breeder for more than

Attacking Hard-to-Root Plants at Mobjack Nurseries©

Author: George Machen, Chris White

PP: 272


In our effort to produce an exciting mix of new, interesting, hard-to-find material at Mobjack Nurseries, we are continually faced with propagation challenges. I will explain a few of the propagation approaches we have tried and their success.

Cutting Propagation with Auxin Applied Via a Stabilized Organic Rooting Substrate

Author: Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, Ken M. Tilt, John M. Ruter

PP: 275

Single-node cuttings of Hedera helix L. and Rosa ‘Red Cascade’ were inserted to a depth of 0.65 cm (0.25 inches) into 4-cm3 plugs of a stabilized organic rooting substrate that had been soaked in water or aqueous solutions of K-IBA + K-NAA at concentrations ranging, respectively, from 50 ppm + 25 ppm to 2000 ppm + 1000 ppm. With increasing auxin concentration in the plugs, treatments first provided a root-promoting response of the lower stem tissue of the cuttings, then a phytotoxic response of the lower stem tissue and some root-promoting response of the upper stem tissue, and finally a phytotoxic response by all stem tissue. Results suggested that cuttings inserted in plugs treated with a low concentration of auxin (below 100 ppm) could potentially provide results similar to cuttings receiving a conventional basal quick-dip. In a second experiment conducted in a similar manner, cuttings were inserted into plugs that had been soaked in water aqueous solutions of K-IBA at concentrations ranging, respectively, from 15 ppm + 7.5 ppm to 60 ppm + 30 ppm, with results compared to cuttings receiving a conventional basal quick-dip in 1000 ppm K-IBA or 1000 ppm K-IBA + 500 ppm K-NAA. Although auxin was not essential for rooting, the number of roots and total root length on cuttings of H. helix were greater in plugs treated with 45 ppm or 60 ppm K-IBA and similar with other treatments compared to the basal quick-dip. Shoot length was similar on cuttings in untreated plugs and all K-IBA treatments compared to the basal quick-dip, and lower with all K-IBA + K-NAA treatments. Auxin was not essential for rooting cuttings of R. ‘Red Cascade’; however, cutting response trends indicated that a low level of auxin (30 ppm or 45 ppm K-IBA) in the plugs could be beneficial.
Postemergence Oxalis Control in Container-grown Nursery Crops

Author: C.V. Simpson, C.H. Gilliam, G.R. Wehtje, J.L. Sibley, J.E. Altla

PP: 283

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of abelia to over-the-top spray applications of diuron and to quantify the foliar absorption of diuron on oxalis. Rates ≥0.56 kg a.i./ha (0.5 lb a.i./acre) provided excellent (100%) oxalis control regardless of the time of year the treatment was made. Diuron applications ≤1.12 kg a.i./ha (1.0 lb a.i./acre) in fall and spring caused slight to no injury to dormant abelia. Plants leafed out normally in the spring after application and there was no difference in growth 180 days after treatment (DAT). Application at 2.24 kg a.i./ha (2.0 lb a.i./acre) caused slight to no injury on abelia by the following spring. Spring application to actively growing abelia caused slight to moderate injury from which plants treated with ≤0.56 kg a.i./ha completely recovered by 90 DAT. Abelia treated with 1.12 kg a.i./ha (1.0 lb a.i./acre) were slightly injured 90 DAT. Abelia treated with 2.24 kg a.i./ha (2.0 lb a.i./acre) were severely injured with many dead plants 60 DAT. Absorption and translocation of foliar-applied diuron by oxalis was evaluated using radiotracer techniques. After 24 h, 86% of the applied diuron had been absorbed, and 76% of amount applied remained in the treated leaflet, indicating minimal translocation.
A Glimpse of Horticulture in Australia

Author: Ken Tilt

PP: 288


G'Day Mate! No Worries! These two phrases capture the spirit of our host country's people as Fred Garret and I toured the nursery and horticulture industries across Australia as Southern Region of North America representatives. The conference and meetings were part of the International Plant Propagators annual board meeting, tours, and educational seminars held in Coffs Harbour in Australia during the last 2 weeks in May 2003. Their horticulture industry had many similarities to our own but a number of distinctions evolved as we sampled gardens, nurseries, and landscape projects. There was an obvious pride and dedication to conservation of Australia's natural resources incorporated into their businesses. Although we were in subtropical regions ranging from arid deserts to rain forest climates, there were many plants and nursery practices that stimulated ideas to use and share. Unfortunately, they also share many of our concerns and problems with government regulations, labor,

Manipulation of Growth by Using Tissue Culture Techniques©

Author: Sanette Thiart

PP: 61


Looking at the whole production chain from breeder, selector, propagator, young plant producer, grower, retailer right through to the consumer, it is quite a long and time consuming process that these plants have to go through. Tissue culture is a tool or mechanism used by plant propagators to speed up the production of certain plants, as well as to create the desired type of growth. In the potted-plant industry, it is important for some plant types to be sold as a clump or cluster of plants rather than single plants. Tissue culture gives one the opportunity to determine the end result.

