Volume 47

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Australian Region Celebrated Its 25th Anniversary

Author: Leisa J. Armstrong

PP: 43

The Australian Region of the I.P.P.S. celebrated its 25th Anniversary at this Conference. The first technical session was a reflection by a group of our founding members on 25 years of plant propagation developments and how they have helped my business. It was a privilege to listen to some of the history of our Society recounted by these elder statesmen who have been inspirational mentors to many of the current membership.
Propagation of the Wollemi Pine

Author: Glen Fensom, Catherine Offord

PP: 66

The Wollemi pine, Wollemia nobilis, is a newly discovered genus and species of the southern hemisphere family Araucariaceae. It is a rare and endangered species, with fewer than 40 adult trees existing in the wild. There is considerable horticultural interest in this species and research at Mount Annan Botanic Garden is concentrating on propagation of this species by seed, cuttings, and tissue culture. Of these techniques, cutting propagation of orthotropic juvenile shoots is the most promising.
Improved Grafting Techniques for Nursery Stock

Author: Lars Westergaard

PP: 357


Grafting has with increasing labor costs become an expensive way of propagating plants. An important factor for the bottom line in this process is a high percentage of successful grafts. In a number of genera, e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, Salix, and Tilia, this is easy to obtain. In other genera, however, a low percentage of "takes" can make grafting an unreasonably expensive method of propagation. In particular species of Juglans, Quercus, Corylus, and partly Acer can be tricky in that respect. Therefore, there are good reasons to optimize every step in the grafting process in order to ensure high grafting success especially for the more difficult-to-propagate species. The methods presented below by the author are meant as a source of inspiration for other propagators.

Physiological Basis of Topophysis in Rosa Hybrids

Author: Niels Bredmose, Jürgen Hansen

PP: 360

Aspects of growth readiness and plant architecture are integrated into one organ, the bud. Topophysis, the positional effect of axillary buds along the shoot axis on their growth and differentiation, is an important factor as it may determine whether an axillary bud grows readily or with difficulty. Topophysis is a decisive tool for synchronizing the development and flowering in roses. Results show that growth potential, growth efficiency, and plant quality can be improved by 14% to 49% in roses by selecting proper cutting positions. Topophysis in Rosa is an independent phenomenon which is intrinsic to the axillary bud. At present, there is no convincing physiological explanation of the relatively stable states of behavior exerted by topophysis. We suggest that topophysic prevention of growth may be related to lack of promoters or to the presence of inhibitors of growth within the bud.
Improved Rooting in Woody Species by Reducing Stock Plant Irradiance

Author: Ole Billing Hansen

PP: 368

In two experiments the benefits of reducing the irradiance to stock plants on the rooting of woody plant cuttings were demonstrated in the apple rootstocks Malus Ottawa 3 and Mailing 26, Rhododendron ‘Britannia’ and ‘Unknown Warrior’, and in Juniperus horizontalis ‘Andorra Compact’. In cuttings of R. ‘Purple Splendour’ and Kalmia ‘Ostbo Red’, and seedlings of Kalmia no positive effect of etiolation was found. The temperature during etiolation did not seem to have a significant effect on the rooting response.
Micropropagation of Eustoma

Author: Søren Ringgaard

PP: 374


Eustoma (syn. Lisianthius) has been propagated and longterm stored in vitro at our laboratory as a service for our traditional breeding. The aim was to store important breeding lines in the laboratory and to use the in vitro lines for micropropagation of parent plants in the production of F1 hybrids. In vitro storage is more convenient than keeping stock plants in the greenhouse and better than storage of seed because the lines are not totally inbreed (homozygotic) and the offspring will not be identical to the parents.

Somatic Embryogenesis of Cyclamen persicum Mill. in Bioreactors

Author: Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide, Cristel Munster

PP: 377

Propagation experiments were carried out in a series of six self-constructed and self-built bioreactors controlling temperature, oxygen level, stirring speed/direction, and light quality. The bioreactors are all fully automated and computer controlled. They provide excellent experimental conditions for controlled environments of the liquid cultures. Light quality, the factor investigated in these experiments, showed that blue light had a positive effect on production of proembryogenic masses (PEM) and somatic embryos in hormone-free medium. The experiments also showed that somatic embryogenesis responded to CO2 level. Higher CO2 levels were correlated with increased PEM, but the CO2 level was not controlled, only measured. Ethylene concentration is believed to be another important factor, but was not measured in these experiments. Comparisons between cultures grown in bioreactors and suspension cultures in flasks on shakers clearly demonstrated that bioreactors have an enormous effect on cell proliferation and embryo formation. However, bioreactors require higher technical skills of the operator, as well as extreme care to prevent microbial contamination of the cultures, since the loss of 2 liters of suspension is a substantial loss in a commercial setting, compared to a flask of 100 ml.
Dollars, Sense, New Plants, and Propagation

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 386


Considerable thought has gone into the operation of our plant acquisition and testing program at the University of Georgia. Occasionally the wheels are spinning and the net gain borders on zero. At other times, I am most gratified at the responses of the nurseries in Georgia and the Southeastern U.S. Perhaps the positive effect of the program has never been more evident than with the butterfly-bush (Buddleja) evaluations. Over 75 species and cultivars have been tested. One nursery in Georgia has taken cuttings of 38 cultivars. No visitor has left without at least one new cultivar! Today I report my top five butterfly-bush choices and evaluation at a recent field day (23 Sept. 1997) when 126 individuals voted on their top five butterfly bushes.

Dirr's current favorites                     Field day top five
B. davidii ‘Potter's Purple’             B. ‘Honeycomb’
B. davidii ‘Summer Beauty’           B. fallowiana var. alba
B. ‘Honeycomb’                               B. ‘Moonshadow’
B. ‘Summer
Daylily (Hemerocallis) Production Propagation and Breeding

Author: Robert G. Austin

PP: 388


I believe that the number one cultivar on the list should be one that offers repeat blooming cycles, has double flowers, excellent flower color, and resistance to fading in the sun. Other desirable traits include: plants with a good balance of floral scape to foliage size, foliage with resistance to summer heat, and a high yield of bibs for propagation by division that leads to profitable mass production.

Propagation of Weeping Yaupon Holly

Author: Tim Gwaltney

PP: 390


Weeping yaupon, Ilex vomitoria f. pendula, is a plant in much demand by our customers. It is used by landscapers as a dramatic focal point because of its unique growth habit. It is not currently available in large quantities because of difficulty in rooting. Hence, rooted liner plants are in high demand by other nurseries wanting to produce this species.

New Marketing Ideas to Meet the Needs of Our Changing Nursery Industry

Author: Ken Tilt

PP: 393


The nursery industry has always been a dynamic industry that has had to constantly follow the fads and fashions of the gardening public and landscape industry as well as keep up with the technology of the industry and the lifestyles of our customers. Our large nurseries are getting larger, our midsize nurseries are struggling to find the best size to maintain profitability while still being able to compete with the big nurseries, and our small nurseries are looking for niches. Our industry is so large and diverse that there is still a place for everyone but we must be more creative, use more of our horticultural skills, concentrate on quality, and use marketing skills to create our niches.

Propagation and Cultivation of Selected Gingers in the Subtropics

Author: Russell Adams

PP: 399


Gingers are a large group of exotic plants with an unmistakable tropical appearance. Currently, taxonomists recognize 40 genera and over 1500 species of gingers. As a result of recent collecting trips into China, Burma, Malaysia, and Thailand, many more exciting species and cultivars are soon to be introduced. Fossil records indicate that gingers have been around for at least 65 million years and have inhabited such unlikely places as the North American plains, Canada, and even Russia. Their ancient past gives clues to their best kept secret.

Cold Hardiness of Gingers. Despite their tropical appearance, many gingers are surprisingly cold hardy, especially Hedychium and Curcuma, which thrive and bloom as far north as Atlanta, Georgia and Raleigh, North Carolina (U.S.D.A. Zone 7). Some gingers such as Alpinia, Hedychium, and Costus are evergreen in warmer climates, although frost will damage or kill the foliage of most gingers. Others such as Curcuma, Globba, and Kaemferia are

Germination of Native Grasses and Their Establishment

Author: R.D.B Whalley

PP: 68


There are about 1000 species of native grasses in Australia which must be well adapted to this environment in order to persist. An important feature of this adaption is the ability to reproduce and survive despite variable rainfall and the generally low level of available plant nutrients in Australian soils.

Different species have evolved strategies which allow them to survive in a wide range of physical and biological environments. Grime (1977) suggested that the two most important groups of factors affecting the survival of plants are stress and disturbance. He also suggested that plants have developed strategies to cope with three of the four possible combinations of high and low stress and disturbance (Table 1).

High Light with Moderated Temperatures Aids the Rooting of Softwood Cuttings

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 403


The optimum environment for rooting softwood cuttings in late spring and summer is to have high light intensity combined with moderate temperature and very high humidity — maintained by frequent and light intermittent misting. Softwood cuttings harvested from plants produced under full sun conditions quickly show stress when light intensity is greatly reduced or temperatures become excessively high causing a drop in humidity and dehydration of soft tissues.

Computer Propagation and Production Planning with the Help of a Database

Author: James Gilbert

PP: 407


Propagation and production planning is probably the most important task in wholesale nurseries today. To be profitable and to manage production costs, it is important to propagate and grow the optimum combination of cultivars in the sizes and forms the market demands. The cost to develop and maintain bed space is high. Other major expenses include: water, fertilizer, chemicals, and labor. With so many new cultivars being introduced today, it is even more important to be able to compare their demand with the demand for standard crops. We needed a tool to help collect information on our plants, our past sales, our target markets, and the amount of space needed for propagation, jamming plants can tight, and later spacing the crop.

Controlling Liverworts and Moss in Nursery Production

Author: Sven E. Svenson, Bill Smith, Bruce Briggs

PP: 414


Liverworts and mosses are persistent weeds that infest containers soon after successfully propagated plants are potted. The light, temperature, humidity, growing media, irrigation, and fertility regimes needed by newly potted plants are ideal conditions for liverwort growth. Often, liverworts can grow faster than the desired plants, smothering crops and profits. Transplanted tissue-cultured plantlets, fern sporlings, seedlings, and cuttings in trays, flats, and liner pots are the most susceptible to liverwort infestations. Changes in pesticide laws (especially for greenhouse use), unavailable chemical products, and changes in cultural routines of growers have all contributed to increased liverwort infestations. Strategies for getting this weed under control are needed. Mosses are often controlled using the same procedures used to control liverworts. The objective of this paper is to provide a starting point from which a grower can formulate a liverwort and moss

Disinfection of Nursery Irrigation Water with Chlorination, Bromination, and Ozonation

Author: Bruno A. Ferraro, Marta L. Brenner

PP: 423


Disinfection is the process by which pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed. There are many ways in which disinfection of irrigation water may be achieved. The degree of disinfection required depends on the source of the irrigation water, the type of disinfectant used, the dosage, and the contact time. Other factors nursery owners may consider when selecting a disinfectant are handling considerations, and equipment and chemical costs per gallon of water. Each of these variables will be addressed and compared for disinfection of irrigation water using chlorine, bromine, and ozone.

Effect of pH on Efficacy of Pesticides

Author: L. Douglas Houseworth

PP: 427


Many factors influence the effectiveness of pesticides. These factors in part include: usage rates, timing, water volume, the specific crop, sprayer types and nozzles, and soil type. Two factors that are often overlooked are the quality and pH of the water used as the carrier. This paper will address the effect of pH on the efficacy of pesticides and what can be done to optimize the performance of pesticides.

Understanding pH. First it is necessary to understand what pH is. The pH is a number that indicates the number of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions in solution. This is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The scale is from 0 to 14, where pH 7 contains an equal number of H+ and OH- ions. Water at pH 7 is neutral. It is important to realize that each point change in the pH of a spray solution represents a 10× change in the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. In some cases only a minor change in the pH can have a significant impact on the

Innovative Pesticide Application Equipment at Wight Nurseries

Author: Stewart Chandler

PP: 430


New technologies warrant consideration for our Pest Management Program that help us improve deposition, increase efficacy, and allow more precise and reduced pesticide usage. It is our policy to look for new and refined methods for applying pesticides that enable us to become better stewards to our environment, while maintaining the option to use pesticides in the work place. The Quality Control Department at Wight Nurseries in Cairo, Georgia is currently utilizing two custom-built pieces of equipment that better fit our pest management goals. They are an air-assisted electrostatic boom sprayer and an air-assisted boom herbicide applicator. This paper will describe these two pieces of equipment and their benefits to our pest management program.

Automation of Bedding Plant Production

Author: Steven E. Newman

PP: 434


Greenhouse and nursery crop growers are continually faced with increased production costs with little opportunity to raise prices. The small-scale grower must specialize in unique crops or capitalize on individualized service to command top dollar for their products and coexist with large-scale growers who target mass merchants. Many growers, large and small alike, are considering more automation in their daily production operations. Automation often requires a major capital expenditure, but when properly planned, it can offset equipment investment by reducing labor costs and enhancing production efficiency.

