Volume 51

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The Potential Role of Knittex Shade Netting in Favourably Modyfying the Growth Environment©

Author: Leon van Rensburg

PP: 43

Some of the theoretical principles of light absorption by plants are discussed. Special attention is paid to the Stark Einstein Law, i.e., that any molecule can absorb only one photon at a time and this photon causes the excitation of only one electron. The process of excitation, energy transfer to the reaction center, and or loss of excitation energy are discussed, specifically as it relates to the differential excitation by blue and red photons. The implications on plant growth and development, of understanding the absorption and action spectra, are stressed. The leaves of most species absorb more than 90% of the violet and blue wavelengths that strike them and almost as high a percentage of orange and red wavelengths.

Chlorophylls a and b absorb very little green and yellow light between 500 and 600 nm but strongly absorb the violet and blue as well as the orange and red wavelengths. Some of the carotenoids in the thylakoids also transfer their excitation energy to the same

Agrichemical Use — 20 Years of Change©

Author: J. Maber

PP: 63


At the I.P.P.S. Conference in 1981, I gave a presentation on new developments in pesticide application technology, focusing mainly on methods to produce spray droplets. Electrostatic spraying was relatively new then so this and other developments such as controlled droplet application (CDA) were included in the discussion. Twenty years on, what new developments in this area are there to report? What are the significant issues with respect to agrichemical use now?

Developments in droplet production for spray application technology in the last 20 years have been more in the refinement of traditional spray delivery systems with no radically new method for creating spray droplets. However, there have been other technology-based developments all aimed at improved application precision.

In addition to the technical developments the other most notable change is the move to respond to increased demand from customers or consumers for evidence of good practice. Suppliers of

Determining the Invasive Potential of Rhamnus frangula ‘Asplenifolia’ and ‘Columnaris’ Based on Seed Germination©

Author: Adam R. Wheeler, Mark C. Starrett

PP: 397

Seed of Rhamnus frangula ‘Asplenifolia’ (cutleaf buckthorn) has significantly lower germination percentage when compared to R. frangula L. (glossy buckthorn) and R. cathartica L. (common buckthorn). Therefore, based on seed germination, R. frangula ‘Asplenifolia’ is less likely to become an invasive exotic plant in the United States and Canada.

Seed of R. frangula ‘Columnaris’ (columnar buckthorn) had germination percentages and rate comparable to R. frangula. Therefore, based on seed germination, R. frangula ‘Columnaris’ is likely to become an invasive exotic plant in the United States and Canada.

The Top Performing Plants from the Evaluation and Breeding Programs at Chicago Botanic Garden©

Author: Jim Ault, Richard Hawke

PP: 401


The Chicago Botanic Garden's programs in plant breeding, evaluation, and introduction are dedicated to the development, assessment and recommendation, and introduction of ornamental plants for landscape and garden use in the Midwestern U.S.A. The goals, structure, and history of the plant introduction program, Chicagoland Grows®, Inc., were previously presented (Brennan and Bachtell, 1998), as were those of the plant breeding and evaluation programs (Ault and Hawke, 2000). This presentation will highlight the top performing ornamental plants from the evaluation and breeding programs, and therefore plants that we are recommending for use in the Midwest. These plants were all grown at Chicago Botanic Garden in a clay loam soil, pH neutral to alkaline, USDA Zone 5B.

Getting Stage III to Nurseries…Proper Handling by Everyone©

Author: Deborah D. McCown

PP: 408


What is Stage III? The "stage" terminology used in micropropagation is something I've never really been comfortable with and avoid using. But since Dick Bir assigned the topic to me, I'll try my best to muddle through.Checking with a Plant Propagation textbook (Hartmann et al., 1997) gives this scenario:

Stage I. Establishment. Basically this is putting the plant into culture. It includes sterilizing the tissue and getting it to grow at a predictable rate. This is the tricky phase we call "stabilization". But this is not really relevant to the assigned topic.

Stage II. Multiplication. The text says, "After approximately 1 month or when the culture has grown sufficiently, cut into segments approximately 1 cm long…and transfer to fresh medium". I don't know what crops they're talking about but this is not the way it works with woody plants. It can take months or years to get some woody plants into the multiplication phase because they take so long in the stabilization

Success with Stage 3 Tissue Culture Plantlets©

Author: Alan Jones

PP: 410


To have success with something usually means you have been unsuccessful at some point. Often what you have been unsuccessful with is more interesting than what you are now doing successfully.

What I intend to present in this paper is an outline of how Manor View Farm has moved from being unsuccessful with establishing Stage 3 to being mostly successful with Stage 3. However, we are still having problems with Corylus.

The use of tissue culture or should it be called micropropagation has proved to have many benefits for propagation of certain plants in our industry. It is used not only for hard to propagate species, but is being used more often for easier-to-produce subjects. The key issue with many species is the cost effectiveness of using this type of propagation when compared to more traditional methods.

We have had success with establishing a range of material using basically the same technique. Hydrangea quercifolia and Betula are two groups we have had great success

Dormancy and Germination in Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii©

Author: Anne T. Laursen

PP: 413


My name is Anne and I'm from Denmark. I'm in an apprenticeship as a nursery-gardener and at present I work for The Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. I'm very honoured to be here today and I would like to thank I.P.P.S.Eastern Region, North America for making this exchange possible. Also, thanks to the Midwest Groundcover people and PeterOrum, and special thanks to Kathy Freeland for looking after me. It has been very beneficial and interesting for me to behere, meeting and talking to people, and listening to all the presentations — I'm very grateful for this opportunity.

I sincerely hope some of you will find the following presentation worth listening to.

Modified Nurse Seed Grafting of Aesculus©

Author: John H. Alexander III

PP: 417


Two years ago, I was asked to propagate an ailing Aesculus for replacement in the Arboretum collection. At thetime, I had no understock available and decided to use a technique that I had used previously to graft Castanea.

This technique of grafting is one that is less commonly used. I first became aware of it from an illustration found inearly editions of Hartmann and Kester (1983). The text there describes nurse seed grafting — a technique used by Moore (1963) for grafting Castanea and Camellia. He germinated seeds, removed shoot and root, and grafted a scion into the seed, between the cotyledons (Fig. 1). He reported that over time, successful grafts developed their own root systems. Jaynes (1967), working with Castanea, reported on experimenting with the method for 4 years and thathe considered it a "qualified success." One interesting note is that he found most roots developed from the seed, not from the scion, and he suggested the name "nut grafting" to be more

Carpinus caroliniana Production at Johnson's Nursery, Inc.©

Author: Michael Yanny

PP: 421

Carpinus caroliniana is a small understory tree, 20 ft to 30 ft tall and wide. It is found in lowland woods from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and south to Texas and Florida. The plant is prized for its muscular-looking trunks of slate graybark. The common name musclewood comes from this interesting characteristic.

Fall color can be outstanding. Some trees develop glowing reds, oranges, or clear yellows. Unfortunately, many other individuals have disappointing dirty yellow to brown fall color.

Musclewood is seldom used in the landscape industry. One reason for this may be its reputation for being difficult togrow. Eighteen years of growing experience with this species has proved otherwise. This plant is not difficult; it is just not understood.

Musclewood is slow growing but growth can be accelerated in the production process by avoiding inbred seed lots. The species is definitely slow to recover from either bare root or B&B transplanting, however, our nursery has rarely lostplants due to

Propagation of the Endangered Legume Amorpha nitens and the Common Shrub Amorpha fruticosa©

Author: Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall, J.W. Van Sambeek, Mark V. Coggeshall

PP: 424


Amorpha nitens Boynton (smooth wild indigo) is an attractive shrub found along streams or lakes from southernIllinois to Louisiana (Wilbur, 1975). This legume is listed as endangered in Illinois and Georgia. Taft (1994) suggests the reasons for its decline are habitat disturbance and low reproduction rates. Amorpha nitens is easily confused with the more common A. fruticosa L. (false wild indigo or indigobush). Although found in habitats similar to A.nitens, A. fruticosa has a much wider distribution range in the U.S.A. Both species are relatively shade tolerant andform symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria making them candidate species for inclusion in several agroforestry practices and restoration of natural ecosystems (Navarrete-Tindall et al., 2000).

Members of the genus Amorpha are normally propagated from seed or cuttings; however, little is known about the propagation of A. nitens. Seed of most Amorpha species can be hulled, but are usually left inside the

Hardy Hemlocks and Salty Pines©

Author: Brian K. Maynard

PP: 429


Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is an aphid-like insect that feeds on several species of hemlock in Asia, its homeland, and in North America, where it was introduced early in the last century. Damage occurs from feeding on needles, and can result in death of the tree in as little as 4 years (McClure, 1996). Adelgids are readily distributed by mammals, birds, and wind; and with multiple generations each year, populations can increase dramatically. For the most part, populations of hemlock woolly adelgid cannot be managed effectively. Integrated pest management (IPM) of hemlock adelgid utilizes pest monitoring, cultural practices that enhance tree vigor, and mechanical, chemical, or biological control.

Within its native range, hemlock woolly adelgid feeds harmlessly on several hemlock species: Tsuga chinensis in Taiwan, and T. diversifolia and T. sieboldii in Japan. The adelgid also has been innocuous on Western hemlock (T. heterophylla) and mountain hemlock

Grafting and Marketing Specialty Nursery Crops©

Author: Brian L. Upchurch

PP: 433

When I was asked by Dick Bir to give a presentation to this group on the subject of "Grafting and Marketing Specialty Nursery Crops" I expressed reservations about discussing marketing to a propagation group. The focus, at least as I understand it, is that the International Plant Propagation Society was created solely to "seek and share" knowledge about just that — plant propagation. However, I find with my small nursery, that marketing and propagation are inextricable and that to separate them is difficult.

As a propagator of woody ornamentals, I have chosen to use my grafting skills to market my small, but growing company. Grafting woody plants is something not everyone can do. I use this skill to my advantage. It helps me create a marketing plan that helps my company sell plants, which we all must do to maintain, and hopefully thrive in our business. This skill is a marketing tool in the sense that it differentiates you from your competition. You are perceived to have more interesting,

Propagation of Several Plants Threatened with Extinction©

Author: Tomohide Yamamoto

PP: 66


In Japan, the numbers of plant species threatened with extinction have been increasing through various forms of environmental destruction. To protect the plant species from extinction, Environment Agency of Japan published a red data book in 1997. In this book, plants were classified into five categories; extinct, extinct in the wild, critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable. The total number of vascular plants listed in these categories was 1428. The Environment Agency also showed that several factors were driving these plants to a crisis point or extinction. The largest factor is development in rural regions. The second is theft from the wild for private interests, and the third is change in vegetation. From the point of view of environmental protection and conservation of plant species, we have studied propagation of several plants threatened with extinction.

Self-felting Wool Pellets as a Means of Weed Control During Propagation and Liner Production©

Author: Bradley Rowe, Thomas Fernandez

PP: 438


Economic pressure to produce quality perennial plants in the least amount of time involves an intensive use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Unfortunately, these practices also provide optimal conditions for weeds and the necessity for frequent applications of herbicides. Furthermore, in order to reduce labor costs, many plants are propagated, grown-on as liners, and shipped in the same container. This opens a wide window for establishment of weeds. When these liners are potted up into larger containers the presence of weeds or weed seeds only exacerbates the problem.

Wulpak, self-felting wool pellets (Wilbro, Inc., Norway, South Carolina) show promise for potential use in weed management. They may control weeds alone or in combination with chemical herbicides. First, it is difficult to use many herbicides for propagation in an enclosed greenhouse due to potential volatilization or labeling restrictions. Second, many species, especially herbaceous perennials, are

Development of a Subirrigation System with Potential for Hardwood Tree Propagation©

Author: Mark V. Coggeshall, J.W. Van Sambeek

PP: 443


The successful propagation of many desirable hardwood tree species by means of traditional stem cutting propagation remains an elusive goal. A number of species within genera such as Juglans and Quercus are highly prized for their timber value, and in the case of black walnut (J. nigra) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) also produce marketable edible nuts. Black walnut, pecan, and several species of oak are also important tree species in agroforestry-based systems in Missouri (Garrett and Reitveld, 1995). Clonal propagation of superior trees on their own root systems is highly desired; however, most species from these three genera are usually classified as difficult-to-root species (Coggeshall and Beineke, 1997; Zaczek et al, 1997).

Mezitt (1978) first proposed the use of the subirrigation method as a propagation technique for difficult-to-root plants. Subsequent papers by Holt and Maynard (1997) and Regan and Henderson (1999) indicated that a broad range of genera could

Are the New Astilbe Really Better?©

Author: Leo Blanchette, David Beattie

PP: 449

Astilbe are an asset to the garden for most of the growing season. Their elegant flowering panicles wave above colorful, leafy mounds of foliage. Interest starts in early spring when the plants first begin to appear. Many varieties have red-, bronze-, or copper-colored leaves which add ornamental interest to the border even when the plants are not in bloom. The flowers make excellent, cut additions to fresh arrangements or dried; they can enhance a winter bouquet.

In the landscape, astilbes are best massed as drifts in the sun or the shade. They vary in size with the bodacious boldness of the giants like A. grandis or A. ×arendsii ‘Moerheim's Glory’, the exquisitely graceful arching plumes of ‘Straussenfeder’, the pat-em-on-the-head tufts like ‘Siska’or the diminutive demeanor of A.‘Yakushima’ (syn. A. yakushimansis). They all enjoy a moist soil, and resent hot dry areas. In their native habitat, they grow along stream banks in full sun or partial shade. If the pHrises above 7, iron

Hydrangeas for the Future©

Author: Sandra M. Reed

PP: 457


The genus Hydrangea is comprised of approximately 80 species (McClintock, 1957), the most widely cultivated of which are the bigleaf (H. macrophylla), panicle (H. paniculata), oakleaf (H. quercifolia), and smooth (H. arborescens) hydrangeas. The increasing popularity of these species has created a demand for new and improved cultivars. This paper summaries the breeding projects in this genus that are currently underway at the U.S. National Arboretum.

Rootstock Selection and Graft Compatibility of Chamaecyparis Species©

Author: Bradley T. Holland, Stuart L. Warren, Thomas G. Ranney, Thomas A

PP: 461


The genus Chamaecyparis includes many desirable and commercially important taxa. Although there are only 6 to 7 species in the genus, there is considerable variation among taxa including over 240 cultivars of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana alone (Krüssmann, 1985). Unfortunately, many of the Chamaecyparis spp. are native to cool, temperate climates and often perform poorly in stressful landscape situations, particularly under conditions of poor drainage (hypoxia), high temperatures, and Phytophthora spp. pathogens (Dirr, 1998; Hunt and O'Reilly, 1984).Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and C. nootkatensis, for example, are both native to the mountains of the Pacific North West and often have poor survival in less than ideal landscape settings.

Grafting poorly adapted plants onto superior rootstocks is one approach for engineering compound plants for greater environmental adaptability. Since Chamaecyparis species exhibit considerable ecological latitude, with some species found in cool,

Seed Harvesting and Processing: Techniques That Work©

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 466


One of the most fundamental things about collecting seed is determining when is the best time. Since so many plants vary from one another there is no set rule, but rather a series of questions that must be answered to determine when the time is right.

Many woody plants have set patterns for seed dispersal and this occurs on their schedule not ours so we have to look for signs that indicate whether we are on the right track. Members of the genus Pinus often set seed every other year. This is because during the opposite year the plants literally switch sexes so those that flowered as female trees in year one will flower as male trees in Year 2. Since not all of the pines in a given group are on the same wavelength this method insures a cross-pollination sequence. Some plants like oaks and beech vary considerably from good seed years to long periods of little or no seed. Fagus grandiflora is known to have good seed every 7 to 11 years. Again not all the trees are following the

Plants Found in My Backyard…And Yours©

Author: Michael Hayman

PP: 470

All the great plants aren't in China. What follows are plants found on weekend trips to arboreta, nurseries, and hobbyists…plants I found in my own backyard…and in yours.