Characterizing Invasiveness of Ornamental Species of Florida©

Author: Sandra B. Wilson

PP: 292


The State of Florida is the second largest producer of ornamental plants in the U.S.A. with an estimated $9.9 billion in total industry sales during 2000 (Hodges and Haydu, 2002). While most intentionally introduced species remain in their cultivated settings, some escape cultivation and invade natural areas. An invasive plant species is defined as a non–indigenous species that has the ability to establish self-sustaining, expanding populations, and may cause economic and/or environmental harm (National Invasive Species Council, 2001; Vitousek et al., 1995). Today, approximately 1.9 million acres of Florida's remaining natural areas have been invaded by exotic plant species and more than $240 million has been spent in Florida to control invasive, exotic plant species since 1980 (FLEPPC, 2003). The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) maintains a list of plants considered invasive in the state, each designated as Category I or Category II. Category I species are

The St. Louis Declaration on Invasive Plants, Codes of Conduct, and What They Mean to Propagators©

Author: Hugh M. Gramling

PP: 297


Increased awareness of the environment and the natural areas around us has had a tremendous positive impact on the nursery industry. Sales have soared. We truly have ridden the crest of the public's desire to be out of doors, enjoy the ecological and sensory benefits of landscaped surroundings, and the business community's desire, often, to outdo each other in elegance of facilities. With these positive benefits the industry has enjoyed, there also follows a responsibility. It is imperative we be viewed as a stakeholder in the environment and as a responsible citizen of our community — no matter which community that might be.

One of the areas where the nursery industry has come under close scrutiny is its relationship with some of the plant species we promote and produce and their importance to the natural areas, which surround us. Not all of that scrutiny has been positive.

Propagation Problems and Solutions for Texas SuperStar® Plants©

Author: Jerry M. Parsons

PP: 300


Texas SuperStar® is a Texas A&M University System trademarked nomenclature and label which is bestowed on specially selected plants which have attributes that make them Texasapos; tough and consumer friendly. Skeptics often wonder how certain plants can be chosen as better than others. While it is true some people have never met a plant they didn't like, plants, which attain SuperStar® status must be attractive and useful to the masses rather than to a special few hobbyists and collectors. Every effort is made to ensure that SuperStar® plants will consistently perform well for Texas consumers regardless of their plant growing expertise. There is no perfect plant, so limitations of highlighted plants are explained to avoid discontent by those who overlook the obvious when growing plants. Realizing that some folks "can mess up a ball-bearing" and no plant is "bullet-proof", everyone is not successful with SuperStar® plants. However, the vast majority of successful gardeners are making

Propagation Research from Mississippi State University©

Author: Patricia R. Knight

PP: 303


Native azaleas are undoubtedly one of the most spectacular flowering deciduous shrubs. They add much needed color to the landscape in the early spring when few other plants are blooming. Two of the earliest flowering native azaleas are Rhododendron austrinum (Small) Rehder. and R. canescens (Michaux) (Galle, 1987).

Rhododendron austrinum (Small) Rehder, Florida azalea, is a medium to tall branched shrub that reaches 4.6 m (15 ft) in height (Galle, 1987). Flower color ranges from pure yellow to yellowish-orange. Flowers 2.5 to 4 cm (1 to 1½ inch) long appear prior to the leaves in clusters of 8 to 15 blossoms. Native range of Florida azalea is northern Florida, coastal Alabama and Georgia, and southeastern Mississippi. Florida azalea is hardy in U.S.D.A. Hardiness Zones 6b to 10a.

Rhododendron canescens (Michaux), Piedmont azalea, is a medium to tall shrub that may exceed 4.6 m (15 ft) in height and may sometimes be stoloniferous (Galle, 1987). Flower color ranges from

New Plant Evaluation and Propagation Processes©

Author: Thomas D. Meadows Jr

PP: 308


In the society that we live in today, new and improved products are what the consumers are expecting. In the green industry, this means that we also have to keep up with society by developing new and improved selections of plants to keep up with the trends. The development of new and improved plants presents growers and breeders alike with many challenges. To develop new plants there are certain steps and processes that you must go through that are very time consuming and in some cases very expensive. The first step in this process is to obtain a plant that is new and improved. Next it must be evaluated for an extended period of time to be sure the plant will perform for the end consumer in such a fashion that will prove it to be a plant worthy of introduction. Once you have a new plant you then must develop the methods to propagate and produce such a plant. When you have a plant that will perform and can be produced, you still have to determine how you will market this

Growing Plants for NASA — Challenges in Lunar and Martian Agriculture©

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr., Chunajiu He, Ronald E. Lacey, Que Ngo

PP: 311


Technology advanced rapidly during the 20th Century. One hundred years ago, 17 Dec. 1903, the Wright Brothers flew the world's first powered aircraft at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. It was a flight of 37 m (120 ft) that lasted 12 sec at a maximum speed of 16 kmph (10 mph). Forty-four years later Chuck Yeager would break the sound barrier — Mach 1 at 1086 kmph (675 mph). Twenty-two years after that in 1969, Neil Armstrong landed on the moon.

