Volume 50

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New Plants for New Zealand's Ornamental Industries — A Researcher's Perspective©

Author: Garry Burge, John Seelye, Ed Morgan, Alison Evans

PP: 43


New Zealand has been very successful at developing new plants for its forestry, pastoral, and horticultural industries. Examples include Pinus radiata, ryegrass, and Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit). Floriculture successes include crops such as Zantedeschia, Sandersonia, and Nerine sarniensis. We have also developed some of our native species for amenity and cut foliage use (e.g., Phormium, Pittosporum, Astelia, Cordyline, and Leptospermum). New Zealand's nursery and floriculture export industries are based on plants, flowers, and bulbs that can receive premium prices on international markets. These export industries require the development of new crops and novel cultivars so that our exports of floriculture products can continue to expand. Production and propagation technologies are also required for new crops.

Forum: Are Stock Beds Being Abused?©

Author: Nichola Rochester

PP: 73


The range of stock bed types currently in use is broad. Stock beds can be maintained in the open ground, in containers, or current production could be a "stock bed". Using a show of hands it was determined that 37% have stock beds that provide less than 50% of total production, 63% have stock beds that provide more than 50% of total production, and 17% have stock beds that provide more than 90% of total production. This result showed that taking your own cuttings and the use of on nursery stock plants was significant. A written plan to manage your cutting production and stock beds is an important tool, which many are utilising. The reasons for this dependence on your own stock plants included convenience, flexibility, timing, availability of uncommon taxa, greater certainty about being true to type, reliability, and perceived cost savings. Those that had decreased their stock beds gave reasons of lack of nursery space, time, and cost in maintaining stock

Horticultural Distance Learning: The How, When and Why of Grafting©

Author: Kenneth W. Mudge, William Head, David G. Way

PP: 422


This is a Web/CD-based asynchronous distance learning course originally designed as a 2-credit course for residential students at Cornell University (http:// instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/hort494/graftage/). The course is currently being adapted for use as a noncredit distance learning module for nontraditional students, i.e., new horticulture industry employees, amateur gardeners, etc. The noncredit version of this course is being given for the first time during Fall 2000 to a group of amateur gardeners in cooperation with Cornell Cooperative Extension Educators in Chemung, Suffolk, and Washington counties.

This grafting module is the first of several distance learning modules on plant propagation, that will also include modules on propagation by cuttage, seedage, and micropropagation. The goal of each of these modules, is not only to teach the principles, and the industry and gardening practices associated with

Natural Seed Dispersal and Its Effects on Germination©

Author: Richard H. Munson

PP: 426

Propagators acquiring seed from distant sources are often at a loss for reliable information pertaining to pre-germination treatments and other factors that affect germination. In order to enhance the likelihood of success the propagator must consider all information relating to the natural history of the plant. Although this poster considers only the method of natural seed dispersal the grower should also study the relationship of the plant to other species in the genus with known germination requirements, the natural distribution of the plant, the climate in its native habitat, and any and all literature citations. Knowing the method of natural seed dispersal can be crucial to success. Seed dispersal frequently correlates with the ease or difficulty of seed germination and often provides helpful clues to germination requirements.

The following tables indicate the relative ease of germination based on the means natural dispersal and the relative position of the seed plant within the

USDA-ARS NC-7 Regional Woody Ornamental Trials©

Author: Paul Ovrom, Mark Widrlechner

PP: 429

Since 1954, the NC-7 Regional Woody Ornamental Trials have addressed landscape horticulture needs of the North Central Region and parts of the country with similarly challenging growing conditions by conducting long-term evaluations of new and promising trees, shrubs and vines. Currently, trial plants are evaluated at over 30 sites in 16 states. Besides collecting and disseminating evaluation data, another goal of the trials is to increase the range of useful plants in the region's nursery trade. Trial site cooperators in the NC-7 Trials coordinate to varying degrees with their local nursery industry to introduce promising accessions.

The NC-7 Trials are one of the longest running evaluation networks for landscape plants in the U.S. Many sites have been participating since the 1950s and now have extensive collections of interesting plants. These plants are available for public observation and teaching, and are often featured in field days for local nursery and landscape workers. Each

Incorporation of Slow-Release Fertilizer Accelerates Growth During Adventitious Rooting of Artemisia, Gaura, and Nepeta©

Author: D. Bradley Rowe, Bert M. Cregg

PP: 430


Accelerating growth of nursery stock can produce marketable plants in less time, thus potentially increasing profits. In most production systems, fertilizers are normally applied sometime after rooting or transplanting. However, the optimal quantity, formulation, and time is unclear. If slow-release fertilizer is incorporated into the rooting substrate, then optimal nutrients can be available when adventitious roots emerge. This would also eliminate the labor involved to fertilize liners. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) compare adventitious rooting and subsequent growth of rooted liners of three herbaceous species in response to two formulations of slow-release fertilizer incorporated into the propagation media, and (2) determine optimal levels of incorporated slow-release fertilizer to accelerate plant growth.

Restoration of Habenaria radiata Grown from Seeds in Vitro to the Native Habitat©

Author: T. Yamamoto, Y. Saito, C. Yamamoto, N. Kinjo

PP: 433

Habenaria radiata, which belongs to Orchidaceae, grows indigenously in wet land of a temperate region of Japan. The plant is a perennial and blooms in summer. Since the flower looks like an egret with its unique shape and white color, the plant is liked by many people in Japan. Recently, the plant has been decreasing because of many kinds of development in rural regions and secret stealing. A marsh in Takanabe, Miyazaki prefecture in southern Japan is a typical place where the plant has been decreasing because of theft. We are now trying to restore the plants to the marsh, a native habitat, to protect it from extinction.

Undehisced pods taken from H. radiata growing indigenously in the marsh were harvested in Autumn 1998. After the surface of the pods was sterilized with ethanol, the seeds were scattered on the hormone-free Hyponex medium. The medium contained 3% sucrose and was solidified with agar. The pH was adjusted at 5.2 or 5.75 before autoclaving. The seeds germinated into green

Timing of Low Solar Irradiance Affects Quercus and Acer Propagation©

Author: James J. Zaczek, C. W. Heuser Jr, Kim C. Steiner

PP: 434


In recent years, work by the authors has shown increases in rooting of cuttings for several traditionally difficult-to-root tree species after applying treatments of severely limiting solar irradiance (shading) during the rooting phase (Zaczek, 1994; Zaczek et al., 1997). In these studies, rooting of semihardwood cuttings in a polytent rooting system within a greenhouse was greatest at or above 91% shading of ambient irradiance for most taxa tested. However, maintaining cuttings under low irradiance after root induction may affect the subsequent survival of rooted propagules. The study presented here evaluated the effect of varying durations of low irradiance exposure during the rooting phase on rooting characteristics and survival of cuttings of six tree taxa.

Seed Germination of Daphne mezereum: Fruit Stages,Cold Treatment, and More©

Author: Donglin Zhang, John Smagula

PP: 442


Daphne mezereum (February daphne) is one of few Daphne species which can set a lot of seeds in the fall. In 1998, Michael Dirr from the University of Georgia visited the Lyle E. Littlefield Ornamentals Trial Garden at the University of Maine and indicated that the low germination of Daphne seed was not fully understand. Actually, the two plants in our garden produced abundant seeds every other year; however, no seedlings have been found around the plants and adjacent areas for the last 6 years. In Fall 1998, seeds were collected and a seed germination experiment was initiated to improve germination of D. mezereum.

February daphne is a great garden plant for early flowering in spring. The dense purple-flowering branches have great potential for cutting flower production. In the winter, the rounded and low-growth habit (at least in our gardens), with loaded flowering buds, brings a lot of attention above the snow line. Although there is an abundance of red fruits in fall,

Update on Fiber Pot Research at Penn State: The Plantable Pot©

Author: Davie J. Beattie, Robert Berghage, David Day

PP: 445

Fiber pots have been used almost as long as plants have been container-grown. Until recently, however, the fiber pot has only been considered a temporary or seasonal container for landscape plants. Subject to bacterial and fungal breakdown, these pots, depending on the ambient temperature and moisture conditions, could only be counted on for a few weeks to a few months. Incorporating copper into the fiber matrix has improved seasonal strength and longevity. We now know that we can customize the life of the container to meet the needs of the grower by incorporating more or less copper. If no copper is incorporated the pot may only last weeks, whereas increased copper content will extend the container life to many months, even years. Although the copper is added to lengthen pot life, it does have the added advantage of altering root growth, particularly reducing encircling roots.

Fiber containers have many cultural advantages, including lower medium temperatures, and higher medium


Author: Bill Barr

PP: 451


The Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Holiday Inn Chesapeake, Chesapeake, Virginia with President Bill Barr presiding.

PRESIDENT BILL BARR: President Barr welcomed everyone to Chesapeake, Virginia for the Twenty-fifth Annual I.P.P.S. Southern Region of North America meeting. He shared some historical information about the 50-year-old Society of the I.P.P.S. He remarked that a group of 75 men set down in Cleveland, Ohio in 1951 and decided that something had to be done about sharing knowledge and information in the area of plant propagation. He reflected on what these leaders had in mind when they set up the organization — and 50 years later how viable we are and how close we are in adhering to the principles they laid down in establishing a professional society of horticulturists to share knowledge in the field of plant propagation. They did a marvelous

The IPPS Southern Region 25 Years Ago: How We Got Started!©

Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 453

The following is my recollection of how the I.P.P.S. Southern Region of North America came into being. In preparing this piece, I found a few notes, but mostly it comes from memory.
Propagation of Vegetables©

Author: Anthony (Tony) G. Biggs

PP: 79


Vegetables are grown for a variety of reasons and wherever man has settled long enough to produce crops, vegetables have been cultivated for human and animal food.

All around the world, vegetables were grown on the edges of major centres of population. Market gardeners took their own fresh produce into the city markets. The growing areas were often located on the very best agricultural land. As cities have spread, the market gardening areas have largely been subdivided for development. Some of the world's best horticultural land now supports houses and factories rather than vegetable production. A few of the traditional areas remain, however, with established vegetable growing families or new migrants waiting for a sufficiently attractive financial offer for their land.

Meanwhile, traditional market gardeners and new broad-acre farmers have moved well away from the cities and many vegetable production areas are now large, extensive, mechanised enterprises.

In other

The J. C. Raulston Arboretum at North Carolina State University©

Author: Robert E. Lyons

PP: 456

The J.C. Raulston Arboretum (JCRA) was founded in 1976 as the North Carolina State University Arboretum. Dr. J.C. Raulston, the Arboretum's founding director, inspired the university and community with a unique and generous vision of a research, teaching, and outreach arboretum. The plant collections are the foundation of the JCRA. Collection development began in 1976 and now numbers over 6000 native and non-native taxa. The JCRA comprises one of the most diverse displays of woody and herbaceous plants in the United States, including several significant collections and garden displays.
Pre- and Post-Hurricane Considerations

Author: Tom Yeager, Eelco Tinga, Ted Bilderback, Hugh Gramling

PP: 460


Andrew, Camille, Donna, and Hugo — these are not names of children next door, but hurricanes most of us remember. We remember their roar, and destruction; the pain and suffering they caused. In 1969, Camille left 256 dead and in 1960, 50 people perished in Donna's destruction (www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastdead.html), while in 1992 Andrew caused 30 billion dollars in damages (www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastcost.html). The southeast is vulnerable as shown by data from the National Hurricane Center (www.nhc.noaa.gov/paststate.html). There has been a major hurricane direct hit in all-coastal southern states except Georgia and Maryland during 1900–1996 (Table 1). Because of the warm climate the southeast is densely populated and many nurseries are located in coastal regions. Thus, we must be prepared. This paper will outline pre- and post-hurricane considerations for nursery operations based on experience of the authors.

Plant Breeding and Introduction: The Necessity for Sustained, Energetic, and Visionary Programs©

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 464

The plant introduction merry-go-round is spinning out of control. The herbaceous world is moving faster than the woody world simply because flowering cycles are shorter. I think back to the late great Dr. Don Egolf who initiated the viburnum breeding program while a graduate student at Cornell and carried the work and progeny through his entire career; to think that I have possibly his best viburnum, NA 69852, which was a cross between V. macrocephalum f. keteleeri and V. utile, almost 15 years after he made his initial crosses. For example, ‘Mohawk’ resulted from a backcross of V. ×burkwoodii × V. carlesii made in 1953.
Postemergence Spurge Control in Container-Grown Liriope©

Author: James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, John W. Olive

PP: 466

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate postemergence applied herbicides for prostrate spurge [Chamaesyce maculata (syn. Euphorbia supina)] control and tolerance of container-grown liriope (Liriope muscari). In experiment 1, Manage at 0.0084, 0.017, or 0.034 kg ai ha-1 (0.0075, 0.015, or 0.03 lb ai ac-1); Image at 0.07, 0.14, or 0.28 kg ai ha-1 (0.0625, 0.125, or 0.25 lb ai ac-1); Trimec Southern at 0.64, 1.28, or 2.56 kg ai ha-1 (0.57, 1.14, or 2.28 lb ai ac-1); and Roundup at 0.11, 0.22, or 0.45 kg ai ha-1 (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 lb ai ac-1) were applied to 10.2-cm(4-inch) liners of ‘Big Blue’ liriope infested with prostrate spurge. Only Roundup at 0.45 kg ai ha-1 (0.4 lb ai ac-1) provided effective postemergence spurge control (96%) and caused no short-term or long-term injury to ‘Big Blue’. In Experiment 2, Finale at 0.28, 0.56, or 1.12 kg ai ha-1 (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 lb ai ac-1), and Roundup at 0.45, 0.9, or 1.8 kg ai ha-1 (0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 lb ai ac-1) were applied to ‘Variegata’ liriope infested with mature spurge. Finale at 1.12 kg ai ha-1 (1.0 lb ai ac-1) and Roundup at 1.8 kg ai ha-1 (1.6 lb ai ac-1) provided effective spurge control (100 and 92.8%, respectively) and caused no short-term injury to ‘Variegata’. In Experiment 3, the same rates used in Experiment 2 were applied to either small [2.5 to 10.1 cm (1 to 8 inches)] or large [24.4 to 38.1 cm (10 to 15 inches)] spurge to determine if larger spurge are more difficult to control. Finale at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ai ha-1 (0.5 and 1.0 lb ai ac-1) provided excellent control of small nonflowering spurge, but there was a decline in control of large-flowering spurge. Roundup at 0.9 and 1.8 kg ai ha-1 (0.8 and 1.6 lb ai ac-1) provided good control of large and small spurge (91% to 100%).
Extended Delivery Herbicide©1

Author: Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Ken M. Tilt, Glenn R. Wehtie,

PP: 473

Broadcast applications of granular herbicides for preemergent weed control in container crops results in significant herbicide loss between containers as nontarget loss. This study was conducted to evaluate potential extended delivery carriers of pre-emergent herbicides. Our objective was to develop a controlled-release herbicide that could be applied directly to nursery containers annually; virtually eliminating nontarget herbicide loss. Two experiments were conducted: one in the laboratory and one in the greenhouse. The labaratory experiment tested release rates of oryzalin from three polymeric resins. There were two anion exchange resins (A300 and A400) and one sorbent resin (MN400). After 57 leaching events the MN400, A300 and A400 still retained 96.73%, 91.3%, and 88.74% of oryzalin, respectively. The greenhouse experiment tested the efficacy of these herbicide formulations applied at various rates as well as commercially formulated oryzalin (Surflan 4AS). There was no difference between the two exchange resins and Surflan at 90 days after treatment (DAT), however at 120 DAT both exchange resins had significantly lower weed control than Surflan. The MN400 resin provided less weed control than other treatments at both 90 and 120 DAT, except for Surflan at 120 DAT where no difference occurred.

The Basics of Plant Hybridization and Improvement©

Author: Dennis J. Werner

PP: 478


New ornamental plant cultivars can arise in any number of ways, including discovery and domestication of desirable plants found in the wild, identification and commercialization of superior seedlings obtained from seed collected off of garden-worthy plants, and rare shoot or bud sports arising on pre-existing cultivars. Additionally, many new cultivars of plants have arisen as a consequence of controlled hybridization between selected parents. Although successful development of new, improved plant cultivars by controlled hybridization is maximized if the hybridizer possesses a solid foundation in plant genetics, amateur plant breeders can and have had significant success in the development of new ornamental cultivars. In this presentation, some of the basic principles and techniques involved in plant hybridization and improvement will be discussed. This background will equip the amateur with the tools to initiate a simple plant breeding effort. The presentation will focus

Benefits and Opportunities with Mycorrhizal Fungi in Nursery Propagation and Production Systems©

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr.

PP: 482


Mycorrhiza means "fungus root" and is a symbiotic association between specific fungi and the fine, young roots of higher plants. The majority of plants strictly speaking do not have roots, rather they form mycorrhizas. There are seven different types of mycorrhiza. The two most important are the endomycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza. Endomycorrhizal plants are typically herbaceous plants, shrubs, many ornamental, fruit and nut trees, vegetables and agronomic crops, and turf grasses. More than 85% of higher plants form endomycorrhizal associations. The ecotomycorrhizal fungi form associations with conifers such as fir and pines, and hardwoods such as birch, beech, eucalyptus, oak, willow, and magnolia. Ectomycorrhiza fungi colonize around 10% of higher plants. Some plants such as eucalyptus will form both endo- and ectomycorrhizal associations.