Any sampling of local plants has to pay tribute to the plantsmen who came before us. We stand on the shoulders of people like Buddy Hubbuch, the former horticulturist at Bernheim Arboretum, nurseryman Theodore Klein, and nurseryman Bob Simpson.

Buddy and Theodore were particularly great influences on me. When I met them about 15 years ago, I didn't know thedifference between an oak and a maple, even though I had both in my front yard. Both were kind and generous mentors.

Buddy did not breed or select, but he did collect and display plants at Bernheim like the large exhibit of bottlebrushbuckeyes which both Michael Dirr and J.C. Raulston have called the best in the world.

He saved the Euonymus alatus ‘Rudy Haag’, a true dwarf, found by Jeffersontown, Kentucky nurseryman, Rudy Haag. A 40-year old group of six plants

Seed Propagation — The Lost Art©

Author: Dennis P. Niemeyer

PP: 475


We at WE-DU Nurseries grow several thousand different plant types that necessitates a wide range of propagation techniques. We grow over 50% of these plants from seed, most of which were collected from our own stock. Of our seed-propagated plants, 60% to 75% are native to the eastern United States. Our main reason for growing from seed is to promote genetic diversity in the species and to produce plants not commonly offered in the trade.

Our native phlox, lobelia, asters, azaleas, and others offer great opportunities for selecting superior and unique cultivars from wild-collected seed. Trillium, Helonia, Chamaelirium, and Cymophyllus are good examples of plants not readily available in the commercial trade. We must produce the seed of these plants to use in our finish production facilities.

Current commercial seed production has allowed thousands of species to be available for growers. In perennials especially, many species have become available through many seed houses.

Status of the Commercial Micropropagation Industry©

Author: Richard H. Zimmerman, Robert J. Griesbach

PP: 479

In 1996, a comprehensive survey was made of U.S. commercial micropropagation laboratories to determine the extent of the industry (Zimmerman, 1996). Industry interest in the results of this survey prompted us to update the information with a new survey, which was started in 2000 and completed in 2001. As in the previous survey, data were collected by doing telephone interviews with the owner or manager of each laboratory.

To maintain confidentiality of production figures, we grouped labs into 5 areas as follows: (1) Florida, (2) California and Hawaii, (3) Oregon and Washington, (4) Eastern U.S. (all states east of the Mississippi River except Florida) and (5)West-Central U.S. (all states west of the Mississippi River except those in (3) and (4) above). Similarly, we groupedcrops produced into the following categories: (a) foliage plants, (b) greenhouse flowers and orchids, (c) herbaceousperennials and annuals, (d) trees and shrubs, (e) vegetables, (f) fruits and (g) miscellaneous


Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 482

Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala Maxim. Amur maple (Ames 23254)

This clonal selection was propagated from a 13-year-old 8 ft tall by 6 ft wide shrub, grown at the North Central Plant Introduction Station in a population of remnant seedlings after a 1986 NC-7 plant distribution. This particular tree has a compact dense form, slow growth, very uniform spherical habit, and a wine red fall color. Introduced for evaluation in the NC-7 Trials in 1997, cooperators have reported that the rooted propagules exhibit the traits of the original parent plant. The original seedling population (PI 477992) was grown from a seed lot collected in Canada in 1968 and also evaluated at the Bismarck, North Dakota USDA-NRCS Plant Materials Center (ID# T 5645). Probable hardiness USDA Zone 3a. Plans to name and release this accession are underway, but cuttings are nevertheless available from NCRPIS.

An Introduction to Hamilton Gardens©

Author: Peter Sergel

PP: 68


Hamilton Gardens has attempted to be different from other city gardens in New Zealand. Rather than the traditional focus on plant collections, more emphasis has been given to the visitor experience of a diverse collection of garden environments.

This paper sets out to:

  • Provide some background behind the development of Hamilton Gardens,
  • Explain the ethnogarden theme which has lead us to a different way of looking at plant collections, and to
  • Outline the unusual objectives behind the Gardens.

Over the past 20 years Hamilton Gardens has had an evolving concept and without our being aware of a precedent it was initially something of an experiment. However in terms of use and local support it is an experiment that has had a very successful outcome.


Author: Beb McCown, Dick Bir

PP: 487

DEB MCCOWN: Question for Jack Alexander. Which species would you recommend as the best Aesculus seed rootstock?
Use of Para Formaldehyde as a Potential Soil Sterilant: A Preliminary Investigation©

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 488


Para formaldehyde is the polymerized solid form of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde's role as a sterilant and a preservative is well known in scientific circles and is a common component for the sterilization and preservation of animal specimen and tissues in laboratories. In the mid 1920s the nursery industry used an aqueous solution of formaldehyde (Kains and McQuesten, 1950; Mahlsteade and Haber. 1957) for soil sterilization at a rate of 200 ppm formaldehyde. However, liquid formulations of formaldehyde due to the fumes and toxicity are difficult and hazardous to handle and the use of this material has fallen out of favor. Fast forward to the last 10 years or so and things have changed. Much of the work of aqueous formaldehyde was replaced by methyl bromide, another hazardous and difficult chemical. Scientific studies showed that methyl bromide is a culprit with atmospheric contamination and it has subsequently been scheduled for removal from the market place by the year 2005

East Meets South in Baltimore!©

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 491

The Eastern Region, North American of the International Plant Propagators Society is looking forward to the joint meeting with her sister Society from the Southern Region. The meeting dates are 29 Sept. 2002 to 2 Oct. 2002.

Its is anticipated that this meeting will be unprecedented with the combined attendance from both regions expected to be close to 700 people.

The local site committee, headed by Dick Marshall from the Southern Region and co-chairs of Steve Castorani and Bill Barnes from the Eastern Region, North American, has been actively pursuing a meeting to be remembered. Program chairs or next year's meeting are Jim Johnson for the Eastern Region, North American, and Randy Jacobs for the Southern Region and I am sure they will want to hear from YOU about giving a talk for the 2002 meeting. Alan Jones will be the poster chair for our contingent and Donna Fare will be bird dogging the Southern Region. The Southern Region is also looking for likely participants. So don?t be bashful

Baptisia ‘Purple Smoke’: Liners That Live and Flower©

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 493


Baptisia ‘Purple Smoke’ was discovered at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, by curator Rob Gardner. It is a putative hybrid of blueflowering B. australis and white-flowering B. alba. ‘Purple Smoke’ flowers are smoky violet with the charcoal gray flower stems of B. alba. It was introduced by Niche Gardens and North Carolina Botanical Garden in 1996.

Propagation is accomplished via late softwood to semihardwood terminal stem cuttings. However, winter survival percentages were disappointing even when plants were placed in unheated white polyethylene-covered quonset structures for protection. Similar problems exist with other herbaceous perennials propagated by stem cuttings (Bir and Conner, 1998.).

Cuttings from container-grown stock plants were direct stuck and rooted under intermittent mist in Lerio 325 containers in a medium comprised of pine bark and sphagnum peat (3 : 1, v/v) in which 4.5 lb dolomitic limestone and 2.5 lb Esmigran had been

Automatic Controlled Water Table Irrigation for Container Production©

Author: Jack W. Buxton, Robert E. McNiel

PP: 495

The controlled-water-table irrigation system (CWT) was used to automatically irrigate many crops. Crops included germination and growing seedlings in plug trays, production of 15 cm pots of geranium, poinsettias, and chrysanthemums, and production of woody plants in 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm × 15 cm propagation trays and in 1-gal containers. The CWT provides nearly constant water/air ratio in the growing medium if the system is established properly. The water/air ratio in the growing medium can be changed depending on species, stage of growth, or the degree of water stress desired by raising or lowering the water source relative to the bench. The optimum distance between the water table surface and the bottom of the pot was 3 to 4 cm for 2-cm plug trays and approximately 2 to 3 cm for 10– to 20-cm containers.
Container Crop Response to Slow-Release Fertilizers, Placement, and Mixes©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 500

Many types of controlled- or slow-release fertilizers are available to the nursery industry, and new formulations are constantly being updated (Gallant, 1995). Optimum usage varies with factors such as formulation, placement, species, and cultural factors (Lumis, 1997; Lumis and Taurins, 1997).

This study compared the response of red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), ninebark (Physocarpus opulifulius), and weigela (Weigela ‘Bristol Ruby’) grown from liners through one season in #2 containers filled with either a pine bark, peat, and soil mix (80 : 15 : 5, by volume) or a peat mix (a commercial peat-based formulation containing also compost, perlite, and vermiculite) incorporated or topdressed with one of three slow-release fertilizers, Osmocote 15N-2.6P-12.5K (15N-11P2O5-13K2O), Osmocote 19N-2P-8.7K (19N-6P2O5-12K2O), and Sierra 17N-2P-8.7K (17N-6P2O5-12K2O) (Table 1). Plants were arranged by species in separate factorial (3 fertilizers × 2 placement methods × 2 mixes) randomized

Ionized Copper as an Effective Control of Proplematic Pathogens©

Author: Michael Emmons

PP: 504

Copper has been used for years in various compounds as well as a Bordeaux mixture to control disease. It is the backbone of many products to control organisms such as anthracnose.

Over the past few years nurseries were being asked and required to retain and re-use the irrigation water that they apply to their crops. The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) in Connecticut asks that no run-off be allowed to leave the property to ensure that any contaminants remain within the nursery and not affect waterways down stream. Prides Corner Farms has effectively accomplished the goal of retaining 100% of its irrigation water and re-using it within its irrigation system.

By re-using the irrigation water a substantial increase in water-born pathogens has also occurred. Organisms such as Phytophthora and anthracnose have become a greater problem in spite of rigorous cultural practices and increased fungicide applications. These control methods can only go so far. A system had to be found to

Growth of Herbaceous and Woody Perennials in Spent Mushroom Substrate Composted by Aerated and Static Methods©

Author: Charles Heuser, E. Jay Holcomb, P.H. Heinemann

PP: 506


Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is defined as the material that remains after a mushroom production cycle. The substrate for the bulk of commercially produced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is generally composed of horse and chicken manure, hay and wheat straw, as well as supplements such as cottonseed meal, husks and hulls, corn cobs, limestone chips, gypsum, urea, and minerals that is first composted then used for mushroom production. Large quantities of SMS are being produced every year and in concentrated areas, so its disposal poses an issue. One of the major problems with storing or holding SMS is that it continues to compost and goes anaerobic producing of an offensive odor. Other problems include nutrient leaching from the SMS into the ground water and unsightly appearance when piled on farmland. Currently the SMS that is used by the nursery and greenhouse industry is aged 1 or more years. To reduce the time and space needed to store SMS, Young, 2000 demonstrated

Propagator's Cornucopia: Products, Problems, and Observations©

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 509

This presentation deals with several topics that are the results of observations in the field, production, and landscape situations. It is my intent to share with you these various topics and that this information may be of use to you in your own particular situation.
Effects of Drought on Trees and Shrubs©

Author: Ronald F. Kujawski, Robert D. Childs

PP: 511

Recurring and prolonged periods of drought seem to have become commonplace in many regions of the country in recent years. The effects on trees and shrubs can often be seen in both natural and man-made landscapes during the severest of droughts as leaves wilt, show marginal scorch, or prematurely drop from the plant. However, the long-term effects of drought on the health and survivability of woody plants are less obvious.

Carbohydrates produced in green tissue by photosynthesis are used as substrate for other synthesis reactions in plant cells. Among the products normally manufactured from these carbohydrates are fats, proteins, growth regulators, and many secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites are responsible for many of the defense mechanisms a plant needs to thwart infectious diseases and certain insects. These metabolites include oleoresins, tannins, and alkaloids. Initially, there may be an increase in the production of secondary metabolites in drought-stressed plants as

Genetic Engineering: Is Perception Reality?©

Author: Howard J. Bezar

PP: 73


A decision on whether to import or release a genetically modified (GM) plant, animal, medicine, or other product is ultimately a political decision, rather than a technical one. Politicians make the final decision, not scientists (Wilkinson et al, 1996). Since part of the decision-making process of politicians involves considering public opinion, public perceptions of the technology and its benefits and hazards have a real influence on the decision. These perceptions may not be in accordance with scientists' understanding and knowledge of the technology but, to all of us, our own perceptions — whatever their basis — are real.

Aesculus parviflora Propagation by Layering©

Author: Robert E. McNiel, Steve Elkins

PP: 513


Aesculus parviflora (bottlebrush buckeye) has made many recommended plant lists during recent times. However, few plants are available on a regular basis in the nursery trade. Seed was the main method of propagation until the 1990s when Bir and Barnes (1994) established a protocol for cutting propagation. Fordham (1987), in his discussion of propagation of bottlebrush buckeye, devoted his explanation to seed, except for a final comment that root cuttings and root suckers, can be a source. Seed availability, timing, or facilities may still limit this plant from being propagated in significant numbers by either seed or cuttings.

Layering has been recommended as a form of propagation for plants forming suckers by several authors during the 1900s (Bailey, 1920; Wells, 1985). While addressing layering in one form or another, neither Mahlstede and Haber (1957), Macdonald (1986), Dirr and Heuser (1987), nor Hartman et al. (1998) defines layering as a technique for bottlebrush

Cutting Propagation Screening Trials at University of Rhode Island©

Author: James Owen Jr., William Johnson, Brian Maynard

PP: 514


The University of Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station is enthusiastic about introducing new species into the New England nursery industry. In recent years we have focused on propagation and cold hardiness of new or underused woody plants. In 2000 – 2001, 13 species (Table 1) were propagated with a range of hormones and overwintered. Rooted cuttings that are not under patent are distributed to Rhode Island nurseries for evaluation.

Screening of Cercis (Redbud) Taxa for Ability to Root From Cuttings©

Author: Margaret R. Pooler, Ruth L. Dix

PP: 517

The redbud (Cercis species) is a popular landscape small tree or shrub that is valued commercially for its early spring bloom and adaptability to a variety of environmental conditions. Despite its value to the nursery and landscape industries, large-scale production of redbud has been limited, due in part to the difficulty of propagating clonal (cultivar) material. We screened 11 Cercistaxa for the ability of stem cuttings to regenerate adventitious roots using four growth-regulator treatments: Dyna-Gro K-L-N, Woods Rooting Compound, Hormo-Root 2, and KIBA. Overall, C. chingii, C.glabra, and C. yunnanensis had the highest percentage of cuttings that produced roots. The Hormo-Root 2 treatment resulted in the highest rooting percentage over all taxa combined. Cercis chingii produced the most roots, while C. gigantea, C. siliquastrum, and C. yunnanensis produced the longest roots. Selected clones from this study will be used in our established Cercis breeding program to broaden the
Design of a Propagation Unit That Independently Controls Atmospheric and Medium Moisture

Author: Shubin Saha, Sharon Kester, Erin Wilkerson, Jack Buxton, Robert

PP: 518


Micropropagation consists of four stages that include establishment, multiplication, rooting, and acclimatization. Acclimatization involves the shift from a heterotrophic (sugar-requiring) to an autotrophic (free-living) condition and the acclimatization of the microplant to the outdoor environment (Hartmann et al., 2002). It requires that the propagule be slowly moved from a condition of low light and high humidity to ambient greenhouse conditions. Plant loss during the acclimatization phase can be a serious impediment to commercial micropropagation of some crops (Preece and Sutter, 1991).