So what is the role of plants for human life support? Plants reduce the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce oxygen (O2) during photosynthesis. They can also help convert wastewater into potable water through transpiration and subsequent condensation and collection of clean water. Plants also produce carbohydrates and food for human consumption (Fig.1). In the international space station and NASA's space shuttle, physical-chemical methods are primarily used to produce oxygen and absorb or vent carbon dioxide. Plants also have a role in

Ten Easy Time and Money Savers Used For Propagation in the U.S. Southwest©

Author: George Hull

PP: 317


The climate in the Southwestern U.S.A. is extremely variable. We can have low temperatures down to —7 °C (20 °F), but more importantly, our highs in June can reach 49 °C (120 °F) with a relative humidity of less than 10%. We rely on some very simple techniques to work in our environment as well as to accomplish some of the unique tasks that we have to do. We grow nearly all of our 8 million liners, collect nearly all of our seed, and grow our own cutting stock. This also raises some unique challenges.

Improving Productivity and Morale Through Mechanization©

Author: Mark Rainey

PP: 321


All businesses have one goal in common — to increase their output and profitability, while reducing costs. The results would be to make more money. So what do we do every year? We ask our employees to be more productive, work smarter, not harder, and so on. At some point there is no room to improve the same processes. Employees are working as smart and productively as they can with the tools they have been given. What do you do next?

This past year we have taken the next step. We have changed our processes of making cuttings with the implementation of mechanization.

The Benefits of Buying Unrooted Cuttings to the Propagator©

Author: Robert Grove

PP: 325


To buy or not to buy, that is the question. Propagation managers have struggled for years with the economic issue of how to asexually propagate plants. Do we produce them ourselves or buy in propagation liners. Let's look at the options we will be comparing in this talk.

  • Propagate internally — taking cuttings off of existing stock in or around the nursery.
  • Buy in unrooted cuttings — fresh stem or leaf cuttings without roots.
  • Buy in rooted cuttings — small rooted stem or leaf cuttings free of soil.
  • Buy in rooted plugs — small plants with roots in some planting media.

Hopefully after examination of these options you will have a clearer economic perspective.

Dynamics of Oak Production from Seed©

Author: Cecil Pounders, Donna C. Fare

PP: 329


Most oak (Quercus) production in the United States is from seed using production techniques that have evolved over the past 50 years. The steps of production have become more specialized with various combinations of seed collectors, seed brokers, liner producers, and tree farms involved in the production chain. Distribution has changed from localized production to regional distribution over large areas with diverse climates. Production decisions usually center on whether to grow or buy bare root or containerized seedlings of the different oak species needed to meet production goals. Quality control consists of inspecting planting stock to assure the leaves are the right shape, growing straight scar-free trunks of appropriate caliper with proper crowns and keeping cull trees to a minimum. In all this activity little consideration is given to the genetic background of the oaks being produced. The innate genetic potential of acorn sources used to produce oaks can impact

Getting the Most From Your Lettuce Seedlings: International Nutrition Research©

Author: Puffy Soundy

PP: 67


Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) transplants grown with a floatation irrigation system often show limited root growth, which results in root systems not pulling out completely from the transplant flat and poor establishment in the field. In the present investigation, ‘South Bay’ lettuce transplants were grown in a peat and vermiculite medium in the greenhouse. They were fertilized with varying concentrations of N, P, and K via floatation irrigation at selected fertigation frequencies to determine optimum nutrient and water management requirements for production of high quality lettuce transplants, with sufficient roots to fill a 10.9 cm3 tray cell and that ultimately establish in the field rapidly. To avoid inconsistency in the duration of the light period, natural photoperiod was extended to 16 h in all experiments.

Drought Conditioning Influences Adventitious Rooting of Select Shrub Stem Cuttings©

Author: Lindsey Fox, Thayne Montague

PP: 334

Numerous chemical compounds (plant growth regulators) have been found to promote adventitious rooting on stem cuttings. However, even with plant growth regulators (PGRs) stem cuttings of many plant species are difficult to root. Cultural practices (light levels, media temperatures, air temperatures, misting, etc.) on stock plants and during rooting have also been found to influence adventitious rooting of cuttings. This research investigated the influence of drought conditioning (DC) stock plants and an auxin-based PGR on adventitious root formation of two ornamental plant species. Species selected were firebush (Hamelia patens) and Fraser photinia (Photinia × fraseri). Plants were purchased May 2002 in 3.7-liter containers and maintained under normal nursery conditions. On 15 July 2002 plants were brought into a glass greenhouse and DC irrigation treatments initiated. Treatments included: irrigation every day (no DC), irrigation every other day (medium DC), and irrigation every fourth day (high DC). Plants were subjected to DC treatments for 16 consecutive days. Following DC treatments, all plants were irrigated and left overnight. Terminal stem cuttings were taken the following day. Cuttings were 15.2 to 20.3 cm (6.0 to 8.0 inches) long and leaves were removed from the basal 8.0 cm of each cutting. Hormodin 2 (0.3% auxin talc formulation) was used as the PGR. Cutting treatments included: no DC + no PGR, no DC + PGR, medium DC + no PGR, medium DC + PGR, high DC + no PGR, and high DC + PGR. One cutting was placed into a fiber pot and for each species, five cuttings of each treatment were placed in a fiberglass flat and each flat was replicated three times (total of 30 cuttings for each species × treatment combination). Flats were placed under intermittent mist and heating pads were used to maintain medium temperature near 32 °C (90 °F). On 22 Aug. (firebush) and 17 Oct. (Fraser photinia) cuttings were evaluated for rooting percentage, number of roots for each plant, length of longest root, and visual rating (0 = no rooting and 10 = profuse rooting). Analysis of variance suitable for a randomized complete block design was used and treatments means were separated by LSD. For firebush (considered an easy to root species), rooting percentage was greatest for all treatments except medium DC + no PGR and high DC + no PGR. Mean number of adventitious roots for each cutting was greatest for cuttings that had PGR treatments. Mean adventitious root length was greatest for cuttings with no DC + PGR and least for cuttings with medium DC + no PGR. Mean visual root ratings followed a similar trend as mean root length. Fraser photinia (considered a difficult-to-root species) mean rooting percentage was greatest for cuttings with high DC + no hormone and least for cuttings with no DC + PGR, medium DC + no PGR, and high DC + PGR. Mean number of roots for each cutting and mean root length were greatest for cuttings with medium DC + PGR. Mean visual root rating was greatest for cuttings treated with medium DC + PGR. Results indicate DC used in combination with PGRs may increase adventitious rooting of some ornamental plant species.
Slimy Friends and Foes: Understanding Slugs and Snails©