Influence of Water-soluble Plant Diffusates on Root Initiation and Growth in Chionanthus virginicus and Vigna radiata Stem Cuttings

Author: Mark J. Arena, Willard T. Witte, Otto J. Schwarz

PP: 437


White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) is an important and valuable plant for the nursery and landscape industries. Many consider white fringetree a premier specimen plant due to its bold foliage, refinement, dignity, and bloom characteristics (Dirr, 1990). White fringetree is extremely difficult to propagate by stem cuttings and is more commonly propagated by seed, which normally requires up to two years for germination. To date, there are no scientific reports of successful propagation with stem cuttings. Surveys in 1988 and 1995 ranked white fringetree as one of the most difficult plants to propagate (Gamstetter and Gulick, 1996). The surveys showed that although the tree was considered "unavailable," it was one of the top plants in market demand. Propagation difficulties make it an expensive plant in the trade and reduce its usage. By increasing the production of white fringetree, we could lower the cost and satisfy market demands.

Treatments of aqueous

Nonchemical Alternatives for Weed Control in Containers

Author: D.R. Smith, C.H. Gilliam, J.H. Edwards, J.M. Olive

PP: 442

Studies were conducted to evaluate recycled waste paper mulch for nonchemical weed control in container production of Rhododendron ‘Fashion’ and Rhododendron ‘Girard's Rose’. Pelletized and a crumbled formulation of recycled paper were evaluated at 2 depths: 1.3 and 2.5 cm (0.5 and 1 inch). A fabric disk and a fabric disk treated with Spin Out™ were also evaluated. Pelletized paper at a depth of 2.5 cm (1 inch) provided weed control equal to Rout herbicide. Plant growth was similar among all treatments, except with Fashion azalea which was smaller when grown in pelletized paper mulch compared to the crumbled paper system. Container medium solution pH and soluble salts were within the recommended range for acceptable plant growth. Fabric disks allowed weed growth around the container circumference and in the area where the disk fits around the plant. The crumbled paper mulch had minimal weed control. Pelletized paper applied at 2.5 cm (1 inch) provided the most effective nonchemical weed control.
Propagating and Growing Camellias

Author: Ray Watson

PP: 448


Not only is the camellia the most beautiful and desirable of all shrubs, it is also one of the most versatile. This evergreen shrub responds well to pruning, or can develop into a small tree.

Propagation of Flannel Flowers (Actinotus helianthi)

Author: Lotte Von Richter, Catherine Offord

PP: 71


Flannel flowers (Actinotus helianthi) are attractive plants endemic to the eastern regions of Australia, particularly on the sandstone areas along the coast of NSW. They are an emerging cut flower crop and there is also considerable interest in this species as a potted plant. For the past 2 years, work carried out at Mount Annan Botanic Garden with the support of the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, has concentrated on the development of flannel flowers for horticulture with emphasis on cut flower production.

Flannel flowers were often considered difficult to grow (Offord and Tyler, 1993) and various methods have been assessed for the commercial development of this perennial herbaceous species. Propagation, previously considered one of the major limitations to the development of this species for horticulture, is now a matter of choosing the appropriate technique and plant material.

Fertilizer Rate and Pot-In-Pot Production Influence Growth of River Birch

Author: John M. Ruter

PP: 451

A study was conducted to compare the effects of three fertilizer rates [High N-Southern Formula, 23N–1.7P–6.6K at 1.3, 1.7, and 2.0 kg N m-3 (2.2, 2.8, and 3.4 lb N yd-3)] and the pot-in-pot (PIP) system of production compared with a conventional above-ground (CAG) system on the growth of Betula nigra ‘Cully’ Heritage™ river birch. Plants grown PIP had greater shoot and root growth, total biomass, and increased root: shoot ratios. Fertilizer rate increased shoot dry weights, but decreased root : shoot ratios. Rate of fertilizer application influenced foliar Mg, Zn, and Fe, while the production system had no effect. Nutrient concentrations in the leachate were greater for plants grown CAG. Fertilizer longevity was increased when the PIP system was used, presumably due to lower substrate temperatures during the experimental period.
Winter Protection at Martin's Nursery

Author: William M. Turk

PP: 454


Martin's Nursery is located in Semmes, Alabama, which is just northwest of Mobile. The Semmes area has nearly a century-old history in the nursery industry. Cold weather and severe freezes have played key roles in our history. In fact, it was a devastating freeze that converted the earliest South Alabama nurserymen from citrus crops to ornamentals.

Protection from the elements is a state of mind for our business, as it should be for all ornamental nurseries. A big emphasis is placed on winter protection and we think about it 12 months out of the year. Daily decisions about what to pot and where to put it are partially based on how and if we plan to protect it during the winter. How we protect our azaleas (Rhododendron), hollies (Ilex), and cleyera (Cleyera) are in many ways standard in the industry, but we have some unique systems.

New Releases From The U.S. National Arboretum

Author: Ruth L. Dix

PP: 460

Throughout its 70-year history, the U.S. National Arboretum has played a key role in the origination and dissemination of new and unique plant material through genetic research and through participation in various plant explorations. Over the past several years, the introduction of some especially exciting and noteworthy cultivars has taken place.

Ulmus americana

I'd like to begin my talk with a discussion of a classic, elegant tree from America's past, the American elm (Ulmus americana). Unfortunately, this species has all but disappeared from the landscape due to the ravages of Dutch elm disease. However, I am happy to report that there is hope for the American elm. After 20 years of research, two new cultivars of American elm have been released by the National Arboretum: ‘Valley Forge’ and ‘New Harmony’. Although not immune to Dutch elm disease, ‘Valley Forge’ and ‘New Harmony’ have unusually high levels of disease tolerance and have demonstrated superior field resistance. Both cultivars

New Clematis

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 464

Clematis ‘Blekitny Aniol’

Height: 2.5 to 4 m.

Flower: Diameter 10 to 15 cm; light blue, lighter in the middle of the sepals and darker on edges, very fine silky texture, ruffled sepals with curled edges, yellow-greenish stamens nicely contrast with blue sepals.

Flowering date: June to August.

A very freely flowering and long-blooming cultivar. At the same time a shoot can have flowers on seven nodes. It is a healthy plant, it can grow separately or in a group, also together with other plants, i.e., roses and other shrubs or conifers. It grows beautifully in a sunny, south-facing position, but a shadier, even a north location also suit it. ‘Blekitny Aniol’ flowers abundantly from the middle of June until the middle of August and its flowers look fresh for a very longtime. If, however, blooming is weak, the plant can be cut back in the second part of July and it will flower nicely again in September. The blooms contrast well with a dark background from other plants or a wall. When

Landscape Performance of Shade Trees Initially Grown in Above-ground Wire Basket Containers

Author: Calvin Chong, Bob Hamersma

PP: 468

Trees of green ash [Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima (syn. F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata)] grew equally well after 2 years in above-ground wire basket containers lined inside with tar paper, vinyl, or geotextile fabric. After an additional 7 years in the landscape, trees grown with both the basket and liner removed, or with the basket removed and the liner slashed, grew similarly and better than those with both the basket and liner intact. When the root ball was removed from the containers before planting in the landscape, trees initially grown in the tar-paper-lined containers grew the best. Trees initially grown in the fabric-lined containers grew the least.
Future Marketing Potential for Daylilies

Author: Darrel Apps

PP: 473

One of the few research studies available on the significance of daylilies in the market place was reported in the Perennial Plants Quarterly Journal of the Perennial Plant Association, Volume 3 (4), Autumn 1995. In an article "Views of Management", Tim Rhodus and James Haskin, Department of Horticulture, Ohio State University, reported that in their survey consisting of 441 respondent nursery managers, that they found Hemerocallis to be the second most frequently sold genus. Hosta was number one.

Their research also showed that few of the managers were growing a wide assortment of named daylilies. ‘Stella de Oro’ was grown more widely than any other cultivar, 75.4% mentioned this plant. The next most widely grown daylily was ‘Hyperion’ with 3.9%, and in third place ‘Happy Returns’ with 2.0%. Other daylilies mentioned were: ‘Catherine Woodbery’, ‘Luxury Lace’, ‘Mary Todd’, Trophytaker™ Series, ‘Flying Saucer’, ‘Rebel Boy’, ‘Pardon Me’, ‘Penny's Worth’, ‘Aztec Gold’, ‘Brackle Red’, ‘American Craftsman’,

New Plants for the 21st Century: The Sun Still Rises in the East

Author: Barry R. Yinger

PP: 476

As you have noted, my presentation is about new plants from Asia, specifically Japan. Asia is much too big a topic to cover in any talk. Everyone is still going to China so I will be contrary and talk about Japan because I believe that Japan is still the best source of preselected plants for the American nursery industry. I know that China has more wild species but when it comes to plants that you can plug into production, Japan is still number one. Japan's domestic horticultural tradition is the broadest, deepest, and richest in the world. I am sure that there are people who will disagree with me but I know people in Japan who collect one species of cactus depending on the curvature of the spines. In addition, I think that if you look at which plants are popular in the American nursery industry, you will find that the great majority of them are from Japan, or China via Japan. I get better Chinese plants out of Japan than most people get out of China because the Japanese have so
Propagation of Historically Significant Specimen Plants: The Historic Plant Nursery Program of the National Park Service and the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University

Author: Kirsten Thornton

PP: 481


Historic Plants. In 1863, Nathaniel Hawthorne planted two hawthorn trees in front of his home, The Wayside, in Concord, Massachusetts. He planted a pink one in honor of his daughter Rose and a white one for his daughter Una. More famous for his command of the written word than his talent in landscaping, Hawthorne apparently planted the two trees so close together that, as they grew, they grafted into one tree. A later occupant of the house, Louisa May Alcott wrote a poem about this tree in a letter to the Hawthornes, demonstrating the value she placed on it. This original, unified specimen still stands in front of The Wayside in 1997, now a National Park Service site. Blooming each spring, half in pink, half in white, the tree is a living legacy to Hawthorne and his daughters. Its presence helps tell the story of the site and also gives testament to the values of the people who once lived there.

Nathaniel Hawthorne's tree is a prime example of a landscape feature with

Introducing New Plants

Author: Peggy Walsh Craig

PP: 485

This is an introduction to some plants new to the North American market. They've all been registered with the Canadian Ornamental Plant Foundation (COPF). We are a nonprofit foundation, established in 1964 to encourage new plant development by strengthening relations between growers and breeders for the benefit of the horticulture industry. Our main function is to collect royalties on new plants. We return 90% of the royalties collected to the plant originators. Last year we collected close to $1.2 million.

Our membership base is primarily in Canada, including the well-known Plant Introduction Scheme of the University of British Columbia and Agriculture Canada's Morden Research Station. Also, we are fortunate to count most of the major propagating nurseries in the United States as our members, and others in more than 10 overseas countries.

This morning I have two shrubs, four roses, and four perennials for you. I will name nurseries where you can get these plants. For contact

Spring Flora of Korea

Author: Charles E. Tubesing

PP: 491

The slide presentation featured the following species:
Asarum sieboldii                   M. liliiflora
Carpinus laxiflora                M. sieboldii
Caulophyllum robustum       Malus floribunda
Chrysoplenium sp.                Mukdenia rossii
Corydalis ambigua               (syn. Aceriphyllum rossii)
C. speciosa                            Paris sp.
C. turtschaninovii                 Pinus bungeana
Fraxinus sieboldiana            P. densiflora
Hepatica asiatica                  Primula sieboldii
Hylomecon hylomeconoides Prunus glandulosa ‘Alba Plena’
Iris rossii                               P. persica (double pink)
I. savatieri                            P. triloba ‘Multiplex’
Magnolia ‘Darrell Dean’       Rhododendron schlippenbachii
M. ‘Elizabeth’                        Weigela subsessilis
M. ‘Galaxy’                           Zelkova serrata
Grafting Dwarf Ixora Standards

Author: Des Boorman

PP: 73

The Ixora genus belongs to the Rubiaceae family along with Gardenia and Rondeletia which are two other important ornamental genera (Bailey, 1976). However, unlike the other two, Ixora does not have a strong perfume.

The inflorescence of this genus consists of 50 to 80 waxy star shaped flowers held in dense terminal and axillary corymbs. All are extremely ornamental with the dwarf cultivars being no exception. Colour range is from red through orange, pink, yellow, and white.

Dwarf cultivars put on spectacular show during summer and autumn. They are used extensively in median strips and roundabouts in the tropics due to their low growth habit, hardiness, and colour. Several taxa are also used for hedges.

The object of grafting dwarf taxa onto hedge type Ixora rootstock is to produce a semistandard plant with compact growth and high impact flowers. These are ideal for use in tubs by the pool side and even up your driveway.

Finding New Plants for the Market

Author: Tim Wood

PP: 492

In a recent customer poll we found that 86% of our responding customers rely on new and unique plants to distinguish themselves from their competition and to improve their profit margins. As the Product Development Manager at Spring Meadow, my task is to find the new plants our customers demand. For me, no job could be as exciting. I love learning about plants. I appreciate the beauty they add to our lives. Finding a "diamond in the rough" plant that could someday be found in yards around the world, providing beauty and enjoyment, is the ultimate thrill. The plant hunting I do is more akin to detective work than exploration. Instead of touring China, I spend my time on the telephone, reading catalogs, thumbing through plant locators, attending seminars, visiting nurseries, hiking arboretums, and in front of a computer.