The three key factors for optimal acclimatization are relative humidity, temperature, and irradiance (Isutsa et al., 1994). The objective of this experiment was to control atmospheric moisture independent of medium moisture in order to study their relative importance during the acclimatization process. This was attempted using controlled-water-tables in constructed Plexiglas growth

Efficacy of Five Pre-emergence Herbicides in Pot-in-Pot Tree Production©

Author: James C. Sellmer, Rick Bates, Tracey L. Harpster, Larry J. Kuhns

PP: 520


Interest and installation of pot-in-pot systems for production of trees and shrubs continues to grow throughout the nation (Mathers, 2000). Pot-in-pot systems offer numerous benefits for production nurseries and retail outlets including improved root growth during the hot summer months, elimination of tree blow-over, reduced need for overwintering structures, reduced water usage, less impact on field soil and loss of organic matter, and year-round harvest potential (Fidler, 1999). Year-round harvest also means a potential for increased weed management requirements. Traditionally, weed control in field production nurseries employ mechanical cultivation in combination with pre-emergence and postemergence herbicide applications. Similarly, container production nurseries employ a variety of techniques to maintain weed-free growing areas including well-drained gravel, concrete or geotextile covered surfaces, soilless growing media for nursery stock, pre-emergence herbicides

Applying Accelerated Growth Production Practices to American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)©

Author: Tracey L. Harpster, James C. Sellmer, Larry J. Kuhns

PP: 523


The American chestnut (Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkhausen) once made up one-third of northeastern U.S.A. forests. Today most chestnut trees in the United States are little more than stumps that sprout and occasionally flower, but rarely produce fruit. In one of many efforts to change the future of the American chestnut and return it to its glory in the landscape and wood-lots of Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Chestnut Foundation (PC-TACF) has been acquiring seed from the American Chestnut Foundation initiated back-cross breeding program to produce blight-resistant American chestnuts. A successful breeding and disease-screening program requires that all possible progeny representing the crosses survives and can be screened. The PC-TACF's approach to seed germination and seedling production relied exclusively on field planting of seeds in the fall allowing natural stratification and germination or direct seeding in the spring after controlled

Comparative in Vitro Culture of White And Green Ash From Seed to Plantlet Production©

Author: J.W. Van Sambeek, John E. Preece, Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall

PP: 526


In vitro procedures have already been reported for white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) to establish cut dormant seeds, force axillary shoot proliferation, and induce rapid rooting to produce clonal plantlets (Preece et al., 1987, Navarrete et al., 1989, Preece et al., 1989, Preece et al., 1995). Hypothetically, a production cycle from seed to greenhouse-acclimatized plantlets can be achieved in 24 to 28 weeks. Navarrete (1989) found no differences in proliferation rates among progeny for 12 open-pollinated families; however, differences were found among selected clones when rooting microshoots. We have established field plantings with white ash microplants that continue to show normal development and growth (Van Sambeek et al., 1995, Van Sambeek et al., 1999). We attribute our success with white ash to using the cut seed technique to germinate nonstratified seed (Preece et al., 1995), incorporating thidiazuron (TDZ) and benzyladenine (BA) with MS medium to induce

Embryo Rescue and Embryo Excision — What's the Difference?©

Author: Susan J. Wiegrefe, Carol A. Robacker, Sloane M. Scheiber

PP: 535

Embryo rescue and embryo excision are both procedures that expand our abilities to propagate plants sexually, but in very different ways: (1) the types of difficulties they enable us to overcome, (2) the stage of the embryo's development when the procedure is performed, and (3) the conditions the embryos are placed into once removed from the developing fruit.
How Degree Days Affect Rooting Percent of Cotoneaster acutifolia Cuttings©

Author: Francisco Castillo, Alfredo Castillo

PP: 537

What is a degree day? Degree days are accumulated heat units to help measure seasonal life cycles of plants and insects. Midwest Groundcovers formerly took Cotoneaster acutifolia cuttings at about 1000 degree-days and achieved about 25% rooting. By taking them earlier, at 360 to 400 degree-days (mid May for 2001) Midwest Groundcovers now achieves about 75% rooting.


PP: 541


The Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Wyndham Greenspoint Hotel, Houston, Texas with President Eelco Tinga, Jr. presiding.

Plant Biotechnology: A Global Overview of Problems and Potentials

Author: Brent McCown

PP: 80


In this session on plant biotechnology, I have been given the charge to address the subject on a more global scale. This is not an easy task considering the complexity of not only the science involved but also the diversity of perceptions of the commercialization of that science. My approach is to breakdown the topic into a number of questions, many of which I find are of common concern throughout the world.

The Stephen F. Austin Mast Arboretum's Ornamental Plant Evaluation Program©

Author: Dave Creech

PP: 542


The Stephen F. Austin (SFA) Mast Arboretum has experienced steady growth and development since its inception in 1985. Most of the 8-ha (20-acre) on-campus property lies in the floodplain of LaNana Creek, a normally docile stream that bisects the garden. Soils are generally well drained, slightly acidic, and loblolly pine, oaks, river birch, sweetgum, sycamore, Florida maple, hornbeam, elm, hackberry, pecan, and hickory dominate the native flora. Nacogdoches is Zone 8 with an average annual rainfall of 1219 mm (48 inches). June through August is characteristically hot and dry. In recorded history, 1 Sept. 2000 was the record high 44.4°C (112°F), and 23 Dec.1989 was the record low -17.8°C (0°F).

Antique Roses©

Author: G. Michael Shoup

PP: 547


Overshadowed by modern hybrids, old roses have been overlooked in this century; but now there is a renaissance afoot to restore the older cultivars to their rightful place in the garden. Their historic interest, color, fragrance, and form make old roses as indispensable to today's gardens as those of centuries past. And, as many gardeners will attest, the best thing about old roses is that they provide all the landscape values without becoming a maintenance burden.

Long before its extensive hybridization, the rose had survived cheerfully in the gardens of history. Early rosecultivars retained the resilience and fortitude programmed by nature, but these qualities have been neglected in modern hybrids developed primarily for showy blooms. Unlike modern roses which grow poorly without many hours of devoted attention, most old roses will give today's busy homeowner an appreciated rest from much of the heavy fertilizing, spraying, and nurturing demanded by their younger

Scouting a Real Life Experience©

Author: Liz Felter

PP: 551


Consumer demands during the 1990s were for picture-perfect plants. In a baseline study done in 1996, there was a heavy reliance on pesticides and chemicals. New economic, environmental, and regulatory issues are driving growers to explore other environmentally friendly practices. Such practices include scouting (frequent monitoring of the crop) and incorporating biological controls when possible.

Other realities include stronger regulation of water use, increased monitoring of groundwater quality, loss of effective chemicals for pest control, and a greater concern about pesticide application procedures and worker protection standards. At the same time, producers must compete in markets that often support the lowest price structure for finished crops.

The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act, established the goal of having 75% of all crop acreage in the United States under integrated pest management by the year 2000. Once the Food Quality Protection Act is fully implemented,

Effects of Pistill and Atrimmec on production of Lagerstroemia©

Author: Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever

PP: 553

Three studies were conducted to determine the effect of Pistill (ethephon) and Atrimmec (dikegulac-sodium) on flower abortion, fruit set, and axillary shoot stimulation of Lagerstroemia ‘Tuscarora’ when applied at full flower. Flower abortion increased for Pistill (1000 ppm) at 7 days after treatment (DAT). Pistill similarly caused a significant decrease in fruit set during all three experiments. Atrimmec had no effect on flower abortion at 7 DAT in any year except 1999. Pistill applications resulted in more new shoots than the control in all years and than Atrimmec in 1997. Applications of Pistill at full bloom can be an effective tool to abort crapemyrtle flowers resulting in reduced fruit set and increased number of new shoots.
Rapid Determination of Nitrogen Status in Potted Pansy Production©

Author: J.E. Altland, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever, J.L. Sibley, D.C. Fare

PP: 558

Traditional laboratory analysis of tissue samples is time consuming and does not allow for rapid diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) status and immediate response to plant need. Two experiments were conducted growing Bingo Yellow pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana ‘Bingo Yellow’) at N rates ranging from 20 to 160 ppm N. Data were collected to determine the relationship between traditional laboratory analysis of foliar N [(% on a dry weight basis) (FN)] and a rapid test that evaluates nitrate concentration in plant sap (SN) using the Cardy nitrate meter. Pooling data over the two experiments, regression analysis determined that SN levels could be used to predict FN levels with the following equation: log(SN) = 0.47*FN + 1.6 [r2 = 0.80, n = 134]. Similar to traditional laboratory analysis, SN levels determined with the Cardy nitrate meter could predict N deficiency in the plant prior to the occurrence of visual symptoms.
Irrigation Time of Day — Does It Really Matter?©

Author: Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback

PP: 564

Pine-bark-based container substrates, common in the southeastern United States, have low moisture retention properties; therefore, daily irrigation during the growing season is required to maximize plant growth. Current guidelines state that irrigation should occur during the early morning hours (before 1000 HR). However, limited research indicated that multiple application of water each day resulted in significantly more growth compared to early morning application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation timing on plant growth and photosynthesis, water-use efficiency, and substrate temperature. The daily total volume of irrigation to maintain 0.2 leaching fraction within each timing was divided into three equal parts and applied at the following times: 0200, 0400, and 0600 HR; 0600, 0900, and 1200 HR; 1200, 1500, and 1800 HR; or 0600, 1200, and 1800 HR. Irrigation applied at 1200, 1500, and 1800 HR produced 69% greater totalplant dry weight compared to irrigation applied following current guidelines (early morning). Root:top ratio was unaffected by irrigation timing. Irrigation applied at 1200, 1500, and 1800 HR had higher water-use effeciency compared to irrigation applied at 0300, 0500, and 0700 HR; and 0600, 0900, and 1200 HR. Plants irrigated at 1200, 1500, and 1800 HR maintained higher rates of net CO2 assimilation and had lower substrate temperates from 1800 to 2200 HR compared to plants irrigated at 0300, 0500, and 0700 HR; or 0600, 0900. and 1200 HR.
Dealing with Water Restrictions in Your Nursery©

Author: R.C. Beeson Jr.

PP: 569


In Spring 2001, the Water Management District that oversees water withdraws in the East Central to Northeast Florida restricted all irrigation of nursery stock to between 7 PM to 7 AM every other night in response to a 3-year drought. There was no consideration of water source (ground water vs. collection basins). The only exception was no restriction for microirrigation systems. Fortunately the restrictions were rescinded before warm weather and the region received near normal rains over the summer. However, this should serve as a wake-up call to all nurseries, even those that overhead irrigate from collection basins. Overhead irrigation is a visible practice that is noticed by those empowered to restrict water use.

Over the past 6 years, I, in collaboration with Tom Yeager, Gary Knox, and others at the University of Florida, have evaluated systems of growing plants with overhead irrigation. The research has focused on those systems that require less water than the

The Use of Suction Cup Lysimeters for Monitoring EC, pH, and Nutrients in Large Containers©

Author: Robert D. Wright, Mary Stanley, Roger Harris

PP: 572


The production of landscape plants in large containers [57, 95, and 170 liter (15, 25, and 45 gal) is becoming commonplace in the nursery industry. The growth rate of these plants is directly related to the level of nutrients in the substrate solution (the water that remains in the container following irrigation and drainage). A means of extracting this solution from the container for analysis is thus necessary. The most common procedure used for this purpose is the pour-through method developed for container-grown nursery and greenhouse crops at Virginia Tech (Wright, 1986; Yeager et al., 1983). This procedure consists of elevating a container above a collection vessel and pouring water on the surface of the container. The displaced substrate solution that leaches out the bottom of the container is then analyzed for nutrient content, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH. This procedure is very convenient for small containers [up to 11 liter (3 gal)] but becomes

Water and Nutrient Management Planning — Monitoring of Irrigation and Fertilization Practices©

Author: John D. Lea-Cox, David S. Ross

PP: 575


Nutrient management regulations are a reality or on the horizon for agricultural operations in many states of the U.S.A. The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may soon enforce laws regarding non-point (diffuse) sources of nutrient loading to the nation's rivers and streams. These are the section 303(d) provisions of the Clean Water Act that have been law since 1972 (EPA, 2000a), which have not been enforced until now. Knowing the efficiency of irrigation water and nutrient applications in nursery and greenhouse operations is important, since it not only allows for a proactive environmental assessment of management practices, but it also can allow for cost savings in water and fertilizer inputs. A water and nutrient management planning process will help a grower assess the efficiency of these cultural practices, and gain the necessary information to write a plan. This information will allow a grower to evaluate changes that can improve his production efficiency

The Art and Science of Plant Introduction©

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 580

The Southern Plant Conference last seek in Athens opened a Pandora's Box of questions and concerns. The plant world is changing from one of universal sharing to a more protectionist mode. The USPTO (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) is becoming more stringent about the prior handling and exposure of plants. In the minutes available today, I plan to share accumulated information based on phone calls, literature, and the internet.

A selected palette of woody plants with commercial potential are:

  • Hydrangea quercifolia ‘;Amethyst’, ‘Vaughn's Lillie’
  • Hydrangea macrophylla reblooming selections: ‘Penny-Mac’, ‘David Ramsey’, ‘Decatur Blue’, ‘Oak Hill’, and ‘Endless Summer’ (will be patented); preliminary DNA "finger printing" indicates the above five are very similar.
  • Ceanothus americanus
  • Ceanothus delileanus ‘Gloire de Versailles’, ‘Henri Desfossé’
  • Ceanothus pallidus ‘Roseus’, ‘Marie Simon’
  • Spiraea japonica ‘Snowball’, ‘White Gold’
  • Cercis chinensis ‘Don Egolf’ (fruitless)
  • ×Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Gold Rider’
Comparison of Different Brands of Petri Dishes for Use in Tissue Culture©

Author: Cathy Hargreaves, Lynette Grace

PP: 85

Two petri dish brands, Labserve (Biolab Scientific, New Zealand) and Greiner (Greiner Labortechnik, Germany) were compared for their effect on fresh weight growth of radiata pine embryogenic tissue. The Greiner brand gave less variation in tissue growth between dish replications than the current Forest Research standard brand, Labserve. However, total fresh weight for two of the four surviving cell-lines was reduced in these dishes. It is recommended that more extensive testing of Greiner dishes take place before they are adopted as the new laboratory standard brand.
Why, When, and How to Patent a New Plant Variety©

Author: Geoffrey Needham

PP: 581


The United States now leads the world in the issuance of certificates of plant protection. Moreover, the U.S.A. was the first country to offer statutory protection to plant breeders, and it can reasonably be argued that that foresight has allowed the U.S.A. nursery industry to become world class in little more than three generations. Declaring the interest that PlantHaven exists to service plant breeders, this paper seeks to explain and encourage the process of plant patent application within a framework of "best practice".

Promoting, Distributing, and Servicing of New Plants©

Author: Brent W. Marable

PP: 586


After a new plant selection is discovered, evaluated, and propagated to ensure genetic likeness, and patented and/or trademarked—the next steps for the plant owner should include promoting, distributing, and servicing. The following will elaborate on these three important steps through some of Tree Introductions' own experiences. In recognizing the need for more new tree cultivars—particularly for the southern United States, Tree Introductions, Inc. was founded. Tree Introductions is a research and development, licensing, distribution, marketing, and customer service entity focused on new and improved cultivars. The first goal is to select, evaluate, and introduce superior landscape plants with a focus on trees that are sustainable in the urban landscape. Most of the introductions come from other growers, researchers, and industry professionals. These plantsmen may not have the time, resources, or network of growers that is required to have a plant propagated in large

The Effective Propagator — Keeping a Focus on Key Issues in Propagation Management©

Author: Gene Blythe, Jeff Sibley

PP: 590


Effective operation of a commercial propagation program goes beyond the essential knowledge of propagation practices such as cutting, seeding, and grafting. Various aspects of propagation as a business must also be considered if the propagation operation is to be successful. A commercial propagator will seek to focus on ways of improving and maintaining the effectiveness of the operation for reasons of personal career enhancement, company profitability, and employee relations. This discussion focuses on some key issues in commercial production that, if made a part of a propagator's scope of operations, can help a propagator to be a more effective manager in day-to-day operations and over the long run.