Author: Jody M. Thompson, Jeff L. Sibley

PP: 339

Slugs and snails are common in almost any ecosystem and particularly in nurseries where ideal habitats are a given. As a general rule, slugs and snails are almost always considered as unwanted pests. Most slug and snail problems as horticultural pests are caused by invasive species. There are few educational resources available describing the great diversity of snails, many of which are beneficial and suffer unnecessary controls. Beneficial snails contribute to the organic fraction of the soil cycle while some species are predators of other snails. Many of the products currently used for slug and snail control kill nontarget arthropods and lead to an increase in mite populations and therefore, increased pesticide usage. Additional research is needed to identify more effective, affordable, and environmentally sound control of harmful slugs and snails. This paper presents an overview of slugs and snails, identifying harmful and beneficial species and providing web sites where color images of each can be viewed.
Benzyladenine-Induced Shoot Formation in Indian Hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica)©

Author: Jayme Oates, Gary Keever

PP: 342

In an outdoor nursery experiment conducted in summer 2001, benzyladenine (BA) was applied at concentrations up to 5000 ppm in 1250 ppm increments to plants (Rhaphiolepis indica) in 3.8-L (#1) and 26.5-L (#7) containers. By 30 days after last treatment (DALT) plants in 3.8-L (#1) containers treated with three weekly applications of 1250 ppm BA formed 169% more new shoots than controls and up to 331% more with 5000 ppm BA. Controls in 26.5-L (#7) containers formed 4.7 new shoots, and increased from 83 to 126 new shoots with two weekly applications of 1250 and 5000 ppm. Plants in 26.5-L (#7) containers were retreated in September, at which time shoots were inactive. By 30 DALT controls formed less than one new shoot per plant, while plants averaged 18 new shoots when treated with 1250 ppm BA and 105 new shoots when treated with 5000 ppm BA. In an outdoor experiment conducted in Spring 2002 new shoot formation increased up to 374% at 30 DALT after three BA applications. Injury rating increased
Northwest Alpines 101©

Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm

PP: 351

Alpine plants native to the Pacific Northwest, from Northern California, U.S.A. to British Columbia, Canada, are relatively unknown in the horticultural trade. Rock garden enthusiasts have cultivated some of them, but relatively few are generally seen. Propagation and production practices have been developed for few of them, which has also limited their successful use.

Many plants that grow in alpine zones have an extended range into zones below the timberline, commonly called the subalpine zone. This sometimes clouds the distinction between alpine and subalpine plants. Although many subalpine plants do not have an extended natural range into alpine zones, the qualities and potential use of some are sufficient for inclusion in this report.

Alpine zones in the Pacific Northwest typically occur at elevations from 3,000 ft (900 m), or less, in the north to 10,000 ft (3,050 m) or more in the south. Here, the timberline drops approximately 1,000 ft (300 m) for each 100 miles (160 km)

Nursery Construction — Details are Everything©

Author: F. Allan Elliott

PP: 356


Nursery operations by nature require considerable developments of land and structures to grow, process, and ship products. These production facilities range from: can yards to greenhouses, warehouses, potting sheds, cold storage, loading docks, and office space. Although there are many commonalties, the facilities at each operation take on unique features specific to the needs of the nursery product and ideas of the nursery manager. Because these facilities are significant in size, cost, and longevity, it is critical that they are planned and constructed properly for long-term utilization.

Although each type of facility or structure is different, there are specific guidelines and procedures that are important to successful construction anywhere. The size and scope of the project will dictate the level to which these guidelines are followed.

Propagation of Willamette Valley, Oregon Endemics for Seed and Plugs©

Author: Lynda L. Boyer

PP: 360


Most recent surveys conclude that there is less than 1/10th of 1% of indigenous grassland and oak savanna habitat remaining in Oregon's Willamette Valley (Noss and Peters, 1995). Before Euro-American settlement of the Valley (pre-1850s), the Native American practice of setting frequent, low–intensity fires maintained oak savannah habitat and numerous grass and forb species that evolved with that fire regime. Loss of this habitat has caused the subsequent decline of wildlife species that it supports (Hagar and Stern, 1997). Consequently, this habitat is considered of the highest priority for conservation, restoration, and enhancement by the Oregon Department of Forestry, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the Nature Conservancy. In 2001, Heritage Seedlings Inc. (an ornamental tree and shrub nursery) hired me to facilitate restoration of 20 acres of oak savanna

Winter Propagation of Conifer Cuttings for Multiple Genera©

Author: Larry Stanley, Cynthia Spires

PP: 364


Winter propagation of conifer cuttings at Stanley & Sons Nursery must take into consideration many different variables. At the nursery we grow over 2500 taxa of conifers that cover 53 genera.