Reading nursery catalogs is my starting point for understanding what's in the market and for finding new plant leads. I read dozens of catalogs per week. I especially

Medicinal Plants with a Potential Niche Market for Propagators

Author: Jeanine M. Davis, Richard E. Bir

PP: 495


Herbal medicines and aromatherapy are one of the fastest growing U.S. markets. The companies producing medicinal herb products, such as capsules and tinctures found in health food stores and pharmacies, have traditionally purchased most of their raw herbs from India, China, and the Eastern European countries. A variable demand also exists for wild-collected native North American medicinal plants. In the past, the ultimate destination for many of these native medicinal plants has been Europe and the Orient.

As the medicinal herb industry has matured, the companies buying these plants have instituted new quality control efforts. These include testing for active compounds, purity, and bacterial contamination. Some plants that can be included in this group are purple coneflower (Echinacea sp.), ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), helonias (Chamaelirium luteum), skullcap

Medicinal Plants with a Potential Niche Market for Propagators

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 497

We shall be discussing the genus Taxus as one of many plant genera that produce anticancer compounds. Literature tells us that T. baccata produces a medicinal compound Docetaxel trademarked as Taxotere® by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer as an investigational drug. This evening our discussion will be relevant to Paclitaxel, which is sold as Taxol® by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Early on, in the mid 1980s, sadly the FDA only designated T. brevifolia our Pacific yew, as the only approved source of Taxol®. This dastardly act meant ripping the bark from 100-year plus trees thus killing the trees. Thankfully, this no longer is the case, since T. brevifolia is currently a threatened species. Today the only Taxus biomass source is from the nursery community. This biomass, which must be extracted and purified to obtain medical compounds, could be whole plants, roots (only), branches (only), or needles from current year's growth. We will briefly discuss the nursery role in each of the above and offer some
Seed Propagation of Trillium grandiflorum

Author: John F. Gyer

PP: 499

Trillium is a predominantly North American genus of shade-tolerant herbs from deciduous forests. Many species are useful garden plants because of their large, showy flowers or attractively mottled leaves (Case and Case, 1997; Jacobs and Jacobs, 1997). Nearly all trillium plants in commerce are wild dug, often in large quantities, such as the 600,000 plants sold from Tennessee in 1989 (Sawkins, and McGough, 1993). Clearly a procedure for the practical horticultural production of trillium from seed would provide gardeners access to these plants without damage to native populations.

Often trillium seed takes 2 years to produce seedlings. It is said to be "doubly dormant" (Barton, 1944). However, there are reports of seedlings emerging outdoors after one winter (Jacobs and Jacobs, 1997; Gyer, 1997) or no germination after several cold cycles (Deno, 1993). The objective of my research is the development of a procedure that reliably produces significant germination the spring after the

Propagation and Early Production of Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.)

Author: Janine G. Haynes, Paul Cappiello, John Smagula

PP: 507

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) stem cuttings were rooted for 9 weeks in peat and perlite medium (1 : 3, v/v) under fine mist after a 7-sec quick dip treatment of 0, 1000, 3000, 5000, 7000, or 9000 ppm K-IBA water solutions. Rooting percentage (82% to 88%) was not influenced by K-IBA treatment but subsequent root development was enhanced by 3000 and 7000 ppm K-IBA. Rhizome initiation and extension was inhibited by 7000 and 9000 ppm K-IBA. Therefore, 3000 ppm K-IBA optimized root and rhizome development and was used as the cutting treatment to compare production of bunchberry from greenhouse-forced cuttings in April to field-collected cuttings in June. By the end of September, April-stuck cuttings had produced more shoots than had June-stuck cuttings; but in either case, rooted cuttings having rhizomes at transplant more consistently produced greater numbers of new shoots than those cuttings without rhizomes. Marketable 9-cm band pots of bunchberry can be produced in one season if cuttings are taken in April and have rhizomes at the time of transplant.
Superior Selections of llex

Author: Elwin R. Orton

PP: 513

Among the 1000 plus selections of American holly (Ilex opaca) given cultivar names, four recent introductions from the Woody Ornamentals Breeding Program at Rutgers University are worthy of mention. All have excellent foliage characteristics, high vigor and are fully winter hardy in U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Zone 6a (0.to -10F).

Ilex opaca Selections.

  • ‘Jersey Princess’. Selected from the progeny of an unnamed female × ‘Jersey Knight’, this red-fruited plant was introduced in 1976 as the Bicentennial Holly. The plants develop a conical form of moderate width and exhibit the darkest, glossy green leaves of any cultivar of I. opaca that this holly hybridizer has ever seen.
  • ‘Dan Fenton’. A seedling among the progeny of a controlled cross of ‘Maurice River’ × an unnamed male, this red-fruited plant was selected for its excellent spiny, dark green leaves (almost squarish). ‘Dan Fenton’ was released at the 40th Anniversary meeting of the Holly Society of America, Inc. and named in honor of the now
Breeding Maize as an Ornamental Annual Grass

Author: Michael Marcotrigiano, Polly Ryan-Lane

PP: 517

Ornamental grasses are firmly established as major components in the landscape and textbooks devoted exclusively to them are available (Grounds, 1989; Meyer, 1975). Perennial grasses are commonly used in mixed borders and as specimens, because of their attractive foliage, form, and/or ornamental inflorescences. Many are easily grown and reliably cold-hardy. They come in an assortment of heights, growth habits, and leaf shapes. Leaf color ranges from green [e.g. Pennisetum alopecuroides (fountain grass)], blue (e.g., Festuca glauca [blue fescue], red or purple (e.g., Pennisetum setaceum ‘Rubrum’ [red fountain grass], yellow (e.g., Carex elata ‘Aurea’ [yellow tufted sedge], brown (e.g., Carex buchananii, leather leaf sedge), and variegated (e.g., many Miscanthus sinensis [eulalia grass] cultivars and Phalaris arundinacea [ribbon grass] cultivars). With few exceptions, perennial grasses must be clonally propagated by division to maintain phenotypic integrity. Although many perennial
Production of Epimediums by Division

Author: Phill King

PP: 521

As of 1997 we have seven Epimedium cultivars in production as well as several new cultivars in the process of increasing quantities of stock plants.

Deb McCowen of Knight Hollow Nursery asked me if there were any unique plants I would like to suggest for short presentations on propagation for this meeting.

Since I had been working on epimediums and wanting to believe that someone had a better technique than mine, I suggested epimediums. She proceeded to ask me to speak about epimediums and my technique seeing as I was doing them already!! So, here we go.

Species such as E. ×rubrum, E. grandiflorum, E. ×versicolor ‘Sulphureum’, and the cultivar ‘Frohnleiten’ are simply divided by brute force pulling the rhizomes apart. The unique ability of the rhizomes to break free of the parent is akin to the loosening felt as you work Hemerocallis apart in your hands to separate fans of that plant. We grow the stock plants in 1-gal containers and upon removing the container and with a light shaking

Native Herbaceous Wetland Plants Used for Wetland Mitigation

Author: Dale Pierson

PP: 522


A growing awareness of the value and sensitivity of our wetlands prompted requests for low-cost, native, herbaceous plants for the mitigation, restoration, and enhancement of impacted wetlands. As the demand became apparent we looked at the potential for growing particular plants in areas that were unsuitable for conventional nursery production.

What follows is a look at the ongoing process of keeping production cost low and meeting the constantly changing demands in the market for this narrow group of plant materials.

Micropropagation of Native Plants or Multiplying Some of Mother Nature's Really Good Stuff

Author: Sherry Kitto

PP: 524

What do I consider to be native plants? By my definition, and I will grant you it is very narrow by design, native plants are herbaceous perennials that are indigenous to the northeastern United States. How do I select the native plants I work with? I make plant lists based on talking with people who propagate, grow, and sell plants for a living. I also talk with people who love plants and gardening in general and have a special interest/knowledge in native plants. I compare the two lists and see what plants come up as "double" hits and then I research these plants. There also has to be some "chemistry" between the plant and me for me to work with it. There has to be a need for the plant to be micropropagated, and there must be a problem using conventional propagation techniques. Chemistry takes the form of leaf color or shape, unique seasonal interest, flower size, shape, or color. Part of the chemistry is the ease with which the plant can be reestablished in urban settings, if the plant
Propagation of Mondo Grass

Author: Michael Gleeson

PP: 74

I am here today to tell you how I propagate mondo grass (Ophiopogon japonicus)!!

Now you may ask why this guy is getting up here and telling us about something any propagator knows how to do? Why, it's so easy that the job is usually given to the junior staff to do. We know that all you have to do is stick a few bits into pots or in the ground, leave them there for a few years fighting with the weeds, and when you think about it go and get them and divide them. But what if the boss comes to you one day and tells you that you are to produce 5000 plants every year for the next 3 years in tubes. Your problem now is to know how much stock material you need to establish to produce the plants required, and how to do it in a specified time frame. This is where I may be of some use to you by presenting this paper.

We all know of course that mondo grass is propagated by division. It can also be grown from seed, and I will come to this later. I will start with the production of the stock

Horticultural Applications of Agrobacterium rhizogenes ("Hairy-Root"): Enhanced Rooting of Difficult-to-Root Woody Plants

Author: Kim E. Tripp, Anne M. Stomp

PP: 527


These studies tested the influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes ("hairy root") dip-treatments on rooting of stem cuttings of difficult-to-root woody ornamentals. Prior work has shown that treatment of some woody plants with A. rhizogenes ("hairy root") resulted in root proliferation, as well as improved growth and performance in field and controlled environments (Han et al., 1993, Stomp, 1995; Strobel et al., 1988; Strobel and Nachmias 1985).

Rooting of woody plant cuttings by treatment with A. rhizogenes may make it possible to more profitably propagate difficult-to-root woody plants which are now grafted, or which are now expensive to produce from cuttings because of low rooting percentages. Woody plants propagated from stem cuttings induced to root with A. rhizogenes ("hairy root") may also show improved transplant recovery (Strobel et al., 1988). Positive results could lead to increased profitability and simplified production for growers of difficult-to-root woody

Plant Growth Regulators on Kalmia latifolia

Author: Thomas J. Banko

PP: 536


Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is a popular ericaceous shrub with showy buds and flowers in the spring. However, it is slow to begin flower bud development during container production, often taking 3 or more years to produce a significant floral display. I became interested in the potential for growth regulators to induce earlier flowering when I heard of previous experiments done with Rhododendron and Kalmia by Tom Ranney and Dick Bir at North Carolina State University (Ranney et al., 1994) and by Martin Gent at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (Gent, 1993).

Subirrigation of Rhododendron as an Alternative to Mist

Author: Thomas A. Holt, Brian K. Maynard

PP: 542

The success of softwood or semihardwood stem cutting propagation requires optimal conditions of the plant and the rooting environment, such that new roots may be initiated on a severed stem. Perhaps most important in the rooting process is the control of water loss. If water loss from the cutting exceeds the ability of the stem to take up water, either through the leaves or cutting base, it will experience water stress, and may die. In either case rooting success is greatly reduced or prevented altogether. The development of intermittent mist in the early 1950s was a great aid to plant propagators (Hartmann et al., 1997). The mist reduces transpiration stress by cooling the leaf surface, and reduces evaporation of water from the leaf. However, mist propagation is not without its problems. Mist has been shown to promote leaf chlorosis, mineral nutrient leaching, necrosis, and algal growth (Hartmann et al., 1997). As well, the propagator must be vigilant against waterlogging of
Ericaceous Plants from Seeds

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 545

There is undoubtedly thousands upon thousands of ericaceous plants that are grown annually from cuttings. In many cases these plants are named clones and as a part of the natural selection process the ability to root from cuttings is an integral part of the success of the plant in the market place. However, many individual species of ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron maximum, can only be rooted with marginal to poor results and certain plants, such as Pieris floribunda and wild forms of Kalmia latifolia, can not be rooted at all. Aside from collection from the wild the only feasible source of some Rhododendron species and related plants is via seed.
Rhododendron maximum for the Next Millennium

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 548


Rhododendron maximum is locally known as great laurel, great rhododendron, rosebay, or max depending upon where it is encountered. Despite an extensive native range from Georgia into Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, it is only locally abundant to the point of being a dominant understory species in and near the Appalachian mountain range of North America. Rhododendron maximum is a much sought after plant for landscaping where a bold evergreen shrub is needed in shady locations. Full sun is tolerated only in the coolest parts of the native range.

The most common current use of R. maximum is for screening in shady areas or to enhance natural landscapes, particularly those involving stonework. Since plants 30 ft or more tall and 20 ft across exist, it can provide a formidable screen with time. Trusses composed of 20 to 30 flowers are most often about 4 inches across and white with yellow spots at the base of the corolla but pink-flowered forms are common in the Appalachian

Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata

Author: Michael D. Johnson

PP: 551

Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata are plants native to North America in damp, boggy situations. Although, in my experience, I find that Ledum tends to like areas that are not quite as wet as those where Chamaedaphne can thrive. Both of these plants are little known to most nurserymen. I'm sure quite a few nurserymen know them only as weeds in container mixes containing Canadian peat. Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea) tends to stay further North than Chamaedaphne. It is primarily native from Greenland across Canada, south into Washington State, and on the East Coast down into the mountains of Pennsylvania. It will, however, tolerate warmer climates if given enough moisture and does quite well in our nursery in Connecticut. Labrador tea gets about 2 to 4 ft high and about the same size in width. The leaves are evergreen; however, in some winters they can be damaged to the point where we might only call it persistent leaved. The flowers are perfect white corymbs
Calluna Propagation

Author: Charlotte Smith

PP: 553

Propagation is a lot like cooking. My father's Aunt Margaret was a very good cook, but when my mother tried to duplicate one of her recipes, it never worked. Mother privately accused her of omitting some necessary ingredient on purpose, but in my kinder moments I want to think that it was just a matter of individual differences that regulated the outcome.