Camellia Production from Cuttings©

Author: Bob Black

PP: 594


At Bennett's Creek Nursery we grow a full line of camellia cultivars to supply customer demand. All cultivars are propagated from cuttings and container grown. Spring bloomers consist of Camellia japonica cultivars and related hybrids. Fall bloomers are either C. sasanqua or C. hiemalis cultivars and related hybrids. To date over 200 cultivars have been evaluated for commercial production. We continue to trial promising new cultivars in order to supply the best possible marketing mix to our customers.

Propagating Under Different Plastics and Shading Materials©

Author: Tommy Adams

PP: 597

The color of the shade material applied to greenhouse plastic influences rates of rooting as well as disease incidence. This reaction is governed by plant species as well as shade color. Some of the greatest potential for enhanced plant response may be in the area of pathogen control.
New and Improved Deciduous Magnolia Cultivars

Author: Gary W. Knox

PP: 601


Magnolias are prized worldwide for their spring flowers and have become some of the most widely planted flowering trees. Star magnolia (Magnolia stellata) and saucer magnolia (M. ×soulangiana) are two of the best known deciduous flowering magnolias, with star magnolia valued for its cold hardiness and saucer magnolia planted for its flowering display. However, thanks to breeders August Kehr, Philip Savage, Mark Jury, Todd Gresham, and many others, flowering magnolias today offer much more than the old star magnolia and saucer magnolia of yesteryear. Many new hybrids offer larger flowers, later blooming (so as to avoid frost damage), and a wide range of flower colors and plant sizes and habits. Particularly noteworthy are the Gresham hybrids and yellow-flowering hybrids.

Chilling Affects Foliar Budbreak of Ornamental Trees©

Author: Jeff L. Sibley, Barrett C. Wilson, Jeff C. Wilson

PP: 604


A number of studies have been conducted seeking to determine the basis for differences in field production and landscape performance for specific cultivars of ornamental trees when grown in various regions of the country. When cultivars are introduced in the northern United States and then sold in the south, poor performance is often attributed to poor heat tolerance. Likewise, southern selections performing poorly in the north are frequently categorized as non-cold-hardy. Research suggests that performance of cultivars and selections of woody ornamentals can vary greatly depending upon their provenance or area of origin. This has been shown in studies of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) as well as other species (Kriebel and Wang, 1962; Perry and Hellmers, 1973; Sibley et al., 1995, 1999; Townsend et al., 1982).

The influence of chilling temperatures on fruit-producing trees in the dormant season is widely known, while there is less

Seedling Development: The Critical First Days©

Author: Carl Whitcomb

PP: 610


Consider What Happens in Nature. When a seed germinates in the wild, a strong primary or taproot plunges downward. The tip of the taproot has a strong apical dominance that suppresses secondary root branching in the same manner as the tip of a new shoot suppresses production of side branches. The objective of the taproot is to extend deeply to anchor the new plant and access moisture to avoid dehydration. The objective of the new shoot is to reach sufficient vertical height to access light to support leaf functions and to avoid being overshadowed by competing vegetation. A typical tree seedling top response is to develop few, if any, side branches until the leaves on the main stem are positioned in sunlight. Likewise, a typical response with the taproot is to produce few, if any, branch roots until the taproot has extended considerable distance, often 3 ft or more, and provisions for the plant have been secured. Since there are limited energy resources stored in the seed,

Micropropagation of Sweet Viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum)©

Author: Gisele Martins, Michael Kane, Thomas Yeager

PP: 614


Sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum, Ker-Gawl.), an evergreen shrub native from Japan and the Himalayas, is widely used in Florida landscapes as a foundation plant for large buildings, borders and hedges (Dehgan, 1998). Because of its fast growth and prompt response to nitrogen fertilization, sweet viburnum is being used as a model plant to study root and shoot growth cycles and nitrogen nutrition (Martins et al., unpublished data). However, the use of non-clonal material leads to asynchronous flushes among plants. This problem has been reported not only on sweet viburnum but also on cacao (Greathouse et al. 1971), lychee (Marler and Willis, 1996), and oak (Borchert, 1975). Borchert (1973) suggested the use of clonal material to overcome this problem.

Sweet viburnum can be vegetatively propagated by cuttings (Dehgan, 1998), however, in vitro propagation (micropropagation) techniques could be applied to produce physiological uniform clonal plants in a relatively short

The Integration of Traditional Teaching and Distance Delivery of Plant Propagation Statewide©

Author: S.B. Wilson

PP: 620

The development of strategies to reach students who are place-bound due to their jobs, families, or community responsibilities is an important opportunity for land-grant colleges. University of Florida (UF) currently has 13 satellite programs where various undergraduate degrees in agriculture are offered. The onset of interactive video has created an opportunity to merge the on site and off site classes into one united class and to improve the effectiveness of educational programming. Although distance education has been around for many decades in different forms, UF is structuring a new concept of bringing the statewide expertise of faculty and the diversity of students together via interactive videoconferencing and web-based technology.
Daltons Limited Growing Media: Production, Management, and Quality Control©

Author: Graham Saltiel

PP: 89


Daltons Limited is a family-owned company established 54 years ago by Mr. John (JD) Dalton and his wife Mrs. Francie Dalton. The core business at that stage was river shingle for roading, milk tanker tracks, and building projects. From this start, general freight was then undertaken with transport plying between the Waikato and Bay of Plenty. Eventually the freight division of the business was sold and the present site of 100 acres was purchased for its deposits of sand and pumice. Over 2000 years ago Lake Taupo erupted and huge deposits of sand, pumice, and silt were left in the old original river bed of the Waikato River.

Since quarrying began at Hinuera, the diverse product range has been widely used. It very quickly became evident to JD that this Hinuera sand was perfect for the ready-mixed concrete industry and two major projects; the Kaimai Rail Tunnel (over 4 km long) and the Arapuni Dam refurbishment, are testimony to this. Today the sand division still

The Influence of Mycorrhizal Fungi, Organic and Inorganic Slow Release Fertilizers on Growth and Development of Bush Morning Glory (Ipomoea carnea)©

Author: Lucila Amaya de Carpio, Fred T. Davies, Jr., Michael A. Arnold

PP: 623

This study investigated the utilization of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) to enhance the efficiency of slow-releaseorganic and inorganic fertilizers during container production of bush morning glory (Ipomoea carnea). Uniform rooted liners of I. carnea were planted into 2-gal (9.6-liter) pots containing a pasteurized soilless medium [pine bark and sand (3 : 1, v/v)]. The mycorrhizal treatments consisted of two commercial AMF inocula: Bioterra Plus and Mycorise Pro, and a noninoculated control [NonAMF]. Fertilizer treatments included an organic slow release fertilizer (SRF) (Nitrell; 5N-3P-4K) and an inorganic SRF (Osmocote; 18N-7P-10K). Nitrell was tested a three levels: 8.4 kg·m-3 (14 lb peryd3), 12 kg·m-3 (20 lb per yd3), and 16.8 kg·m-3 (28 lb per yd3), which were, respectively, 70%, 100%, and 140% of the manufacturer's recommended rate. Osmocote was tested at two levels: 6 lb per yd3 (3.5 kg·m-3) and 12 lb per yd3 (7.0 kg·m-3) which were, respectively, 50% and 100% of the recommend rate. With organic and inorganic SRF, both mycorrhizal inocula significantly enhanced the marketability, growth index, root, leaf, shoot and total plant dry mass of bush morning glory. The greatest growth response occurred with the highest level of Osmocote colonized with Bioterra Plus. Organic and inorganic SRF regimes did not inhibit mycorrhizal development, which ranged from 12% to 27% colonization.
Cutting Requirements for Propagation of the Endangered Species, Clematis socialis©

Author: L.L. Bruner, D.J. Eakes, J.L. Sibley, C.M. Morton, P.R. Knight,

PP: 629

A study conducted in 2000 determined the effects of non-amended rooting medium, dolomitic-limestone-amended medium, and IBA and NAA concentrations on root initiation and root growth of Clematis socialis. Clematis socialis is an endangered native clematis, with small populations known to exist in two Alabama counties and one Georgia county. Propagation of the species would introduce new genetic material for hybridization and provide plants for additional self-sustaining populations in protected areas. Cuttings propagated in non-amended media were most successful in a sand or perlite medium, which produced a significantly greater root number and root quality than those propagated in vermiculite or sphagnum peat, pine bark, and sand medium. Root length, number, and root quality increased with increasing rate of dolomitic limestone incorporated into a sphagnum peat, pine bark, and perlite medium. Root length, number, root quality, and cutting survival increased with increasing rate of IBA and NAA up to 5000 ppm IBA and 2500 ppm NAA.
Propagation of Four Florida Coastal Dune Species by Stem Cuttings©

Author: Mack Thetford, Debbie Miller

PP: 634


Coastal dunes and beaches comprise between 2800 to 4800 km of seashore in the five Gulf states, Georgia, and Puerto Rico. Use of plants to control dune erosion along this seashore is a high priority of Natural Resource Conservation Service plant materials programs. In addition to the high demand for coastal species used in dune restoration and stabilization projects, demand is increasing for transplants to address the needs of developers, homeowners, municipalities, nurserymen, and landscapers as development accelerates near coastal areas.

Commercial propagation protocols for these four species are lacking while the commercial demand for a diversity of coastal species has increased following hurricane activity. The objectives of this project were to determine the optimum auxin treatment and concentration for the propagation of the four coastal dune species False rosemary (Conradina canescens Gray [Lamiaceae]), Atlantic St. Johnswort (Hypericum reductum (Svens.) P. Adams

Benefits of Shade During Production of Illicium: Optimizing Growth and Nutrient Recovery©

Author: Richard T. Olsen, John M. Ruter

PP: 638

We conducted a study to elucidate the optimal light intensity for growth and nutrient recovery for two taxa of Illicium. Plants were grown under three light treatments, 45%, 70%, and 100% of full sun using standard nursery practices. Growth indices, final dry mass, and SPAD chlorophyll meter readings were taken at the conclusion of the experiment. Tissue analysis for N, P, and K were conducted to determine percent recovery of applied nutrients. Growth and SPAD readings for I. floridanum Ellis. ‘Pebblebrook’ decreased as light level increased from 45% to 100% of full sun. Illicium parviflorum Michx. ex. Vent. ‘Forest Green’ growth also decreased as light level increased, but SPAD readings were unaffected. For both taxa, optimum nutrient uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurred in the 45% light treatment. To improve production efficiency of container-grown Illicium taxa we recommended growers produce Illicium taxa in light intensities of less than full sun.
The Wild Origins of Clianthus Cultivars and Their Value for Ex Situ Conservation©

Author: J. Clemens

PP: 92

Clianthus is an endangered genus endemic to New Zealand. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis, showed that Clianthus cultivars are not representative of the remaining range of wild populations. As such, they constitute minimal value for the ex situ conservation of Clianthus diversity. Cultivar ‘White Heron’ probably comes from close to the most north-easterly extremity of the distribution of C. maximus in the wild (near East Cape). Cultivars Kaka King® (Naturally Native New Zealand Plants Ltd.), ‘Maximus’, and ‘Red Cardinal’ are very closely related (or indistinguishable), and also originate from the north-eastern range of this species. Cultivar ‘Flamingo’ associates with the more south-westerly populations of this species.
Kowhai (Sophora Species) and Other Nitrogen-Fixing Plants of New Zealand©

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Mervyn I. Spurway

PP: 94


New Zealand has a range of trees and shrubs which are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through root nodules. They consist of legumes and some N-fixing nonlegumes known as actinorhizal plants. The objective of this paper is to review the species involved (particularly Sophora species), and discuss any implications for nursery production.

Hamilton Gully Restoration: Integrating Ecology, Propagation, and Planting©

Author: Bruce D. Clarkson, Theresa M. Downs

PP: 98


Hamilton City has only a few tiny remnants of the former indigenous forest cover, perhaps less than 20 hectares in total of high quality indigenous habitat. The largest remnant is Jubilee Park (Claudelands Bush), a 5.2 ha reserve comprising kahikatea (New Zealand white pine, Dacrycarpus dacrydioides) forest (Whaley et al., 1997). Another important remnant is Hammond Bush (Fig. 1), floristically the richest of the Hamilton indigenous remnants. Despite its small size (1 ha), it supports an impressive 145 native plant species (de Lange, 1996) and is regularly visited by kereru (New Zealand pigeon, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae subsp. novaeseelandiae). Recently, native long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) have also been recorded in the area (E. Ganley, pers.comm. 2001).

Although the indigenous biodiversity resource is very limited, Hamilton City does possess an extensive network of gullies. These extend from the Waikato River through many suburbs of the city, and are

Plant Morphology and Leaf Anatomy of Sun and Shade Grown Plants©

Author: Elsa du Toit

PP: 44

Little is known to what extent sun plants can adapt to shade and shade plants adapt to bright sunlight. Research have shown that mature leaves show much less adaption to shade or sun than growing leaves, but adaption of whole plants of some species to either condition during development is considerable, especially adaption to shade (Salisbury and Ross,1992; Björkman and Holmgren, 1963). For example, Broschat, Donselman, and McConnell (1989) reported that Ptychosperma elegans, a sun-grown palm, required a minimum of 8 months to replace all sun-grown leaves under low light conditions. In addition, Fails, Lewis, and Barden (1982) found that Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) replaced its foliage in 6 weeks of acclimatization with shade leaves. Nevertheless, according to Salisbury and Ross (1992), one must consider that there are genetic limits to the extent of adaption. For example, some plants seem to be obligate shade plants (e.g., Alocasia), whilst others are obligate sun plants
Plant Taxonomy in New South Wales, Australia©

Author: Wyne Johns

PP: 106


I want to share with I.P.P.S. members my experiences when I visited Armidale, NSW, Australia, and the plants we saw and collected for the New England University Herbarium. I flew from my home in Hamilton, New Zealand, in Spring 2000, and a few hours later arrived in Sydney where I took an 8-h train journey to Armidale in the north of NSW. On the train I met the other six members of an over 50s holiday group. We had all booked through Odyssey Travel to take an 11 day NSW Flora Research Programme. We would be helping to collect and set up a new student herbarium for the Botany Department, at the University of New England. The programme attracts a national grant with participants paying their way, in collaboration between the University and Odyssey Travel members. We were all excited with the prospect of working on this project but some members were uncertain about what we would be expected to do, and how expert we would need to be.

Dr. Jeremy Bruhl, Senior Lecturer in Botany

Ginkgo biloba: Potential for Commercial Leaf Production in New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas, E.J. Appleton, R.J. Appleton, R.F. B

PP: 109


Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf extract is the largest selling herbal product with annual sales of about NZ$1 billion. In America approximately 11 million people take a ginkgo extract pill daily resulting in sales of US$138 million in 1998 in that country alone (Brevoort, 1998). Sold mainly as an aid to improving brain function, ginkgo is famous for its link with antiquity. As a species it has remained virtually unchanged for over 125 million years, while the family Ginkgoaceae has its origins in the Permian some 200 to 225 million years ago (Hori et al., 1997). Ginkgo has long been associated with Asia, where it is used as an ornamental plant, as a medicinal, and as a food. The wood is used for products where there is frequent wetting and drying, such as chopping boards, bowls and sake barrels as it does not crack, warp, or shrink rapidly (Hori and Hori, 1997). Ginkgo is believed to have religious significance and is frequently found around temples (Handa et al., 1997).