Endomycorrhiza. Endomycorrhiza are characterized by arbuscules (arbuscular mycorrhiza), and some endomycorrhiza will form both arbuscules

Invasive Plants and the Nursery Industry©

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 490

Federal agencies have identified invasive species as the second most important threat to the natural environment in the United States, behind only habitat destruction. Although members of the animal kingdom get most of the attention, invasive plants are a major threat to parks and forests, greenways and gardens, as well as to endangered species.
Propagation at Hanover Farms, Inc.©

Author: James G. Bruce

PP: 493


Hanover Farms, Inc., is a regional groundcover nursery grower serving primarily the Mid-Atlantic States of Maryland and Virginia since 1984. We produce approximately 100,000 flats annually of Hedera helix, Liriope muscari, Pachysandra terminalis, and Vinca minor. Production is labor intensive involving the handling of some 4,000,000 plants annually as cuttings, divisions, liners, and plugs. As a production incentive, we make extensive use of piece-rate payment. All cuttings and tender rooted liners are housed initially in shaded houses that are humidified frequently, followed by decreasing humidification for later stages. Once hardened-off, these flats are then moved to finishing houses. Heavier liners, once potted, are placed in finishing houses without added humidification. All flats are moved around the nursery and shipped on our trucks on carts with the aid of forklifts. The price is constrained on groundcover products, and differentiation of the product is difficult.

Some Exciting New Woodies and Perennials for Zones 7, 8, and 9©

Author: Ted Stephens

PP: 496


Nurseries Caroliniana, Inc. is a retail garden center and wholesale nursery located in east-central South Carolina in the Savannah River Valley midway between the mountains and the coast in Zone 8a. The nursery was begun as a retail garden center providing unusual and hard-to-find plant material not readily available. In the early 1980s we began to grow plant material for our own consumption, and in the early 1990s began to sell to other nurseries, landscapers, and garden centers. We usually evaluate 100 to 200 new accessions each year to determine the best new material to be brought into production. We presently produce about 1500 taxa with a distribution of roughly two-thirds woody material and one-third herbaceous perennials. The following are some examples of what we have found to be some new and exciting plants which have piqued customer interest.

Michelia maudiae (Magnolia maudiae). Probably within the decade, the genus Michelia will be classified as Magnolia

Fruits of the Forest: Exploring Australia's Tropical Rainforests for New Pharmaceuticals and Industrial Chemicals©

Author: Paul Reddell, Victoria Gordon

PP: 84

Many of the chemicals on which our healthcare and agriculture rely originate from "leads" provided by nature. For example, approximately one in four prescription drugs used in the developed world are derived from tropical plants. However, a major limitation to the discovery of new chemicals from nature is the enormity of the tasking using current approaches which are largely random, time consuming, and costly. Recently we have developed a powerful new approach to discovery of "bioactive" chemicals based on our knowledge of the ecology of Australia's tropical rainforests. This approach very effectively targets sources of bioactive chemicals in nature and is helping us unlock the very rich, but largely untapped, chemical diversity of our tropical forests. In this presentation, we illustrate this approach with an example from our work on chemical defences in fruits and seeds of Queensland rainforest plants.

There are more than 1800 species of flowering plants in Australia's humid tropics and

Small Steps to Improving Your Irrigation System, Reducing Labor and Increasing Your Bottom Line©

Author: Ken Tilt

PP: 501


Irrigation is one of our most critical cultural practices in production of nursery crops. Whenever an individual asks about getting into the container nursery business, my first advice is always — you must have large quantities of high quality water. Whenever you hear an irrigation lecture, the point most frequently emphasized is that you assign your most competent, knowledgeable person to oversee the irrigation. Yet, in reality, irrigation is a cultural practice that we offer the least attention to at most nurseries and in our research studies. There are so many variables that it is extremely difficult to perfect an irrigation system that will maximize growth of all the varied species at a nursery. However, like golf, while we cannot master it, we can continue to work toward improvement. This article looks at where we have been, where we are, and what small steps we can take to improve irrigation management systems.

Overwintering of Potted Liners©

Author: Mark Griffith

PP: 506


The over-wintering in the potted liner stage of production has frustrated many a nurseryman. With less soil as a buffer from extreme temperatures and a smaller plant with less carbohydrate reserves, the task is quite difficult. At Griffith Propagation Nursery we approach this task through both physical and physiological means.

Physical Means. In 1998, we decided to build greenhouses or cold frames for all of our liners. Prior to that, only about 50% of our liners were under greenhouse protection. The cost of building these additional 40 to 50 structures was significant. However, we feel that the decrease in losses from the cold, wind and excess moisture has come close to paying for the structures in just 2 years.

Each greenhouse is covered with 4-year 6-mil poly and 55% shade cloth. The structures have sideboards located 2 ft off the ground that run the length of the house. This gives us the ability to raise or drop the plastic throughout the winter. Given the temperature

Winter Protection at Schaefer Nursery©

Author: Milton Schaefer

PP: 507

We grow our plants as vigorously as possible. I have always contended that a plant that starts out growing strongly and is given proper nutrients and adequate water will continue to be a superior plant. We try to push our plants as quickly as possible, so as to produce a larger liner with a big, healthy, fibrous root system.
Fiber Pots with Spin Out for Nursery Crop Production©

Author: John M. Ruter

PP: 509


Nurseries have been using pots made from recycled paper fiber for years. Fiber pots have been traditionally used in the northern states for short-term crops like chrysanthemums, bare-root material such as roses and fruit trees, and for fieldgrown shrubs. In the southeast, however, fiber pots quickly deteriorate and were not accepted as a viable alternative for commercial production.

Copper compounds have been used since the 1970s to inhibit root growth in container-grown plants. In the early 1990s, Spin Out (copper hydroxide) was approved for controlling root growth in containers. Copper works by causing a mildly toxic reaction when root tips come in contact with copper-containing surfaces. Since most root tips are not killed, the benefit of coming in contact with copper is increased root branching. Plants grown in pots treated with copper hydroxide do not have malformed root systems or roots matted against the substrate: container interface.

Avoiding the Staking Dilemma©

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 513

If trees only grew upright when staked and supported, our forests would be a mass of horizontal entanglement and the lumberjack would never have to yell "timber". When a seed germinates, the primary root or radical quickly extends downward to support the developing new plant. The tip of the taproot suppresses secondary root development until its vigor begins to decline as oxygen and conditions for root functions deteriorate with soil depth. The tip of the taproot controls branching below ground much like the terminal bud controls branching above ground. If you want the top of a tree or a side limb to branch, cut off the tip. Roots respond the same way.

The young tree branches, and except for the occasional rabbit or deer damage, the branches remain present and functional until surrounding trees or other vegetation provides sufficient shade to cause their death. By the time the lowest horizontal branches have died by lack of light, generally several years have passed and successive

Microclimate Manipulation for Improved Plant Growth©

Author: Pat McCracken

PP: 522


Historically we have had to accept whatever climate nature has thrown at us unless we were willing to build expensive climate-controlled structures. With careful evaluation and a little ingenuity we can take advantage of microclimates to avoid some of the challenges that confront us.

Microclimates are small, relatively uniform climatic conditions that are restricted to a local area. Microclimates can be found in both soil and air. Examples are: soil and air temperature (both high and low temperatures), light levels, the amount of water in the soil, and air space in the soil. Soil microclimates in containers are much more extreme than in field production. Soil temperature in containers is often a major limiting factor for plant growth. Extreme high or low temperatures are detrimental to a healthy root system.

There are many ways to moderate the soil temperature in containers. Growing container plants in shade or with tight container spacing to reduce the amount of direct

Weed Control in Woody Liner Production©

Author: Joseph C. Neal

PP: 528


Weed control in the production of woody nursery stock relies heavily upon the use of broad-spectrum preemergence herbicides. These herbicides effectively control most weeds if applied before weed seeds germinate. However, all too often rooted cuttings or liners arrive at the nursery already containing weeds. Additionally, in recent weed scouting programs it was observed that several "new" weeds were introduced to nurseries in liners purchased from other regions (Neal and Williams, 1998). In this way growers start the production cycle with emerged weeds that are not controlled by preemergence herbicide treatments, and introduce new weeds into their nursery that may not be controlled by existing management programs. To prevent such events it is imperative that liner producers maintain rigorous and effective weed management programs. Sanitation, hand weeding and judicious use of herbicides must be integrated into a comprehensive weed management program.

Expanded Polystyrene as a Substitute for Perlite in Rooting Media©

Author: Diane E. Dunn, Janet C. Cole

PP: 532


Perlite is an important component in soilless potting media. The price of perlite depends on grade and volume ordered, with current prices ranging from $27 to $47 per yard3.

Expanded polystyrene beads are commonly used in media mixes in the greenhouse industry, but they are less commonly used in the nursery industry. Usually polystyrene beads can be acquired free or for a nominal fee of about $50 per semi truck load if they are picked up by the user at the source, whereas a similar volume of perlite would cost $4000.

Preferred characteristics of a propagation media include: (1) consistent quality, (2) absence of disease and insect pests, (3) absence of toxic chemicals, (4) water-holding capacity, (5) light weight, and (6) adequate drainage and aeration. Other considerations include ease of each component to be mixed with other components, ability to support the cutting, and ease of sticking MacDonald (1986).

The expanded polystyrene (EPS) industry produces a large amount

Influence of Early Harvest PGR on the Growth of Five Woody Ornamental Species©

Author: John M. Ruter

PP: 538


Decline of container-grown ornamentals during the hottest months of summer is a common problem for nurserymen throughout the United States. When roots are killed from prolonged exposure to supraoptimal root-zone temperatures, growth ceases and the production of naturally-occurring plant hormones also decreases. Supplemental application of plant hormones may be beneficial during stressful periods of plant growth in container nurseries.

Numerous biostimulants (non-nutritional growth enhancers) are available today and these products have been useful for decreasing summer decline in various coolseason turfgrasses. Claims made by companies producing plant biostimulants include enhanced root growth,improved stress tolerance, decreased senescence of plant tissue, improved tillering of grasses, increased nutrient translocation, ability to reduce pesticide applications, and improved efficient use of applied nutrients. Early Harvest PGR (Griffin LLC, Valdosta, GA) is a commercial

Evaluation of Ornamental Grasses in South Georgia©

Author: John M. Ruter, Amy B. Carter

PP: 539


Ornamental grasses continue to increase in popularity in the southeastern United States. Grasses offer variation in plant texture, form, color, and seasonal interest for homeowners and landscapers.

NESPAL is an acronym for the National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory located at the Coastal Plain Station in Tifton, Georgia (USDA Zone 8A). Unique aspects of the NESPAL complex are the native plant community based design and the use of environmentally sound landscaping practices. The grounds are also being used as a test site for landscape plant establishment and adaptability evaluations. Tifton averages about 100 days per year at or above 32°C (90°F).

New Plants for Tropical Landscapes©

Author: Anton Van de Schans

PP: 85

The definition of a "NEW" plant is very relative, depending upon personal perception, availability, and location. Its progression from being a "novelty" to an "old faithful" is influenced both by supply factors such as growth rate and ease of propagation and demand factors such as profile and application.
Liming and Micronutrient Requirements for Containerized Landscape Tree Seedling Production©

Author: Amy N. Wright, Robert D. Wright, Alex X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harr

PP: 541

Nine species of landscape trees were grown from seed in two pine barks with a pH 4.7 and 5.1. Preplant amendment treatments to each pine bark were: with or without dolomitic limestone [3.6 kg m-3 (6 lb yd-3)] and with or without micronutrients [0.9 kg m-3 (1.5 lb yd-3) Micromax]. The experiment was repeated using two of the nine original species and pine barks with pH 5.1 and 5.8. In a second experiment, one of the species used in both above experiments was grown from seed in pine bark amended with 0, 1.2, 2.4, or 3.6 kg m-3 (0, 2, 4, or 6 lb yd-3)] dolomitic limestone and 0 or 0.9 kg m-3 (0 or 1.5 lb yd-3) Micromax to determine the effect of micronutrient fertilization over a wide substrate pH range. Lime rates resulted in initial pine bark pH values of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5, respectively. In all experiments, micronutrient fertilization increased shoot dry weight and shoot height for all species, while lime amendments decreased shoot dry weight and shoot height for all species. Pine bark solution nutrient element concentrations increased when micronutrients were added, decreased when lime was added, and were higher in low pH bark than in high pH bark. In all experiments, adding micronutrients was necessary regardless of pine bark pH, while adding lime was not necessary.
Influence of Misting Interval and Hormone Concentration for Propagation of Native Azaleas©

Author: Shani L. File, Patricia R. Knight, Robert F. Brzuszek

PP: 546

Fifteen cm (6 inch) terminal softwood cuttings of Rhododendron austrinum (Small) Rehd. were taken 28 April 2000, from an established native stand at the Crosby Arboretum in Picayune, Mississippi. All cuttings were placed in a propagation house under two intermittent mist regimes: 8 sec 4 min-1 followed by 6 sec 6 min-1, or 4 sec 2 min-1 followed by 2 sec 4 min-1. Cuttings were daily misted from 8:00 to 16:30. The experiment was a two-way factorial (auxin concentration 5 mist interval) arranged in a randomized complete block design. Six single plant replicates were utilized. The auxin used was K-salt of IBA (K-IBA). Cutting vigor at approximately 2 months after sticking was not influenced by K-IBA concentration or misting interval. Root length and root ratings were not influenced by misting interval, but there was an interaction between K-IBA concentration and misting interval for root number. As K-IBA concentration increased, the lower mist intervals produced more roots.
Mycorrhizal Fungal Inoculation of Woody Seed Propagation Substrate©

Author: Garry E. Acree, Bonnie L. Appleton

PP: 551

Incorporation of mycorrhizal inoculum into a range of soilless propagation substrate did not result in colonization of either ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal tree species grown from seed. Numerous factors may have accounted for or contributed to the lack of colonization, including bark substrate phenolic compounds, excessive substrate moisture and nonviable mycorrhizal inoculum.
The Importance of Agriculture in Our Economy©

Author: Phil Osterli

PP: 559

  • Stanislaus County - A major Agricultural Producer
  • County area: 1,000,000 acres
  • Population: 433,000 (1/99)
  • Ethnicity: White, 70.8%; Hispanic, 21.8%; African-American, 1.6%;
    Pacific Islander/Asian, 5.8%

Stanislaus County is centrally located within the state of California. It occupies a portion of the Northern San Joaquin Valley, extending across it from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the principal east to west drainage of the Diablo Range. One of the fastest growing areas of California, the county has increased its population over ten-fold in the last 45 years. The cities of Modesto and Ceres account for half the population of the county. The remainder of the population resides in the other seven cities and the unincorporated areas of the county. The first two irrigation districts formed in California under the Wright Act of 1887, the Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts, share Tuolumne River water and power with the City of San Francisco.

Agriculture is the

Questions/Answers: General Session I


PP: 560

Robert Driver: What effect, if any, does juvenility have on the expression of noninfectious bud failure?
Developing Alternative Heat Treatments for Disinfestation of Soil and Planting Media©

Author: James J. Stapleton

PP: 561

A "double-tent"solarization (passive solar heating) technique was recently approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as a nematicidal treatment for container nursery soil. The treatment currently stipulates exposure of soil to a temperature of 70°C for 30 contiguous min, among other considerations. Due to the need for broad-spectrum pest control in container nursery settings, the technique also was tested to confirm its usefulness as an herbicidal treatment. Laboratory-derived thermal death dosages (temperature 5 time) for six weed species important in California [Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), Amaranthus albus (tumble pigweed), Sonchus oleraceus (annual sowthistle), Sisymbrium irio (London rocket), Solanum nigrum (black nightshade), and Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass)] were determined and used as guidelines for devising treatment periods. Two field experiments were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to confirm the laboratory thermal death data; no seed germination occurred in any of the solarized treatments, in accordance with the laboratory results. Germination data were confirmed by performing squash tests and/or tetrazolium assays on nongerminated seeds. The approved "double-tent" solarization technique can be useful to producers of containerized nursery plants.
Questions/Answers: General Session II


PP: 564

Kathy Echols: Dr. Stapleton, have you looked at effects of solarization on mycorrhizae?
Hibiscus syriacus Plant Regeneration From Callus©

Author: Maria M. Jenderek, Arthur J. Olney

PP: 565

The regeneration ability of callus derived from three different plant fragments of eastern hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus) was investigated. Callus was initiated from three different, 1-month-old seedling fragments (root, hypocotyl, and cotyledon) on Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-D or NAA, and BA, 2iP, or kinetin. The largest mass of callus was observed on medium containing 2,4-D and 2iP. The highest number of shoots, leaves, and roots was achieved from callus induced on NAA and BA medium and regenerated on medium with 0.1 mg liter-1 of BA.
The Use of Shoot Tip Culture in Foundation Plant Materials Service Programs©

Author: D.A. Golino, S.T. Sim, J. Bereczky, A. Rowhani

PP: 568


Foundation Plant Materials Service (FPMS) is a self-supporting service department in the College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences at the University of California, Davis, which produces, tests, maintains, and distributes disease-tested propagating material for use by California nurseries (For additional information, see the FPMS website at http://fpms.ucdavis.edu). At this time, FPMS is responsible for grape (Vitis), strawberry (Fragaria), fruit tree, nut tree, rose (Rosa), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) clean-stock programs. Since its inception, scientists working with FPMS have pioneered techniques in grapevine virus disease detection and elimination (Nyland and Goheen,1969; Alley and Golino, 2000). These are the two cornerstones of the clean stock program: the ability to determine whether target virus(es) or other pathogens are present and the ability to eliminate virus from diseased stock.