Individual differences play a big part in propagation. One person's technique in making cuttings is different from another's. Everyone varies somewhat from the norm, no matter how hard we strive for uniformity in our procedures. We each bring our own set of habits and experiences to the propagating table. At Sylvan Nursery we propagate thousands of heathers annually. Our procedures are simple and straightforward, but even these are sometimes difficult for others to duplicate.

We take semihardwood cuttings from our stock plants in January. We do this at that time of year because it fits our schedule. I don't need to tell you why this is

In Vitro Propagation and Selection of Superior Wetland Plants for Habitat Restoration1

Author: Michael E. Kane, Nancy L. Philman

PP: 556

Increased restrictions on field collection of wetland plants used for restoration and creation have promoted efforts to develop more efficient nursery production practices including the use of in vitro propagation (micropropagation). Selection and in vitro propagation of wetland plant genotypes from populations adapted to particular site conditions could enhance wetland restoration or creation success. In this preliminary study, comparison was made of the early ex vitro growth responses of in vitro propagated Pontederia cordata L. genotypes collected from five Florida populations. Significant differences in plant height, leaf production, and flowering between genotypes were observed. Correlation of these early growth differences with capacity for adaptation to specific site conditions will require evaluation of the survival and growth of these genotypes under field conditions.
Cranberries as a Ground Cover

Author: Michael V. DeGrandchamp

PP: 561


Most everyone is familiar with the fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon. Cranberries are a traditional fruit with our Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners. Very few people are aware of the potential of this plant as an attractive groundcover.

The American cranberry (V. macrocarpon) has all of the attributes of a great groundcover. It is a native North American evergreen vine, wetland adapted, and hardy in U.S.D.A. Zones 2 to 6 (Dirr, 1990). Cranberries have four seasons of appeal with flowers, fruit, and summer and winter foliage. The cranberry is more American than apple pie.

Vaccinium macrocarpon is indigenous to the North American continent. When colonists arrived they found cranberries growing on the peat bogs of Cape Cod and surrounding areas in Massachusetts. Native cranberries were found south in the Pine Barrens in New Jersey, to the North in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in isolated areas in the Allegheny Mountains in Pennsylvania, and in the peat swamps in Virginia.

Growing Pieris to Landscape Size

Author: Frank Brouse

PP: 563

There are many nice selections of Pieris and except for P. floribunda they are easy to propagate and grow. Most of our emphasis is on P. ‘Brouwer's Beauty’ which is a cross between P. floribunda and P. japonica. It is bushier and lower growing than P. japonica and seems to have inherited resistance to lacewing fly from P. floribunda. We have adopted a no-spray policy in the nursery for the last 3 years and it seems to be working. The flower buds of ‘Brouwer's Beauty’ have a nice maroon winter color which is very effective in the landscape.

Our greenhouse propagation year starts about 1 August. The rooting operation begins after washing down the greenhouse with a Clorox solution. Vegetative cuttings 3 inches to 4 inches long are best, although flowering shoots can be used by removing the flower buds. Cuttings from young plants and shaded plants are better than from older plants growing in full sun. Cuttings are stripped of leaves except for the top 4 or 5, lightly wounded on both sides

An Alternative Method of Budding Fraxinus angustifolia ‘Raywood’ (Claret Ash)

Author: Graham C. Parr

PP: 76


The understock that I use is a cross between Fraxinus americana and F. oxycarpa. It was first introduced to the trade by Hazlewood Nursery, many years ago, for its superior root system and its ability to grow from hardwood cuttings. I obtained my original cuttings from an old tree in an old nursery at Mt. Irvine in the Blue Mountains of NSW. I wasn't sure of its species so I asked John Teulon to identify it. He had known about this tree for years but as this tree had died and he did not know of any others, he had assumed that it was no longer available in Australia.

My stockplants of this tree are now 7 years old and get pruned back to approximately 90 cm each winter. In spring, the many new water shoots grow rapidly to 1.2 to 1.8 m in length. They have a high percentage of inter nodal length of 200 mm or more.

Native Azaleas—Beautiful, Versatile, Dependable1

Author: Bob Carlson

PP: 565


Thank you for inviting me. I feel most unqualified to be here talking to an international group of professional propagators when I probably should have followed my friend, Jim Cross', advice and spent more of my time writing verse than trying to be a propagator. But by way of introducing you to myself and to CARLSON'S GARDENS, where we grow over 2000 cultivars and species of azaleas and rhododendrons and ship them all over the country, I'll read to you from one of the mailing pieces we's;ve been sending to our customers with a color photo of ‘Carlson's Coral Flameboyant’ azalea. The verse on it is called,

     "Buy Big & Save"
     Buy yourself some politicians
     But don't neglect your yard.
     Azalea costs are not recurring –
     No future bills for each dance card.
     Buying Bill may buy Bill time,
     But big azaleas are no crime
     And unlike time for politicians,
     The time you'll buy will not be hard.

For nearly 30 years I've been collecting, hybridizing, propagating, growing, and marketing native azaleas.

The Little Laurels

Author: Richard A. Jaynes

PP: 574

Never mind that the native mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) has been described as our most beautiful evergreen shrub, there are still people around who keep trying to change and "improve" it! Over 100 years ago someone found an unusual small-leafed variant. It is so uncommon that it has been observed in the wild less than six times. These semidwarf or myrtle-leafed laurels are usually referred to as miniature mountain laurels and, at least when found in the wild, belong to the botanical form myrtifolia of Kalmia latifolia.

The few plants found and propagated from the wild have flowers that are light pink in bud and open near white, much like flowers of the species. Hilliers in England was one of the few nurseries to offer these plants in the 1960s. The first plants I received (1963) came from nurseryman Hay Reid of Osterville, Massachusetts, and were just seedlings grown from seed of a K. latifolia f. myrtifolia plant and looked like our native mountain laurel. However, I made crosses


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 576

RALPH SHUGERT: Question for Dick Bir or Peter del Tredici. What is aroma therapy?

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 580

Cercis canadensis ‘Covey’

This is a unique weeping form which grew in northwest New York for over 30 years before its recognition by Brotzman's Nursery in 1991. In 6 years of observations, ‘Covey’ has exhibited moderate to rapid growth, hardiness to -23F, larger than normal leaves, and lavender flowers borne profusely on young and old plants. When left untrained this plant will mound and twist back over itself producing a large arching form. When trained upright and single stemmed, a striking, small weeping tree is possible in 3 to 4 years. Leaves are so large and dense that trees appear to be shingled. First commercial release of ‘Covey’ will be in 1998 from licensed growers.

Involvement of Cytokinins in Tissue Proliferation of Rhododendron ‘Montego’

Author: Eric W. Mercure, Carol A. Auer, Mark H. Brand

PP: 584

Tissue proliferation (TP) of rhododendrons is an unusual morphological variant characterized by tumorous growths at the crown with or without abnormal shoots. In many cultivars, TP occurs in plants produced by tissue culture within 1 to 3 years after initial propagation. However, in Rhododendron ‘Montego’, TP occurs in tissue culture as shoots [TP(+)] that produce nodal tumors with many compressed lateral shoots and small leaves, unlike tissue-cultured normal [TP(-)] shoots. Tumors develop from abnormal axillary buds with a bulbous structure that forms at the base of the growing axillary shoot. Growth of the tumor is dominated either by continued growth of the single shoot or by proliferation of the bulbous structure with many de novo meristems on the tumor surface.

Another difference between TP(+) and TP(-) shoots is their plant hormone requirement for in vitro growth. Tissue proliferation(+) shoot cultures appear to be habituated since they grow and multiply rapidly on hormone-free

Long-Term Inhibition of Stem Elongation of Rhododendron and Kalmia by Triazole Growth Retardants

Author: Martin P. N. Gent

PP: 585

That a growth retardant chemical, in combination with a cold- and day-length forcing treatment, could induced Rhododendron to flower a year after propagation, was first shown by Stuart (1960). The triazole growth regulators more effectively reduce stem elongation than the chemicals used previously (Davis et al., 1988). Two of these, paclobutrazol and uniconazole, promoted flowering of field-grown Rhododendron and Kalmia (Gent, 1995a, Ranney et al., 1994; Wilkinson and Richards, 1991), where other chemicals had inconsistent effects. However, paclobutrazol inhibited stem elongation a year after application when applied to Rhododendron (Ranney et al., 1994; Wilkinson and Richards, 1991) and Vitis (Reynolds and Wardle, 1990), and for 2 years when applied to Malus (Williams 1984). This
The Greening of Poland&39;s Nursery Industry

Author: Ken Cochran, Wojtek Grabczewski

PP: 591

In the 8 years since the collapse of Communism, Poland's nursery industry has made a turnabout and is gaining recognition and status. A recent study (Sept. 1997) involving contacts, observations, and personal visits to Poland's nurseries, arboret#39; botanical gardens, and garden centers reveals a positive pattern of growth. Polish nursery operators have realized the importance of plant differentiation, crop specialization, marketing techniques, nursery exhibits for the trade, and public and customer service.
Use of Ethephon Treatments to Reduce Seed Set and Stimulate Shoot Production in Kalmia latifolia

Author: Richard K. Kiyomoto

PP: 592


Nursery production of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) often involves labor-intensive, manual deadheading of flower clusters immediately after flowering to stimulate the formation of new shoots. A chemical method of deadheading that encourages shoot production would save time and labor costs while maintaining current production schedules. Perry and Lagarbo (1994) used ethepbon sprays to eliminate fruit formation in flowering pear (Pyrus calleryana) and American sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua). They found that 1000 ppm ethephon applied to runoff at full bloom eliminated 95.3% and 99% of fruit in flowering pear and American sweet gum, respectively. Proper timing of ethephon application was crucial for these results. On the basis of these studies I tested the effectiveness of ethephon in reducing seed set and stimulating shoot production and growth in K. latifolia. Since blossoms in mountain laurel open over an extended period of time and since nursery production

Elements of a Winning Proposal for an I.P.P.S. — Eastern Region Research Grant

Author: Cameron Smith

PP: 595

The International Plant Propagators' Society — Eastern Region offers an annual grant to assist an individual or group to plan, complete, and report on a research project which is intended to advance the art, science, or teaching of plant propagation as they are defined in the Society's constitution and by-laws. The 1997 grant offer is for up to $5,000. This opportunity is open to practicing propagators, teachers, researchers, and others. Good proposal "grantsmanship" often makes the difference between winners and losers. Adopting the following suggestions in your proposal preparation might help to level the competitive playing field.
  1. Read and follow all directions carefully. This is the single most important part of the process. Ignoring trivial items such as proposal length, number of copies required, or a submission deadline could disqualify an otherwise winning proposal.
  2. State the question that your research is aimed at resolving. Do not assume that the evaluators are experts on
Taxus Response to Differential Concentration and Timing of Pendimethalin Application

Author: Robert E. McNiel, Kimberly Collins, Mark Czarnota

PP: 597

Suspected herbicide phytotoxicity injury in the nursery industry initiated our interest in this project. Industry reports indicated that phytotoxicity damage had occurred when pendimethalin was used for weed control in the production of Taxus. Initial reports stated foliar death occurred where herbicide application had resulted in foliage contact. Reports have indicated plant injury occurred, but not total plant loss. Our interest was to determine if pendimethalin application was the cause of Taxus injury and if so, was it due to application at early growth stage or rate or formulation of material applied.

An established field planting of 24-to 30-inch T. ×media ‘Densiformis’ was used for this experiment. Treatment plots measured 12 ft × 7 ft three plants per plot. Five treatments were used on three spray dates, for a total of 15 treatments

Wildflowers of the Sydney Region and Their Suitability as Cut Flowers

Author: Jeremy A. Smith

PP: 78


There are over 6000 plant species throughout NSW with many showing tremendous horticultural merit. This paper will focus on several species with horticultural potential from the Sydney Region which have been of great interest to me for many years. In recent years there has been an escalating interest in our native species for use as cut flowers both on the domestic and export markets. With demand expanding, it has become essential for commercial row cropping to take place rather than rely on material harvested from wild populations. However, it has been from the harvesting of wildflowers from natural stands that the cut flower potential of many native plants has been realised.