To make such diversity of product a practical proposition, measures had to be taken to simplify the propagation process. In the 26 years of Stanley & Son Nursery, we have used only three rooting media, two rooting hormones, and one greenhouse. The fewer the variables in the process, the fewer questions that may arise about each variety. We believe consistent and simple processes to be the most defining thing we do as a nursery.

The focus of our production is to gain the highest possible percentages on our most popular varieties, while achieving sometimes lesser, but still acceptable results with the other varieties. Plant material needed for production that does not fit our propagation program, due to timing or temperature, is purchased from contract growers.

TC or not TC©

Author: Patrick Peterson

PP: 368

For those of you who are not familiar with our operation, we utilize programs of field budding, grafting, hardwood cuttings, tissue culture, and softwood cuttings for reproducing the various taxa of ornamental trees featured in our bare-root lineup. My focus is the greenhouse liner production, which supplies each of the satellite farms with various selections of trees like cherry, birch, elm, red maple, willow, and a handful of other types.

“TC” is a real head-turning acronym. TC is commonly associated with tissue culture, or the in vitro propagation of micro-cuttings. However, I also use TC to stand for tip cuttings or the style of cutting I prefer for the summer softwood program.

As most know, many taxa of the most commonly grown ornamentals are easily rooted from cuttings. Budding onto a vigorous root system is a reasonable way to reproduce selections of ash and honeylocust, but graft incompatibility issues influence the reproduction solely by cuttings for a species like.

Asexual Propagation of Arctostaphylos × coloradensis©

Author: Scott Skogerboe

PP: 370


The Colorado Manzanita, Arctostaphylos × coloradensis is thought to be a naturally occurring hybrid complex between A. uva–ursi, A. nevadensis, and A. patula. A large population can be found growing on the Uncompahgre Plateau south of Grand Junction in Western Colorado. These beautiful broadleaf evergreens grow in association with Pinus ponderosa and Populus tremuloides at elevations between 7000 to 9000 ft in an area with average precipitation rates of 16 to 20 inches annually. Individuals from the wild range from 6-inch creepers to 3-ft-tall mounded shrubs. All have attractive exfoliating reddish bark and lantern-shaped flowers in various shades of pink blooming from late winter to early spring.

Other species of Manzanita have been widely used as landscape plants primarily in California and the Pacific Northwest. However, due to difficulties in propagation, the Colorado Manzanita is rare in the nursery trade. In the colder regions of the interior west, it shows great promise

Germination of Woody Legumes from Green Seed©

Author: Michael Bone

PP: 372


Germination of woody legumes from green seed can improve germination percentages, overcome complex dormancies, and eliminate the need to use caustic chemical scarification. Collection must be done by the producer of the plant due to the time constraints of desiccating green seed. This process increases manual labor time and cost, but gives favorable and predictable germination results.

The Fascination Of Bonsai©

Author: Charles Ceronio

PP: 70


The word bonsai literally means a tree in a container. In Japanese, "bon" means a bowl or pot and "sai" to plant. For most people bonsai are simply miniatures of various kinds of trees in containers and the word is associated with small trees, but bonsai is much more than this. It is the perfection of a slice of nature using the tree as a central theme. A bonsai grower thus strives to capture nature in his creation (Fig. 1).

Looking at it, one should evoke the memory of, for example, a bushveld scene, a forest or poplar grove, a lonely tree on the plains, a tree with roots tumbling over a rock or clinging to a cliff face, or even a clump of trees at the seaside, all blown in the same direction (Figs. 2 and 3).

Replacing Manual Dips with Water Soluble IBA©

Author: Samuel R. Drahn

PP: 373

Seeking out ways to improve efficiency and reduce labor remain important tools for any business. Rising labor costs, an unpredictable labor pool, and an increasingly competitive marketplace make this especially relevant in the nursery industry today. Automatic transplanters, conveyors, boom style irrigators, and other forms of mechanization have all become common tools of the trade in reducing labor and help make our jobs easier. For the past three seasons at Bailey Nurseries, Inc. we have experimented with replacing manual IBA, (indole-3-butyric acid) and IBA-K salt (indole-3-butyric acid, potassium salt) dips with overhead water soluble IBA applications as another way to trim labor expenses and make our jobs more efficient.
The Essential Bugcrafter: A Practical Primer for Biological Control©

Author: Robin Rosetta

PP: 377


Long before humans battled pests in greenhouses and nurseries, armed combat occurred daily amongst insects and mites that feed on plants. For millions of years, this leaf-to-leaf combat pitted hungry predators and parasites against a range of insects familiar to us all. It is truly a bug-eat-bug world. How can we harness this activity for our own good? As with anything worth achieving, it involves knowledge, persistence, and focused endeavor to bring about results that are not only worthwhile in suppressing pest outbreaks but might also improve the quality of plants.