Micro-shoot tip culture is the method of choice to eliminate virus

In Vitro Cultures and the Development of New Fruit Varieties©

Author: Craig A. Ledbetter

PP: 574


Numerous cultivars of stone fruits and grapes have been developed in the breeding programs at the Agricultural Research Service's Fresno laboratory. Evaluation of grapes began in the early 1900s and breeding of table grapes and raisins commenced shortly thereafter. In the mid-1950s, Prunus breeding efforts began to enhance the few available varieties of stone fruit. Breeding efforts in both stone fruits and grapes could be considered traditional and without the use of in vitro cultures until the mid-1970s when embryo culture techniques were first employed. In vitro embryo and ovule cultures are now used routinely to improve the efficiency of the breeding efforts. Micropropagation is also employed in Prunus to provide clones of elite germplasm for experimentation and for the dispersion of new varieties.

Techniques for Land Regeneration©

Author: Errol Wiles

PP: 87

I plant trees! Please be assured that I am not 28 years old and have had a hard life; I really am every bit of the 63 years that I look. Why then do I plant trees?

  Elementary arithmetic will tell you that my planting trees for dollar profit is no less than eight different kinds of stupid in one. There has to be something else. There are other profits, and being at peace with the Beneficent God is one of them. I am in the blessed position of having a suitable piece of land in these glorious wet tropics and of not being dependent on it for my income. This circumstance carries with it a bounden obligation: that is to do what is right and do it well. So plant trees. Which trees?

In the scrub on my place and in the National Park, which is on three sides of my property, there are probably upwards of 600 species of trees. Dare I suggest that becoming familiar with the vices and virtues of all those would involve a lifetime of work and study? Obviously I don't have a lifetime. It became

Questions and Answers: Session III


PP: 577

Robert Wooley: I notice that some of the viruses are the same in roses and fruit trees. Will they transmit between the different species?
Container Stock Versus Direct Seeding for Woody Species in Restoration Sites©

Author: Truman P. Young, Richard Y. Evans

PP: 577


Ecological restoration is a rapidly growing field of biology. Grassroots restoration activities have a long history and have recently increased dramatically. These are now being supplemented by state and federally sponsored restoration projects reaching tens and hundreds of millions of dollars, like those in the Everglades, Lake Tahoe, and the Sacramento River and Delta. Academic programs are blossoming nationwide. Mitigation continues to be an important "restoration" activity despite serious concerns about its environmental and scientific validity. Ecological restoration is primarily a plant science (Young, 2000). Its main activities include removal of degradative forces, soil preparation (repair), control of exotic weeds (especially in Western ecosystems), and the planting of native species. It is the latter activity that relies on expert advice from plant propagation specialists.

Plant propagation is an important part of ecological restoration. There has been

Can Seed Treatments Improve Germination of Rare Salt-Marsh Species?©

Author: Patti Kreiberg

PP: 583

The recreation of a salt marsh at the historic Crissy Field in San Francisco calls for the inclusion of a diverse palette of native vegetation. Among the plants desired for reintroduction are several rare or uncommon species.

A study of various methods of seed treatments to test germination rates may facilitate the reintroduction of the rare species.

Seeds of 14 salt-marsh species were collected, dried, and cleaned. Seed were manually graded under a microscope to select samples which appeared the most viable. Viability evaluations were based only on visual clues such as: uniformity in size, seed color, fullness, symmetry, and lack of insect damage. Graded seed were separated into sub-samples for different treatments. Control group plantings were followed by plantings of both salt- and fresh-water-soaked seed and cold stratified for varying lengths of time.

Several species responded well to soaking treatments. Cold stratification following soaking also produced positive results. The

Glacier Point Restoration Project©

Author: Ann Fisher Chandler

PP: 585

The Glacier Point Restoration Project involved installation of new facilities, development of a trail system with interpretive signing, and restoration of the landscape at Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park. The landscape restoration work was completed fall of 1997. Landscape restoration presents a challenge at this site due to a variety of factors. Site constraints included limited access, sterile soils, a short growing season, heavy snow load, wildlife use, and heavy foot traffic. The plant palette also presented some challenges and all materials for use in propagation had to be collected within the vicinity of the project. The targeted restoration species included Arctostaphylos patula, greenleaf manzanita; Chrysolepis sempervirens, chinquapin; and Quercus vaccinifolia, huckleberry oak; three species that are particularly difficult to propagate or establish. This project has far-reaching implications regarding our ability to restore native plant communities in disturbed soils throughout the Sierra Nevada.
Questions/Answers: General Session IV


PP: 588

Martha Booz: Did you water the salt marsh plants with salt water?

Patricia Kreiberg: They were all irrigated with fresh well water. We used 44 parts per thousand in the salt-water soak since in a salt marsh situation the water can get as high as 55 parts per thousand. Sea water is 35 parts per thousand so we chose an intermediate concentration.

Using Mycorrhizal Fungi During the Propagation of Woody Horticultural Crops©

Author: Carolyn F. Scagel

PP: 589


Plants with roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungi are more effective at nutrient and water acquisition, less susceptible to disease, and can be more productive under certain stressful environmental growing conditions than plants without mycorrhizae. A great deal of information is known about seedling responses to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi however,there is little information describing the benefits of inoculation during the propagation of woody horticultural crops from cuttings. This paper reviews concepts associated with using mycorrhizal fungi to influence initiation and growth of roots during cutting propagation.

Taxus Propagation at Meadow Lake Nursery for Taxol Production©

Author: Mic Armstrong

PP: 595

It is an honor to present this paper to IPPS Western Region. Although last year I presented a workshop in Wilsonville,Oregon, on computer tracking of pesticides, and I have presented several papers and posters to the Eastern Region, this is the first paper I will present for the Proceedings as a member of the Western Region.

Meadow Lake Nursery is this year celebrating its 15th year as a family business. Todd and Cheroyl Erickson left Bailey's, Oregon, to try their luck in the liner business. Today they have put together a formidable team. One of the exciting things about Meadow Lake is the international feel. We have staff from eight diverse countries, super plants that originated in every corner of the world, and the technologies to grow them that are gleaned from ideas often far from home! Using a range of techniques, Meadow Lake propagates over 150 tree and shrub species from seed and many hundreds more cultivars by cuttings and tissue culture. About 50% of the liner production

Rooting Cofactors: Past, Present, and Future©

Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 598

Research to find substances that may be responsible for root initiation has been underway for over 100 years. The presence of leaves and buds have been shown to have a promotive effect on root initiation. If leaves and/or buds are removed or if the stem is girdled, rooting decreases. The effect of girdling the stem indicates that the root-promoting substances are transported in the phloem. Sugars and nitrogenous substances certainly play a role and the beneficial effects of leaves can, in part at least, be replaced by supplying leafless cuttings sugars and amino acids.

The discovery of auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in the 1930s and its ability to stimulate root initiation demonstrated that a hormonal substance or rhizocaline was involved in the process of root initiation. The synthesis of compounds, such as, indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), provided plant propagators with compounds that could increase the range of plants propagated by cuttings, shorten

Question and Answers for General Session V


PP: 601

Robert Driver: Are there mycorrhizae that are detrimental to plant growth? Should we be concerned with which ones are chosen?
Discovering and Patenting a Chinese Pistache Tree: Pistacia chinensis ‘Pearl Street’©

Author: Allen Lagarbo

PP: 602


The Chinese pistache tree has long been a popular tree in temperate areas of the United States. This speciesoriginatesin areas of China, Taiwan, and the Philippines, and is suitable for many areas of the world. Known for thebrilliant fallcolors of red, orange, and yellows in early fall, it is a medium grower to 40 ft in height with a spread ofequaldimensions. Chinese pistache is an excellent street, lawn, yard, parking lot, and park tree.

Grafting of Chamelaucium Cultivars©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 90


The genus Chamelaucium consists of a group of medium- to tall-growing shrubs native to the southern and central areas of Western Australia. It is widely cultivated over much of Australia for cut flower production. There is extensive production in southern Queensland and most of the early waxflower exports from Australia emanate from the Toowoomba, Darling Downs, and Lockyer Valley districts of Queensland.

Most Chamelaucium forms are highly susceptible to the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi, or root rot fungus. The poorly drained heavy soils of south Queensland and the intense summer rainfall make the spread of the fungal spores in waxflower plantations very rapid and many waxflower growers experience significant plant losses during each summer growing period. It is not uncommon for south Queensland waxflower growers to suffer losses of 10% of plants per year with cutting-propagated plants. This level of loss makes waxflower plantations uneconomic and profitability

Using Plant Growth Regulators to Eliminate Nuisance Fruits in Ornamental Trees©

Author: Ed Perry

PP: 605


Numerous ornamental tree species have fruit-bearing characteristics that make them undesirable, especially when thetrees overhang sidewalks, driveways and streets. Among other problems, nuisance fruits create slipping hazards forpedestrians. City park departments are especially concerned about such fruits, as they are liable for injuries caused bytrees growing in city easements.

A number of trials were conducted in early to mid-1990s to determine the effectiveness of ethephon and NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in eliminating the fruits of several commonly planted ornamental trees. At the time of the trials,relatively few species could be legally treated for fruit elimination in California; NAA was registered for eliminatingolive (Olea europaea), pear (Pyrus spp.) and plum (Prunus spp.) fruits, ethephon for eliminating appleand crabapple (Malus spp.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua), and olive fruits, and mefluidide for eliminating olivefruits. This report summarizes

Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Linaria maroccana©

Author: D.J. Barcel

PP: 607

Linaria maroccana is a small and vigorous annual plant. It is sometimes referred to as toadflax or miniature snapdragon. The Fantasy series has several colors, such as, yellow, white, pink, blue, and rose. Some colors are more vigorous than the others. The goal was to discover if plant growth regulators (PGR) or their combinations could provide acceptable growth control and would produce a plant more proportional to the plant container. Materials used include: B-Nine (daminozide), Bonzi (paclobutrazol), Cycocel (chlormequat chloride), A-Rest (ancymidol), Florel (ethephon), or Sumagic (uniconazole). Tests were conducted for the 1997 and 1998 California Pack Trials. Plants were grown in 4-inch pots. Several materials exhibited acceptable growth control (B-Nine combined with Cycocel at 2500 + 1500 ppm, respectively). However, and more importantly, it was discovered that timing of the application in relationship to plant size is an important factor for obtaining desirable growth control; early treatments must be made when plants are 1½ inches tall.
Plant Growth Regulator Trials on Perennial Ornamental Plants©

Author: Gary W. Hickman

PP: 612

Based on a series of research trials on perennial ornamental plants, effective rates of several plant growth regulators are given. Genera include Artemesia, Cosmos, Coreopsis, Digitalis, Fuchsia, Gaura, Hemerocallis, Monarda, ×Solidaster, Veronica, Arenaria, and Dianthus. Plant container sizes ranged from 1-gal field grown to one-true-leaf-sized plugs in the greenhouse.
Questions and Answers: General Session VI


PP: 614

Don Merhaut: When you apply these growth regulators, do you change the fertility programs or do you see a need to reduce the fertility?
Plant Collecting in Mexico©

Author: David W. Hannings

PP: 615

Over the past 25 years I have made more than 20 plant collecting trips with Gary Hammer, one of my former students, to all areas of Mexico. We have collected both well known plants and plants new to horticulture. The known plants were collected to sell through his nursery, Desert to Jungle Nursery in Los Angeles, or through plant shows and the new plants were propagated by us and introduced through his nursery. We have made collecting trips to a number of other countries, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, and South Africa among others, but this talk and the slides will focus on Mexico.

Mexico is an excellent destination for plant collecting because it is close by; it has an amazing range of plants, most famously orchids, bromeliads, cacti, other succulents, cycads, and euphorbias; and it has a wide range of climates because of its varied geography. Horticulturists interested in tropical plants, desert plants, temperate plants, or alpine plants can find them all in Mexico.

Ball FloraPlant Product Development©

Author: Kerry Strope

PP: 617


Development of new products takes commitment of both time and resources. Every company has their own procedures for introducing new varieties. I am going to outline the general procedures used at Ball FloraPlant when developing a new cutivar. I am going to use the New Guinea Impatiens ‘Celebration Neon Salmon’ as an example to walk you through the steps from the original cross through retail sale.

Finding New Plants for Introduction©

Author: Douglas Justice

PP: 619


The University of British Columbia Botanical Garden Plant Introduction Scheme has been introducing and recommending plants since 1985. Roy Taylor, then Director of the Botanical Gardens established the program in 1980 to foster strong links with the nursery industry and provide the public with a continuing source of interesting and reliable landscape plants. The UBC Botanical Garden, initially a campus arboretum planted in 1916, and subsequently reduced to a rose garden and a few ancillary plantings because of campus development through the 1960s, grew to over 70 acres under Dr. Taylor's direction. It now boasts magnificent collections of woody and herbaceous plants from around the temperate world in a variety of garden settings. It was from these collections that the idea for a plant introduction program was borne.

Our present Director, Bruce Macdonald (I.P.P.S. Western Region President 1988–89 and I.P.P.S. International President 1996–97), is responsible for most of the

Selection and Propagation of Deep-rooted Ornamental Trees for Urban Environments©

Author: David W. Burger, Zachary Taylor

PP: 622

Ornamental trees in urban environments provide myriad biological, physical, economical, and sociological benefits. Trees: (1) provide a habitat for a wide range of animal life, (2) function as a cleansing mechanism for polluted air, (3) shade houses and other structures thus reducing the need for electrically powered air conditioners during the summer, and (4) provide an environment in which human beings can connect with nature. However, some trees have root systems that cause damage to sidewalks, curbs, and gutters. This damage is the result of planting trees in planting areas that are too small or too narrow and/or the trees inherent tendency to have shallow, horizontally oriented roots (Barker, 1987; Barker and Wagar, 1987). As these shallow roots produce secondary thickening growth they tend to upheave pavements around them. Several popular tree species have been associated with sidewalk and curb displacement. They include: Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum), Morus alba (white
Questions and Answers for General Session VII


PP: 632

Kristin Yanker-Hansen: What do we do about collectors taking plant materrials out of countries from around the world and making them commercially available in U.S.A.?
Meeting in Seattle 2001©

Author: Fred D. Rauch

PP: 632

I would like to extend a special invitation to join us in Seattle for the 42nd annual meeting of the Western Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society. The meeting will be held at the University of Washington campus on September 5–8, 2001. Most of the program activities will take place in the Student Union Building (the HUB). This will be before classes start on campus and the earlier date provides the best chance of good weather for tours and other activities. Rooms have been blocked in one of the dormitories on campus, which have a quad configuration with shared general use area and shower facilities. This will provide a bargain for members with a limited budget, and includes breakfast in the cafeteria and full use of the campus recreational facilities. Alternative housing is available at the Silver Cloud Inn adjacent to campus, that provides a continental breakfast, a pool and spa, fitness facility, and guest laundry. Limited shuttle service will be provided to campus.
Tasmanian Plants for Cut Flower, Foliage, and Food Plants©

Author: Kris Schaffer

PP: 94

This is a very broad topic to cover in 20 minutes! I am, therefore, going to confine myself to the actual products that are at present being cultivated or bush harvested in Tasmania. The propagation of most species has been on a small scale with some species, such as Pimelea nivea (bushmans bootlace), for the cut flower export market proving to be difficult. The quality of the stock plant material is critical with plants of not more than 5 years old providing the greatest strike rate. The plants grown under optimum conditions present us with material that has a much greater chance of success.

Telopea truncata (Tasmanian waratah) has been harvested under license but some small plantations are under cultivation on the west coast of Tasmania, at a place called Waratah. Some years ago a lot of research was conducted into this magnificent flower. The colour forms from locations around the state have been collected. These are being grown along with mainland species that may be more

Greetings to IPPS Japan from the International President©

Author: Peter Orum

PP: 637

I bring greetings to you from the International Broad and from the Eastern Region, North America. I am very happy to be here visiting with IPPS Japan. Thank you for inviting me, thank you for your welcome, and thank you to all who have helped make this trip possible. I must apologize to you for not speaking in your language — but mastering it will take a long time. English is not really my language either, but we will have to meet in it today.