For the development of a strong domestic and export market, the introduction of new and exciting species and cultivars is of utmost importance. When introducing a new cut flower species into cultivation it is essential that the plant has a suitable vase life when cut. As a guide 10 to 14

Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Toxicity with Increasing Rates of Sulfentrazone

Author: Kimberly B. Collins, Robert McNiel, Leslie A. Weston

PP: 601

Sulfentrazone, an experimental herbicide from the FMC Corporation, has shown promising results for long-term weed control in field trials with ornamentals by controlling weeds such as morningglory and yellow nutsedge that are difficult to manage with currently labeled products (Collins et al., 1996). This compound has recently been labeled for use in both soybeans and tobacco. A possible hindrance to the labeling of sulfentrazone for use in ornamentals is the phytotoxicity that occurs in certain sensitive ornamental species.

Sulfentrazone works by inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in susceptible plants. As a result, a phytodynamic toxicant (protoporphyrin IX) builds up, leading to membrane disruption. Sulfentrazone is absorbed by both the roots and shoots of plants, which turn necrotic and die shortly after exposure to light. Postemergence application of sulfentrazone, resulting in foliar contact of weeds, can cause rapid desiccation and

Yankee Nursery Online: Your Future on the Web

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 605

Over the last 10 to 15 years, colleges of agriculture in New England and other parts of the U.S. have experienced a significant reduction in their resources available and committed to landscape horticulture and nursery crops. At the same time, there has been a dramatic increase in the need for high quality teaching and learning in these areas to meet the demand for well trained graduates generated by the tremendous and continued growth in the ornamental plant industries. One of the most essential skills needed by individuals entering the landscape and nursery industries is a solid and broad knowledge of landscape plant materials.

Students, educators, and landscape professionals need visual materials to help learn, teach, and sell plants. Adequate and cost-effective visual materials do not exist in the form of books or CD-ROM programs. Existing media lacks sufficient breadth and depth to serve the needs of baccalaureate degree teaching and learning. Outdoor campus plant walk

Effect of Division Size on Direct-potted Ornamental Grasses

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 606


In many nursery operations, ornamental grasses are potted in May using established plugs. These plugs are started in October/November (cool season grasses) or in February (warm season grasses) from very small divisions made from the previous year's container crop. Although this system makes efficient use of a small number of stock plants to yield a large quantity of small divisions, it adds an extra step to the production process. This extra step has the potential to add cost to the process in the form of additional labor-hours, additional skills needed by laborers, and fuel to at least minimally heat greenhouses. Typical production methods also require that a grower is set up to efficiently deal with a plug production system that uses a different set of pots, potting medium, materials handling equipment, and so on, than are used for 1- and 2-gal production.

Of course, when stock plants are limited in number, such as for new cultivars and species or for slow-to-increase

Propagation of Weigela florida ‘Alexandra’, WINE & ROSES™ Weigela

Author: Gail Billingsley

PP: 609

Spring Meadow Nursery is a wholesale grower of woody shrub liners or starter plants. Many of our plants, like W. florida ‘Alexandra’, WINE & ROSES™ weigela, are direct rooted in pots that have a thin coating of SpinOut™. SpinOut™ is a root growth regulator containing 7.1% copper hydroxide that is sprayed on the interior portions of the pots to prevent circling roots. One cutting is stuck per 2¼-inch pot. The medium is composed of perlite, pine bark, and peat moss (55:35: 10, by volume). The medium is amended with the following materials per cubic yard:
  • 2 lb potassium nitrate 13.75–0–44.50
  • 2 lb triple phosphate 0–46–0
  • 4.5 lb Nutricote type 140 18–6–8
  • 10 lb limestone

Weigela florida ‘Alexandra’, WINE & ROSESe™ weigela is an easily rooted plant taken as softwood cuttings spring through mid-summer. The cuttings are ready to be taken when the stem is firm enough to snap rather than bend. A two-node cutting is taken just above the second node.

To improve efficiency, the cuttings are bundled in groups

Chionanthus virginicus: Embryo Culture vs. Traditional Germination

Author: Charlotte R. Chan, Robert D. Marquard

PP: 610


Chionanthus virginicus is traditionally propagated by seed sown outdoors, with germination taking 2 years to break double dormancy. Cuttings have not been as successful (Dirr, 1987; Nicholson, 1990), and grafting to Fraxinus excelsior rootstock (Dirr,1994) or F. ornus (Fagan,1980; Young, 1992) has met with limited success. Work with embryos cultured on a gibberellic-acid-enhanced medium (Redcay and Frett, 1990) and with removal of the epidermis, pericarp, and endocarp to accelerate germination (Carpenter et.al.,1991) suggested a possible method to overcome the dormancy and to compress the time to obtain marketable plants. The objective of this investigation was to compare traditionally propagated and embryo-cultured C. virginicus for percent germination, plant size, and vigor over a duration of 2 years.

American Wild Celery (Vallisneria americana Michx.): Propagation of Revegetation Transplants from Seed

Author: Jennifer L. Kujawski

PP: 613


American wild celery (Vallisneria americana Michx., family Hydrocharitaceae) is a submerged grass-like aquatic perennial that grows in fresh or slightly brackish water from Canada to Florida, west to the Dakotas (in the north) and to Arizona and New Mexico (in the south).

Reproduction commonly occurs by vegetative means, either by stolons during the summer, or in the spring from overwintering buds (known as turions) formed at the end of stolons. Sexual reproduction also occurs in the wild, but there have been very few documented observations of seedlings. Wild celery plants are dioecious, and flowering occurs in the upper Chesapeake Bay during August and September. On male plants, flowers develop in a spathe at the base of the plant, breaking free and floating on the water surface to release pollen upon maturation. The flowers of female plants are tubular and sit atop long peduncles (basally attached) that grow to the water surface. Once the female flowers are fertilized

Seed Propagation And Production of Trillium grandiflorum

Author: Jeanne Frett

PP: 615


The genus Trillium is widely known and long recognized as one of the most beautiful components of the spring woodland wildflower garden. There are approximately 35 species native to the eastern U.S. Of these, roughly 10 species are offered for sale by wholesale nurseries. In recent years conservationists have raised concerns about the source of these plants. Reports indicate that nursery propagation by seed is rare, most trillium rhizomes are wild collected.

Research Goals at Mt. Cuba Include:

  • Recognizing the need for and benefits of propagating native species in the nursery.
  • Determining the most cost effective and labor efficient methods of doing so.
  • Selecting exceptionally attractive, easily cultivated species.

Supporting Marketing Strategies Might Include:

  • Emphasizing the desirability of purchasing healthy, vigorous, flowering-sized plants that have been established in containers and are well adapted for survival in the landscape.
  • Promoting the conservation
Growing a New Propagator: Illinois Responds to an Industry Need

Author: Kathy Freeland

PP: 619

One of the best-kept secrets of the American economy is the explosive growth of the horticultural industry. Growth and expansion have created a great need for an educated and skilled workforce in all phases of the industry.

In August of 1996, many months of discussion culminated in an organizational meeting. A partnership between Illinois Green Industry leaders, their organization—the Illinois Nurserymen's Association—horticultural educators, and the Illinois State Board of Education was formed.

Driven by the need to find skilled, qualified workers in an increasingly technical industry, this partnership is spearheading the way by generating interest in the horticultural industry and looking ahead to the future. This unique program draws on manufacturing apprenticeship programs as well as European models to provide students with "hands-on", practical work experience and advanced classroom education.

The 5-year program begins in the junior year of high school. Students apply for the

No Excuses Accepted: Plants You Should Already Grow!!

Author: Phill King

PP: 620

Hamamelis vernalis ‘Autumn Embers’

This selection of vernal witchhazel was made by Mr. Roy Klehm of the Beaver Creek Nursery in Poplar Grove, Illinois.

Mr. Klehm first noticed the impressive fall coloration in a large block of H. vernalis. He at first felt that the plant was perhaps another species or cultivar mistakenly mixed in with its more common sisters. The fall coloration is a rich red with overtones of purple, yellow, and orange. The breathtaking effect is that of a glowing campfire on a crisp fall evening. Best fall coloration is triggered with the hard frosts of colder climates and the plant is at its best there.

The flowers are colored in shades of ripe grain and are quite fragrant.

A national mailorder nursery firm has sought this plant as its "cover girl" and many have been quite surprised that Mr. Klehm did not wish to patent the plant.

Unlike the recent published reports of rootability of witchhazels this plant roots quite well in June–July.

Perhaps the best selection

Seed Germination of Stewartia pseudocamellia

Author: Brian A. Oleksak, Daniel Struve

PP: 622

Stewartia pseudocamellia is a Japanese summer-flowering tree that is cultivated only rarely in American gardens. This Stewartia bears 3-inch white flowers in midsummer, orange-yellow foliage in the fall, and a year-round display of exfoliating pinkish-red bark. Difficulties in both vegetative and sexual techniques of propagation are largely responsible for its limited use. The purpose of our study was to document the seed biology of Stewartia, identify dormancy mechanisms, suggest reasons for the decline in viability, and recommend techniques for germination and production of this valuable species.

Desiccation Intolerance. Previous attempts to allow stewartia seed a period of dry after-ripening resulted in a rapid decline in seed viability. This trend led us to examine stewartias in the context of their taxonomic relationship with the tropical and subtropical members that dominate the Theaceae family. Seeds from tropical regions tend to lack the tolerance to desiccation that

Propagation Experiences With New Winter Flowering Gladiolus Cultivars

Author: Angus Stewart

PP: 80

Think of Gladiolus and most people immediately mention the incomparable Dame Edna Everage. Unfortunately the great Dame seems to have given "gladdies" something of an unfashionable image, although I can't imagine why. A comprehensive breeding programme by Mr. Fred Meyer of Escondido, California is set to change the image of Gladiolus once and for all.

The traditional horticultural Gladiolus are summer-flowering types with characteristic monster-sized blooms. These types tend to dominate our perception of "gladdies", but unfortunately they do not do justice to the extraordinary diversity and beauty of this large genus. There are some 250 species of Gladiolus found throughout Africa (including tropical areas) and the Mediterranean region. Of these only a small handful are represented in the commercially available Gladiolus cultivars. Species that have rarely if ever been used in breeding feature delectable perfumes (e.g. G. caryophyllaceus), orchid-like flowers (e.g., G. orchiditflorus)

Light Levels and Hormone Effects During the Rooting of Selected Tree Taxa

Author: James J. Zaczek, Charles W. Heuser Jr, Kim C. Steiner

PP: 623


Light reduction treatments such as etiolation or opaque banding applied to stock plants prior to cutting collection have been shown to increase rooting success of difficult-to-root species (Bollmark and Eliasson, 1990; Leakey and Storeton-West, 1992; Maynard and Bassuk, 1986). However, stock plant light reduction treatments (shading) can be difficult to apply, especially on mature trees (Hecht-Poinar et al., 1989). Zaczek (1994) in a recent study with typically difficult-to-root mature Quercus rubra demonstrated that rooting was significantly improved by subjecting shoot cuttings to shade levels up to 97% of ambient daylight in the rooting environment. Potentially, high levels of shade applied in the rooting environment could prove to be useful in rooting cuttings from other recalcitrant species or cultivars. This study examined the effects of shade levels in the rooting environment, with and without hormone application, on the rooting of cuttings of eight tree taxa.

The Recycling of Propagation Materials

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 630


The reuse of certain products or by products in manufacturing is not new. The nature of various horticultural production methods culminates with materials passing through the manufacturing scheme once. This type of operational setup can, and will continue to add costs to production, and can impact upon the desired net income of an operation. This qualitative look at what our firm does to stream line production costs may be applicable to your company.

No one wants to spend more on getting a product into a customer's hands than necessary. Added costs impact upon prequoted prices, affect bids, and upset bankers. How then do you keep costs down yet produce a marketable plant product? For myself, I have settled upon a propagation method which allows me to reuse various components over and over again.

The 1-gal plastic pot inventory, Lerio Mfg., is at about 5500 units. There are about 2500 to 3000 pots in production at any one time. An almost equal number of various bandpots,

Economic Propagation Benches

Author: Tom Demaline

PP: 633

Rolling benches built from steel products have many cultural and economic advantages for propagation. The first advantage is that steel benching can be easily disinfected for control of disease. Secondly benching built from steel products have a longer life verses wood products. The third advantage is rolling benching allows a propagator to increase the usable area in a greenhouse — thus reducing overhead cost.

Typical benching in a 29-ft greenhouse consists of five benches of 54 inches each, with four aisles of 20 inches each. With rolling benches you can increase your usable growing area by 20%.

The first step to building rolling benches consisted of saddles made from 1-inch galvanized pipe which are welded together and cemented into the ground. The saddles are spaced 12 ft apart along the length of the bench.

In the second step two length's of 1-¼-inch pipe are used to roll the bench top from one side of the saddle to the other. The bench top is constructed from ¼-inch ridged

Field Establishment and Growth of Asarum naniflorum ‘Eco Decor’

Author: Sherry Kitto, Jeanne Frett

PP: 635


There are approximately 12 taxa of the genus Asarum (syn. Hexastylis) native to the deciduous forests of the Southeastern United States. Several ornamental characteristics combine to make these low-growing herbaceous plants suitable for use in the landscape. These include attractive foliage; triangular to heart-shaped evergreen leaves, with or without silvery-grey variegation; rhizomatous growth habit resulting in single specimen (clumping) or groundcover (running) plants; and curious jug- or bell-shaped purplish-brown spring flowers. They are hardy in USDA Zones 5 to 9.