Greenhouses, with their controlled environments, provided important study sites for research and implementation of augmentative biological control (Hussey and Scopes, 1985). It is with this early work that useful biological control programs targeting key greenhouse pests such as aphids, fungus gnats, mites, and whiteflies were developed. One can find use of similar programs today in large and small

Inovative Media Amendments: Zeolite and Actinovate©

Author: David W. Hicks

PP: 380

The purpose of my presentation is to highlight amendments currently used by growers in the Pacific Northwest. The first being a mineral and the second being a naturally occurring, beneficial organism.
Liverwort Control in Propagation: Challenges and Opportunities©

Author: James Altland, Richard Regan, Adam Newby

PP: 383


The primary limitation for weed control in propagation is lack of chemical options. Weed management programs in nursery crop production rely heavily on herbicides. This reliance on chemical weed control becomes a liability in propagation because most herbicides are not labeled for greenhouse use. Several postemergence herbicides can be used including Roundup, Diquat, and Scythe. Roundup can only be used in empty greenhouses (without plants). And while Diquat and Scythe can be used in greenhouses with plants, none of these postemergence herbicides can be applied within propagation flats where weed control is most critical.

Preemergence herbicides cannot be used inside closed structures. This includes glass houses, poly-covered hoop houses, gutter-connected houses, etc. Since most propagation occurs inside closed structures, preemergence herbicides are generally not an option.

The primary fear of labeling preemergence herbicides for use in propagation is volatilization and

Asexual Reproduction of Trees by Air-Layering©

Author: Sheila Bhattacharya

PP: 387


Air-layering is considered a useful and successful technique for producing new plants from mature trees, especially on difficult-to-root tree species. It is also a technique with the advantage of producing and propagating larger plants in a short period of time. We have attempted to root various hybrid species of Prosopis chilensis, hybrid species of Cercidium, Ficus macrocarpa (syn. F. nitida), and Chilopsis linearis. Prosopis grown from seeds exhibit wide genetic variations in growth rates, growth habit, leaf morphology, and frost tolerance. The Cercidium hybrids either produce sterile seeds or seeds do not produce plants identical to the parents. This study was initiated to investigate the potential of air-layering as an alternate vegetative propagation method for producing identical clones of superior quality for the southwestern U.S.A. Rooting of air layers of Prosopis cineraria in India (Solanki et al., 1986) and of Acacia koa in Hawaii (Skolmen, 1977)

Timing for Top Grafting Cercis and Cercidiphyllum Cultivars©

Author: Guy Meacham

PP: 388

In years past top grafting was a simple operation at J. Frank Schmidt and Son. Everything we top grafted, primarily weeping cherry cultivars, fit into the same production cycle. Grow a rootstock stem to the required height in the field, wait for a lovely dry sunny week in late February or early March, dash out and top graft everything and then run back to our greenhouses before the rain returned. Other plants came along, various willows, Syringa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Johnson’, Leprechaun green ash and they all conveniently fit into the same production cycle.

Then we started to get a few plants that didn't fit into our system, the first of these was Cercidiphyllum japonicum ‘Morioka Weeping’ (syn. C. magnificum ‘Pendulum’). The first time we top grafted these in the field we got about 20% take, results were equally poor the following year. By Year 3 we had lost our enthusiasm for Cercidiphyllum grafting and kept putting it off. Finally we went out and grafted them at the end

Just Another Bottom Heat System©

Author: Christine Ames

PP: 389

In 2001 we replaced our boiler (used for bottom heat) with a 100-gal A.O. Smith Cyclone commercial gas water heater. We needed to heat greenhouse space that equaled approximately 6000 ft2. Since this is a small application we were able to reduce our propane costs by 80%. The money savings paid for the water heater in the first year. The water heater managed to keep up with demand rather well except when the temperature dipped, we were getting some variation due to the time it took the water heater to heat the water in the tank. The 2nd year we wanted additional backup for severe demand and to add an additional 3000 ft2 of bottom heat. We bought a washing booster heater from Precision Temp. Inc. which is used in the restaurant business for dish washing. It maintains water temperatures on demand under normal conditions. This has become our primary heat source. Between the two heaters we have 400,000 BTU input. The water heater is now used as a 100-gal reservoir in case of severe demand.
A Simple, Versatile Mist Clock Setup©

Author: Michael Anderson

PP: 389

In the past we used mechanical clocks to regulate mist for 17 zones, consisting of individual benches or small greenhouses. The setup was limited in its versatility and required us to mist several zones at the same time. This inevitably resulted in low pressure midway through the mist time, leading to both dry and overly wet areas. In addition the mechanical clocks were prone to failure or hang up, leading to unpleasant surprises.

We decided to develop a new system, with the following objectives in mind:

  • Simple to adjust and easy to see current setting for each zone
  • Up to 18 zones of operation
  • Mist zones need to operate separately to allow for peak water pressure
  • Dependable; relatively failure proof
  • Long-lasting

We settled on using three Paragon model 4004 solid state 24-h time clocks; each of these controls one Phytotronics Gemini 6 controller. These are housed in a sturdy steel cabinet equipped with a small cooling fan.

The 24-h clocks can be set to start operation in 3-

Hot Callus Grafting©

Author: Cynthia Hobby

PP: 390

Hot callus grafting is a technique where the graft union is resting on or against hot pipes or heating cables to help increase the take of a union. We started using this technique 2 years ago to help improve the grafting take on certain varieties.