When we go to an I.P.P.S. meeting we naturally think about how to put roots on cuttings and many talks center around this. But instead of talking about rooting, I want to share some of my life in I.P.P.S. with you — some thoughts and a bit of philosophy. I was born in the little country of Denmark in Europe at the beginning of the Second World War. My father and mother had a little 1-ha nursery and that is where I grew up and started my life with plants. I apprenticed withbigger nurseries and went to horticulture school in Copenhagen. Soon,

Recent Advances in Forest Tree Cuttings©

Author: Takayuki Asada, Masaru Shibata

PP: 638


Dear I.P.P.S. members, do you have any problems propagating woody plants by cuttings? We in the forest industry havetrees, such as Eucalyptus, which are widely planted for pulpwood by paper-making companies that aredifficult-to-root species. Today's nursery techniques for the mass vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus forplantations are well summarized by Eldridge et al. (1993). The encyclopedic information compiled by the InternationalPlant Propagators' Society, in the Combined Proceedings (the black book) would be one of the best if you had onlyone propagating source. An additional information resource would be the World-Wide Web bibliographic patent databasesoffered by the Japanese patent office. This article will review recent advances in forest-tree cutting propagation,especially focusing on the technology published in the Japanese patent database.

Utilization of Functional Water for Plant Propagation©

Author: Hiroshi Tagata, Tadao Fujimori

PP: 643


Various functions of water have been studied at Akatsuka Orchid Co., Ltd. since 1984. The major focus of research was on functions of rare metals and minerals such as iron. Currently, selected tests are going on at our company's farm, private farms, and other companies. Cooperative research projects are also being conducted with several research institutions. The term and concept of "functional water" has been used since 1990s in Japan. Functional water is defined as "physically and chemically processed water that has additional functions, such as higher reactivity, probably due to structural changes of the water caused by pH change, reducing oxidation reduction potential, increasing surface activity, etc.". There are a number of different processes adding functions to water including; electrolysis, magnetism, far infrared, membranes, microorganisms, evaporation, resonance energy, electric fields, supersonic waves, ozone, minerals, and ceramics.

The process used at our

Effect of Surfactant Treatments on the Growth of Vegetables©

Author: Tadayuki Suzuki, Yuichi Hioki, Toshio Hayashi

PP: 645

In the present study we investigated the effect of a complex of surfactants in combination with liquid fertilizer on the growth of two vegetables. The complex of surfactant is a mixture of nonionic surfactant and a substances derived from a plant oil. The results showed that the complex of surfactants promoted the growth of tomato and spinach by accelerating photosynthetic rate and fertilizer absorption. They also increased the yield of strawberry. The complex of surfactants plus liquid fertilizer has been commercialized [called Perform® Soil (Kao Corp.)].
Systematic Cutting Ramets Production of Azalea in Mie Prefecture©

Author: Tadao Fujimori, Masayuki Kamata

PP: 650


Azaleas are produced on about 800 ha of field in Mie Prefecture, called by the name Mie SATSUKI. It is famous in Japan. A mechanical system for azalea cutting production is being developed but field planting work has not yet been undertaken with a mechanical system. Current planting work is very demanding because it must be carried out manually in the May rainy season. If we could establish a tray planting system for mechanical planting in nursery this system would make the field planting work easier.

A Study of the Relationship Between Rooftop Planting and Plant Type©

Author: Masayuki Nakamura

PP: 652

Rooftop planting is recognized as a new business field today with keen interest. In April 2000, the metropolitan assembly of Tokyo established a new prefecture ordinance for rooftop planting as a measure against the "heat island problem". Rooftop planting is expected to be a big business opportunity in the planting and construction industries. Therefore, Oji Company has initiated a project for rooftop planting (Fig.1).

Rooftop planting garden styles include: traditional Japanese, private home, European style, and the new garden against the heat island problem.

Currently, use of a garden to reduce heat islands is receiving the major attention, and many companies compete in this field in construction methods and designs. For this type of garden, sedums (such as, Sedum mexicanum (Fig.2), S. sarmentosum (Fig. 3), S. makinoi (Fig. 4), and S. oryzifolium (syn. S. uniflorumsubsp. oryzifolium) (Fig. 5) are considered as useful plants because they are expected to resist dry-weather.

I chose S.

Pot Culture of Wild Rice (‘Kodai’)©

Author: Shozo Watanabe, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Mikio Minamida, Kunihiro Iid

PP: 657

Generally speaking, Oryza ‘Kodai’, which means ancient times, is a colored rice that has been called red rice, black rice, green rice, purple rice, and so on. Colored rice was named for the characteristic color in the rice husk (ear of the rice) and in the unpolished rice. Kodai rice is rice that transmits the characteristic of the wild type of rice species.

Kodai rice has the following characteristics: strong vitality, potential of growing on uncultivated land without fertilizer and chemicals, resistance to dry and cold conditions, taller height, self-shattering, and lower yield.

Once the rice grain emerges from its ear it can give us the enjoyment of watching the characteristic color develop and provide us with a romantic feeling.

Therefore, we are researching the challenge of growing ancient rice types, especially red rice, in pot culture.

Red rice is rice that has a red color in the rice husk and needle; this red colored pigment results from tannins. When polished the color of the

Development of New Selections of Eucalyptus Trees Using Genetic Manipulation©

Author: Tetsu Kawazu, Keigo Doi, Masaru Shibata

PP: 659


Eucalyptus taxa are polygenus plants comprised of more than 500 species that are native to the Oceania region but predominantly Australia. Many of these Eucalyptus plants have excellent growth properties, the ability to adapt to various environments, and a low level of serious insect damage. Since they are also suited industrially to the production of lumber, pulp, and firewood, afforestation of Eucalyptus species is conducted in various regions around the world.

Micropropagation of Kalmia Latifolia and the Use of Plant Growth Retardant for Pot-plant Production©

Author: Tomio Nishimura, Tadao Fujimori

PP: 663

Kalmia latifolia is a North America native flowering shrub species belonging to the Ericaceae. The production of this ornamental species in the Japanese nursery industry before the establishment of a tissue culture method was by the growth of seedlings. The flower color is pale pink but it has been improved through breeding. Garden cultivars with beautiful flowers are becoming popular. These cultivars are difficult to root from cuttings and while they are propagated by grafting in Japan this procedure is not efficient. Tissue culture propagation has allowed us to mass produce the better cultivars. We are using a tissue culture procedure to produce Kalmia and are applying a plant growth retardant for pot-plant production.

Mass Propagation by Tissue Culture. Tissue culture propagation of K. latifolia was carried out as follows. Vegetative shoot tips 1 to 2 cm in length from spring and summer shoots were excised and surface-sterilized with ethanol and sodium hypochlorite solutions. They

Micropropagation of Garlic (Allium sativum)©

Author: Yoko Yamamoto, Toru Tashiro

PP: 665

Garlic has a plant regeneration system which is described in textbooks for micropropagation. However, this tissue-culture protocol is not currently popular and growers have seeded parts of crops for a long time. The reasons for this are: the previous tissue culture regeneration system is not efficient, it is hard to plant at a suitable time, and the culture period is very long. This report describes the development of a useful system. A "useful system" means that it is easier to obtain materials, the contamination rate of the materials is lower, the cultivated period is shorter, the frequency of regeneration is greater, it is easier to establish in the field, and the seeded time doesn't depended on cultivated plantlets.
Tropical Tree Crops and Current Research at the Department of Primary Industries, North Queensland©

Author: Yan Diczbalis, Patricia Chay-Prove

PP: 96


The Centre for Wet Tropics Agriculture (CWTA) is located on the Wet Tropical Coast of north-eastern Queensland, approximately 100 km south of Cairns, 60 km north of Tully, and 100 km southeast of Atherton. Climate is wet and tropical, and is one of the dominant driving forces, with an annual rainfall of between 2000 and 4000 mm. The research station has had a long history of service to agriculture, being originally established by the Bureau of Sugar Experimental Stations (BSES) in 1917 for research on sugar.

In 1935, the station became the Bureau of Tropical Agriculture to investigate a range of field and horticultural crops, including soybean, sunflower, tea, rice, maize, sweet potato, jute, and kenaf. Tropical pasture research and species evaluation dominated from the post-war period until 1975 when the first banana research got under way.

Following surrender of the cane assignment in the 1980s, banana research intensified and began the expansion of tropical fruits in

Some Suitable Environmental Conditions for the Rooting of Dianthus caryophyllus Cuttings©

Author: Yasuaki Takeda

PP: 666


There are many species and horticultural cultivars of ornamental plants grown with many new crops and new cultivars introduced every year. Although we can find research papers on the morphogenesis of bud and root formation few such papers exist for such research on ornamental plants that also synthesize the entire process. This investigation is the start of those comparative studies which will require at least 10 years to obtain these research achievements. The first year's experiments were made on the environmental conditions during initial rooting of Dianthus caryophyllus, rose pink.

Effect of Complex Supplements on Growth of Ophrys Seedlings in Vitro©

Author: Masanori Tomita

PP: 667

Mature seeds of Ophrys apifera, O. fusca, O. lutea, and O. sphegodes were surface-sterilized and immediately sown in vitro. Germination occurred on all tested media. Among eight tested media, Norstog medium gave the highest germination percentage for these four Ophrys species. The effect of complex supplements (organic nitrogen sources) on germination of O. apifera was tested. Among the four complex supplements tested, organic supplements of Norstog gave the highest germination percentage.
A Propagation System for Statice (Limonium sinuatum)©

Author: Yukimasa Hirata, Yuko Yamashita, Akitugu Shiba, Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 670

Statice [Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill.] is cultured commercially for use in fresh and dry flower arrangements. Wakayama is the most famous production area for statice in Japan. Statice plants are produced by both seedling and tissue culture methods. Plants produced by tissue culture are expensive but are superior to seedling plants in productivity, quality, etc. The growers, therefore, have recently preferred to use plants from tissue culture. However, the yearly lack of an adequate plant supply to growers in tens of thousands because of troubles in micropropagation, rooting, and acclimatization have occurred. We have developed a rapid propagation system without these troubles which is described below.

Breeding. We were selecting many excellent plants from statice seedlings in cooperation with growers, experiment stations, agricultural co-ops, and some of these were registered as new cultivars after field testing.

Propagation by Tissue Culture. Vitrification of micropropagated shoots of

Raising Forest Seedlings in Vietnam: Current Status©

Author: Kazutsune Tsurumi, Takashi Daido, Masaru Shibata

PP: 671


In 1995, Oji Paper Co., Ltd., Nissho Iwai Corp., and Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. established a forestry company, Quy Nhon Plantation Forest Company of Vietnam Ltd. (QPFL), in Binh Dinh province, Vietnam, for the production of raw material for pulp and paper.

Binh Dinh province is located in a temperate monsoonal area. The rainy season period is from October to December, and the dry season period is from January to September. The mean annual rainfall is 2400 mm and the mean annual temperature is 24°C.

Annual planting area target covers 1500 ha and harvesting period is 7 years. Therefore, the final planting area target totals 10,500 ha. As of 1999, planted area covered about 7200 ha. Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia auriculiformis are the species planted and the ratio of these species is 4 : 6. The standing density is 1666 trees ha-1 (spacing is 3 m × 2 m). The number of seedlings raised annual is nearly 3 millions.

Effect of High Temperatures in Summer on the Growth©

Author: Xin Shu Zheng, Hirosi Endo, Yozi Sakaida

PP: 675

The number of people concerned about health issues has been increasing in recent years. This is reflected in a changing trend in eating habits towards the consumption of more vegetables. Paprika (Capsicum annuum Longum Group) is a vegetable that comes to mind when thinking of health issues owing to the fact that it contains a lot of vitamin C and ß-carotene, a precursor for vitamin A. The demand for paprika from markets has been increasing, however, its domestic production is still not sufficient. The excess demand is met through imports from The Netherlands, Korea, New Zealand, and other countries.

There are several reasons that account for this low domestic production. Cultural methods have not yet been established to fit our natural conditions, such as climatic factors, in Japan. Climatic conditions in this country differ from that of the countries mentioned as suppliers. The hot weather in summer seems to be an especially limiting factor for cultivation. Our aim was, therefore, to

Breeding of New Type Mum for Gardening (Groundmum) and its Adoption for Pot-Mum Production by Plant Growth Regulator Treatment©

Author: Satoshi Yamaguchi, Chie Hirohama-ihara, Yukie Murakami

PP: 676

One of our native mums, Chrysanthemum ornatum, is good as a border bedding plant with vigorous performance and silver-hairy leaves. It performs well in the flower border, however, it blooms very late in the autumn in Japan. To develop an earlier blooming C. ornatum, an interspecific cross with a florist mum, ‘Say-Alps’, was carried out. ‘Say-Alps’ is an easy to force cultivar (spray-mum type) adaptable for year-round production of cut flowers. After 2 years of trial cultivation, we selected two new mum cultivars for gardening with October flowering and multiflorus habit. We named them ‘Crazy Cat’ (No. 1) and ‘Pink Cat’ (No. 15), respectively. These names were derived from a cat, walking around our selection trial field. To adopt them for use in pot culture we tested chemical pinching.
Production of Tubers in Cyclamen from Somatic Embryos©

Author: Noritoshi Fuwa, Atsushi Kuboki, Keiko Okawa, Yoshihiro Takahashi

PP: 678

The Problem and Difficulties in Cyclamen Breeding. Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) is one of the most popular pot plants in Japan. Up to now many seed-propagated cultivars of cyclamen have been bred in Japan, but only a few cultivars are registered in Plant Breeders Right program in Japan. In general, there are three major reasons why the number of registered cultivars is small.
Pre- and Post-Flasking Factors Affecting Establishment of Cordyline ‘Purple Tower’ from Tissue Culture©

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Adam P. Friend, Gilbert Conner,Tony Conner

PP: 681

The establishment of Cordyline ‘Purple Tower’ plants from tissue culture was studied in two experiments. Experiment I examined the affect of early ex vitro nutrition, particularly N and P, on establishment and subsequent growth, and Experiment II examined the affect of high sucrose Stage III rooting (tissue culture) media on survival and plantlet morphology. Early ex vitro nutrition had no effect on establishment. The importance of initial plantlet size was identified. Foliage growth was greatest at low to medium nitrogen (N) levels. This was 385 g N m-3 which is equivalent to 70 g N m-3 per month. Added P reduced root dry weight but foliage growth was unaffected. High sucrose (6%) increased microcutting sucrose content and survival and reduced height and shoot quality at transplanting. Shoot quality and height for plants from high sucrose recovered to equal those from low sucrose (3%) after 19 days.
I.P.P.S. What it Means to Us All©

Author: Peter F. Waugh

PP: 688


The words making up the name of the International Plant Propagators Society (I.P.P.S.) are worth examining closer and examining each separately we can gain a better understanding of our unique organization.

Report on Discussion "What is I.P.P.S. For?"©

Author: Masaru Shibata

PP: 690

I would like to summarize the contents of the discussion held 26 Oct. as a coordinator.


  1. Comments by Chairperson, Dr. Takeda (President, IPPS-Japan).
    Please read the constitution of I.P.P.S. at the end of Proceedings of the
          7th Annual Conference in Suzuka, Mie Pref. and understand that
          the organization of I.P.P.S. IPPS-Japan has been mainly run by the
          collective opinion of researchers; however, it should be operated for
          the members which are plant propagators.
    I strongly wish that IPPS-Japan will contribute to activate
          agribusinesses for the members by means of activities such as
          nursery tours and training seminars.
    I.P.P.S. is an international organization that has 50 years of history
          oriented to plant propagators.
    This is the 7th conference in Japan. Year by year interrelationships
          between members are being established and they are continuing to
          grow as long-term faithful relationships.
    I would like to ask you the members to continue to grow these
          prosperous relationships.
Mango Taxa for Wet Areas©

Author: Peter Gillett

PP: 102

We have a small mango nursery in marginal mango-bearing country. Some years we could be classified as the dry tropics, other years, like this one, we could be considered the wet tropics. For this reason there are no commercial mango farms in the district. For those of you fortunate enough not to be addicted to the "king of fruits", you need to know that commercial cultivars of Mangifera indica require very dry weather for successful flowering and fruit set. Some years this requirement causes headaches for us as nurserymen.

The source of the rootstocks used for our grafted mango trees were the semi-wild mangoes growing round the district. We'd go and fight the inebriated parrots and the mango chutney makers for the fallen fruit, clean them up, open the seed, and extract and plant the kernel.

Our land holding is quite small and rather than grow seed we used all available space for budwood trees and thought that this arrangement was pretty clever. Then about 4 to 5 years ago the weather

Issues Relating to the Properties of Potting Media©

Author: Ian S. Tolley, Ross G. Hall

PP: 105

A number of key physical and chemical characteristics of potting media are identified and described along with descriptions of their relationship to each other. These characteristics are not independent — they interact. Techniques for measuring some of these characteristics are described and guidelines for the interpretation of results provided.
Something About Licorice in New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas, M.H. Douglas, R.J. Martin

PP: 45


European licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typica) is the commonly cultivated member of the genus Glycyrrhiza. Other common names include liquorice and sweetwood. A member of the Leguminosae family, European licorice is a perennial deciduous herb, which grows to a height of 1 to 2 m. It produces long thin roots that grow more than 1 m deep, and creeping underground rhizomes that can grow several metres long. Both roots and rhizomes are yellow and juicy inside. The tops are frost tender and die down in the winter, shooting again from the underground crown in the spring. The plant propagates by producing new plants from buds on the rhizomes.