Although these evergreen wild gingers are occasionally seen in gardens, their landscape potential has not been fully realized. This is due in large part to propagation difficulties using traditional methods. Seed set under cultivation is low and potential seed production per plant under optimal conditions is low. Division is possible but slow; on a commercial basis it would require the maintenance of

Pot-in-Pot Production of Nursery Stock

Author: Robert E. McNiel

PP: 637


The pot-in-pot production system has been increasing in acreage steadily during the 1990s. The system is centered around the production of shade and flowering trees and large shrubs in containers which are placed in the ground. A permanent container (socket pot) is placed in the ground where it may last for a decade or longer. A production container, with plant, is inserted into the socket pot. The time a plant is in a production container can be from 6 to 9 months but not more than 2 years. Unit sizes have varied from 3 gal up to 30 gal. On an acre basis, more units in the 7-, 10-, and 15-gal sizes may be in production today. The socket pot and production pot need to be two distinctly manufactured units. Compatible units during the past few years have been manufactured only in the mid-range sizes. Container media consists of the common bark-based media existing in the industry.

Adventitious Bud and Shoot Formation in Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] Using Juvenile Seedling Tissue

Author: C.L.H. Finneseth, R.L. Geneve, D.R. Layne

PP: 638


Current clonal propagation methods for the North American pawpaw [Asimina triloba L. Dunal] are limited to budding and grafting techniques (Layne, 1996). No work has been published detailing a micropropagation system for the pawpaw, but Callaway (1992) indicated limited success in regenerating shoots using leaf tissue. Successful micropropagation systems have been developed for related Annona species (George and Nissen, 1987). The objective of this research was to observe the effect of ontological age on adventitious bud and shoot development of pawpaw nodal explants in culture. Explants from a juvenile source (seedlings) and mature sources (forced stems and shoots produced on root pieces) were used to study the effect of ontogenetic age during the establishment phase.

Seed Storage Media Effects on Persimmon Germination

Author: Winston C. Dunwell, Dwight E. Wolfe

PP: 641


Common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a medium to large narrow tree that produces edible fruit. Tripp and Raulston (1995) state "Diospyros virginiana has alot to offer American landscapes". Persimmon is an attractive native tree that may be a valuable landscape tree because it is tolerant of diverse environmental conditions (Bir, 1992; Dirr, 1990; Whitcomb 1983).

Persimmon seeds were collected from native trees in Caldwell County, Kentucky on 7 Dec. 1995. The seeds were prepared for storage by two methods: (1) Moist seed — cleaned (cap, skin and the easily removed pulp removed), and (2) Dry seed — cleaned, dried for 3 days, and the remaining pulp removed. The following treatments were replicated three times: (1) moist seeds; (2) dry seeds; (3) moist seeds in dry perlite; (4) moist seeds in moist perlite; (5) dry seeds in dry perlite; (6) dry seeds in moist perlite; (7) moist seeds in dry peat moss; (8) moist seeds in moist peat moss; (9) dry seeds in dry peat moss; (10) dry

Specific Differences in Shoot Tip Culture of Roses

Author: Zhou Lin, Kuninori Suzuki, Takehiro Naruse, Hirokazu Fukui, Mats

PP: 645

Twenty rose taxa (species, cultivars, and rootstocks) that were growing on farms at Gifu University and Gifu Rose Garden Ltd. were propagated in vitro by shoot tip culture. The shoot tips from all 20 rose taxa survived and elongated on all media. Fourteen of them were 100% viable on media of suitable concentration. Rosa rugosa ‘Alba’ and ‘Rubra’, R. multiflora, and R. ×odorata produced 4.1- to 8.2-mm-long shoots, but those of R. canina and its cultivars and R. pimpinellifolia were shorter (1.0 to 2.2 mm). Rosa rugosa and R. banksiae were intermediate.
A Preliminary Report on the Symbiotic Germination of Nine Japanese Terrestrial Orchids

Author: Masanori Tomita, Sachiko Konno

PP: 648

In order to develop an effective propagation method, symbiotic culture was attempted in nine species of Japanese terrestrial orchids. After 3 min of surface sterilization in sodium hypochlorite solution together with ultrasonic treatment, mature seeds were sown on slants of medium (the medium having been inoculated with orchid mycorrhizal fungi), cultured, and compared with nonsymbiotic controls. Approximately 10% to 70% of the seeds with embryos showed activity by the TTC test following the sowing. All but the Cypripedium macranthum var. speciosum were found to germinate with inoculum from a number of Rhizoctonia fungal strains. Three species of Goodyera (G. biflora var. macrantha, G. foliosa var. laevis, G. hachijoensis var. matsumurana), when inoculated with fungi from the binucleate Rhizoctonia fungus group among the 20 fungus strains tested, germinated with virtually the same TTC activity level as embryos. The fact that six of the species' germination rates were well below the TTC test results was thought due to the unsuitability of the test culture conditons. However, since numerous effective fungal strains proved effective with five species other than C. macranthum var. speciosum, which developed a symbiotic relationship with only one of the fungal isolates tested, it was predicted that for symbiotic germination among three species (Aorchis cyclochila, Dactylorhiza aristata, Gymnadenia camtschatica) the binucleate Rhizoctonia fungal group would be suitable, while R. repens would be appropriate for two other species, Amitostigma kinoshitai and Ponerorchis graminifolia var. graminifolia.
Inducing Callus and Regeneration of Haworthia

Author: S. Yasugi, T. Takei, K. Nogata

PP: 656

Haworthia is a genus of succulent plants which belongs to the family Liliaceae. There are about 500 species, mainly located in South Africa. In the present study, leaf and flower stem segments were cultured in order to induce callus in four different species of Haworthia. It is considered difficult to propagate Haworthia via leaf cuttings, root cuttings, division, or seed. In this study, the propagation of Haworthia by tissue culture was investigated.
A Method for Germinating Anthurium scherzerianum

Author: Marcus Peterson

PP: 82


For some time it has been apparent that many growers of Anthurium were experiencing difficulty obtaining satisfactory germination of the seeds of this most desirable plant. Plant division was practised to a large extent to increase numbers, particularly in the cut flower industry. The advent of plant tissue culture and the subsequent development of satisfactory techniques that would produce reasonable multiplication rates, made this an economically viable proposition for growers to some extent.

However, some growers still like to produce their own seedlings, experimenting with specific cross hybridisation to produce plants that they hope will have unique characteristics — which is a great source of personal pride of achievement.

The very short viability of Anthurium seed meant that it was necessary to sow the berries very soon after ripening and harvest. As the berries in most cases contain only 3 to 4 seeds and these are covered in a sticky glutinous mass the

Induction of Axillary Buds by Nodal Segment Culture and Rooting of Axillary Shoots of Epipremnum aureum

Author: T. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, F. Uchida, I. Mitsuishi

PP: 657

Nodal segments (5 mm in length) were excised from the shoots of potted Epipremnum aureum Bunt. which had been obtained from a market. After sterilization with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution, nodal segments were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with differing concentrations of benzyladenine (BA 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg liter-1). The highest value of axillary bud induction (%) was observed in the MS medium supplemented with 10 mg liter-1 BA. When young nodes were used as explants, a number of adventitious shoots were formed on the explants. In this case, two types of shoots were observed, one with spotted leaves similar to the donor plant and another with unspotted green leaves.

It was found in both the media supplemented with 10 mg liter-1 BA or 10 mg liter-1 kinetin that the axillary bud break (%) of the plants derived from micropropagation was higher than that of the plants grown from soft cuttings.

When the axillary shoots reached about 2 cm in length, the shoots were excised

Hygro-Greening Trial Using a Floating Garden for Water Filtration

Author: Satoshi Yamaguchi

PP: 658


In order to clean the surface of bodies of water in urban areas, a new system of hygro-greening was trialled to improve pond and stream amenities in and around urban areas, and also to purify the water by absorbing excess nutrients. In this concept a floating garden was used to clean the water, and also improve the social environment.

The Practical Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture High School Education

Author: A. Matsuyama, S. Ueno, S. Sakai, K. Ojiri

PP: 659


Biotechnology education was introduced to the curriculum of Hiratsuka Agricultural High School in 1990 when the three departments of the school were reorganized. The aim of the adoption of biotechnology education was to give the students a deeper understanding of living things and also to give them some confidence in agriculture. The main aims were to give the students some basic technology, such as sterilization using a newly-built clean room, or showing them themes for research.

The Multiplication of Dracaena by Tissue Culture

Author: Tatsuo Koizumi, Takeo Kitaura

PP: 662


The genus Dracaena includes many species used as ornamental foliage plants, however, because their growth rates are often slow, the production of saleable plants is a long process. Recently the quality of plants of Dracaena available for sale has deteriorated. Tissue culture is a potential method of solving these problems.

In this report we investigate the effects of phytohormones on the production of callus, shoots, and roots from stem explants of D. deremensis and D. concinna.

Horticulture in New Zealand

Author: Peter F. Waugh

PP: 665

In the short time available to me I would like to present to you an overview of the nursery industry in New Zealand by way of a few slides.
  • Most visitors to New Zealand are amazed at the number of sheep on pastures and country roads. This is typical New Zealand — travellers being held up by a flock of sheep off to the shed to be shorn. Wool is a major New Zealand export.
  • New Zealand I.P.P.S. president John Liddle's nursery, Liddle Wonder, near Wellington, grows trees and shrubs for the garden centre market on capillary watering beds. Many nurseries are changing from planter bags to hard plastic pots to improve their presentation.
  • Most New Zealand nurseries are small by international standards and are often family concerns but they are innovative. The New Zealand Rose Company, Whenuapai, a container rose nursery also grows in the field and the manager is the son of one of New Zealand's best cut flower and patio rose breeders, Frank Schuurman. Nurseries are palletizing orders and using
Cyclamen Seedling Production by Tissue Culture

Author: Teruhiko Terakawa, Toshio Murayama

PP: 667


Cyclamen are mainly propagated from seed. However, uniformity of the important characteristics, such as color and type of flower, is poor because of the complexity of inheritance. Although numerous attempts have been made using in vitro culture techniques over a long period, these trials have not been successful, especially in large-scale culture. Recently, we solved the problems associated with tissue culture and achieved large-scale culture. We now aim to commercialize cyclamen seedlings produced by our tissue-culture methods.

The Control of Root Systems by the Use of Slit Containers

Author: M. Minamide, S. Watanabe

PP: 668

Last autumn, we started to sell CS plug-trays with 40 and 88 holes. These were developed to incorporate the theory of controlling a root system by the use of slit containers. This theory is as follows:

A large proportion of the water supplied to the medium in a plastic container is drained through the hole at the bottom of the container, but because of surface tension, some of the water remains at the bottom of the container and on the inside lower surface of the container. Some condensation is formed on the inside surface of the container due to the differences in temperature between day and night. This only allows roots to take up water, as a result root distortion can occur, leading to root circling around the inside surface of the base of the container without forming many new roots. In order to prevent root circling and to encourage the formation of new roots, it is necessary to get rid of the remaining water at the bottom of the container.

Slit containers prevent root circling

New Plant Varieties Bred by the Sakata Seed Corporation

Author: Shoji Shiotsuki

PP: 669

Osteospermum. Our new cultivars open their flowers when the sun is not shining and even at night. They are only 20 to 25 cm tall. They can be shortened with growth retardant and are therefore useful in pots or as bedding plants.

Impatiens — New Guinea Cultivars. Our new cultivars also flower in summer and they grow into big plants faster than overseas cultivars. They are suitable for bedding plants or for use in pots and containers. Six colors are available: purple, scarlet, white, red, salmon, and bright pink.

Dianthus — Potted Carnations. Our cultivars grow even at low temperatures. They can be used in many ways including small to large pots.

Pelargonium. We now offer a new series which have shiny and smart-colored flowers, with only a slight blotch at the center of the flower, or sometimes none at all. They are multiflorous, resistant to Botrytis, and easy to grow.

Clematis. Our seven new cultivars are good for use in pots because they do not need any supports. They are multiflorous,

Recommended Varieties from the Dai-Ichi Seed Co. Ltd.

Author: Sohei Ikeda

PP: 670


Red Spirit® rose. Bright red flowers throughout the year which have a stable colour. The petals do not get dark even under low temperature conditions. This selection has few thorns and is easy to handle.

Vorgue® rose. The flowers have light pink petals with a darker pink edge. The large flowers are held upright on strong stems.

Femma® rose. A very productive cultivar with good quality petals; it is particularly suitable for all kinds of flower arrangements.

Madonna® rose. Novel cardinal-red flowers on a spray type rose; it has nicely shaped strong petals and a good vase-life.

Nana® rose. This polyantha-type rose with ball-shaped flowers was bred for improved cut-flower qualities and is suitable for training by pruning.

Our Promising New Varieties for Cut and Potted Flower Production

Author: T. Oridate

PP: 671

We, at the Yokohama Nursery Company, introduce a lot of new selections for cutflower and potted-flower production.


Mini Dianthus Little Princess series. The ‘Little Princess’ series maintains a 10 to 15 cm height during the growing season, and has high heat resistance for the summer. Flowering is almost year-round, and we offer three different colors, rose-pink, white, and pastel-pink.