New Zealand Plants and Their Allies — An Irish Overview©

Author: Philip Marie Moreau

PP: 114


Ireland lies on the margin of one of the earth's major land masses, with its western shores washed by the Atlantic Ocean. With its position, between 55.50° and 55.5° degrees north latitude, it lies rather nearer the North Pole than the equator which places the whole island well within the temperate climatic zone. The resultant benign if somewhat monotonous climate is extremely favourable for the growth of a wide range of trees and shrubs as well as smaller plants. At the same time the variety of rock types, land forms, and soils have created a pleasing degree of diversity in the landscape so the horticulturist may put his/her skills against the challenges of granite or limestone outcrops, hillsides or marshy plains, and peaty or alkaline soils.

Temperatures in Ireland vary on a day-to-day basis. In winter it is often experienced to have 8°C and rain all day and by 17.00 h it is dry and settling in for a reasonable night frost of -2°C only to revert to 10° with wind by morning.

Micropropagation of Syringa: Tree vs. Shrub Lilacs©

Author: Deborah D. McCown

PP: 117


Lilacs have always been a mainstay of the ornamental shrub repertoire in the temperate zones of the U.S.A. Rapid clonal propagation using cuttings was always a challenge. Increasingly, micropropagation has solved this problem and is being used to generate both stock plants and liners. With the increased interest in lilacs, stimulated both by new introductions and a consumer demand for heirloom plants, lilac propagation using micropropagation has become even more important.

One series of new introductions is the Fiala lilacs (Fiala, 1988). Father John Fiala was a Roman Catholic priest who bred lilacs and crabapples for 50 years in his garden in Ohio. In 1989, Fr. Fiala asked Knight Hollow Nursery, Inc. (KHN) if we would micropropagate his lilac selections and introduce them to the commercial market. We happily agreed since these are really superior selections. Over the years we have added many other members of the genus Syringa to our catalog, including both shrub and tree

Seed Technologies to Increase Seed Value in Tasmania©

Author: Nadine Donovan, Robert J. Clark, Sandra Hetherington

PP: 119


The performance of a seedlot of any species in the field depends on a range of factors. One of these factors is seedlot quality or vigour. It is becoming increasingly clear that seedlot quality is difficult to define and the ability of a seedlot to perform depends partly on the history of the seedlot, and partly on the environmental conditions during germination (Bradford, 1996). Factors including environmental conditions during maturation, harvest time (and thus seed maturity), seed storage, pretreatment prior to sowing, and field conditions during emergence can substantially affect seedlot performance (Coolbear, 1995; Finch-Savage, 1995). Technologies applied to crops grown commercially from seed in Tasmania have the capacity to increase the value of the seed to the producers, by improving the ability of a seedlot to perform in the field. This paper presents some examples of Tasmanian crops, which have benefited from technologies that improve seed quality.

The island

A Rose by Any Other Name—Does it Matter?©

Author: Iain Dawson

PP: 127

Why do we have international rules for naming plants? Why are there two codes of nomenclature for plants? Who regulates plant names? What are the benefits of stable plant names? How do you construct a cultivated plant name? Where can you find more information?
Do Plants Need Silicon?©

Author: Sally Muir, Cheang Khoo, Cath Offord, Brett Summerell, Bernadett

PP: 131

Silicon (Si) may not be strictly considered an essential nutrient, but is accumulated by plants at macro-concentrations. Fertilization of various hydroponic and fiel-grown crops with Si has been shown to significantly increase herbage and reproductive yields, moderate the effects of some environmental stresses, and reduce the severity of some fungal diseases and pest attacks. Analysis of potting media and their substrates for plant available monosilicic acid suggests that they may be deficient in Si. Amending soilless media with soluble Si increases plant productivity and decreases severity of fungal diseases, but this may be moderated by other nutrient imbalances, resulting in loss of optimal productivity. Some options to amend media with Si are presented.
Genes for Flowering©

Author: Liz Dennis

PP: 136

The time at which it flowers is critical to the survival of a plant species. There must be appropriate environmental conditions such as enough warm days for seeds to mature. Plants may have to flower synchronously so that outcrossing species can pollinate. It is also critical to human survival that crops flower in a controlled manner because most of our harvested products such as grain and fruit are the results of flowering.

The transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage in plants is an immensely interesting developmental process. Plants and animals are quite different. In animals, the germ line cells are set aside early and the nonreproductive tissue, the somatic tissue, gives rise to other somatic tissue. In contrast, in plants the growing apex gives rise first to leaves and stems and other vegetative tissue and then following floral induction switches to give rise to reproductive tissues such as petals, stamens, and ovules.

We are using molecular tools to study this

Native Grass Seed Germination©

Author: Iain Dawson, Susan Winder

PP: 138

This presentation is a summary of the project "Native Grass Restoration in the Australian Capital Territory Water Catchment. Maximising Seed Germination". The full report can be found at <http://www.anbg.gov.au/hort.research/grass-project>. The project was funded initially by the Community Grasses Project for the Murray Darling Basin and ACTEW and later by the Natural Heritage Trust through the ACT Government.
Propagation of Australian Arid Zone Plants©

Author: Jon Belling

PP: 142

Alice Springs Desert Park is situated 10 km west of Alice Springs, with a backdrop of the West MacDonnell Ranges. The park was constructed 5 years ago with the priority to educate the public about Central Australian flora and fauna. Local indigenous and non-indigenous guides integrate the culture of this area throughout the park with interpretive talks.

Alice Springs is situated in the centre of Australia. The elevation is 580 m above sea level. The average annual rainfall is about 240 mm a year, with some good years (such as last year) recording up to 800 mm. The evaporation rate per year is 3600 mm. In the immediate area there are approximately 2000 known floral taxa, but still new discoveries are being made.

Central Australia has a very unique flora, which is currently not well known to the horticultural industry. Perhaps as a result of this limited knowledge, Alice Springs has an unimpressive history when it comes to horticulture and the use of indigenous plants in the landscape.

Technology for Greenhouse Heating and Cooling©

Author: Victor Martins

PP: 45


In a greenhouse we can influence the growth and development of plants by controlling the environment. This also makes it possible to grow out-of-season crops. Greenhouses with environmental control are designed to optimise the factors that contribute towards favourable conditions in the greenhouse. Heating and labour are major cost items in greenhouse crop production and any increase in the efficiency of heating systems can have a significant effect on reducing production cost. In order to maximise the effectiveness of heating, it is also essential to have an effective control system, as poor control of the air temperature wastes energy.


Author: Michael Lloyd, Tim Vercoe

PP: 145

Floradata is an information system that will help you grow Australian Native Plants. It collates plant species collection and propagation information on how to use thousands of Australian plants, including how to collect, store, germinate, and propagate seed, and much more. This publication will assist in distributing the results of research undertaken by organizations, companies, and individuals to improve biodiversity in revegetation and to increase the efficient use of native seed. Floradata promotes the sharing of knowledge that, up to this point, may have been hidden in obscure references and scientific literature, or known by relatively few people.

While the focus is on species used in rehabilitation, Floradata will be useful to anyone planting native species, whatever the purpose. It will allow those interested in native species to effectively plan seed regeneration programmes using best practice information.

Floradata is due to be released in 2001 as a CD-Rom. The major

Capillary Watering©

Author: Ben Stocks

PP: 146


It is important that the nursery industry find alternate methods of applying water to their plants to counteract the current problems of dryland salinity, groundwater contamination, disease spread, and water waste.

Australia is the driest continent on earth and as a broad-acre farmer with over 35 years experience in grain production, I have had closer exposure to the effects of salinity and drought than most.

The application of excess water to our soils raises the water table and brings salt deposits within reach of the root systems of soil-grown plants. Overwatering or overhead watering leaches nutrients out of containerised plants into the groundwater where it may build up to toxic levels as it has in Holland. In that country, run-to-waste hydroponic systems have been responsible for an unacceptable build up of nutrients and have been disallowed.

Disease may be spread between plants by droplet splash or by infected water flowing past clean stock. Water falling between

Igloo Irrigation©

Author: Chris Rolfe

PP: 148


To achieve even watering in polyhouses many systems are installed with a single line of inverted sprinklers so close together that the application rates are well in excess of the potting media absorption rate. This leads to excessive water use and leaching of nutrients that both affect the bottom line.

When irrigating containers with overhead sprinklers in polyhouses it is important to:

  • Select sprinklers that apply water at a rate that suits your crop.
  • Match application rate to the absorption rate of the potting media.
  • Select a layout and sprinkler that achieves even watering.
  • Select a layout that eliminates dry spots.
Propagation of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Schneid.) by Tip Cuttings©

Author: Peter J. Ollerenshaw, Robert L. Dunstone

PP: 153


Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link. Schneid.) is an arid zone shrub that is native to the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, California, and northern Mexico (Gentry, 1958). The species is an extreme xerophyte and follows the flowering pattern of a number of desert species in that it is dioecious and wind pollinated.

The taxonomic position of the species is obscure. The species was originally placed in the family Buxaceae but has now been transferred to the monospecific family Simmondsaceae and there is some debate about the likely evolutionary history of the plant. The inappropriate specific name (chinensis) is a result of a mix up in the labeling of collection boxes from an expedition that visited both Western U.S.A. and China during the 19th century.

Jojoba produces annual crops of large brown seeds that may be crushed to yield a liquid wax (often referred to as jojoba oil) that is valued as a moisturiser in cosmetics and as a high pressure, high temperature lubricant.

The high

Cultivar Assessment and Improvement of Ixodia Daisy for Floriculture©

Author: Gail E. Barth

PP: 156

Ixodia daisy (Ixodia achillaeoides subsp. alata) has been harvested from native stands for over 40 years as a dried flower crop and cultivated increasingly since 1985 for fresh and dried flower markets in Australia and overseas. Ixodia is well placed to become a major dried flower crop because of its appearance, durability, and suitability to dying. Selected cultivars have outstanding potential as a fresh flower crop.

A major constraint to the further development of the Ixodia industry has been the export of poor quality product which has had an adverse affect on price and market demand on some overseas markets. Poor quality is directly tied to the use of unselected or unsuitable cultivars or incorrect harvest and handling procedures.

To address problems related to poor cultivar use in production, a plant improvement program was started in 1995. Commercial cultivars, new collections from the wild and previously selected forms were assembled for comparative field trials. Plants were assessed for cultivation performance, disease tolerance, appearance, and suitability for alternative markets (fresh, pot plants). Yield and quality standards for ixodia daisy grown as a cut flower crop were established, then used to assess new progeny from a breeding program. Ten cut flower and three-pot plant and landscape cultivars are now ready for commercialisation.

Domesticating Haemodorum coccineum©

Author: Iain Dawson

PP: 160

Summer visitors to tropical Queensland or the Northern Territory can hardly fail to notice the vividly coloured, lily-like flowers of Haemodorum coccineum (scarlet bloodroot) and it is surprising that they have not already been brought into cultivation, particularly as a cut flower crop. However, the domestication of a plant species is not always as easy and straightforward as one would hope. Despite being very easy to propagate, growth of H. coccineum appears to require soil temperatures in excess of 22°C at rhizome depth. This unique dormancy mechanism may limit production to tropical environments.
Development of the Protea Cut Flower Industry©

Author: Andrew Mathews

PP: 165

In this presentation the impact of the development of proteas as cut flowers is considered, as it affected Proteaflora's development as a major propagator of Proteaceae plants.

"Protea" is used loosely to refer to any member of the Proteaceae family. The main genera of interest to us are South African protea, Leucadendron, Leucospermum, and Serruria and Australian Banksia and Telopea.

The protea cut flower industry had its beginnings in the 1600s when Dutch traders used South Africa as a staging post on their way to the East Indies. Of course they were only a curiosity at that stage.

With the advent of airfreight an industry developed in South Africa based on harvesting a natural resource. There was a similar development in Western Australia based on harvesting banksias. The resource seemed unlimited. Gradually harvesters began wanting more control, e.g., why not have some of the more popular varieties closer to the packing shed? The natural balance of varieties didn't reflect the market

Germination of Persoonia myrtilloides and Persoonia levis©

Author: Christopher D. Nancarrow

PP: 166

Seeds of Persoonia levis, in which half the endocarp was removed and soaked in 350 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) at 20°C and 16-h photoperiod, resulted in significant levels of germination (SNK: p<0.01). However, such seeds, which did not have GA3 applied, resulted in marginally insignificant levels of germination (SNK: 0.05<p<0.10). There was also a high variation in percent germination between individual trees. Fresh seeds of P. myrtilloides did not germinate under the same conditions and treatments that P. levis was exposed to. However, 4-month-old seed that had their endocarps half removed did germinate at 15°C in the dark, but GA3 concentration had no effect on germination percentages (ANOVA: F=0.484, p>0.5). Either after-ripening occurred in this species or the 5°C drop in temperature, allowed germination to occur. Furthermore, chilling fruits at 4°C and leaching endocarp treated seeds in 7.5% ethanol solution significantly reduced germinability in P. myrtilloides (t=3.6, p<0.005 and t=3.35, p<0.005, respectively).
Vegetative Propagation of Some Eucalyptus Species©

Author: David O. Cliffe

PP: 171


Mass vegetative propagation of some species of eucalypts is now an accepted part of plantation forestry worldwide. In Australia, we have been slow to adopt the process until recently, due to an escalation in the rate of hardwood plantation establishment and the need to increase productivity. Not all of the eucalypts lend themselves to this form of propagation and some that can be, often have low rates of rootability. This factor coupled with the cost of labour in Australia, in comparison to our forestry competitors in other countries, has led to the search for clones with high rootability and propagation techniques and nursery practices that will allow us to be globally competitive. This paper attempts to look at the process involved and the options we have available to us to achieve these goals.

Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses©

Author: Joe McAuliffe

PP: 174

Tassel ferns and clubmosses are a group of fern allies, which, via fossils date back to the Carboniferous period. They belong to the family Lycopodiaceae, which is divided into four genera (Jones, 1987; McCarthy, 1998):

Lycopodium. Terrestrial, surface creeping, or climbing plants. A genus of c. 40 species widespread in temperate and tropical regions. Four species (L. scariosum, L. fastigiatum, L. volubile, and L. deuterodensum) occur in Australia.

Lycopodiella. Terrestrial, creeping plants. A genus of c. 40 species (some of which in the past have been classified in Lycpodium) widespread in moist-temperate and tropical regions of the world, but especially diverse in the Americas. Five species (L. cernua, L. limosa, L. serpentina, L. diffusa, and L. laterale) occur in Australia.

Phylloglossum. Small terrestrial plants with a subterranean tuber. A monotypic genus endemic to southern Australia and New Zealand. One species (P. drummondii) occurs in Australia.

Huperzia. Lithophytic or

Technology in Soil Sterilization©

Author: Victor Martins

PP: 47


Soil pasteurisation/sterilization with steam is a common practice in Europe and parts of the United States of America, where boilers have in any case been available for heating. For the past 8 years Agrelek has done a lot of research and development with low-pressure steam boilers. This electrode steam generator has been successfully introduced into the nursery industry.