European licorice is native from southern Europe to Pakistan and northern India, and grows in warm temperate to subtropical climates. It can grow on riverbanks and in areas with seasonal rainfall.

Commercial licorice extract is obtained by boiling or diffusing the shredded roots and rhizomes of the licorice plant in water, and then

Grafting in the Cultivation of Kunzea pomifera©

Author: Tony Page

PP: 109

Kunzea pomifera is an Australian native food species that has a potential place in the fresh berry market. Cultivation of the species could ensure a consistent, high quality, and reliable supply in this market. A potentially useful modification of K. pomifera for commercial production is graftage on to a rootstock such as K. ambigua. Such grafting could possibly extend its geographical range, increase resistance to root disease, and improve the cultivated form. Wild-collected K. pomifera was grafted on to K. ambigua rootstock using the side-veneer technique (Garner, 1988; Hartmann, 1997). In this trial a union rate of 50% was achieved which was encouraging, considering that the scion material was collected directly from the wild and the rootstock was pot-bound and the pots were intermittently dried out in the fog house.
Nursery Exports©

Author: Kim Morris

PP: 114


The Nursery Industry Association of Australia, Australian Horticultural Corporation, and the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation commissioned a project in 1999 to analyse nursery exports. The project considered:

  • Extent of exports
  • Products and markets
  • Pitfalls and successes
  • Development and production of a Beginners Guide for Nursery Export
  • Recommendations for further development

Author: Gary Eyles

PP: 116


Australia now has a coordinated national Citrus Improvement Program (CIP) and budwood and rootstock seed schemes called AUSCITRUS. AUSCITRUS will be responsible for pre-post importation, multiplication, and release of high-health true-to-type budwood and rootstock seed to the citrus industry.

AUSCITRUS is an initiative of the Australian Citrus Propagation Association (ACP), the Australian Citrus Improvement Association (ACIA), the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation (HRDC), and NSW Agriculture.

The new cooperative has appointed a National Industry Development Manager (IDM). The IDM's role will be to: manage market research into existing and new selections and their unique cultural practices; evaluate market potential for overseas and in Australia including market access; implement uniform planting guidelines and recommendations for compliance with market and production needs; liaise and communicate with researchers, growers, AQIS, HRDC, Australian

Experiences of Growing Herbaceous Plants for the Scottish Market©

Author: Neil MacRitchie

PP: 119


In 1974, after working for 22 years at Windsor Great Park, my parents returned to the Highlands of Scotland and started the nursery known as Highland Liliums. The nursery was started and named with a view to producing virus-resistant strains of hybrid lily. We had liaised with Scottish Horticultural Research Institute at Invergowrie on the propagation and marketing of lilium bulbs raised by Dr. North. Today the lilies are still grown but on a much smaller scale than originally planned.

It didn't take long for us to realise that growing lily bulbs was not going to secure a solid future for us and, over the years, we began to produce other plants. Easier seed-sown items such as bedding plants, alpines, and herbaceous perennials were grown. A small retail operation began which sold these products and soon other stock was bought in to retail.

Development into bigger things took place with the advent of Scotstock Nurseries, marketing co-operative of which Highland Liliums

The Improvement of Autumn-Flowering Gentians Through Breeding and Selection©

Author: Ian H McNaughton

PP: 123


In the author's opinion, there are already too many cultivars of autumn gentians. Many of the older cultivars are late flowering and have untidy growth habits with long, trailing shoots bearing single flowers. Mediocre seedlings have been named over the years. Some are difficult to grow and lack permanence in the garden, others are difficult to tell apart, undistinguished, and indistinguishable.

This paper reports on a gentian breeding programme started at Macplants Nursery in East Lothian 9 years ago which resulted in plants which are compact, yet robust, and vigorous. Many of these plants have multiheaded trusses of flowers with improved colour, conformation, and substance, some with attractive markings. A feature has been thick, broad leaves. Early to mid-season flowering has been another successful aim of breeding.

Autumn gentians are lime haters and will not grow on calcareous soils, such as occur in many parts of England. Even where soil conditions seem suitable

Vireya Rhododendrons in the Wild©

Author: G.C.G. Argent

PP: 127


Vireyas (rhododendrons of section Vireya) are species with long-tailed seeds and tapering ovary to style junctions. They mostly occur as epiphytes in the mountains of the southeast Asian archipelago, distributed from southwest Thailand to the Himalayan region, along to southern China and Taiwan, south through the Philippines, to Queensland in Australia, and west to the Solomon Islands.

It is the largest section in the genus Rhododendron with just over 300 species (Argent, et al., 1988, Argent, et al., 1996) and more than half of these occur on the island of New Guinea, which on a recent count had 160 species (van Royen and Kores, 1982). They are mostly epiphytic plants of cool montane cloud forests but a few species occur down to sea level in the tropics and some grow in alpine situations up to nearly 4000 m (13,000 ft). These plants are extremely varied in flower colour and shape, although they lack anything near a true blue and do not possess the marked zygomorphic

The Establishment of a Species Collection of Vireya Rhododendrons©

Author: D. Mitchell

PP: 130


The first vireya rhododendron cultivated at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) was Rhododendron javanicum, originally introduced from Malaysia via England during the Victorian era. However it was not until much later that the collection really began to expand, starting with the introduction of R. beyerinckianum from New Guinea in 1949 by Capt. R. Stonor. From these small beginnings, the present collection has grown to become the largest assemblage of vireya species in cultivation anywhere in the world. The foundation for this was firmly laid down by two RBGE botanists, Mr. Burtt and Mr. Woods during the years 1962 to 1968, with many new introductions of wild source material directly from Sarawak and New Guinea.

During the past 25 years the most significant contribution to the expansion of living collection has been made by Dr. George Argent, aided by former members of horticultural staff: Assistant Curator, Mr. R. Kerby and Garden Supervisors, Ian Sinclair and John

Propagation and Cultivation Techniques for Vireya Rhododendrons©

Author: C. Fairweather

PP: 135


It was around 25 or 30 years ago that I first encountered vireya rhododendrons (Rhododendron section Vireya). On a summer trip to the U.S.A. I visited the Strybing Arboretum, in San Francisco, and was surprised to find a bed of rhododendrons in full flower during August. I later found out, from the Director of the Arboretum, that these were hybrid vireya rhododendrons. He kindly supplied me with some cuttings, which duly rooted. This was the start of my vireya collection.

My collection is mainly concerned with hybrids. These generally have a better habit of growth and more exciting colours than the naturally occurring species, and make a useful addition to the range of plants available for the conservatory or cool greenhouse.

All vireyas are tender and must be kept frost-free. All my plants spend the winter months under glass or polythene where a minimum temperature of 10 to 12°C is maintained. When the danger of frost is past, generally at the end of May, vireyas are very

Evaluation of Novel Fungicides and Irrigation Methods for Grey Mould Control on Calluna vulgaris©

Author: Mark P. McQuilken

PP: 137

Grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a common and damaging disease affecting many ornamental plants, including Calluna vulgaris (calluna). Trials were conducted to investigate the efficacy and crop safety of novel fungicides, and the effect of different irrigation regimes on disease development on calluna unrooted cuttings and potted plants. New anilinopyrimidine and strobilurin fungicides were compared with a grower-standard treatment of iprodione as two-and three-spray programmes. Protectant spray programmes of azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, and tolylfluanid were most effective, while iprodione gave no control. Calluna cuttings were sensitive to fungicide treatment. Although rooting of cuttings was unaffected, foliar sprays of azoxystrobin, pyrimethanil, and tebuconazole reduced the size of some cultivars. Watering cuttings during propagation by sub-irrigation (sandbed) significantly reduced disease compared with overhead hand watering. On potted plants, grey mould was significantly reduced when plants were watered by sub-irrigation compared with overhead or drip line irrigation. The importance of these findings for the integrated control of grey mould on calluna is discussed.
Environmental and Quality Issues Affecting the Selection of Growing Media©

Author: Catherine S. Dawson

PP: 142


Growing media have always been subject to gradual evolution. There will be few growers who have not adjusted and tweaked their composts over the years. Physically the emphasis has been on getting the right compost structure — the correct balance of air and moisture availability. Chemically there have been tremendous improvements in the accuracy of nutrient delivery. Increasingly we will see the introduction of biological agents said to improve plant health and create stronger resistance to attack by pests and pathogens.

Until recently growers based their growing media decisions on which peat to use, a choice probably driven by the compromise between price and quality. The inclusion of a structural amendment such as bark or grit would largely depend on crop type and market price. Today, as with every other industry, growers need to consider the environmental impact of their methods, which in terms of growing media means peat and pesticides.

The aim of this paper is to help

Availability of Phosphorus to Nursery Plants©

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Mervyn I. Spurway, John A. Adams

PP: 49


Lopez-Bucio et al. (2000) emphasises the importance of phosphorus (P) in world agricultural production. They state that it is one of the most important nutrients limiting agriculture. In acid and alkaline soils, which make up over 70% of the world's arable land, P forms insoluble compounds that are not available for plant use. To reduce P deficiencies and ensure plant productivity, nearly 30 million tons of P fertiliser are applied every year. Up to 80% of the applied fertiliser is lost because it becomes immobile and unavailable for plant uptake.

The production of plants in nurseries in Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand has a history of difficulties related to P nutrition. This is because these countries often have soils that are inherently low in available P and native flora is adapted to this. Often when these types of plants are grown with fertilisers containing P, they have a relatively high proportion of plants that are prone to P toxicity, particularly the

A Guide to Propagation Composts©

Author: Andrew Dobson

PP: 148


Propagation by cuttings is not a natural process. Propagators manipulate plant material under controlled environmental conditions to multiply clones of desirable plants. The medium the cuttings are stuck in is an important part of this artificial environment so it is important for propagators to understand what cuttings need from a rooting medium

Experiences With Simple Propagation on a New Nursery©

Author: Jan Sambrook

PP: 152


Choice Plants was set up from scratch 5 years ago with a third-hand polythene tunnel and very old Portakabin. The aim of the nursery is to provide good quality shrubs, with some grasses, to local garden centres and landscapers. Capital for expansion projects has been raised entirely through the nursery's profits and is therefore always tight. In addition the nursery has to rely mainly on unskilled labour. This has meant that although I have a love of propagating and would always want to see some happening on the nursery, I have had to carefully evaluate why, what, and how we propagate. The purpose of this paper is to show that plant propagation is possible and viable with the most basic equipment and limited resources.

The Provenance and Production of Scottish Broadleaved Trees©

Author: S. Thompson

PP: 155

Native broadleaved tree species now account for half of all the trees planted in Scotland each year. There is a preference for planting stock of local provenance. The factors determining the availability of sufficient seed are discussed. Different plant rearing systems which produce different types of planting stock are described. Each has characteristic suitabilities for the varied planting sites found throughout Scotland.
Magnolia Propagation in the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic©

Author: Martina Kramna

PP: 162

During Spring and Summer 2000 nine nurseries in Czech Republic and in south England, specialising in magnolia propagation, were visited. Magnolia taxa produced, propagation facilities, and details of propagation techniques were compared. The main differences between nurseries, including their sales strategy, are described. The main method of propagation in both countries is by cuttings. However, some English nurseries propagate magnolias from seeds or have them grafted in New Zealand. The reasons why magnolias are difficult to propagate are outlined by each nurseryman, and the author's own experiences of magnolia propagation are included.
Experiences With Propagation Scheduling©

Author: Gill Dowling

PP: 167


Propagation scheduling is allowing Lowaters Nursery to plan production to meet expected customer demand up to 5 years in advance, to high specifications, pest and disease free for an evershrinking sales window. Production efficiency and the ability to meet customer demand in terms of specification and delivery dates depends on getting the start of the process right.

At Lowaters we have learnt to work closely with our customers to provide them with the product quality they want and the level of service they expect. We are always looking to introduce new or different taxa to keep customers coming back. Our policy is to always let our customers know if there is a problem and to listen to them and learn about their methods and requirements.

Basic Questions. Before we begin to think about scheduling a crop we have to know some basic information:
  • Can we grow the taxa?
  • What is the turnaround time at each stage?
  • What month will those stages be from start to finish?
  • Will
A Review of Pieris Cultivars and their Propagation at New Place Nurseries©

Author: Mark Pearce

PP: 169

This paper describes the propagation of Pieris cultivars at New Place Nurseries using semi-ripe cuttings. It includes our experiences with cultivars no longer in production on the nursery. Some species and cultivars which are not produced at New Place Nurseries, will be described, as they are important to an overall understanding of this genus. However, some of these are not readily available to the trade, because of the lack of market demand or because of production difficulties.
Propagating South African Trees©

Author: Charles P. Laubscher

PP: 172

Vegetative propagation techniques were studied for rooting cuttings of the following South African tree species: Ficus sur, Olea europaea subsp. africana, Podocarpus falcatus (see Afrocarpus falcata and A. gracilior), and Syzygium cordatum. These tree species are considered problematic since they produce unwanted fruits in urban areas which attract frugivores, that cause damage to vehicles and property. Experiments were conducted to test age, type and length of cuttings, environmental factors, growth season, hormone application, various treatments, and rooting mediums for each of these species. Ficus sur and Syzygium cordatum showed the highest rooting success, i.e., 85% to 90%, followed by Olea europaea subsp. africana (75% to 80%), and Podocarpus falcatus (60%). The study showed that rooting success in individual species is directly related to the growth stage of parent plants as well as the season during which the cuttings were taken. With progress towards successful vegetative propagation of sterile problem plant species, these plants will continue to function economically and aesthetically in the South African urban environment.
Natural Habitats of South African Bulbs: Implications for Cultivation©

Author: Helen Brent

PP: 182


There are a number of South African bulbs held in the Living Collection at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. However, the collection does not represent fully the diversity in this group. My study aimed to help me develop an understanding of how South African bulbs should be grown in cultivation by viewing them in their natural habitat. I also wanted to gather information on their propagation and investigate species likely to be suitable for outdoor cultivation in the U.K. I would also benefit by gaining field study skills. Funding was made available through the I.P.P.S. Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship and other funding sources.

Invaluable information was gained by seeing the exact growing conditions of particular species in the wild. Through my experience of viewing different species in the wild I was able to help determine the potting mix to use at Kew. The climate of the Amatola mountains near Stutterheim is very much in tune to our own climate in southern England,

South African Ericas in the Wild: Observations from a British Heather Society Study Tour©

Author: Peter Bingham

PP: 186


In Autumn 1999 I was invited to join a study tour to the Western Cape Province of South Africa, organised by the British Heather Society. Tour guides were Ted Oliver — the world's leading expert on South African Erica and Inge Oliver who has worked alongside Ted for many years and shares his knowledge and enthusiasm for South African plants in general and ericas in particular. They were joined by local experts at various locations throughout the trip, which included a diverse range of habitats and excellent specimens of many Erica species.

The Cape Province of South Africa is the main centre of diversity for the world's Erica species with more than 625 recorded species (compared with 21 species in the whole of Europe). More are still being discovered as people visit remote locations at different times of year.

I had expected to see expanses of heathers on the scale of the Calluna species in the Scottish highlands, with the hope that forms found at altitude would be hardy and

Experiences of Cordyline australis Production at Hewton Nursery©

Author: Steven Watson

PP: 189


This paper describes the production of Cordyline australis and cultivars from bought-in ex-agar propagules and from seed, at Hewton Nursery. It is not necessarily a recommendation for other nurseries with other production systems, simply an insight into what works well in one particular situation. There are 15 species of cordyline ranging from shrubs to small trees. They are spread over a wide area from southeast Asia in the west to Hawaii in the east, taking in Australasia and Polynesia. Some of the species are too tender to grow in northern Europe. Cordyline australis is the species commonly grown in Europe. In its native New Zealand it can reach up to 20 m but here it normally reaches only a fraction of that. Cordyline australis is a versatile plant that will grow in many different situations and is just as happy in borders or as a spot plant as in pots on patios. Cordyline australis requires a well drained soil or growing medium that does not become waterlogged. Plants

Leptospermum — A New Image©

Author: John Seelye, Bev Hofmann, Garry Burge, Ed Morgan, Ross Bicknell

PP: 55


The genus Leptospermum contains more than 70 species that are endemic to Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. The majority of species are endemic to Australia (Thompson, 1983; 1989). New Zealand has only one species, L. scoparium, which is also endemic to New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. Selected forms of several species are sold in the nursery trade. However, only L. scoparium has been extensively bred as a garden plant (Dawson, 1990). More than 100 cultivars of L. scoparium have been named, but less than 30 cultivars have been bred from all the other species (Harris et al., 1995). Flower colour of L. scoparium ranges from white to pink, to crimson, with both single- and double-flowered types, and plant forms from upright to prostrate.