Dianthus Love Love Queen series. This series is quite new, so we will be introducing it for the 1998 season. It is best grown in medium to large pots, and reaches a height of 30 to 40 cm. Two colors, rose and apricot, are available.

Alstroemeria. We have two cultivars ‘Magic Love’ and ‘Endless Love’ for pot culture. The colors are dark pink and soft pink.

Bulbs. We have introduced many new bulbs suitable for flower or potted flower production including, lily, tulip, freesia, and muscari.

Fungicide Resistance In Botrytis Species

Author: Seona Casonato

PP: 84


Growers in the nursery industry are faced with numerous problems everyday. One of these is the control of disease which can cost growers hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost revenue. Fungal diseases are a major concern and one fungus that constantly threatens crops is Botrytis cinerea.

Botrytis cinerea can affect a range of plant parts, particularly the flowers, when there is high relative humidity and cool temperatures (Jarvis, 1992; Fletcher, 1984). Conducive conditions are worsened by poor ventilation, hence it is beneficial for heating and ventilation at sunset when the vapour pressure deficit is low (Jarvis, 1992). Generally infection occurs after the plants have been harvested and during storage and transport. The first symptoms, however, are usually found on the plant in the greenhouse (Dirske, 1982; Fletcher, 1984). Commencement of the infection usually occurs due to the conidia of the pathogen and it serves as the initial inoculum point for the

A Japanese Pioneer in the Tissue Culture of Ornamental Plants

Author: Kimiaki Murasaki

PP: 672

Ever since Miyoshi & Co., Ltd. was established in 1949, we have been producing, distributing, and developing flower seeds, plants, and bulbs. The main emphasis has been on vegetative propagation and tissue culture techniques; production and sales began in 1968. Since then we have been among the leaders in this field, producing disease-free, high-quality plant materials.

We have made big progress in the production of Gypsophila, Dianthus (carnation), Gerbera, Limonium, and other crops by the use of tissue culture. In 1975, we started the mass production of G. paniculata with techniques which resulted in a large demand in the market.

Currently, our top selling product is carnation cuttings produced from tissue cultured nuclear stocks and we produce over 15 million cuttings a year. Our original Limonium cultivars are very well known in the market, and we have put a lot of effort into their selection and hybridization, especially the L. Beltlaard and Emille groups which have become very

The Effect of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Treatment on the Seed Germination of Lathyrus latifolius

Author: Y. Koike, T. Inoue, H. Higuchi

PP: 673

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of concentrated sulfuric acid treatment on the seed germination of two cultivars of Lathyrus latifolius (‘Rosa Perle’ syn. [‘Pink Pearl’] and ‘Red Pearl’). Concentrated sulfuric acid treatment of more than 5 min resulted in increased seed germination percentages. It is therefore possible to improve the germination of L. latifolius seed easily by the use of a concentrated sulfuric acid treatment.
Cutting Propagation of Ligustrum lucidum ‘Tricolor’

Author: Tei-ichi Horikoshi

PP: 676

Large-scale propagation of Ligustrum lucidum ‘Tricolor’, which is a garden cultivar of glossy privet with variegated leaves, has been impossible because of difficulties encountered in cutting propagation. This cultivar, however, has great promise for landscaping purposes. In this study, the effects of the physiological status and shading on the stock plants, as well as different types of cuttings on the rooting of the ‘Tricolor’ were investigated.
The Effects of the Basal Medium, and the Addition of Sugar and Banana on the Growth of Oncidium Plantlets Cultured In Vitro

Author: Mamoru Kusumoto, Yasuaki Takeda

PP: 678


We have reported previously that the growth of in vitro plantlets of Cymbidium and Cattleya was promoted markedly when organic matter was added to the basal medium (Kusumoto and Furukawa, 1977; Kusumoto, 1979a; Kusumoto 1979b). This report describes the effects of the basal medium and the concentration of added sugar or banana on the growth of Oncidium plantlets cultured in vitro.

The Effects of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Growing Media on the Growth of Herbaceous Flowering Plants in Cell-Tray Culture

Author: Y. Miura, S. Kuboi, H. Uematu

PP: 681


The cell-tray culture of flowering plants is increasing in Japan and many kinds of media designed for this type of culture are now on sale. Overseas, many growing media have been investigated (Baker,1957; Bunt, 1988) and their physical and chemical properties and effect on plant growth have been clarified (Fontano and Nelson, 1990; Sonneveld, 1990; Biernbaum,1992; Lang, 1994). On the other hand, an investigation of Japanese media has not been carried out and their effects on the growth of flowering plant seedlings are unknown. We produced nine media (Table 1), by mixing six commercial media, and investigated the effective volume (%) of pore space for air capacity and NO3 content of the media.

Raising Seedlings of the Sasa lily (Lilium japonicum) in Vitro

Author: Katsuhiko Oishi, Yoshiko Inoue

PP: 685

Native Japanese Lilium species, which have been often used in the breeding of Oriental hybrid lilies, are difficult to cultivate. The degree of difficulty of raising seedlings (from the most difficult to easiest) of the species is as follows:
  • Lilium noblissimum (the Japanese name is tamoto-yuri) — the most difficult species;
  • Lilium japonicum (sasa-yuri) and L. auratum (yama-yuri);
  • Lilium alexandrae (uke-yuri) and L. rubellum (otome-yuri);
  • Lilium speciosum (kanoko-yuri) — relatively easy.

All of the species mentioned above show good germination, but they grow very slowly. During the first year, they produce only small bulbs (ca. 2- to 5-mm. diameter). They are also susceptible to pests and diseases. At the flowering stage (5 to 6 years after sowing) almost all plants lose their vigor because of infection by viruses and infestation by bulb mites. Therefore, we tried to raise seedlings of several Japanese lilies in vitro in order to conserve them for garden use and to prepare

Production of Interspecific Hybrids of Dianthus species by Ovule Culture

Author: H. Yazawa, T. Oridate

PP: 687

Various Dianthus species are widely distributed in Japan, and some of them have quite high ornamental value because of their lovely flowers. However, almost all of these species have characteristics which make them unsuitable for commercial production, for instance, a single flowering season and a dislike of hot summers. Also, it is difficult to obtain viable seeds from crosses of the species because of the degeneration of the hybrid embryos. Therefore, little effective breeding has occurred in the past.

In the present study, interspecific crosses were carried out between D. chinensis and various other Dianthus species and the resultant interspecific hybrids were successfully obtained by using the embryo rescue technique.

Propagation and Cultivation of Cycads

Author: Hannes Robbertse, Steve Trollip

PP: 691

Guidelines for collection and storage of cycad pollen, the pollination techniques, seed harvesting viability assessment, seed germination, and the growing on of cycad (Encephalartos) seedlings are discussed in this paper. The male cone axis elongates and cone scales become separated. Female cones elongates slightly and some skill is required to decide when they are receptive for pollination. Artificial pollination can be done with dry pollen, or a slurry. Pollination is repeated at 3- to 4-day intervals. Cones should not be harvested prematurely for seed gathering. Seed are placed in water to test for viability. Cycad seed germinates 3 to 8 months after sowing. A cable-heated sand bed with intermittent spray mist is the ideal system for germination. Seedlings are transplanted after germination and a well drained potting mix is required. Plants are transplanted to bigger containers as they grow bigger.
Propagation of Mauritian Plants For a Landscaping Project

Author: Dave Kirkby, Gerhard De Jager

PP: 694

A large number of plants were propagated for planting in a unique landscape at a hotel complex on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. Most of the plants are indigenous to the island and therefore unavailable commercially or in botanic gardens. Seed and cutting sources had to be identified, propagation techniques developed, infrastructure established, and the site cleared and prepared for planting. The project can be regarded as the largest source of indigenous Mauritian plants in the world.
Popularization of Indigenous Plants

Author: Roy Trendler

PP: 696

The majority of South Africans are "locked into" a European style of gardening and make use of plants that do not occur naturally in the region. The use of indigenous plants has several advantages, of which drought resistance is the most important. Because many indigenous plants are less attractive than the popular exotic plant, a special marketing approach is necessary to change the attitude of gardeners. An approach, which appears to be successful, is to promote the idea of gardening for wild life, not indigenous plants. Once a gardener has learned which plants attract birds, butterflies, and small animals it becomes natural to plant indigenous plants.
Fogging and Misting

Author: Edward J. Bunker

PP: 43


The importance of water to a plant is self evident to all of us who live and work in the Plant Kingdom. This importance is multiplied a thousand fold when cuttings are taken and we expect them to root. With leafy and softwood cuttings it is critical that we maintain an atmosphere supercharged with moisture to keep the cuttings in turgid condition. By using mist and fog to hold humidity at desired levels a modern plant nursery maintains cuttings in a turgid condition to prevent wilting. This enhances rooting.

What is the history and background to our use fog and mist? In preparing this paper I found in Volume 1 of the I.P.P.S. Proceedings from 1951, 46 years ago, a paper presented by Professor L.C. Chadwick of Ohio State University titled Controlling Humidification as an Aid to Vegetative Propagation. From the way this paper reads mist as a tool in propagation was still new in commercial applications but had been used in research at Ohio State. The paper outlines systems

Assessment of Rooting Hormone Formulations

Author: Paul Carmen

PP: 88


Many trials are carried out to assess methods and rooting hormone formulations. However the results are not always what they seem. This paper aims to show how difficult it is to assess trials if the age of the hormone formulation is unknown and what can be done to overcome this problem.

Commercial Production of in Vitro Bulblets of Lachenalia

Author: M. M. Slabbert, J. G. Niederwieser

PP: 699

Factors effecting in vitro bulb formation and subsequent transplanting of bulblets were studied to develop a method for mass propagation of Lachenalia. Clumps of adventitious shoots derived from leaf explants were used. Bulb formation was initiated when shoots were subjected to low temperature (4 to 15C) for a minimum of 2 weeks. The size (age) of the adventitious shoot affected the bulblet size and shoots. Sucrose at 6% resulted in the formation of larger bulbs than 3% sucrose. Following bullblet initiation, no illumination was necessary for the completion of bulb formation. The survival rate of the bulblets after transplanting was directly correlated to the size of the bulblets.
The Trials and Tribulations of Growing Indigenous Plants

Author: Linda de Luca

PP: 703


There is more fun than tribulation in growing indigenous plants. The possibility of finding some small treasure to grow is immense and the plant could pop up where you least expect it, especially in a country like South Africa that has such a wealth of flora and varied habitats. In this paper, a number of problems that I have experienced, and ways to overcome some of them, are shared with you.

Production of Quality Export Chrysanthemum Cuttings

Author: Gerrit Moolman

PP: 706

Propagation of chrysanthemum by means of cuttings is an operation that is carried out by specialized cutting producers. Because of the competitiveness in the chrysanthemum industry, quality is of utmost importance for the cutting producer. Quality of cuttings is determined by: cultivar choice, evenness, presence or absence of pathogens and insects, size, vigor, vegetativeness, age of mother plants, and package and conditions during transport. A chrysanthemum cutting producer should continuously check all steps and conditions during propagation. Samples of cuttings should be inspected by independent workers and a bonus and penalty system which is based on the result of the inspection resulted in an increase in productivity and quality at Van Zanten, South Africa.
Trends in the Nursery Industry in South Africa

Author: Keith Kirsten

PP: 709


Changes are taking place in the nursery industry in South Africa and elsewhere in the world. Twenty years ago, a nursery was a place where plants were grown and sold. Today nurseries are split between growers and retailers. A relatively new trend is the specialization of growers to produce plugs.

In this paper, I will present an overview of my view of how things are going to change in the retail nursery industry and how the propagator will be affected.

The Use of Taguchi Methods to Analyze Variables

Author: Dudley Wilson

PP: 711

Taguchi methods offer plant propagators an opportunity to develop optimal methods or conditions in a cost-effective way. An example used in our tissue culture laboratory is discussed and Internet addresses to find more information are given.
Propagation and Cultivation of South African Restios

Author: N.A.C. Brown, H. Jamieson, P.A. Botha

PP: 714

The Restionaceae is a family of evergreen rush-like plants. Three hundred species are endemic to the Cape floral region. Plants from this family have long attracted the attention of horticulturists around the world on account of their sculptural form and their attractive long-lasting seed heads. Restios have potential as bedding plants, as accent plants in landscaping, and their foliage is also of value to the cut flower industry. However, for many years only a few species were in cultivation and available commercially due to the extremely poor germination obtained in most species. The recent discovery that plant-derived smoke is the germination cue for many species has led to a wider range of species becoming available for cultivation. The main requirements for the successful cultivation of restios are a position in full sun, a well drained soil, and plenty of air movement.
Propagation and Testing of Deciduous Fruit Trees for Viruses

Author: Michael Barkley

PP: 90


In researching and diagnosing virus diseases of deciduous fruit trees several propagation techniques were utilised and integrated with virus testing and elimination procedures. The aim of this work is to avail nurserymen and do-it-yourself growers the benefits of healthy propagating and planting material: improved profitability through higher nursery and fruit production efficiency.

The present work involves viruses but the principles and general approaches also apply to other plant pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, and other infectious agents. Two notable differences are:

  1. Fruit tree viruses depend on living hosts for their survival and dispersal.
  2. Remediation of virus-infected plants on a commercial scale is impractical and not cost-effective.