A trough-like structure was made from 1 × 6 inch-boards and 1 × 1 inch-strips, nailed to the edge.

Recycled carpet padding was then used to line the inside and top of the trough.

Three-quarter-inch copper pipe was soldered together and placed inside the trough on top of the carpet padding. Grafted plants were then laid down across the copper pipes and covered with more carpet padding. One inch × six inch-boards were then placed on top to hold the padding in place and to retain heat.

The carpet padding helped to insulate the copper pipes and kept them at a constant temperature. Hot water was provided by a small 1000-watt heating element, inside a 5-gal bucket and a submersible fountain pump, pumps the water through the copper pipe and back

Hand Planting Versus Mechanical Planting©

Author: Tom Burchell

PP: 390

After planting seed by hand for 5 weeks at a 5-inch spacing one starts to ponder the statement, "there must be a better way." That was the statement that led to the pursuit of finding a faster and more efficient way to plant seeds in a commercial nursery.
Lotus Root: Production in Asia and Potential for New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas, Y. Wang

PP: 79


Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera syn. N. speciosa), is a member of the Nelumbonaceae family and is grown as a vegetable, medicinal, or ornamental plant. It is an impressive flowering rhizomatous, perennial, aquatic herb, which has a long history in the diverse cultures of Egypt, China, and India. The plant is sacred in the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Originally a native of China, lotus is now found in Japan (introduced from China through Korea), Russia, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Australia. The swollen cylindrical spongy rhizome is the lotus root of commerce and high prices are paid for it in the Japanese off-season. Lotus is a versatile species with all parts of the plant being edible and it is an important part of Japanese, Chinese, and Indian cuisine. In Japan it is known as renkon, in China as, ngau, and in India it is called kamal-kakri. Throughout Asia lotus root is cooked in many ways (i.e., stir fried, steamed, in soups, or battered and fried) with the seeds eaten

Domesticating the Wild Palm: A Survey of Palms and Their Culture Suitable for California and the Pacific Coast©

Author: David Lannom

PP: 393

I intend to give a general overview of the care, selection, and cultural requirements of some of the palms used in Southern California.


  • The palm family has 2800 different species, with over 200 genera, 20 to 30 of which are found in Southern California.
  • Palms are monocots so they have some very unique characteristics.
  • Stems are comprised of vascular bundles rather than a continuous vascular system.
  • It is nearly impossible to girdle a palm and they can also be planted deeper than the original crown.
  • A majority of our palms are solitary or single trunk and have one apical bud. You cannot cut the top out of the tree to produce secondary growth.
  • Palms have a temporary root system that is in continual process of losing old and initiating new roots. This occurs at a higher rate when soil and air temperatures are warm.
  • The bulk of root systems are usually in the top surface of the soil mass (4 to 6 ft).
  • An ideal time to transplant palms is during the warmer months,
From the Wild to the Garden Center: Pulmonaria and Heuchera©

Author: Dan Heims

PP: 400

Terra Nova has been exciting plant nerds and the American public for 11 years. Our goal has been "to boldly grow what no man has grown before". While this sounds humorous, we have been quite serious about breeding the best new perennials in the marketplace with 406 new introductions to North American horticulture. This process has involved the growing, trialing, and evaluation of hundreds of thousands of seedlings on our property and trial sites around the world. Our deliberate breeding work has paid off well with our new introductions becoming some of the most sought after new perennials.


Natives of shady woods and scrublands from Siberia to Italy, these plants are often the harbinger of spring. I've seen glorious photographs of orchards in France where the plants have naturalized. Wall-to-wall carpets of cobalt-blue P. angustifolia reflecting the sky through the naked apple branches makes quite a show. The flowers range from salmon (P. ‘Redstart’) through raspberry (P. ‘Berri

Cuttings from the Edge©

Author: Tony Avent

PP: 404

The following are the notes used to describe slides that were shown at the Annual Meeting.
  • Amaryllid leaf cuttings (early-mid summer, 1000 ppm Dip and Grow).
  • Cuttings must be taken just after spring flowering since late summer cuttings do not root well (May — July in North Carolina).
  • 1 to 2 inch long leaf cuttings.
  • 8 to 12 weeks for rooting, shoots emerge 4 weeks later.
  • Cuttings will rot if soil is kept too wet.
  • Cutting stuck in twelve 4 cell packs.
  • Eucomis comosa ‘Sparkling Burgundy’ plant.
  • Eucomis comosa ‘Sparkling Burgundy’ leaf.
  • Eucomis comosa ‘Sparkling Burgundy’ leaf cuttings rooted.
  • Eucomis comosa ‘Sparkling Burgundy’ leaf cuttings rooted with new plants.
  • Ledebouria ‘Gary Hammer’ leaf cuttings.
  • Ledebouria ‘Gary Hammer’ plant.
  • Amorphophallus propagation.
  • Amorphophallus plant.
  • Amorphophallus flower.
  • Corm main bud removal (scooping) is done with knife in Feb–April, then allowed to dry for 4 weeks. Corm is then cut into up 4–8 sections with swollen eyes.
Novel Methods of Applying Rooting Hormones in Cutting Propagation©

Author: Gene Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley

PP: 406


Auxins as root-promoting chemicals (often commonly referred to as "rooting hormones") are most frequently applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip in a concentrated solution, a powder (talc) application, or an extended basal soak in a dilute solution. Liquid formulations offer the advantages of flexibility by allowing dilutions to various final concentrations and uniform application to the base of the cuttings, while powder formulations require no additional preparation prior to use. Registered products in the United States include IBA (indolebutyric acid) and IBA/NAA (indolebutyric acid / naphthaleneacetic acid) combinations in the form of liquid concentrates, water-soluble tablets, and powders.