The genetic base of these L. scoparium cultivars is quite narrow. The red petal colour of most cultivars appears to have been derived from 2 or 3 wild accessions (Harrison, 1974). Most of the original breeding of L. scoparium

Make Breeding More Efficient©

Author: Kell Kristiansen

PP: 195


With background in our breeding of Aster novi-belgii relations of importance for the efficiency in breeding are described. The procedure in Aster can be used in other vegetatively propagated plants. Crossings are made in the autumn and the first selection among seedlings is performed the coming spring. Selected seedlings are cloned and two groups of each clone are grown according to a standard programme for potted A. novi-belgii. The clones flower approximately 1 year after the crossings are made. The best clones are then selected and evaluated the following season in a number of nurseries prior to a final selection of clones worth introducing to the market. This time schedule gives a period of 2.5 years from crossing until plants are available on the market (Kristiansen, 1996; Kristiansen and Brandt, 1994).

Breeding of Aster is carried out in cooperation with the Danish Pot Aster Association (25 to 30 nurseries producing approximately 7 million pots). The breeding was

Flower Breeding in Practice©

Author: Signe Værbak

PP: 198


F1-breeding of seed-propagated species is an important method for breeding new cultivars. At Dæhnfeldt we have number of breeding programmes in progress, but we frequently decide whether we are going to start new programmes. We get inspiration and ideas for new cultivars from many places: exhibitions, journeys, botanical gardens, catalogues, magazines, customers, and trend researchers. There is seldom lack of ideas but they have to be discussed thoroughly before decisions are made because breeding must be profitable. A number of questions are important:

  • Do the species fit into our assortment?
  • How big is the market? It can be very difficult to estimate for small or new crops, while the market for larger, well-known crops can be estimated from various statistics.
  • How is the competition?
  • Will we be alone with the new cultivars of the particular species or are we the seventeenth seed company with series of the species?
  • What is the cost of producing seeds? It can be very
Breeding and Product Development by Ex-Plant ApS©

Author: Carsten Leth

PP: 200


Ex-Plant ApS was founded on 1 July 1995 by Leif Markvart and Carsten Leth and is located in Stige in the northern part of Odense, Denmark. Leif Markvart has his Master Degree in Horticulture and is operating the Leif Markvart nursery which produces young plants. Carsten Leth is trained as a horticultural technician and functions today as the manager of Ex-Plant ApS. At the same time, he is responsible for all breeding and seed production activities.

The creation of Ex-Plant ApS was based on the Exacum gene bank and seed production techniques originally developed by Erik Rosendal in Assens, Denmark. Erik Rosendal was a leading person for 15 years in the breeding and seed production of E. affine. The position which Exacum holds today in the Danish assortment of potted plants can, to a large extent, be attributed to Erik Rosendal's perseverance with regard to the culture of this plant. A portion of the Exacum gene bank which Ex-Plant has at its disposal today consist of

New Woody Plants for Gardening in Denmark©

Author: Poul Erik Brander

PP: 202


The term "new plant" includes new cultivars within known species as well as new species which have not earlier been grown in Denmark. The new plants described here are all tested for specific diseases according to the Departmental Order no. 576 of 7 July 1999, from the Danish Plant Directorate, and nuclear stock plants are available.

For 35 years the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences has developed new plants. It takes 10 to 20 years to develop a good new plant which is tested under Danish climate conditions. For example, we have been working on a new introduction of Stachyurus praecox from Japan for 15 years. The following describes some of the new plants selected for Danish growth conditions.

Abelia ×grandiflora ‘Nanna’. Abelia is a genus closely related to Kolkwitzia, and only includes low shrubs, 1 to 1.5 m tall. This makes the genus interesting for gardening, because gardens of today are often small. In countries like Japan and U.S.A. Abelia species are commonly

Genetic Fingerprinting. What Is It? — And What Is it Used For?©

Author: Per Hove Andreasen

PP: 204


Methods for DNA fingerprinting were originally developed for use in forensic medicine but are now widely used for many purposes concerning analyses of practically any kind of biological system. This mini-review is intended to introduce the concept of DNA fingerprinting; it is in no way an exhaustive and detailed description of techniques and their applications. Rather, the purpose is to present a few examples of the use of fingerprinting, and thereby hopefully enable the plant breeder or propagator to consider whether a problem may be solved easier by using some kind of DNA fingerprinting.

Modern Methods for Breeding Ornamentals©

Author: Trine Hvoslef-Eide, Nina Ingrid Vik

PP: 209


Breeding of ornamentals has traditionally been done by growers. Some growers had a special eye for picking up mutations, while others have done serious, planned crosses to improve plant material systematically. Breeding of ornamentals at the Department of Horticulture started with a small project on keeping quality in Christmas begonia (Begonia ×cheimantha) in 1989. Breeding of ornamentals does in principle not differ from breeding of any other crop, but the breeding goals may vary. In addition, most of the ornamentals are vegetatively propagated.

Modern methods for breeding often include in vitro techniques and/or molecular biology in one or more steps in the breeding process. The following have been included in this paper: embryo rescue, in vitro selection, somaclonal variation, double haploids and chromosome elimination, and transformation/gene technology. This is not a complete review on the subject, the aim is to illustrate the methods mentioned with some history as

Intellectual Property Rights©

Author: Jørgen H. Selchau

PP: 218


In Danish legislative terms, the proper translation of Intellectual Property Rights is Immaterial Rights. The legislative provisions, which are protecting, e.g., art and literature, inventions, and trade marks against wrongful exploitation, are as a whole named "The Immaterial Right" (IR). The IR is divided into subgroups, each consisting of specific legislation:

  • Copyright legislation, covering art and literature.
  • Patent and Utility Patent legislation, covering inventions and products.
  • Law on Plant Novelties and the EU-Directive, covering plants.
  • Design legislation, covering design.
  • Trade Mark legislation, covering trade marks, signs, and ensigns.

IR, thus, comprises almost any thinkable form of protection of rights, which can be mastered by more or less ingenious brains. The true watermark of all immaterial legislation, which ties up the individual areas of legislation into one similar group, is the principle of monopoly. The content of the monopoly regulations

Propagation Aspects of Sciadopitys verticillata and Sequoiadendron giganteum ‘Hazel Smith’©

Author: Frank W. Goodhart

PP: 222


New attention is being given to two of the most ancient and revered conifers, the Japanese umbrella-pine (Sciadopitys verticillata Sieb. et Zucc.) and the giant sequoia [Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.]. Both have had limited landscape value, and they are not commonly grown in the U.S.A. and Europe except in arboreta, botanical gardens, and on prestigious estates. Recent developments, including the discovery of several cultivars, have raised the possibility of broader use of these magnificent conifers.

Sciadopitys verticillata is now listed by Farjon (1998) in the monotypic family Sciadopityaceae but had been traditionally listed under Taxodiaceae. Although its common name is listed as "pine", it doesn't resemble a pine or any other conifer. The needles are thick and flat and arranged in an upward whorl like an inverted parasol (Fig. 1). In some respects it appears more ancient than other conifers, and indeed the fossil record goes back to the Upper Triassic. It is

Relation between Nitrogen Status, Carbohydrate Distribution, and Subsequent Rooting of Chrysanthemum Cuttings©

Author: Uwe Druege, Siegfried Zerche, Roland Kadner

PP: 228


Adventitious root formation (ARF) of cuttings is substantially affected by the initial nitrogen and carbohydrate status (Haissig, 1986; Blazich, 1988; Veierskov, 1988). High nitrogen supply to stock plants, meeting or even surpassing the level necessary for maximum growth, has often been observed to decrease subsequent rooting of cuttings (Roeber and Reuther, 1982; Haissig, 1986; Henry et al., 1992). Such effects have been discussed repeatedly in relation to decreased carbohydrate levels and decreased C : N ratio, which was first suggested by Kraus and Kraybill (1918) to be a crucial characteristic for ARF. However, there exists a large amount of conflicting data (Hansen et al., 1978; Leakey, 1983; Haissig, 1986; Veierskov, 1988; Leakey and Storeton-West, 1992). In a recent study, ARF of chrysanthemum cuttings at natural radiation in a greenhouse during spring and summer was found to be positively correlated with initial nitrogen concentrations, and not impeded by

Root Formation, Bud Growth, and Survival of Ornamental Shrubs Propagated by Cuttings at Different Planting Dates©

Author: Jürgen Hansen, Kell Kristiansen

PP: 239


Propagation by semihardwood cuttings is mostly done in a humidity, temperature, and irradiance controlled environment to ensure high survival percentages. Unheated tunnels with intermittent mist systems are used for summer propagation of semihardwood cuttings (Wennemuth, 1975; Bärtels, 1982). Some ornamental shrubs are propagated by planting leafy semihardwood cuttings directly in the field under polyethylene cover. This low-cost system is easy to manage but results vary from year to year presumably due to environmental fluctuations. Growers are, therefore, planting an excess of cuttings to ensure a sufficient number of plants the following year.

In Denmark planting of cuttings in the field takes place in June and July. This creates a labor peak for most nurseries. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether it is possible to extend the planting period of cuttings towards autumn for a number of ornamental shrubs in order to level the peak of propagation.

Plant Diseases Forum©

Author: Ian Harvey, Donald McPherson

PP: 58


All nursery production systems have a plant protection component. The consideration of management practices for plant disease is part of this. Diseased plants at the production or retail stage are undesirable and directly and indirectly cause loss of time, loss of sales, and usually add additional cost. Better management of disease is desirable and can be achieved through improved identification, diagnosis, and treatment of disease leading on to disease prevention involving all aspects of the propagation and production systems in the nursery.

The discussion was led by the panel and covered the following main points:

Routines for Quality Production of Forest Plants in Container Trays©

Author: Morten N. Andersen

PP: 246


Seedlings of liner plants for forestry in Norway are mainly Picea abies (85%) and Pinus sylvestris. Norwegian nurseries use two different trays, so called M60 (60 cells, each cell is 75 cm3) and M95 (95 cells, each cell is 50 cm3), to produce about 50 million 1/0 and 2/0 liner plants each year. The plants are grown 2 to 4 months in a greenhouse before they are moved outside.

One-year-old plants are packed in the autumn and overwintered in a coolstore before they are sold in the spring. Two-year-old plants are normally overwintered outdoors after the first growing season, grown at the same place the second season, and then sold in the autumn or packed for cool storage and sold in the spring.

Herbal Medicinal Products — Plant Breeding and Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) for Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs©

Author: B.F. Knudsen, K. Shetty

PP: 249


Dietary herbs and fermented legumes are excellent sources of phenolic phytochemicals. These phenolic phytochemicals are important, not only as food preservatives, but are also increasingly interesting for therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications (Shetty, 1997). Understanding the nutritional and therapeutic role of dietary phytochemicals is an important scientific agenda for food science and nutrition now and in the future.

Phenolic phytochemicals are becoming very significant in a time when food is playing a major role in disease prevention in a global population projected to increase to 10 billion by 2050. Disease prevention through the diet is potentially the most effective tool to improve health and reduce the increasing health-care costs for the expanding global population. In line with this perspective and vision one of the major goals of Botanical Operations is to use biotechnological tools to develop improved clonal lines of dietary herbs and improved

Quality of Peat-Based Growing Media — What is the Current Status?©

Author: Kai Lønne Nielsen, Inge Ulsted Sørensen, Lars Pors

PP: 252


German experiments have shown that the physical characteristics of peat-based growing media only play a minor role for the growth of a large range of potted plants produced in Northern Europe during normal cultivation conditions (Scharpf, 1997). During Winter and Spring 1999 no correlation was observed between the physical characteristics (water retention and particle size distribution) of peat-based growing media and the quality of the potted plants produced by several growers in Denmark. Pilot studies at the Department of Horticulture, indicated that incorporation of activated alumina (Compalox®, Alusuisse Martinswerk GmbH, Germany) in peat-based growing media, improved root growth compared to the same media without activated alumina. Incorporating small amounts of activated alumina (approximately 2 %) does not affect the physical characteristics significantly, hence improved root growth cannot be due to changed physical characteristics of the growing media, such as

A Welcome to I.P.P.S. Members on the Occasion of Our 50th Annual Meeting©

Author: Dale Deppe

PP: 259

It is great to be at the start of this our 50th Annual Meeting. For me, the I.P.P.S. meeting has always been the highlight of the propagation year for many years and I think it is the same for many of the individuals in this room. I know there is a lot of anticipation in this room about the papers that will be presented. I can tell you that this will be a great meeting and I know we are all looking forward to it. We had a great pre-tour yesterday, almost 200 on the tour and the tours tomorrow are packed, so a wonderful meeting awaits us.

We are going to be looking back on 50 years of history at this meeting and at the same time we are trying to balance the history with the present; I think we have a good balance. It is good to look back, especially at 50 years but we will also be looking forward to continue are mission of "Seeking and Sharing". The next 3 days will be full of tours, papers, and the opportunity to talk propagation. There is also a lot of business conducted in hallways

Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops: Potential Versus Reality©

Author: Brent McCown

PP: 260


During the last decade as biotechnology has become more commonplace, horticultural businesses and industry associations are increasingly being approached with propositions that they support projects that involve genetic engineering. Although most often the basic science that is being proposed is sound and of practical value, what often is missing is a realistic appraisal of the total framework, both economical and political, which will determine the ultimate success of the project. My goal in this paper is to offer some perspectives that may be useful in such situations. Although the emphasis will be ornamental crops, the ideas are applicable to most any crop. The opinions offered here are totally my own and have been formulated during more than several decades of work in this field.

Chicago's Ancient Ecosystem and Local Insight into the Use of Several Ground Cover Plant Materials©

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 264

Welcome to the 50th Annual Meeting of the I.P.P.S. Eastern Region, North America. I am pleased to be taking part in this program, since this marks my 10th year as a member of the I.P.P.S. I have had the distinction to serve on various committees as well as having been the local area secretary for several years. It is my pleasure today to give you an over view of the Chicago that once was.

This area was once a true ecological treasure house. It was here that the deciduous forests that at one time, covered the Eastern part of this the continent, began to give way to the expansive grassland ecosystems of the middle continent. The western coast of Lake Michigan has had many unique and irreplaceable habitats occupy its shore line and adjacent boundary lands. Prairies once ran nearly unbroken from Lake Michigan nearly all the way to the great Mississippi River, and beyond. These various types of prairies — dry, mesic, wet, savanna, mixed woodland, and others — all combined to form a distinct

Successful Techniques for Overwintering Rooted Cutting©

Author: Jim Hallene

PP: 266

One of the most challenging tasks facing any nurseryperson is to successfully overwinter newly propagated plants. Prides Comer Farms propagates and grows a very large selection of woody ornamentals, as well as many perennials and grasses. Today I would like to give you a brief overview of how we overwinter woody ornamentals. Cuttings are stuck throughout the year but there are three primary times during which most of our propagation is done. The largest volume is done as softwood cuttings taken from liners or container-grown plants during the months of June and July. These cuttings include taxa of deciduous shrubs, such as, Viburnum, Cotoneaster, Daphne, Clethra, and Forsythia, and many others, and all are rooted under intermittent mist. They are stuck in a peat and Styrofoam medium and standard talc hormones used. A second major propagation period is in October, at which time propagation of broadleaf Rhododendron, Pieris cultivars, and Euonymus fortunei cultivars are done. The
Evaluating the Role of pH in the Rooting of Cuttings: Eastern Region, North America Research Grant Paper©

Author: Brian K. Maynard

PP: 268


The Importance of Soil pH in Horticulture. It is generally accepted that conditions of optimal soil pH exist for individual plant species, and that tolerances vary among species and families. In particular, plants which grow well on acidic soils, also known as acidophilic or calcifugous plants, not only tend to become chlorotic at high soil pH due to iron (Fe) or manganese (Mn) deficiency, but also can tolerate excess Fe, Mn, and aluminum (Al) ions in the soil solution of acidic soil. More common are plants that are sensitive to free Al ions at low soil pH, and are able to sequester and take up the bound forms of Fe and Mn at higher soil pH, known as calcicolus plants. Other plants, called amphitolerant, can tolerate a wide range of soil pH (e.g., 3.5 to 8.5). Very little research has been done on woody ornamental plants to evaluate the precise limits or mechanisms of tolerance to soil acidity or alkalinity. In practice, horticulturists develop working lists of plants

Ideas from the Scandinavian Propagator's Exchange©

Author: Bill Barnes

PP: 273

In 1999 I was the lucky recipient of the Eastern Region, North America I.P.P.S. exchange propagator to the Scandinavian Region. It was a memorable trip and my wife and I saw a great deal of horticulture.

Denmark was the choice of the Scandinavian Region for their 1999 meeting and that was the ultimate destination. However, fortune was in our favor and we had an opportunity to fly to The Netherlands first and then proceed onto Denmark. This was a choice that was planned and should a future recipient have the opportunity I would highly recommend a stopover in Holland.

While not much time was allotted for the Holland excursion, having only one day, I opted to go to the Tropenberg Arboretum in Rotterdam. For those interested in North American natives this is a must stop as it represents one of the finest collections of North American plants that I have seen. Much can be learned from going to the Arboretum and admiring the work of Professor Van hoey Smith.