Fungus Gnats—Common and Damaging!©

Author: Anne Frodsham, Keith Bodman, Marilyn Steiner, Stephen Goodwin

PP: 177

Fungus gnats are a pest of production nurseries, hydroponic growers, media suppliers, and plant retailers. Fungus gnats have a very wide host range and their economic impact appears to be increasing throughout the Australian nursery and propagation industries especially if present in combination with plant pathogenic fungi (Frodsham, et. al., 2000; Goodwin et. al., 2000). Both adults and larvae of this mosquito-like fly can damage plants—by direct feeding of the larvae on roots, and by spreading fungal diseases. A key to fungus gnat management is to improve drainage and avoid overwatering. Biological controls are commercially available and effective but you should liaise with the suppliers to ensure the maximum benefit.
Different Surfaces Need Different Treatments for Successful Nursery Hygiene©

Author: Martin I. Mebalds, Gordon E. Stovold

PP: 182

Chemical disinfestation treatments for a range of surfaces typically found in nurseries, namely; steel, plastic, capillary mat, sand bed, gravel, and concrete were assessed for their efficacy against the fungi, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Chalara elegans, the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and the nematode Meloidogyne spp. No one chemical treatment (sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium chloride, copper hydroxide, or copper ethanolamine) could be used for all combinations of surface or pathogen, however, effective disinfestation treatments were found for most surface-pathogen combinations.
Cuttings Production: Alternative Strategies and Potential Techniques for the Future©

Author: Ross W.F. Cameron, Richard S. Harrison-Murray

PP: 191


In commercial plant production, the size and shape of cuttings is often strongly determined by the propagation environment they are placed in to root. In an attempt to minimise stress effects, particularly water stress, nurserymen will often select relatively short nodal cuttings, trim-back or remove a number of the leaves, and pinch-out the soft nonlignified apical tip. By understanding more about the environmental constraints imposed on cuttings (Harrison-Murray and Knight, 1997), and developing more "supportive" rooting environments, however, there may be opportunities to use larger or better-formed cutting material. The research outlined here aimed to examine whether the use of larger cuttings, or cuttings that had branches pre-formed on them, had any advantage over conventional cuttings in terms of rooting ability and speed of development. If any advantage proved commercially significant, then future research resources could be targeted at improving existing propagation

Mechanised Cutting Production at Notcutts Nurseries©

Author: Mark Howard

PP: 196


Traditionally most cuttings were made with a node at the base and were cut neatly above a leaf joint, i.e., a nodal cutting. However there were exceptions. Clematis and Hedera have for many years been propagated as internodal cuttings. When I first joined Notcutts Nurseries Propagation Department, as assistant to propagator Ivan Dickings, he set me the task of trialling various taxa of plants as internodal or internodal length cuttings. An internodal length cutting is the term used to describe a cutting that has been cut anywhere on the stem whether it be below or above a node. Examples of these were Potentilla, Spiraea, Escallonia, and Lavandula. We found that wherever they were cut, they still rooted regardless, because these plants all had relatively close leaf joints and when inserted there was always a node in the compost. It was also found that plants with long internodes, such as, Buddleja and Cornus, could be propagated as internodal cuttings, creating a plant

Propagation at Wyevale Container Plants©

Author: Paul Green

PP: 199

The author describes some developments in the management of cuttings propagation at Wyevale Container Plants and reviews some recent work to improve the production of Brunnera macrophylla ‘Dawson's White’, Cornus alba cultivars, and Spiraea japonica ‘Shirobana’
A Review of Developments in Narcissus Propagation©

Author: Gordon R. Hanks

PP: 201


Commercial daffodil (Narcissus) production currently accounts for some 7500 ha of field-grown crops worldwide, mainly in the UK (4400 ha), the Netherlands (1800 ha) and north-western USA (400 ha) (Hanks, 2002). Typically, growers plant the bulbs at a rate of 15 to 20 tonnes ha-1, there being some 20,000 bulbs per tonne. Well-grown narcissus plants would be expected to double in bulb numbers and weight each year through bulb splitting and offset production.

Compared with sexual plant propagation, this multiplication rate is low, imposing a severe restraint on the introduction of new cultivars or elite stocks, a situation amplified by the long juvenile phase of several years before bulbs are large enough to flower (Rees, 1972). With natural vegetative propagation it takes 16 years to produce 1000 bulbs from one original bulb (Rees, 1969). It can take 20 to 25 years to produce commercial-scale stocks—a few tonnes of bulbs—of a new narcissus. Thus, new commercial cultivars from

Rescuing the Near Dead: Propagation for Conservation©

Author: Martin Staniforth

PP: 206

The author reviews recent work on Mellissia begoniifolia, Ramosmania rodriguesii, and Zanthoxylum paniculatum. From these case studies, key issues are explored surrounding requirements for successful propagation to support conservation.
Fifty Years of Progress in Plant Propagation©

Author: A.T. Wood

PP: 213


The Fiftieth Anniversary of the formation of I.P.P.S. is a major milestone and provides an excellent opportunity to take stock and reflect on the way plant propagation technique and practice has progressed. This paper presents a personal view of some of the major advances I have witnessed and considers the significant contribution that I.P.P.S. has made to the understanding and sharing of propagation knowledge and skill during the past half century.

What Future for Plant Propagators?©

Author: Philip Marie Moreau

PP: 217


In the not so distant past, the plant propagator was portrayed as the eccentric whose role was only to put roots on the cuttings, graft the scions, and peg down the branches of stock plants in the layer beds during winter. The only apparent measure of success was technical excellence as measured by rooting percentage or graft-take: Glory! Yes! Roots! "The euchryphias have rooted, not quite 100% but next year we will strive to get the 100%. A little more heat, less humidity, maybe a different hormone." Plant propagators had their office in the shed where they were surrounded by a library of "Black Books" they called their "bibles", together with authoritative monographs and periodicals giving many useful tips on different species — not always relevant to the task at hand.

Today's propagators are no different. They are passionate about all plants. They still have their black bibles—books of religion, guides for life in the future: the propagator has only an average of 47 shots at

Theory of Grafting©

Author: Peter T. MacDonald

PP: 221


This review of the theory of grafting will examine the main requirements for a successful graft. Whatever the degree of experience in grafting a propagator has it is necessary at times to go back to the basic principles to improve the success of a particular graft or successfully graft an unfamiliar species.

To carry out a graft both the scion and rootstock have to be cut and brought together so that they will form a single plant. The initial phase of this union is the adhesion of the scion and stock by the polymerisation and deposition of cell wall materials in response to wounding. All species traditionally grafted have been found to be strong "wall compartmentalizers" (Santamour, 1996), forming a necrotic layer of cells that prevents further decay. A callus bridge of parenchyma cells then extends into the necrotic layer from stock and scion, giving tensile strength to the graft. New vascular cambium then differentiates from the parenchyma cells and finally, secondary

Hydroponic Systems©

Author: J. Martin Steyn, H. F. du Plessis

PP: 49


The basic concept of hydroponics was applied as early as 1699, while the first acknowledged research done in this field was in 1804. Tomatoes were the first crop to be grown commercially in hydroponics as we know it today.

A modern definition of hydroponics is: "A crop production system where plants are grown in an artificial medium other than natural soil. All the nutrients are dissolved in the irrigation water and supplied on a regular basis to plants." Hydroponic systems are used throughout the world in areas where normal field agricultural practices are not possible.

The Science of Hybridisation©

Author: Peter G. Alderson

PP: 226


The future of all sectors of commercial horticulture is in part dependent on the production of new cultivars of plants that possess improved characteristics, such as growth habit; attributes of flowers, fruit, and foliage; and resistance to pests and diseases. The genetic improvement of plants by selection has been practised for centuries, going back to the beginnings of agriculture, and is still used today, for example in tree breeding programmes. In contrast, it is only in much more recent times that the potential of artificial hybridisation has been realised and used to improve specific traits of plants. In the late 1700s, crosses were made between many species of Nicotiana and to produce new fruit varieties. At this time, from studies on peas, it was concluded that male and female parents contribute equally to offspring in the first filial generation (F1) and that segregation occurs in the F2. Later, in 1866, Gregor Mendel, in crossing different varieties of peas and

Latest Developments in Plant Breeding: Application of Biotechnology©

Author: Michael R. Davey, Kenneth C. Lowe, J. Brian Power

PP: 230


The generation of new plant varieties is an on-going process that provides material for the commercial market. Conventional breeding involving self and cross-pollinations, fertilisation, and seed production followed by rigorous selection of plants with desirable traits, is a long-established and reliable procedure for generating novel germplasm. In addition to this traditional approach, techniques involving the culture of plant cells, tissues, and organs in the laboratory provide a means for direct and indirect plant improvement. A unique characteristic of plant cells is their so-called totipotency—individual viable cells of almost any origin carry the genetic information needed to develop into complete fertile plants. This developmental pathway can be induced in the laboratory. Major advances have been made in plant biotechnology during the last two decades, several of which exploit cell totipotency, the basis of plant tissue culture, and which can underpin conventional

The Science Behind Seed Propagation©

Author: Philip McMillan Browse

PP: 235


There are two potential interpretations of the theme of the science behind seed propagation. The first is to attempt to review all the detailed scientific investigations which have taken place that are relevant to the propagation of plants from seed. The second is the determination of a logical and analytical (and hence scientific) approach to the complete process of seed propagation. The purpose of this short paper is to concentrate on the latter but using examples from the first.

Generally and historically the whole process of seedling production, in the nursery trade, has normally been dealt with on an empirical basis—as the starting material has been perceived as cheap. In a modern context any commercial process should look for the highest productivity that is reasonable.

Despite the fact that scientific investigation has elucidated many of the difficulties encountered in the process of seed propagation, there is still much which needs to be determined. Research

The Millennium Seed Bank Project and its Approach to Germination Testing©

Author: Robin Probert

PP: 237


The Millennium Seed Bank Project (MSBP) was instigated as a means of addressing the large-scale loss of plant biodiversity. Human numbers have increased two-fold since 1960 and the United Nations predicts a further 50% increase by 2025. Land conversion for development and agriculture leads to an inevitable loss of biodiversity for there is a direct relationship between species numbers and land area available. Over the last 400 years, the extinction of 584 plant species has been recorded, most of them in the last 100 years. This rate is 70 times faster than expected from the geological record.

The Importance of Crop Records and Sowing Rates in the Propagation of Woody Plants from Seed©

Author: Dennis Fordham

PP: 243


Raising plants from seed involves many variables which need constant monitoring and appropriate and timely action. Success depends on attention to detail in every operation from seed collection to the point the seedling is despatched. Failure to achieve this often results in poor stands of unusable and unsaleable plants. As the subject is so diverse and many aspects have already been covered and recorded in past papers in Combined Proceedings International Plant Propagators'Society this paper will only attempt to cover two important aspects which have a significant impact in decision making to determine the final germination. These are the keeping of crop records and the use of data on plant density, seed viability, and field factors in determining sowing rates.

Programmed Plants. A New Approach to the Production of Cell-grown (Containerised) Tree Seedlings©

Author: Stan Thompson

PP: 247

The key to rapid height growth after out-planting is the speed with which the roots grow and so provide the young plant with adequate water and mineral nutrients for future shoot growth. "Programmed Plants" (Programmed Plants is an EU Registered Trademark No 1260249), result from manipulation of environmental variables, particularly daylength and temperature, which control induction of budset and shoot dormancy. Such plants leave the nursery in late summer with a well developed terminal bud, a full complement of leaves and an undamaged, young, actively growing root system. When planted into warm, moist soil the roots quickly grow away from the plug, a process which continues until the soil cools in early winter. Root growth starts again in early spring so that when the new shoot emerges from the overwintered terminal bud in late spring, it is able to elongate to its full potential driven by a wellestablished root system.
Views from the Top: The Evolution of Forest Canopy Studies©

Author: Nalini M. Nadkarni

PP: 253

In any area of science, the field progresses from being a young field to a maturing field, and finally becomes mature. The field of astronomy, for example, could be considered a very mature field. It started out with people who have an object of interest, such as the moon or other celestial body. There is usually some sort of technological discovery or breakthrough—in that case, a telescope—that allows them to get closer to their object of interest. There also has to be a pulling together of a large number of people, so they can gather the resources they need in order to explore their object of interest further. When there are enough resources, enough interest, enough technology, and enough scholarship, they actually get to go to that object of interest and explore it even more deeply.

When I was in graduate school, the study of forest canopies was at a very young stage of development. People had not climbed into forest canopies—they knew different plant and animal species lived up there

Propagation of Begonia hiemalis at Klem's Greenhouse, Inc.©

Author: Mark Klemmedson

PP: 259


Rooting Begonia hiemalis tip cuttings is quite easy and there are many different methods used by different growers. Some use propagation tents, some use mist, and some don't use either. We root our cuttings in a double-layer system with mist. The cuttings start on a warm heated floor for 2 weeks where they receive just enough mist to keep them from stress. On tray tables just above this crop is a crop 2 weeks older. The cuttings receive minimal light, provided by fluorescent lamps, under the tray tables. After 2 weeks the cuttings are moved up onto the tables and the floors are cleaned and disinfected in preparation for a new crop of cuttings. A new crop of cuttings is put under mist in the same process that takes the 2-week-old crop out of the mist. The table that is emptied into the just-cleaned space is immediately filled with the next 36 flats of 2-week-old cuttings, and the process repeats until all of the 2-week-old cuttings are up on tables and the new

The Native Plants Website: An On-line Source of Propagation Information©

Author: Thomas D. Landis, R. Kasten Dumroese

PP: 261

The demand for native plants continues to increase but published information on how to propagate natives is extremely limited. A wealth of propagation knowledge and experience exists in native plant nurseries but there isn't an easy way to share it. The Native Plant Network on the Internet offers basic propagation information as well as a searchable database of propagation protocols. An easy-to-use data input form allows growers to submit propagation information as well as update it as new information becomes available. Submitting propagation protocols to the Native Plants Website is a perfect way to practice the I.P.P.S. motto "To Seek and Share."
Winter Propagation Frame©

Author: Douglas Justice

PP: 265

Winter Propagation Frame:
  • Used inside; i.e, in a frost-free enclosure, not subject to outside precipitation
  • Used from late November to early February (sun is too strong before and after and will heat air above root temperature)
  • Used for direct-stuck cuttings that do poorly under mist; e.g, Cistus, Daphne, and grey-leafed plants, such as, Brachyglottis, Senecio, Lavandula, etc.


  • Wood frame (made from four 2 inch × 12 inch boards) (our frame size is approximately 3 ft × 6 ft and has space for two rows of four 17 inch × 17-inch flats)
  • Fasteners
  • Styroboard (bottom layer, sits on the floor)
  • Electric heating cable (sits on styroboard) with thermostat
  • Sand, 2 inches (for bedding heating cable)
  • Aquarium gravel, 2 inches (sits above sand to discourage weed growth)
  • Heavy gauge wire (attached across top of frame to prevents cover from sagging)
  • Vispore perforated plastic sheeting (3 ft × 8 ft)
  • 2 ft to 3 ft 2 inch × 4 inch boards — one 2 × 4 secures Vispore to the frame at one end, the other is
Disease Management of Greenhouse Crops: The Role of Technology©

Author: Nico Labuschagne

PP: 51

An overview is presented of the role that technology plays in disease management in greenhouse crops. The fundamental principles of plant disease control as embodied in the disease triangle are being used as point of departure. The impact of technological advances in both the biological field and in the field of greenhouse equipment, including computer aided automation, on disease management is discussed.
A Heavy Duty Leaf Vacuum for Greenhouse Use©

Author: Jim McConnell

PP: 266

At Bailey Nurseries, Inc. in Yamhill, Oregon, we use a leaf vacuum to remove leaves and debris from our beds of rooted cuttings. It is a sanitation issue and it also makes the fall harvest and digging process easier since the people doing the harvest don't have to deal with leaf debris. The vacuum is mounted on a trailer that was manufactured to fit the alley ways of our greenhouses. It could be custom mounted on almost any type of trailer or motor driven equipment. It is quite heavy. We have modified the vacuum to use two vacuum hoses at the same time. This way we can cover twice as much area with the same tool. It has the ability to suck up anything from plant tags to potted plants to bricks so care must be taken not to get too close to anything you want to keep.

The manufacturer of our vacuum is Trac-Vac located in Indiana. We purchased the Model 2100 in 1994 from a local equipment dealer. It has been relatively troublefree. An 11-hp Briggs and Stratton engine powers the vacuum.

Seed Cleaning©

Author: Michelle Truscott

PP: 267

My tool for today is using the kitchen cuisinart for Sambucus seed cleaning. We collect our Sambucus seed in the wild at site-specific locations throughout California. When we get the berries back to the nursery the first step in the seed cleaning process is to take the berries off the stems. When we have the berries off the stems we add them to the cuisinart, depending on how juicy the berries are we may or may not need to add water.