The basal quick-dip is the most popular method of auxin application in nursery propagation. Historically, commercial propagators have found quick-dips to be the quickest and most economical method as a limited amount of material can be applied directly to the basal region

Controlling the Propagation Environment with a Computer©

Author: Barry W. Baertlein

PP: 410

A computer can help you with many aspects of propagation, including accuracy, trouble-shooting or fine-tuning efficiency. I will be talking to you about controlling the propagation environment with a computer.

First I would like to tell you about where I work and then how we use our computer. Some interest was expressed in explaining how we use Remay and later I would like to spend some time to share our experiences.

The family operation grows and sells ornamental landscape plants as well as florist azaleas on over 250 acres of land and in over 70 acres of greenhouses in Woodburn, Oregon. Millions and millions of cuttings are propagated in a 4-acre, Dutch-style propagation house. The computer in the propagation house is connected to controllers that manipulate the vents, heating, shade curtains, energy curtains, and horizontal air flow, as well as many other components. It is connected to the traveling booms for misting, the overhead misting, and the ebb and flow system.

Using Compost Successfully in Propagation Systems©

Author: Michelle L. Miller

PP: 412


Composting vegetative and animal waste has been part of intentional human activity for centuries. With the increasing urbanization of the world's population and the concentration of waste products, compost products have become increasingly available. Compost use in horticulture falls primarily into three areas. The first is amending field soils to improve organic matter and nutrient retention. The second use is as a partial replacement for bark fines or peat in containerized production. Finally, compost may be included in a container or greenhouse media for disease control.

Plants for the Northwest Garden and Nursery©

Author: Roger Gossler

PP: 416

Magnolias have undergone an enormous breeding and naming boom in the last 30 years. There are a large number of new magnolias coming to the market from breeders primarily in the U.S.A., England, and New Zealand.

Rather than focus on new magnolias we will look at magnolias that have been really tested for years in our garden in Springfield, Oregon.

Even though these plants are older species or hybrids they have proven to be hardy, easy to grow, disease and insect resistant, and, most of all, great flowering trees. If a new magnolia is named it should be definitely superior to any magnolia seen before. The current craze of naming every yellow magnolia dilutes truly superior varieties.

The beginning of our magnolia growing was in the late 1950s. By 1965 we had 35 different cultivars. We now have 450 to 500 taxa so this talk is a distillation of our growing magnolias for over 40 years.

The enormous range of magnolias can be a starting point for the structure of a garden. Magnolias can

Breeding Plants for a Better Tomorrow©

Author: Sarah Doane, Harold Pellett

PP: 418

The Landscape Plant Development Center is a relatively young organization. It was established in 1990 with a mission of developing superior landscape plants with emphasis on plants that are more tolerant of biological and environmental stresses. The Center was started because there is a need for greater diversity of landscape plants that are tolerant of environmental and biological stresses. Unfortunately, many landscape plants that are presently available are not well adapted to withstand the harsh conditions of the man-modified environments found on many landscape sites. The Center is a nonprofit corporation with a Board of Directors from all over the United States. The Center relies completely on grants and donations for the support of its research efforts. It operates as a cooperative effort of researchers located at many different institutions across North America, Europe, and Asia. Headquarters for the Center is at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.

We utilize the following

The Recovery of Hawaiian Plant Species Using Embryo and Ovulo Culture©

Author: Nellie C. Sugii, Todd M. Fujii, Lora Oshima

PP: 421

The Lyon Arboretum Rare Hawaiian Plant Program's mission is to prevent further extinction of Hawaiian plant species, propagate plants for restoration and reintroduction projects, and initiate and maintain an in vitro germplasm collection primarily of the "critically endangered" plants. Two techniques routinely used to establish in vitro cultures of seed-derived explants are embryo and ovulo culture. Embryo culture is the isolation of an immature or mature embryo and its growth within a sterile culture. Ovulo culture is the establishment of an embryo with its endosperm. In many cases, embryo and ovulo culture can eliminate seed germination inhibitors, shorten the breeding cycle, and prevent embryo abortion. Some of the Hawaiian genera that have benefited from embryo and ovulo culture are Alectryon, Hesperomannia, Kokia, Nestegis, Ochrosia, Pritchardia, and Tetraplasandra.
Propagating Monkey flowers (Mimulus spp.) of the Western United States©

Author: Mark Akimoff

PP: 424


The Genus Mimulus contains many specimens well suited to western gardens. The center of origin for the genus is the greater California area and some 70 different species are known to occur throughout this range. Many of these species have ornamental potential and, while much breeding has been done on the Diplacus section types, many of the herbaceous perennial and annual species have not been widely used in ornamental breeding programs. Many of these species are generally later flowering, often beginning in mid-summer and continuing to the first frost. In addition the showy blossoms are excellent at brightening up shady spots and many species are great hummingbird attractors.