Traveling by train, my wife

Using Electrical Conductivity: a Possible Indicator for the Rooting of Cuttings©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 276


Electrical conductivity (EC) of plant tissues has been examined by horticulturists to elucidate plant developmental status, however, much work needs to be done to make it a practical tool. Whitlow et al. (1992) and Brønnum (1998) are but two of many researchers who have tried to correlate leaf and stem conductivity to specific times of the year. Brønnum (1998) developed a protocol for the timing of harvesting evergreen tree seedlings based upon EC readings.

The theory of electrical conductivity is based upon the idea that plant cell components are largely made up of water-based solutions much of which are composed of mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen, and potassium. Some of these nutrients are further integrated with carbon-based compounds such as sugars, proteins, and amino acids along with a host of more minor chemicals. Since many of the mineral elements are ionic in nature they contribute substantially to the degree

Pitfalls in Intellectual Property Agreements for Nurserymen and Growers©

Author: Charlotte Henley

PP: 59


Often clients come to us asking for assistance in sorting out serious problems they have with another party that they have entered into a working relationship with, due mainly to the fact that an inappropriate or no written agreement at all has been entered into between the parties. I want to give you some basic pointers regarding the most important factors to consider and agree upon with the other party, prior to entering into a legal contract. These factors are particularly important in relation to arrangements regarding plant variety rights (PVR), trade marks, or other forms of intellectual property. This is very important, because if these arrangements go wrong, you could end up spending a lot of money sorting it out or end up losing control of your hard-earned intellectual property.

Niche Marketing of Native Plants©

Author: Dennis P. Niemeyer

PP: 281


Marketing of native plants by a mail-order nursery necessitates a different approach than a traditional nursery or garden center. Native plants are either "unknown" or thought of as "weeds" to the uninformed gardener. Extensive customer education is needed in order to make the customer aware of the features and benefits of native plants. We must also address the negative image of natives as "weeds" or untidy plants in the landscape.

Being a mail-order nursery does not allow very much one-on-one communication with the customer. This means we must be clean and concise on the message we present. The use of multiple media is necessary to reach the broad audience we are targeting.

Our marketing philosophy is summed up by two slogans which we use: "We-Du Natives" and "If you can find it in a garden center, we probably don't grow it!"

Improving Rooting of Several Berberis thunbergii Cultivars©

Author: Michael P. Corbett

PP: 285


Propagation of Berberis thunbergii cultivars as a softwood cuttings at Zelenka Nursery has its challenges. We will be sharing the changes that we have made to our propagation program. We have two main focuses. One is to increase rooting percentages and produce a quality liner for our container program. The qualifier is not to increase cost and to improve yields in both propagation and container program.

Questing for the Perfect Landscape Tree©

Author: William Flemer III

PP: 287

The title assigned for this talk is a somewhat ambiguous one. What are landscape trees, shade trees, or yard trees? The requirements for trees to be planted on municipal streets are more exacting than those for trees used in parks or industrial and home landscape plantings. Street trees must be able to be pruned up and free of branches for at least 12 ft or higher so that they will not interfere with pedestrian or vehicular traffic. Those useful for more open landscape locations do not need to develop such high clear trunks and in some locations can have their branches descend to ground level, being in effect very large shrubs. To succeed on city streets, especially congested inner city streets, trees must be very tolerant of air pollution, reflected glare from street, sidewalk, and building surfaces.

They must also be very drought tolerant because, except for special irrigation arrangements, they must rely on natural precipitation falling on minimal tree lawns or small planting

Can I Use Municipal Waste Compost in My Propagation Media?©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 290

In unleached media consisting of between 15% and 75% by volume of municipal waste compost mixed with peat or perlite, cuttings from four of nine evergreen taxa were tolerant (rooting enhanced or unaffected) of salt levels up to 0.60 dS·m-1 (0.2 dS·m-1 desirable threshold). The other five evergreen taxa were intolerant (rooting adversely affected). In corresponding leached media, cuttings from most of seven deciduous taxa rooted as well as or better in the compost-amended media compared with 100% perlite or 100% peat. Best rooting occurred with between 45% and 75% compost in the rooting medium. A tendency for better rooting in compost with perlite than with peat was due largely to lower water and higher air porosities with perlite than with peat.
Tissue Proliferation on Rhododendron: A Current Perspective©

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 295


Tissue proliferation (TP) was first found in the mid-1980s and became a significant topic for propagators and growers by the early 1990s. The disorder is characterized by the development of callus-like tissue, often accompanied by adventitious buds and/or shoots, typically produced at the crown of rhododendron plants. TP has been observed on large-leaf and small-leaf rhododendrons, azaleas, and Kalmia latifolia. The superficial similarity in appearance of the gall-like growths or tumors of TP to crown gall caused considerable concern and problems for growers and nursery inspectors.

No evidence has been generated demonstrating that TP is caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or any other pathogenic organism. Today, it is generally believed that TP is not crown gall of rhododendron. The occurrence of TP mostly on micropropagated plants, or those with a history of tissue culture, has focused attention on the tissue culture process as a trigger for the development of TP in

Mist Nozzle Evaluation©

Author: Alan M. Jones

PP: 299


As you would expect numerous papers have been given at I.P.P.S. meetings over the past 50 years on how to use and what to root using mist propagation, but few papers looking directly at types of mist nozzles. In looking at the different mist nozzles the range available is amazing, all claim to do the same thing but in many different ways. They will all provide the cuttings with a covering of water, but how we use them is the critical thing.

As a way to look at the different types of nozzles in use I sent a simple survey to about 300 I.P.P.S. members. The questions I asked were based on current use, as well as past usage and experience. The following questions were asked:

  • Advantages and disadvantages of each type of nozzle used.
  • Why they had kept or switched from one type to another.
  • If a fogging machine or traveling mist boom was in use.
  • The type of controller being used.

I received replies from about 100 members a 33% response. The results provide a good indication

Sexual and Asexual Propagation of Japanese Stewartia©

Author: Kurt Bresko, Daniel Struve

PP: 303

The ornamental qualities of Japanese stewartia [Stewartia pseudocamellia (Maxim.)] are well documented (Spongberg and Fordham, 1976 and Dirr, 1998). However, Japanese stewartia availability is limited. Major barriers to wider availability are the lack of sexual and asexual propagation protocols.

This article summarizes recent work on sexual and asexual propagation of Japanese stewartia. For more detailed information, consult the following articles: Oleksak and Struve, 1999; Struve, et al., 1999; and Struve and Lagrimini, 1999.

Improved Adventitious Rooting in Quercus Through the Use of a Modified Stoolbed Technique©

Author: George Hawver, Nina Bassuk

PP: 307


Vegetative propagation of the oaks (Quercus) is a difficult undertaking. Previous attempts at propagation using the methods of grafting, cutting propagation, and tissue culture have produced only very limited success (Drew and Dirr, 1989; Zaczek et. al., 1997). Recently, however, the propagation of oaks has been improved by using the practice of etiolation in conjunction with a modified stoolbed technique. A newer approach to improving propagation is through practices that are thought to reduce the plants' endogenous cytokinins, a class of hormones that is generally thought to inhibit adventitious rooting. The idea behind this approach is that a reduction in the plants' endogenous cytokinin levels may improve the potential for adventitious root formation. These two approaches to propagation, the use of etiolation in conjunction with the modified stoolbed technique and the use of practices aimed at reducing endogenous cytokinin levels, will be discussed here.

Developing New Woody Plants at a B&B Nursery©

Author: Michael Yanny

PP: 314

Johnson's Nursery, Inc. is a 600-acre B&B nursery stock producer. The nursery grows a wide range of woody landscape plants hardy to U.S.D.A. Zone 4b. A small propagation department supports the nursery operation by providing it with liners not readily available from outside sources. In addition, the propagation department develops improved plants for the nursery operation. At our company the propagation department has been viewed as a research and development branch of the nursery. Plant development has taken place primarily through the selection of open-pollinated chance seedlings that have occurred during the production process. We evaluate superior seedlings we find over a number of years and if proven worthy, we introduce them into the trade. We have not done any controlled crossing or hand pollinating of our plants. Our simple selection process can best be understood by telling the story of the origin of our introduction, Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Johnson’, Leprechaun™ green ash.
Meet the Beetles!©

Author: James R. Johnson, James Lashomb, Sridhar Polavarapu

PP: 316


White grubs have been a nursery problem for years, with the Japanese beetle being dominant. There have also been problems with the European chafer and the Asiatic garden beetle. In reviewing grub samples identified by the Rutgers plant diagnostic lab during 1999, Oriental beetles take top honors for sheer number by a wide margin. Since nurseries are subject to inspection for white grubs, they need to be controlled to avoid restrictions placed on shipments of nursery stock. The group is known as scarab beetles.

Each member of this selected beetle group was imported into the continental United States during the first half of the 1900s. All were probably imported in the soil of nursery stock. The Japanese beetle (Popilla japonica) was imported from Japan to New Jersey in 1916. The Asiatic garden beetle (Maladera castanea) is native to Japan and China and was first found in New Jersey in 1921. The European chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis) was probably imported

Factors Influencing Flowering in Metrosideros excelsus (pohutukawa)©

Author: J. Clemens, P.E. Jameson, L. Sreekantan, R.E. Henriod

PP: 62

Shoot growth and development in mature trees of Metrosideros excelsus (pohutukawa) were monitored over 2 to 3 years, and responses to temperature and daylength in container-grown plants of the same species studied under experimental conditions. Marked differences in the degree of flowering in a tree in 2 successive years resulted from differences in the number of overwintering, resting buds that could potentially form flowers. Heavy flowering in one season resulted in a scarcity of overwintering buds capable of flowering the following year. Cool temperatures following floral initiation were required to permit normal floral development in greenhouse experiments. The proportion of buds that became floral following a relatively mild winter in 1998 and a winter with more typical temperatures in 1999 was 20% and >50%, respectively.
Weed Control Strategies For Liner Production©

Author: Leslie Shenberger

PP: 320


Weed control in container production is often a demanding, time-consuming challenge. Liners present a greater challenge because of their young age, small size, and many chemical use label restrictions. One must be willing to take a few risks, design and implement experiments, and spend time comparing data to really get control of a weed situation.

The International Plant Propagators' Society: The Early Years©

Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 324

The concept of an association devoted to plant propagation had its origin in 1919 as the National Association of Propagating Nurserymen. The association met annually with the American Association of Nurserymen and published six proceedings. Sixty nurseries held membership in the Association. The name was changed in 1928 to The American Plant Propagator's Association. Three years later, in 1931, it passed out of existence possibly due to the impact of the Great Depression and according to Jim Wells a failure of members to freely share information. Roy Nordine, propagator at the Morton Arboretum, described some of the activities of this predecessor association in his presidential comments in Volume 9 of the Proceedings of the Plant Propagators Society.

The organizational meeting of today's Plant Propagators' Society was held in Cleveland on November 8–9, 1951. Ed Scanlon, Commissioner of Shade Trees in Cleveland, and editor of Trees magazine, convened the meeting. The first officers of the

Breeding New Selections of Repeat Blooming Daylilies©

Author: Darrel Apps

PP: 330

Arlow Stout (1876–1957), while at the New York Botanical Garden, played a pivotal role in the development of modern daylilies. Through his various contacts (especially Albert Steward, 1897–1959, working at Nanking University in China), he was able to collect several Hemerocallis species and many of the existing cultivars. He used these plants for hybridizing and described them in a book entitled, Daylilies, published in 1934. Stout's well-documented ground work set the stage for the cultivar explosion that was to follow.

The effort was slowed by the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II but met new enthusiasm in 1946 when the Midwest Hemerocallis Society was formed and hundreds of amateurs began breeding daylilies.

My first exposure to daylilies, was with the plant, H. fulva, ‘Europa’, which made its way to America with the European immigrants; Stout gave it cultivar designation ‘Europa’. Its common name was the tawny daylily and it was planted under the roof eaves on the south side

Unusual Hosta Propagation Techniques©

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 334

The purpose of this paper is to describe two propagation techniques for hostas so that the grower can economically increase production of the newer and better cultivars of hostas while not having to buy in hostas with the concomitant risk of kiek weed contamination. These techniques will triple the production over conventional splitting methods.

Leaf-bud cuttings work well in mid summer on the larger Hosta sieboldiana types such as; ‘Sum and Substance’, ‘Northern Halo’, ‘Francis Williams’, and also the H. tokudama types. In the winter dormant splitting of the dead eyes and other crown material is effective for increasing the production of the smaller hostas that already produce a lot of eyes such as; ‘So Sweet’, ‘Francee’, ‘Summer Fragrance’, and ‘Halcyon’. These two techniques do not involve tissue culture, rossiting, treatment with growth regulators, forcing with lights, or heeling up. They can be easily trained and taught. Unfortunately they are much easier to explain with a few photos than

Breeding and Evaluation of Perennials at Chicago Botanic Garden©

Author: Jim Ault, Richard Hawke

PP: 337


Both the nursery industry and the gardening public have an unquenchable thirst for new ornamental plants and information on plant performance in the landscape. In recognition of these interests, Chicago Botanic Garden has directed much of its research towards the development, evaluation, and introduction of ornamental plants for landscape and garden use in the Midwestern U.S.A. and beyond. The Garden's programs in plant breeding and evaluation will be discussed in this paper.

The Development of Hamamelis ×intermedia©

Author: Chris Lane

PP: 341

Hamamelis ×intermedia is a hybrid that has occurred spontaneously in cultivation, to date all named cultivars have occurred this way. This article aims to document the introduction and development of this hybrid from its early beginnings to the present day.
A Novel System for Propagating Acer rubrum ‘Franksred’ Cuttings Without Mist©

Author: James S. Owen Jr, Brian K. Maynard

PP: 346


Recirculating subirrigation is a new hybrid of existing techniques for propagating cuttings without mist that offers exceptional control of the rooting environment. The system under development offers a new technique that growers can use for winter propagation when bottom heat is desired. This recirculating subirrigation system maintains an optimum root zone temperature to successfully root cuttings in less than optimal greenhouse conditions. This economical, closed-loop system, could also increase ease of OSHA/EPA compliance by allowing workers to apply chemicals, such as fungicides or growth regulators, through the subirrigation water with minimal risk of exposure.

Recirculating subirrigation combines aspects of hydropropagation (Boland and Hanger, 1991) and subirrigation propagation systems (Holt et al., 1998). Subirrigation is a fairly new propagation innovation that has shown promising results for rooting several woody species (Aiello and Graves, 1998;Giroux et al.,

Prairie Flame Shining Sumac from Rooted Cuttings©

Author: Mike Rizzi

PP: 351

Dirr (1990) describes Rhus copallina species as growing 20 to 30 ft high with similar spread. Rhus copallina var. latifolia ‘Morton’ Prairie Flame shining sumac, a male clone selected from the collections of the Morton Arboretum is more tame and less aggressive. Growing only 4 to 6 ft in a 10-year period, Prairie Flame's diminutive size and outstanding characteristics make this a plant well worth propagating.

Propagation by root cutting is an old method of propagation. At Midwest Groundcovers the cutting of the Rhus hails as the harbinger of a new propagating season. The cuttings are taken from 900 2-gal stock plants that occupy 600 ft2 of frame space. The usual cutting date is on or about 15 April in this area. Root cuttings should be taken as the buds begin to swell or when you reach 90-degree days base 50 in your area (90°DDB50).

The process begins by removing the plants from their pots and shaking the plants vigorously to remove the soil. What should remain is only the roots with

Bamboo for Northern Climates©

Author: Bill Hendricks

PP: 352

When we think of bamboo, our imagination leads us to thoughts of lush exotic landscapes surrounded by tropical plants or awakens our worst fears of a garden overrun by bamboo. Bamboos are fascinating plants that can bring a touch of elegance and beauty to a northern garden in an unexpected way. The combination of stiff but flexible stems and soft graceful leaves that can remain evergreen all year can provide many design opportunities whether used in an oriental garden or tastefully placed in a more conventional landscape. They can be used as ground covers, for erosion control, screens hedges, groves, and specimen plants.

About 1000 species are found around the world, along with an additional 1000 varieties, forms, and cultivars. Bamboos are native to every continent except Europe and Antarctica. Generally, tropical bamboos tend to be clumpers and temperate bamboos tend to be runners.

Whether they run or clump, bamboo should be thought of as a colony, not as an individual plant. The

Challenges of Starting Your Own Liner Business©

Author: Mark Richey

PP: 356

When I told Dan Studebaker that I would present a paper to this Society I didn't know what topic would be assigned to me. After he asked me to speak on the challenges of starting your own liner business I began to question my hasty answer. It would be foolish to stand before you and presume on your wisdom and experience and say this is how to start a liner business. But after thinking about it, I can reduce many of the challenges down to a few guiding principles. They would be:
  • Do what you do best and choose your product line very carefully.
  • A customer base is more than just a list of names.
  • People are more important than things.