We run the cuisinart for about 1 minute until we have a puree of berries. Next we add the puree to an empty bucket and slowly add water. The viable seeds sink to the bottom of the bucket while the voided seeds and pulp float to the top. We keep adding water until we are left with clean seeds at the bottom of the bucket. The reason why we take the berries off the stems is because the cuisinart chops the stems up into little pieces and they sink to the bottom with the clean seed. We then drain the water and place the seeds on newspaper to dry. Because of

Rooting Softwood Cuttings Collected from Forced Large Stems of Oakleaf Hydrangea and American Chestnut©

Author: John E. Preece, Donna I. Ledbetter, James J. Zaczek

PP: 267

Softwood shoots were forced from large stem segments of oakleaf hydrangea and American chestnut under intermittent mist. The softwood shoots were used as stem cuttings. Oakleaf hydrangea cuttings rooted >80% with or without auxin and forced shoots rooted better than similar cuttings collected from plants growing outdoors. Two American chestnut forced softwood cuttings rooted. The original stem segments tended to show symptoms of chestnut blight under mist.
Early Spring Frost Protection for Fall-sown Maple Seedlings©

Author: Robert Buzzo

PP: 271

Lawyer Nursery, Inc. grows approximately 250 species of seed propagated bare-root liners at our nursery in Olympia, Washington. We sow seed of woody trees and shrubs directly in the field during all seasons of the year. The Olympia area is prone to subfreezing spring temperatures through the middle of May and we have experienced early-spring frost injury to newly emerged seedlings that were sown the previous fall. For many species we are able to manipulate the sowing date to minimize environmental injury. My discussion today describes our use of row cover to protect fall-sown Acer palmatum f. atropurpureum from early-spring frost.

We typically sow fresh Japanese maple seed in late September directly into outdoor seedbeds. After the seed is sown, we form hoops over the seedbeds with concrete reinforcing wire. This wire is 10-gauge steel wire welded into a 6 inch × 6 inch grid and it is available in sheets that measure 7½ ft × 20 ft. To prepare this sheet to become a seedbed cover

Improved Seed Germination Environment©

Author: Mary TenBrink

PP: 272


I have chosen to share a simple method to create a germination environment that helps to provide stable moisture content, relatively warm temperatures, and physical protection for very tiny seedlings.

Liverwort and Algae: Chemical Control©

Author: Mic Armstrong

PP: 273


Liverwort control has become a hot topic. We've seen lots of research effort into a range of control measures. Cinnamite, hazelnut shells, and meadowfoam have all been researched. The Zerotol people gave us Terracyte, which needs to be applied pot-by-pot with a specialized applicator. None of these methods seemed very userfriendly or effective.

My research led me to two other products, one new to the United States, but not the florist industry of Columbia — Timsen.

Timsen turns out to contain both urea and a quaternary disinfectant and now boasts a label that allows us to drench plants at 1600 ppm. This, provided it is truly a drench and not a spray, controls liverworts quite inexpensively. Phytotoxicity has not been a concern so far, but I wouldn't want to try 1600 ppm on unrooted tissue culture liners or seedlings with just one pair of leaves. Great stuff and it may also work as a chemigated algaecide at just 25 ppm. I have trials underway. Theoretically, Timsen would be

Grafting Tips©

Author: Verl Holden

PP: 274

Knife Sharpening.

I use a Diamond Whetstone medium grade. These stones are available from Western Tool Supply. There are industrial-grade diamonds imbedded in steel which is then laminated to a plastic base. These stones cut into the knife blade very quickly requiring a minimum number of strokes to make a sharp knife.

These stones do not wear down like a carborundum stone so that the surface always stays flat, which will insure that the knife blade will stay with a straight cutting edge. The knife blade should be at a 2° angle to the stone and pushed as if you were cutting into the stone. For more detailed information check the Boy Scout Manuel on knife sharpening.

Potential Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Diseases in Ornamental Plant Production Systems©

Author: Gary A. Chastagner, Warren E. Copes

PP: 275

Diseases are a common problem in many ornamental plant production systems (Jones and Benson, 2001; Chase, 1997). Foliar diseases, such as gray mold, powdery mildew, and downy mildew, can cause significant damage to a number of different plants. In addition, there are a number of soil and/or waterborne diseases, such as Fusarium root rot, black root rot, Pythium root rot, and Phytophthora root rot, that can cause extensive losses on a wide range of ornamental plants. Some pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea also can cause extensive postharvest losses during the handling and shipment of many types of cut flowers and greenery products.

Management of ornamental plant diseases is generally based on a combination of cultural practices, environmental manipulations, use of biologicals, and application of fungicides (Bilderback and Jones, 2001; Dreistadt, 2001; Jeffers et. al, 2001; Krause, 1991). Recently, there has been an increased interest in using general biocides or disinfectants for the

Flowering and Bulb Quality of Liliaceous Species in Response to Mycorrhizal Fungi©

Author: Carolyn F. Scagel, R.G. Linderman

PP: 280


Plants with roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungi are more effective at nutrient and water acquisition, less susceptible to disease, and can be more productive under certain stressful environmental growing conditions than plants without mycorrhizae. There is little available information describing the benefits of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on different aspects of productivity and flowering of liliaceous bulb crops except onion (Giovannetti and Riess, 1980; Tawaraya et al., 1999), and little information describing the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on flowering (Byla and Koide, 1998; Johnson et al., 1982). Members of the Liliaceae form mycorrhizal associations with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) (Ames and Linderman, 1977). This paper presents results from several inoculation experiments with VAMF on bulb, corm, and flower production in several liliaceous plant species.

Using Water Reservoir Containers to Produce Plants for Wetlands Sites©

Author: Sven E. Svenson

PP: 287

Deschampsia cespitosa ‘Northern Lights,’ Lobelia ‘Queen Victoria,’ Pennisetum alopecuroides ‘Little Bunny,’ and Symphoricarpos albus were potted into 1- gal (2.7 liter) nursery containers filled with unamended Douglas-fir bark. For each taxa, half the plants were potted into containers with traditional drain holes and the other half were potted into containers with drain holes located 2-inches (5 cm) above the base of the pot. For all species studied, the largest plants were grown in water-reservoir pots under 18 min of irrigation when provided 18 g of fertilizer. Use of water-reservoir containers induced the development of aerenchyma tissue in roots of all plants except Pennisetum. Production in water-reservoir containers improved survival of Symphoricarpos after planting into water-saturated soils.
Weed Management and Allelopathy in the Greenhouse©

Author: C.F. Reinhardt

PP: 55


In conventional plant production systems, single-species planting has often been used to obtain optimal biomass production, with concomitant high reliance on fertilizers, water, and high light intensity. Continuous single-cropping, however, can lead to soil conditions that cause an imbalance of soil microorganisms or an accumulation of toxins released from decomposing plant residues. Intercropping and crop rotation are promoted in attempts to alleviate problems associated with monoculture. Whatever the plant production system used, modern cropping are often perceived to involve excessive inputs of fertilizer, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, etc., which supposedly result in increased risk to the physical properties of the soil and pollution of the environment. It is in this context that the concepts of organic farming and biological control are being promoted as alternatives to agrochemicals, and consequently receive a lot of public, financial, and research support.

Developing New Plants For Your Future Plant Inventory©

Author: Harold Pellett

PP: 291


The Landscape Plant Development Center is a relatively young organization. It was established in 1990 with a mission of developing superior landscape plants with emphasis on plants that are more tolerant of biological and environmental stresses. The Center was started because there is a need for greater diversity of landscape plants that are tolerant of environmental and biological stresses. Unfortunately, many landscape plants presently available are not well adapted to withstand the harsh conditions of the man-modified environments found on many landscape sites. I have seen figures and surveys indicating that the life span of the average tree planted in city conditions may only be 7 to 10 years.

The Center is a nonprofit corporation with a Board of Directors from all over the United States. The Center relies completely on grants and donations for the support of its research efforts. It operates as a cooperative effort of researchers located at many different

Yard Trimmings Compost as a Growing Medium Component and Nutrient Source for Chrysanthemum and Fuchsia Production©

Author: Rita L. Hummel, Charles R. Johnson, Robert Riley, Susan Smith

PP: 295

Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum and fuchsia were transplanted into 1.1-liter containers filled with a peat and perlite (PP) growing medium into which yard trimmings compost (YTC) was mixed at increasing rates (100% PP, 20% YTC, 50% YTC and 80% YTC). All plants received soluble 20N-3.5P-16.6K at a rate of 100 ppm N weekly. In addition, a slow-release fertilizer (17N-2.2P-9.1K) was topdressed at 0, 2, or 4 g per container. Growth of chrysanthemum and fuchsia was improved by the addition of YTC to the growing media. Growth of fuchsia in all growing media increased with increasing rates of slow-release fertilizer. Chrysanthemum growth increased in response to added slow-release fertilizer in all media except the 80% YTC. In 80% YTC medium chrysanthemum growth was not affected by the addition of slow-release fertilizer.
The Most Tricky Part of Micropropagation: Establishing Plants in Greenhouses and Fields©

Author: John E. Preece

PP: 300

When they are first removed from the culture vessel, micropropagated plants and shoots are unique in that they are very poorly adapted for the growing conditions of a greenhouse or field. While in culture, these shoots develop under low light, in a sealed glass or plastic container that provides approximately 100% relative humidity, limited gas exchange, and an environment free from microorganisms.

Propagators are familiar with growing bedding plants and rooting softwood and hardwood stem cuttings under intermittent mist, fog, or high humidity. These plants require hardening-off prior to transplanting to ensure good survival. The same logic holds for micropropagated plants; however, they are even more sensitive than plants that are propagated by more traditional methods.

Cuttings are weaned from the propagation bench by gradually reducing the frequency and duration of misting, or by slowing exposing them to lower relative humidity levels. Bedding plants are hardened off by reducing

Tissue Culture Acclimation©

Author: Mic Armstrong

PP: 304

There are very few articles to date in the literature on tissue-culture acclimation (acclimatization), however, there are a few paragraphs in Plants from Test Tubes, An Introduction to Micropropagation (Lydiane, 1983) on "hardening off" and a chapter in Pierik's (1987) In Vitro Culture of Higher Plants called "The transfer from nutrient medium to soil".

This year's I.P.P.S. Western Region meeting should go a long way towards rectifying the situation with two pages at the Eastern Region, including one by Deb McCown and three papers from this conference.

The first consideration in this topic is that of economics. The book, Plants from Test Tubes, An Introduction to Micropropagation, tells us about costs and labor in the lab, how to analyze costs through crop planning, space scheduling, etc., however, the grower on the receiving end of the tissue-culture labs scheduling has an entirely different set of cost factors to weigh before an analysis of profitability can be performed.

Tissue-Culture Acclimation at Carlton Plants©

Author: Mike Anderson

PP: 308


Carlton Plants utilizes tissue culture to propagate targeted items where it has proven to yield more satisfactory results than other propagation methods. Tissue culture is used to propagate approx 150,000 plants every year, which represents about 6% of our planting needs.

Establishing and Aftercare of Tissue Culture Material©

Author: Mollie Hoare

PP: 309


It all begins with a reputable supplier, if you have a lab nearby that makes it all the better. I like to have the option to check up on the plants to see how things are progressing if the lab allows. Once you have your order of tissue culture material from a lab I recommend checking with them periodically to be sure everything is going as planned. Sometimes, plants don't respond to the treatments as well as expected.

New and Worthy Plants©

Author: Douglas Justice, Ken Coppola, Richie Steffen

PP: 311

Grevillea victoriae. Evergreen shrub to 2 m red-orange flowers in summer and fall, or year-round if mild from eastern Australia. Zone 8 with heat and perfect drainage (UBC clone appears hardier—i.e., Zone 7—than what is reported in the literature). Propagate from cuttings.

Clematis ‘Paul Farges’ (C. potaninii × C. vitalba) syn. C. ‘Summer Snow’. Vigorous climber with fragrant white flowers from July to September or October; followed by silvery seedheads (seeds are sterile). Zone 6 or possibly hardier. Propagated from layers and cuttings.

Aconitum vilmorinianum. Stems start erect, then twine and scramble up to 2 or 3 m. From western and central China. Zone 6 or hardier. Grown from seed or division of the tuberous roots in autumn. All plant parts are poisonous.

Effect of CO2 Concentration on Net Photosynthetic Rate of Coffea ×arabusta Somatic Embryos Cultured Photoautotrophically©

Author: A. Uno, C. Kubota, K. Ohyama, W. Chintakovid, T. Kozai

PP: 317


Somatic embryos have been used for woody plant micropropagation. In Coffea, Afreen et al. (2001) showed that C. ×arabusta cotyledonary embryos had photosynthetic ability and could be cultured photoautotrophically (sugar-free culture) (Kozai, 1991). Therefore, application of photoautotrophic culture from the cotyledonary embryo stage through the rest of the production stages potentially shortens the transplant production period and enhances the establishment of transplants ex vitro as compared with photomixotrophic culture (sugar-containing culture). In this study, effect of CO2 concentration on the net photosynthetic rate of C. ×arabusta somatic embryos was investigated to determine the environmental conditions for the photoautotrophic culture of somatic embryos.

Growth of Root Systems and Changes in Phloridzin Content in Fibrous Roots of Container-grown Apple Transplants?

Author: Hiroshi Gemma, Tomoki Nakamura

PP: 319

We previously reported that the root respiratory activity in apple transplants coincided with the growth pattern of the root system and those of container-grown apple transplants were lower than field-grown transplants. The present report focuses on a phenolic compound (phloridzin) known as an allelopathic substance in the fibrous root of transplants grown in different container types: a black polyethylene container and an air-pruning container.
Effect of Cutting Wood Harvest Time on Planting Success Rate of Five Blueberry Cultivars©

Author: Etsuyo Korehisa

PP: 324


Cutting propagation is used to produced the three main rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, ‘Woodard’, ‘Tifblue’, and ‘Home Bell’. It usually takes 7 months for cutting propagation (from September to April) and the costs are very high. To reduce production costs container-grown plants were examined for the production of cuttings. In addition to the above three cultivars container planting was applied to two other taxa, ‘Mayards’ and ‘Blue Shower’.

Control of Certain Sucking Insects on Ornamentals Under Cover©

Author: M.P. Fourie

PP: 57

A survey conducted recently amongst growers of ornamentals and cutflowers revealed that the following insects are the most troublesome and common: spider mites, thrips (including Western flower thrips), aphids, whitefly, leafminers, beetles, caterpillars, and nematodes.

From the survey it was also clear that insect resistance is a major concern to growers, but that attempts are made to manage it by alternating insecticides in the spray programmes. In extreme cases insecticides are applied every 2 to 3 days, usually as preventive sprays. A further obstacle is the lack of approved and registered chemicals under Act 36/1947, but growers try to use products that are registered on edible crops, especially when treating commodities for the export market.

Consequently, Bayer decided to obtain registration for a number of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) for use in floriculture. The obvious first choice was imidacloprid, a new insecticide in the chloronicotinyl group. It is currently

The Machine Grafting of Grapes in Okayama©

Author: Kazumi Wada

PP: 326


The grafting of the grapes is required if they are to be successfully grown in soil. Grafting is necessary because, even though a cutting may root well, the cutting can be attacked by phylloxera if the soil is infected with this pest. Plant vigor can additionally be modified by rootstock selection as can yield and quality.

The main propagation method for grape grafting in Okayama was the "English-style" saddle graft which was preformed by hand. When using the saddle graft the rootstock and scion should be as equal in size (diameter) as possible. The number of grafts completed per day was limited by the complexity of the graft and the skill needed.