While working as propagator at a large western Michigan nursery, I became involved with more than the daily rigors of rooting 5 million cuttings annually. Some of the costs associated with the liner production seemed to be high. So I was given permission to work with the cost accountant so we could mutually understand each other's point of view. Hopefully,

Spinifex Research Project. A Collaborative Research Project Between Naturally Native New Zealand Plants Ltd and New Zealand Forest Research Institute©

Author: Mark A. Dean

PP: 65


In 1996 Naturally Native New Zealand Plants Ltd. was approached by Natural Logic, an ecological consultancy company operating in the field of revegetation planting, to research the growing of spinifex [Spinifex sericeus (syn. S. hirsutus)] for planting on coastal dunes in Northland. This company required these plants to restore degraded coastal sand dunes in a rather difficult exposed site and could not find a source for the plants anywhere.

Spinifex along with pingao (Desmoschoenus spiralis), had long been recognised as an important indigenous sand binding species. In 1911 Leonard Cockayne the eminent botanist, had noted that these species, along with Euphorbia glauca were the most prevalent sand-binding species occurring on the fore dunes throughout most of New Zealand. It also occurs naturally on the eastern coast of Australia where it is a dominant sand dune species.

However, even as late as 1996, little was known as to how to propagate spinifex in sufficient

The Propagation System Used at Wilson Nurseries©

Author: Jon Pickerill

PP: 359

Wilson Nurseries is a 1200-acre wholesale nursery located in northern Illinois about 40 miles west of Chicago. We propagate and produce a majority of the liners we plant out each year. Whether we're planting into a 3- or 5-gal container or a 4- or 8-ft B&B row, we like to have a heavy, well-branched liner that can make up in the least amount of time. Over the past 12 years, we have devised a system that allows us to do just that.

Although we do some winter propagation, the majority of the plants we propagate start as softwoods taken in June. We have five 30 ft × 200 ft quonset-style greenhouses which we devote to summer softwoods. All these houses have 12-inchdeep ground sand beds, roll up side vents, and a traveling irrigator.

The process starts in late April when we clean, level, and fumigate the sand beds. Depending on the weather, we start taking cuttings anywhere from late May to early June. The cutting crew is also the sticking crew, so on the first day out, we spend all day taking

New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 361


Cercis chinensis ‘Don Egolf’. A fruitless selection of Cercis chinensis, ‘Don Egolf’ is the first redbud cultivar to be introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum. This cultivar was selected from a population of open-pollinated seed obtained from a botanical garden in Kunming, the People's Republic of China. ‘Don Egolf’ was selected for its compact, slow-growing, vase-shaped habit; dark green, pest-resistant foliage; abundant rosy mauve flowers; absence of seed pods; and high field tolerance to Botryosphaeria dothidia canker. It is readily propagated from semihardwood cuttings using 3000 ppm IBA in talc. Hardy in U.S.D.A. Zones 6 to 9, in 15 years it has grown 9 ft tall and 9½ ft wide. Evaluated by cooperators in 14 states throughout the U.S. It has shown no signs of invasiveness.

Question Box

Author: Deb McCown, Dick Bir

PP: 369

DEB MCCOWN: What is CPBRAF (Canadian Plant Breeders Royalty Association Fund.)
POSTER SESSION PAPERS© Germination of Bletilla striata seed on natural media

Author: H.Willam Barnes

PP: 370


Terrestrial orchids have been traditionally germinated on artificial media much like the in vitro methods of tissue culture (Sawyer, 1989). However, an Eastern Region, North America I.P.P.S. exchange program with the Scandinavian Region I.P.P.S. provided a means of talking with Dr. Lillie Andersen. In conversation she touched upon the idea of germinating some terrestrial orchids, such as Goodyera, on a rotted wood substrate. Returning back to the U.S.A. the idea was put to the test using Bletilla striata.

Rooting Pinkroot… Then Keeping Them Alive©

Author: Richard E. Bir, H. William Barnes

PP: 372

Spigelia marilandica, family Loganiaceae, also known as pinkroot, Indian pink and wormgrass, is native to moist woodlands of the southeastern United States. It is a clump-forming herbaceous perennial with abundant flowers from June into September. Plants range from 12 to 24 inches tall with tubular flowers carmine-red on the outside and yellow on the interior which are displayed above medium green foliage. Because of its attractiveness, pinkroot is a desirable ornamental plant for woodland gardens in hardiness Zones 7 to 9 and partially sunny, moist borders in hardiness Zones 5 and 6. In addition to its ornamental characteristics, pinkroot has also been reported as valuable for folk remedies as well as being listed as a poisonous plant.

Propagation has most often been carried out by division because seeds have been difficult to obtain, principally due to both the small seeds being propelled away from the plant through a natural dispersal system as soon as they become ripe and the need

Engineering Heat and Flood Tolerant Birches Through Grafting©

Author: Richard E. Bir, Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 374

Tolerance of heat stress and flooding/poor soil drainage have been considered limiting factors in establishing commercially popular white-barked birches in some locations. River birch (Betula nigra) has been found to be both more heat and flood tolerant than European (B. pendula), paper (B. papyrifera), and ‘Whitespire’ birches (Ranney and Peet, 1994; Ranney and Bir, 1994).

To test whether river birch is compatible as a rootstock for ‘Whitespire’ birch, ‘Whitespire’ scions were grafted onto each of the four species as well as onto ‘Whitespire,’ grown in containers for 1 year then planted into a sandy clay loam soil with a mean percolation rate of 0.9 inches h-1 at North Carolina State University's Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station. Survival and trunk diameter following three growing seasons is shown in Table 1.

Plants of ‘Whitespire’ grafted on river birch were also included in the North Carolina Urban Tree Evaluation Program to determine actual performance under growing conditions in

Flood Tolerant Prunus Through Grafting?©

Author: Richard E. Bir, T.G. Ranney

PP: 375

Considerable variation in tolerance to root-zone flooding exists within the genus Prunus. Research demonstrated the differences in defoliation and survival for 11 Prunus taxa (Ranney, 1994) as shown in Table 1.

The two taxa most tolerant of root zone flooding, F-12/1 mazzard cherry and ‘Newport’ plum, illustrate the potential for enhancing adaptability of less floodtolerant Prunus such as Japanese apricot (P. mume) and Yoshino cherry (P. ×yedoensis) on poorly drained sites if they are grafted onto appropriate rootstocks. Prunus avium F-12/1, resistant to bacterial canker, is listed as compatible with P. sargentii, ‘Yoshino’, ‘Okame’, P. ×subhirtella ‘Autumnalis’, and ‘Kanzan’ cherries as

University of Connecticut Rhododendron Introductions©

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 377

Anyone who is a University of Connecticut basketball fan has been enjoying the last decade of hoops in Connecticut. In 1999, we celebrated the men's basketball conquest over the Duke Blue Devils in the NCAA championship. In 1995 and 2000, we cheered on the women's team as they put away the Tennessee Lady Vols to bring home their own championships. To celebrate all of this basketball success, the University of Connecticut has named six new and improved rhododendron hybrids with basketball-related names and dubbed them the "Raise the Roof" series. For those of you who may not be rabid basketball fans, "raising the roof" is an arm gesture basketball players use to get the crowd to cheer loud enough to "raise the roof" off the arena. The "Raise the Roof" cultivars are ‘Buzzer Beater’, ‘Hoopla’, ‘Huskymania’, ‘March Madness’, ‘Slam Dunk’ and ‘Tip Off’.

The rhododendron breeding program at the University of Connecticut was started in 1960 by Gustav A. L. Mehlquist. Unfortunately, Dr. Mehlquist passed away

Influence of the Timing of Propagation and Cold Storage on the Growth and Development of Alstroemeria Pot Plants©

Author: Eduardo Olate, Doris Ly, George Elliott, Mark Bridgen

PP: 379


Alstroemeria, also known as the lily-of-the-Incas or Inca lily, is a herbaceous plant which produces vegetative and floral shoots from an underground rhizome (Bridgen, 1997). Native to South America, this monocotyledonous plant belongs to the family Alstroemeriaceae. Approximately 30 of the species are endemic to Chile, 13 from Brazil, 4 from Argentina and 3 from Peru (Bayer, 1987).

Among cut flower producers Alstroemeria is a favorite, due to its long vase life, long period of flowering, preference for cool temperatures and high yield of flowers. There are several multiplication systems available for Alstroemeria: rhizome division, micropropagation, and seed propagation. Commercial cultivars are possible to group under one of three general classifications: butterfly-, orchid-, and hybrid-type cultivars. The butterfly-type is a group that will flower for nine to 12 months each year depending upon the cultivar and environmental conditions. These cultivars have shorter

How Grafting Technique on Aesculus Can Influence Healing©

Author: Tim Brotzman

PP: 392


The technical goal of grafting is to unite a scion and rootstock as quickly as possible, using one of several methods that will produce a strong union with maximum cambial contact. I employ three types of carpentry when grafting Aesculus:

  1. Cleft
  2. Splice
  3. Whip and tongue

Advantageous buds (i.e., suckers) often appear when healing is slow or incomplete. Though advantageous buds can and will be commonly produced around the union regardless of the technique, any style that leaves edges of cambium tissue exposed is more likely to do so. For this reason I prefer splice or whip and tongue more so than cleft grafting.

Each year Brotzman's Nursery grafts approximately 200 A. ×carnea cultivars and A. ×arnoldiana cultivars onto A. hippocastanum. I usually graft onto potted stock that has been warmed to induce root initiation. Aesculus respond well to heat and a hot callus pipe can be used. I have also plunged them in peat and stood plants upright in flats. Grafts are always

Focus on New Zealand Flax: Phormium Production in 2000©

Author: Robert Bett

PP: 68


This paper is a combination of 3 years intensive research on Phormium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. for a Bachelor of Science in Crop Technology and Management at Writtle College, United Kingdom and a passion on my part for a truly amazing New Zealand native, making its mark around the world on our modern global landscapes.

My first encounter with Phormium was at Lees and Company, a specialist grower of container nursery stock to the landscaping industry in the United Kingdom. In the early 1980s, the plants arrived in large boxes from South Africa rapped in nappies. Later that same season, smaller plants wrapped in bundles of 25 in brown paper and sphagnum moss arrived from New Zealand. An air of mystique shrouded these plants and like any keen plantsperson I started thinking. What conditions would these plants grow under? What feed makes them thrive? How hardy are they and how do you propagate them? This search inevitably led me here to New Zealand, and 3 years on I'm still

Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest; Eastern Region IPPS Tour Site for 2001©

Author: Paul E. Cappiello

PP: 393

This poster presentation is designed to introduce I.P.P.S. members to Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest. As a tour site for the 2001 meeting in Lexington, Kentucky, all members will have an opportunity to visit Bernheim and study the plant collections and facilities. This private, nonprofit institution covers over 15,000 acres of mostly forested Kentucky Knobs land. Plant collections cover primarily woody ornamentals, with over 8000 plants in current inventory. This presentation describes Bernheim's natural resource infrastructure and its research philosophy.
The Use of Florel as a Production Tool on Various Perennials©

Author: James Brown, Steve Castorani

PP: 396


Florel® brand growth regulator with the active ingredient ethephon, [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] at 3.90% has been show to be effective in increasing lateral branching on perennial stock plants. It is used to increase available cutting material while reducing the size of the actual cuttings. We undertook a study to better understand how the application of Florel would affect lateral branching of four herbaceous perennial taxa.

Asian Long-Horned Beetle: Profile of a New Pest©

Author: Robert D. Childs, Ronald F. Kujawski

PP: 398

The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) (ALB) is one of the latest in the long history of exotic pests that have found their way into the continental U.S.A. First discovered on maple trees in a Brooklyn, New York, neighborhood in 1996, this native of Japan, Korea, and southern China has since been found in trees in Amityville, New York, other boroughs of New York City (including Manhattan), and in suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. Efforts to intercept new introductions of this pest have increased significantly since the original find. It has now been intercepted nearly 30 times at shipping ports in 17 other states in raw-wood packing material emanating from Asia. The repeated interceptions of this pest at U.S.A. ports has prompted the federal government to impose trade restrictions on China. Now, all cargo entering the United States from China that is in any way packaged in raw wood material must carry a certificate of being insect-free.

Unlike most wood boring insects that

Waste-derived Media for Pot-in-pot Shade Trees©

Author: Calvin Chong, Glen P. Lumis

PP: 400


There is little information on substrates for pot-in-pot shade tree production (Murray et al., 1997; Tilt et al., 1993). This research examined various organic waste-derived substrates for growing shade trees in pot-in-pot systems.

Propagation by Root Cuttings and Nitrogen Nutrition of Containerized Anemone ×hybrida©

Author: Jean-Jacques B. Dubois, Frank A. Blazich, Stuart L. Warren

PP: 405


Propagators in the United States are currently unable to meet demand for Anemone ×hybrida. Propagation is normally accomplished by division or root cuttings, with very low multiplication rates in either case. In addition, there are no published recommendations for N nutrition of A. ×hybrida, and recommendations for perennials in general are excessively variable. Two studies were undertaken to (1) determine the effect of N nutrition of stock plants on propagation by root cuttings, (2) provide the basis for a system for production of plantlets of anemone in small cell containers, and (3) determine optimal N levels for containerized plants of A. ×hybrida.

Plant Introductions from Mt. Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Flora©

Author: Rick J. Lewandowski, Jeanne S. Frett

PP: 406

Over the past 17 years the plant introduction program at Mt. Cuba Center has established a reputation for introducing cultivars that are tough, broadly adaptable, and which possess qualities not found in other plants on the market. The primary mission of this program has been to seek out, evaluate, and introduce garden worthy plants derived from the Piedmont flora and develop commercially viable propagation and production methods for superior plants.

The objectives of plant evaluation and introduction at Mt. Cuba Center are to: (1) introduce outstanding cultivars that exhibit ornamental attractiveness, stress tolerance, longevity, and cultural adaptability; and (2) support the concept of "conservation of natural plant populations through propagation" rather than unsustainable and irresponsible harvesting from wild populations.

In this poster, we highlight some of Mt. Cuba Center's most successful commercially available introductions from the past 17 years. In addition, this poster

Root Formation in Relationship to Auxin Uptake in Cuttings Treated by the Dilute Soak, Quick Dip, and Talc Methods©

Author: R.L. Geneve

PP: 409


Although many factors can influence the success of adventitious root formation in stem cuttings, auxin remains as a consistent treatment for increasing rooting. The initial observations that auxin promotes root formation date to the 1930s. Since that time, three systems have gained acceptance for delivery of auxin to cuttings. These are talc, quick dip, and dilute soak methods (Blazich, 1988). Quick dip exposes cuttings to auxin in a solvent solution for 1 to 5 sec, while the dilute soak is an aqueous auxin solution with application times up to 48 h. Auxin delivery in talc was developed in the 1930s as an alternative to quick dips and lanolin paste (Loach, 1988). It has generally been suggested that quick dip applications are more effective in promoting root formation than either dilute soak or talc (Bonaminio, 1983). One reason may be the difference in uptake mechanics for these different methods. In general, it appears that auxin in talc or aqueous solutions are

Propagation of Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)©

Author: Cynthia Finneseth, Sharon Kester, Robert Geneve, Kirk Pomper, De

PP: 413


The North American pawpaw is a temperate member of the mostly tropical Annonaceae or custard apple family. Pawpaw has commercial value both as a small landscape tree and as an orchard fruit crop (Layne, 1996). It is also the source of several novel botanical and medicinal extracts (Zhao et al., 1994). Nurseries commonly propagate pawpaw from seed or chip budding. Seed propagation of pawpaw is important to the nursery industry as a source of seedlings for both ornamental and understock production. Currently, chip budding is used to propagate superior fruiting cultivars. One problem with budding is the propensity for pawpaw understocks to sucker and potentially compete with the desired cultivar. Cutting or tissue culture propagation would be a desirable way to establish pawpaw cultivars on their own roots. The objective of our research program in pawpaw is to develop propagation methods for seedling and clonal establishment of plants for commercial production.

Field Establishment of Tissue Culture-derived Trillium grandiflorum©

Author: S.L. Kitto, J.S. Frett

PP: 417


Trilliums are high-value, garden-worthy plants that are uncommon in the nursery trade due to propagation difficulties. Many herbaceous plants that are conventionally difficult to propagate rely on tissue culture micropropagation. Tissue culture micropropagation involves the clonal production of shoots that are rooted and reestablished under field conditions. Shoot or rhizome production of trilliums in vitro is relatively easy. The purpose of this research was to develop reestablishment protocols for rhizomes of Trillium grandiflorum.

Viburnum Beetle: A Serious Threat to Viburnum Plants in Stock Blocks, Production, and the Landscape©

Author: Robert E. McNiel, Paul A. Weston, Brian C. Eshenaur

PP: 419


The genus Viburnum is represented regularly in landscapes from the Canadian border to the Gulf Coast in the Eastern United States. Diverse flowering, fruit, leaf, and form characteristics lead to a range of landscape uses. The diversity in this group of shrubs is botanically described by Krássman (1984). Table 1 lists his nine sections within Viburnum.

Viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) is a pest of Viburnum and the insect is now established in the United States. Viburnum leaf beetle, a European native which is established from Great Britain to Italy, was first detected in North America in Ontario, Canada. Since then it is believed to have migrated over land into Maine and across the Niagara Isthmus or St. Lawrence seaway into New York. In New York it was first detected in 1996 along the shores of Lake Ontario.

This work was initiated to learn more about the insect and the extent of damage it causes to viburnums.