About 20 years ago, grape propagators in Okayama switched to an automatic-type grafting machine (that was manufactured in Germany). Techniques for grafting using this new automated machine were developed and these are used today. After changing to the automated grafting machine, the number of grafting per day and success rate rose

Effect of a Simple Evaporation Cooling Device for Cutting Propagation in Arid Lands©

Author: Kazuhiro Fukasawa, Atsushi Ooishi

PP: 327

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a desert country with annual rainfall of 100 mm where the maximum temperature in May to September is 35 to 45°C, and the minimum temperature is 20 to 25°C. In such arid condition, an evaporative-cooling system is effective in plant production. The capability of evaporation cooling is almost the same as the differential of dry bulb and wet bulb.

The system is even more effective inland. Inland, 100 km from shore, the air temperature is above 40°C and the relative humidity is below 20%, so the air temperature inside of the greenhouse with a cooling system is about 30°C. In UAE, the pad and fan cooling system is widely used in greenhouses. However, in large greenhouses used for vegetable and flower production, there is a large difference in temperature and humidity between the end with the cooling pad and the end with the fan. For example, in a greenhouse 30 m long, the temperature differential is more than 10°C.

The pad and fan cooling system currently used

Rooftop Planting, Its Present and Future — What I Learn While in New Zealand©

Author: Masayuki Nakamura

PP: 330

Currently, a large business opportunity exists not only in the building industry but also the rooftop planting industry. This occurred when rooftop planting was virtually required as a heat island countermeasure by Tokyo Metropolis assembly in April 2000. Currently, there is keen competition between enterprises to meet this demand, and therefore, the aspects of rooftop planting are changing rapidly.

The first general step in the heat island countermeasure is in the search for the function and the cost. However, people will not be satisfied unless the view of the planting scene is attractive; therefore, the garden type selected must be cost effective or it isn't realistic.

The time will soon come when rooftop plantings will need to have not only the potential to reduce the heat island phenomenon but also provide a view that is attractive. When attractiveness becomes important the selection of plants will be taken more seriously. Plants suitable for the environment of the roof will not

The Main Seedling-born Diseases Occurring in Grapes©

Author: Hideo Nasu

PP: 331

The seedling-born diseases, crown gall, berry inner necrosis, leaf roll, and rugose wood complex (pitting, grooving), have lately occurred on grapes in Japan.

Crown Gall. The disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis produces galls on the seedlings and the trunks of affected grapes. The pathogen is easily detected from the grape sap of infected grape using selective media.

Berry Inner Necrosis Disease. In grape cultivars, ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Pione’, infected leaves become small, mosaic, and deformed, and necrosis occurs in the flesh of affected berries. The causal agent, grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), is transmitted by Colomerus vitis and grafting.

Leaf Roll Disease. Leaf symptoms include rolling and a violet-red color. The grapevine leaf roll-associated viruses (GLRaV-1 to 7, especially GLRaV-3) belong to the Closter virus and have been reported as causal agents. Though it has

New Mycorrhizal Fungi for Germinating Goodyera schlechtendaliana©

Author: Masanori Tomita, Chihiro Adachi

PP: 332

A total of 24 mycorrhizal strains were obtained from wild Goodyera species (Orchidaceae) and their symbiotic activities for both seed germination and seedling growth of G. schlechtendaliana were evaluated. Isolates No. 9711 and No. 9735 were effective in promoting protocorm development.
Vegetative Propagation of Prostanthera rotundifolia©

Author: Mary Carmen Rodrigo Hernandez, Arne Skytt Andersen

PP: 339


Prostanthera rotundifolia, R. Br., Australian mintbush, with attractive purple flowers in spring and fragrant foliage, has been reported in production in Australia and Europe (Erhardt and Erhardt, 1997; Philip, 1997). Because of its attractive flowers and scented foliage, Australian mintbush is a potential plant that can be introduced into the Danish market.

In the process of introduction of a new pot plant, one of the main prerequisites is to have enough plant material to carry out all the experiments required in the process (Christensen and Friis, 1987; Roh and Lawson,1987; von Hentig,1998; Wilkins and Erwin, 1998). Another criteria to bear in mind is that a potential new plant should be easy to propagate (Von-Hentig and Grüber, 1988; Armitage, 1990a and 1998; Masvidal, 1992). In most cases, little to nothing is known regarding the propagation requirements of the plant. However, in addition to such factors as the condition of the stock plants, the "positional effect"


Author: Aksel de Lasson, Werner Bühr

PP: 347


Aqua-Hort implements a copper nutrition and electromagnetic treatment of the nutrient solution. Research at the Aarslev Horticultural Research Center has contributed to a basic understanding of the benefits of this equipment.

With Aqua-Hort in your nursery you can achieve the following production improvements:

  • Better roots,
  • Better plants,
  • Prevent attack by pathogenic fungi,
  • Stabilize copper supply.

It has been known for a long time that a controlled level of copper ions in the water can contribute considerably to the prevention of attacks from pathogenic fungi, especially from Pythium and Phytophthora. Both fungi can be very destructive. These two fungi produce zoospores which are spread in watery environments. Laboratory tests show that the zoospores are killed when exposed to Aqua-Horttreated water.

BMT Biofilter: A Biological Water Treatment System©

Author: M.N. Jonas

PP: 350

What the BMT Biofilter Can Do. The BMT biofilter is a filter for biological treatment of water. It is not a filter in the common sense, that it filters particles from the water, but rather it reduces the amount of soluble substances, such as:
  • Certain chemicals, for instance it converts NH4 + (ammonia) to NO3 - (nitrate),
  • Pathogenic organisms,
  • BOD (oxygen demanding chemicals),
  • TOC (toxic oxygen demanding chemicals).
What it Can Not do.

The BMT biofilter will not:

  • Remove nutrients except for some metals during the start up phase,
  • Lower the concentration of salts. It will for instance not remove nitrogen and phosphorus, or remove particles from the water, that are not biologically degradable,
  • Produce a sterile water. Rather it will produce a water with a biological balance.

What to Think About. The BMT biofilter is a biological water-treatment system. This means that it is not possible to control what actually goes on in the BMT biofilter. The only thing we can do is to

Propagation of Cuttings in Different Media under Different Levels of Drainage©

Author: Lars Jørgensen

PP: 351

The present article describes a part of the experimental work carried out in connection with the master thesis of the author: Rooting in Cuttings Influence by the Physical Properties of the Medium (in Danish). This work should be consulted for further details.
Mineral Nutrients in Water: Quality Variation of Rainwater, Surface Water, and Ground Water©

Author: Bengt Nihlgård

PP: 358


Water normally used for irrigation in agriculture and horticulture is from streams, lakes, and ground water from deep wells. In addition for different reasons, rainwater has become more popular. The nutritional value of water from different sources can vary strongly, depending on:

  • Different emissions and their local and regional impact on deposition and water;
  • Soil and bedrock mineral chemistry, soil texture, and structure;
  • Climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature) that determines the weathering rate of soil particles;
  • The combined effect of deposition and bedrock on runoff water;
  • Soil management (agriculture or forestry, fertilisation or no fertilisation) that has a determining impact on surface water.

Below is presented some examples of the normal variation in water chemistry, together with some evaluating aspects on the chemical variables of interest from an ecological point of view. The input to these results are mainly from Sweden and my own experiences

The Basic Principles of Selecting Growth Medium and Fertigation of Pot Grown Plants©

Author: A.S. Claassens

PP: 58

Growth media that are presently used by growers vary considerably and this complicates matters on how to handle the physical and chemical analysis results. To overcome this, certain basic principles should be considered.

Plants require certain properties from the growth medium, including water, nutrients, oxygen, buffering, and anchoring. When the growers comply with certain basic aspects in the preparation of their growth media some of these requirements are met.

Two aspects of growth media, that have to be consider are the physical and chemical properties.

  • Physical properties: Air filled porosity, water holding capacity, and density.
  • Chemical properties: pH, EC, and nutrient content.

When using artificial growth media, such as sawdust, bark, or any other organic component it can be expected that the physical and chemical properties will be different and that the analytical results will have to be interpreted differently.

Sampling is very important and any analysis can't be better


Author: Dan Studebaker

PP: 369

Good morning friends. I'm Dan Studebaker serving as your President this year. It is my distinct pleasure to welcome you to the 51st Annual Meeting of the Eastern Region, North America of I.P.P.S. here in Lexington, Kentucky.

I hope those who attended the pre-conference tour yesterday had as enjoyable a time as myself on such a glorious day.

First order of business is to recognize some fellow members who have invested themselves and a tremendous amount of time organizing this informative program that we will be enjoying the next 3 days.

First and foremost is our Executive Secretary/Treasurer, Margot Bridgen.

Secondly, The First Vice-President and Program Chair, Richard Bir.

Thirdly, The Second Vice-President and Poster Chair, Jim Johnson.

Lastly, The Local Site Committee who have organized and formulated the inner workings of this program in Lexington. They are: Bob NcNiel, Chairman; Bob Geneve; Winston Dunwell; Paul Cappiello; Brian Roach; Steve Foltz; and Tony Nold. Let's all give

Plant Propagation Techniques: A Historical Perspective©

Author: Robert Geneve

PP: 370


It is always interesting to take a few steps back and view a subject from a historical perspective. Invariably, you come away impressed with the knowledge available in the literature including ancient references. You may also find that techniques that are considered new today were available at much earlier times. In this brief review, I will try to provide a perspective on modern plant propagation techniques as it relates to earlier times.

Cephalotaxus Production at Rivendell Nursery©

Author: Ted Kiefer

PP: 376


Rivendell Nursery is a wholesale nursery of 200 acres in Southwest New Jersey. We grow a wide range of plant material in ground for B&B sales. When we started in 1988, we purchased 100% of our lining-out stock. This year, 2001, over two-thirds of our lining-out stock is produced by our propagation department. Initially, our aim was to be a deciduous tree grower but we soon realized that we needed to add a line of evergreen trees and shrubs to extend our digging/sales season and produce a more even cash flow. One of the first shrubs we tried to grow was Taxus. Due to a large and hungry population of whitetail deer this was a failure. In an attempt to fill this void we then tried to grow Cephalotaxus since it is similar in appearance and quite resistant to deer browse. We have only propagated this plant for a short number of years so the information which follows is what we are doing now and may change over the next few years.

A New Grafting Tape©

Author: Tom Intven

PP: 378

Over the years, we have used a great variety of products for tying up our chip and T-buds as well as for grafting. Since the late 1970s we have used primarily chip budding for ground budding as well as top working. For this technique we have used such products as:
  1. Clear plastic strips in roll in various thickness.
  2. Clear pre-cut plastic strips of various thickness and stretchability.
  3. Conventional elastic strips.
  4. Wide elastic strips primarily for ground budding.

All materials have advantages and disadvantages. One of the main disadvantages of all these products is that not one of them disintegrates completely after application. Each of them must be gone over again to remove all or some portion of the tie in order to allow the bud to grow out without inhibition.

A few years ago, we were introduced to a product called "Buddy-Tape". Buddy-Tape is a parafilm-like material, 2¼ cm wide and precut into 7-cm lengths (about 1 inch × 3 inch). The material is very stretchy and seals upon

Hidden Mysteries of Conifers in 2001©

Author: Teresa Ford

PP: 379

Cedrus deodara ‘Snowsprite’. Conical coniferous tree with spreading branches, pendent shoot tips with dark brown bark. The needles are 1.5 to 2 inches and a silvery-glaucous color which are produced in whorls of 20 to 30. Matures 20 ft in height by 10 ft wide. Propagated by grafting onto C. deodara. Great specimen that is highly under used. Hardy in Zones 7 to 9.
From Seed to Seed: Producing Native Grass and Wildflower Seed for the National Park Service©

Author: Jennifer L. Kujawski

PP: 381

As part of the USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service, the National Plant Materials Center (NPMC) in Beltsville, Maryland, has had a changing role over time. The Center has come a long way from its inception in the 1930s as an observation station for introduced conservation plants to its current role as an innovative regional facility focused on selecting both native and introduced plant species and developing technology for controlling erosion, improving water quality, enhancing wildlife habitat, and revitalizing pasture lands. The goal of the Plant Materials Program is to make improved plants and information available to land owners and managers. In addition to its traditional conservation plant activities, the NPMC has been involved in a unique cooperative effort with the National Park Service (NPS) that has established the Center as a leader in native plant production techniques. This cooperative work has been a result of the mandate within many National Parks that
Green Roofs: The Next Horticultural Revolution©

Author: David J. Beattie, Robert Berghage

PP: 383

Imagine looking, as I did this spring, at 250,000 square feet of German rooftop covered with a variety of sedums. As a propagator, your wallet should be quivering in anticipation. To vegetate that green roof required tons of cuttings. Will that type of opportunity ever come to the U.S.A.? The answer is yes, and probably sooner than you think. However, Americans know little about green roofs and their substantial advantages to the landscape.

Green roofs are, as the name implies, plantings that are placed on the roof of a building. Plant size and selection depends on the depth of the roof overburden (growing medium) and local climate, but the plants are almost always drought tolerant. Low-growing plants such as grasses, sedums, and other cactus-like plants are used where the depth is only a few inches. Where the medium depth is several feet, shrubs and even small trees can be used. Although most easily used on flat roofs, a low pitch roof can also be "greened". Green roofs also

New Plants! What's Good for Nurseries?©

Author: F. Todd Lasseigne

PP: 386

The JC Raulston Arboretum (Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A.) continues to acquire and evaluate multitudes of new plants for landscape adaptability and garden performance in the Piedmont of North Carolina (USDA Cold Hardiness Zone 7b). The following plants are but a few of our newer acquisitions, representing continued introductions from many sources including nurseries, other botanical gardens and arboreta, and index semina from abroad.

Acer oblongum, smoothleaf maple. Supposedly an evergreen maple, but one shouldn't believe all that the books say, as our plant has displayed vivid red fall color. In all respects, our plant is correctly identified. This illustrates the inadequate testing that many uncommon species undergo in the U.S.A.

Spiraea thunbergii ‘Fujino Pink’. A superior form of a commonly grown spirea in the U.S.A. with better "flower power." Flowers are tinged pink in bud, but open white. Newly introduced from Japan and named after its discoverer.

Cotinus coggygria ‘Ancot’, Golden

Using Turkey Litter Compost in Growing Media©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 390


Turkey litter compost (TLC) has been evaluated as a soil amendment and disease suppressant in ginseng production in Ontario (Reeleder and Capell, 2001). It is also sold granulated as fertilizer.

As part of our on-going research to examine industrial and farm organic wastes and composts as soil and potting amendments (Chong, 1999), we have been investigating TLC. Tyler et al. (1993) grew nursery crops in unfertilized substrate containing TLC. Ku et al. (1998) grew potted poinsettia in poultry litter compost-amended substrate fertilized at different times. Similar in chemical and physical analysis to spent mushroom compost (SMC), TLC contains excessive nutrients and high EC (an indication of soluble salts concentrations) (Table 1), which are potentially damaging to crops and, thus, a major deterrent to its use in potting mixes.

Layering Cuttings as an Alternate to Sticking Them©

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 395

Historically cuttings are stuck into the rooting media which is composed of some friable substance with high air porosity, up to 35%, and good drainage. The media ranges from pure sand or pure perlite to the Cornell peat-lite mixes, composted barkpeat mixes, and now, rice hull, coir, and composted peanut hull mixes. The prerequisites for sticking a cutting are either to have a stiff woody-stemmed cutting, such as any shrub, ivy, or euonymus, or to dibble a pre-moistened media to make an insertion hole.

This paper presents an alternate method that first places the cutting into the rooting bed, tray, or pot, and then places the rooting medium around it. Actually multiple cuttings are placed in the tray up to a handful of 30 cuttings at a time. As usual, this is much easier to explain and to understand with photos than it is with words.

We have successfully used this method for rooting Vinca minor (myrtle, periwinkle) and Galium odoratum (sweet woodruff, bedstraw). These plants have in