The use of healthy plant propagating material prevents the spread of pathogens, reduces production costs for both nurserymen and growers, and helps meet consumer demand for a consistent, high quality product.

Production of Transgenic Plants by Electrofusion of Single Plant Protoplasts

Author: Hans G.L. Coster, Tohsak L. Mahaworasilpa, Heide Schnabl

PP: 92

The possibility of producing transgenic plants which incorporate genetic attributes from different plant species and/or genetic attributes from specific plant cell tissue, presents an exciting prospect. However, there are many technical difficulties which have limited progress in producing such transgenic plants. Here we discuss a new technique, based on somatic fusion of individual plant protoplasts using radio frequency electric fields, which has the potential to overcome many of these obstacles.
Computers and Propagation

Author: Martin Schotte

PP: 96


Schotte Nurseries is an indoor plant propagation and production nursery. We have approximately 2 acres (8000 M2) under production in five glasshouses, 1 Hi-Vent house (openable polyhouse) and two shade houses. Indoor foliage is our main production with some flowering lines and "unique living gift" lines. "Growlines" our propagated stock in trays, 5-cm, and 8-cm pots accounts for approximately 25% of the nursery turnover. The nursery has a PRIVA climate control computer operating the climate and water controls which has been in operation since 1981. Control systems in use before the computer were analogue controllers, thermostats, and manual systems.

Commercial Glasshouse manufactures installs and services glasshouses and all manner of related horticultural equipment. PRIVA computers have been sold installed and commissioned since 1981. We have to date installed 65 climate and or water control computers throughout Australia and New Zealand.

In the two

Industry Training, Doing it Our Way

Author: Greg McPhee

PP: 102

Ensuring the next crop of nursery propagators has the right skills is an important issue. We need to have a training system that turns out professional propagators ready to face the challenges of the future. That training system is changing and our involvement is crucial if the level of professionalism is to be retained and even improved.

Changes to the Australian training system have been happening for some time. If you are not involved in education then you may not have caught up with some of the latest developments. We now have Competency Based Training and Assessment, National Curriculum, and a different way of government funding arrangements. "Doing it my way" for a trainer is vastly different to what it was even a few years ago. The changes are not complete and I see that we will never go back to the old ways, good or bad. Even our present and new system will come in for further changes. Being adaptable is now a good trait for a horticultural trainer.

Competency based

Climate for Change: What Opportunities do Phenology Gardens Provide for Propagators?

Author: Malcolm L. Reed

PP: 105

Over the past 25 years of I.P.P.S. Australian Region Meetings there has been change in the behaviour of plants. Only in a few instances have the plants been watched closely enough in all this time for anyone to notice the changes. The "first leaf date" in spring in northeastern U.S.A. has moved 14 days earlier (Schwartz, 1994). In tropical rain forests around the world the mortality of trees and their recruitment has increased (Phillips and Gentry, 1994).

Whether these changes were the result of cyclical fluctuation in climate, or were part of a long-term shift in global conditions caused by greenhouse gases, they illustrate how observations of the phenology of plant development can be used as a sensitive detector of environmental conditions.

Economic analysis can identify opportunities which contribute to remediation to climate change (Bureau of Industry Economics, 1996), but involvement of community groups in recording responses of plants to changes in weather is, intuitively

SPF? - So What?

Author: Bernice Flanders

PP: 106

Legislation has been passed to approve SPF (sun protection factor) ratings to now have a maximum labelling of up to 30+. This will bring Australia in line with international ratings of above 15+. Until now Australian standards required that the maximum SPF rating was 15. So how will this affect all the sun-bronzed Aussie nursery people?

The SPF is a measure of the protection of sunscreens. To arrive at this value the sunscreen had to be tested in laboratory conditions using a solar simulator, with all other variables as constants. The unit measured is the "minimal erythematous dose" or MED, which is a measure of the time taken to produce redness in an average skin. From this the SPF is calculated as:

            SPF = MED with sunscreen ÷ MED without sunscreen

In other words, SPF is defined as the exposure time to produce redness on protected skin divided by the exposure time to produce redness on unprotected skin. It is an indicator of the ability of a sunscreen to prolong sun exposure

Getting the Message out

Author: Ian C. Atkinson

PP: 109


The diagram in Figure 1 was developed by Berlo (1960) to help explain the process of communication.

Tomorrow's Nurseries

Author: Peter Albery

PP: 113

Although this meeting is held for the purpose of passing on plant propagation knowledge, this paper is of a different subject, and is based on my 45-year involvement in the nursery industry. The title of this paper is "Tomorrow's Nurseries", as never before have I seen so many challenges facing both production and retail nurseries.

To give you some idea as to why I made that statement one has to consider Australia's economic situation, and what our future economic situation might possibly be. This will enable nurseries of the future to steer in the right direction to ensure survival.

Multinational companies seem to be able to move their profits off shore, thus avoiding paying tax in Australia. These large companies can usually afford to use the latest technology, and in real terms, are not the bigger employers of people in this country. The tax burden therefore falls on the smaller Australian-owned industries, which most horticultural enterprises are. Couple this with the removal of

An Update on Greenhouse Environmental Control

Author: Carl Van Loon

PP: 117


A greenhouse manager cannot maximise control of the greenhouse without some understanding of the relationship between temperature, light, and humidity. This paper will mainly discuss the relationship between temperature and humidity. A good understanding of these processes starts with the psychrometric chart.

How Has Plant Propagation Helped My Business?

Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 46

It helps to be born curious, and the thought of "I wonder what would happen if…?" is the constant focus for my nursery innovations and breakthroughs.

I have been teaching horticulture under varying conditions for the past 30 years, and I have constantly encouraged my students to strive for a qualification. My earlier training in civil engineering and surveying has proven invaluable in dealing with facts and maintaining objectivity. All learning courses have a common thread, and should teach one to think with a trained mind.

It has been my observation, and certainty in my own case, that those of us who enjoy what we are doing tend to achieve more. And I am never bored! I continue to enjoy two specific facets of my life in plant propagation:

  1. The rigour of assessing and evaluating current events related to my field of interest on the broadest possible plane in Australia and internationally.
  2. The more difficult rigour of questioning one’s beliefs in what and why and how one
Oak Seedling Propagation in Plug Containers

Author: Warrick R. Nelson

PP: 120

I have had a long-term interest in the development of techniques for propagating plantation tree species in containers. A factor commonly mentioned as a reason why shallow containers are unsuitable for tree seedling propagation is that tree seedlings produce a long tap root shortly after germination. Pruning this tap root is commonly considered to be detrimental to the plant.

As is obvious from the many millions of containerised plantation tree species propagated in shallow containers every year, pruning the tap root of these species has no obvious detrimental effect on either the root system or the overall health of the plants. However, oaks and other species with similar nut-type seeds are commonly considered difficult to propagate or totally unsuited to container propagation.

Fresh acorns of English and Turkey oaks (Quercus robur and Q. cerris) were collected and sown immediately into a peat substrate in Larmen Plantek 64F cell containers with side slots for air root-pruning

Horticulture Training for the Nursery Industry

Author: Rodger McCarthy

PP: 122

The Horticulture Industry Training Organisation was set up in 1992 and as a leader in the Skill NZ strategy was part of a group of four, ironically named, early harvest Industry Training Organisations. Our ITO represents all sectors of Horticulture, including production sectors like fruit, nursery, and vegetable; but also service sectors like amenity and landscape. The nursery sector has been represented on the ITO from the outset (and still is) by the current President of the Nursery and Garden Industry Association, Mark Dean. I mention this because it is important to realise that the ITO is a nonprofit incorporated society owned and operated by the horticulture industry through sector organisations such as NGIA.

To date our ITO has built training numbers to 760 apprentices in 10 sectors and we are aiming for 850 people in our mixed on- and off-job training programmes by the end of this year (1997).

Three Hundred unit standards, Ten National Certificates, and a National

Containerized Forestry Seedling Production from a Historical Perspective

Author: Stellan Karlsson

PP: 123

The following is a subjective report based on discussions and meetings with nurserymen and researchers around the world, scientific reports and my own experiences.

The North American Indians were probably among the first container growers in the world. They used small fish as containers which they threaded on a rope and hung between two trees. They put a seed in the throat, germinated it and let the seedling grow as long as nutrients and moisture were available in the "container".

Containerized nursery production systems have evolved during the past 50 years from simple tar paper pots used in the 1930s, plastic bags used in the 1950s, to the wide variety of rigid-walled containers in use today. In the beginning the containers were placed on the ground and very poor growing media was used, often topsoils or mixes with very low air-filled porosity. This resulted in a lot of problems with pathogenic fungi causing damping off and root dieback. It also resulted in very poor field

A Review of Factors Influencing Container-media Temperatures

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Mervyn I. Spurway, Brian E. Smith

PP: 125


Temperature is the main environmental factor determining the release period of encapsulated controlled-release fertilisers (CRFs). Therefore, an understanding of container media temperatures is important to the nursery grower. The aim of this work is to review the factors influencing container media temperature, its effect on plant growth, and to try to establish to what degree various parameters influence the relationship between air and container media temperature. Such an understanding will hopefully allow a more accurate prediction to be made as to container media temperatures based on air temperatures. The latter are more readily recorded and would consequently assist in the estimation of the longevity of CRFs.

Conservation and Recovery of Cheesemania ‘Chalk Range’ an Endangered New Zealand Brassicaceous Plant

Author: C.L. Hargreaves, D.R. Smith, M.N. Foggo, M.E. Gordon

PP: 132


The Marlborough chalk cress Cheesemania ‘Chalk Range’ is a critically endangered New Zealand plant (Cameron et al., 1995). It is a small herb (10 to 15 cm tall, with inflorescences up to 25 cm) and the surviving plants were found on mostly south-facing montane bluffs. The leaves form a single rosette on a large root which extends above the ground giving the plant the appearance of a small palm tree (Anon, 1992). The plant is a monocarpic perennial. It is highly palatable and introduced browsing animals such as goats, possums, sheep, and hares were thought to have eaten the plant to extinction by the 1970s (Anon, 1992).

However, in 1992, 45 chalk cress plants were found clinging to steep bluffs on private land in the Chalk Range in Eastern Marlborough by Department of Conservation staff (Anon, 1992). In March 1992, at the Forest Research Institute (FRI) Rotorua, New Zealand, a propagation programme was initiated, with the aim of testing the viability of field-collected

African Trees and Plants at Gardens of the World

Author: Geoff Etherington

PP: 137

Perhaps it is because I was raised in Kenya, perhaps it is because I was born at 8300 ft or 2500 m above sea level, that I am putting so much extra effort into the African Area of "Gardens of the World", a 6 acre (2½ ha), challenge for the rest of my life.

The climate at 2500 m on the equator is similar in many ways to the climate here in Nelson. The temperature range is roughly the same, and there are about the same amount of wet and dry times, with a similar rainfall.

The main difference is the length of days, which is constant at 12 h all the year round at the equator.

I have had no trouble growing trees which grow naturally at or above this altitude. Some of these are:

Hagenia abyssinica. A large, spreading, frost-hardy, evergreen tree which mulches itself with its own old leaves. It prefers a reasonably moist situation and is very fast growing with large compound leaves. My grandmother had one in her garden in Kenya. I can remember a Christmas when there were 80 of us

Echinacea — The Big Chill?

Author: L.C. Burton, G.A. Parmenter, R.P. Littlejohn

PP: 139


World demand for the medicinal properties of Echinacea has raised its profile above that of simply an attractive American wildflower.

Echinacea, or purple coneflower, as it is commonly known, is a genus of herbaceous perennials native to the prairies of central North America. Of the nine species, E. purpurea and E. angustifolia are the two that have been actively commercialised and upon which this report will focus.

Echinacea belongs to the daisy family Asteraceae. They produce a cluster of leaves from a short (20 to 30 mm) rhizome. Echinacea angustifolia has a vertical taproot whereas E. purpurea has fibrous roots. Echinacea angustifolia has narrow, entire leaves covered in stiff bristly hairs while E. purpurea has larger, rounded leaves that are coarsely toothed.

Single flower heads are produced at the end of simple or branched stems. The spiny raised receptacle or "cone" in the centre of the flower is a characteristic of the genus. The ray flowers of E. purpurea

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis): An Introduction to this North American Medicinal Herb

Author: J.M. Follett

PP: 147


Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) is a highly valued North American medicinal herb belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. It is a small herbaceous perennial found in Northwestern United States and Canada, from Ontario in the North, to North Carolina in the South. Common names include yellow root, orange root, Indian dye, and yellow puccoon. Its main active ingredients are the alkaloids, hydrastine and berberine, and it is used among other things as a muscle stimulant, stomach strengthener, antihaemorrhagic, and laxative. Goldenseal also has some antibacterial activity. Collecting goldenseal from the wild resulted in its near extinction in its native habitat, however, as a result of intensive cultivation it has become more common. In New Zealand goldenseal is currently being evaluated as a new crop (Douglas, 1988).

Germination Experiments on Seeds of Some New Zealand Lowland Forest Species

Author: Colin Burrows

PP: 151


Nurserymen know a lot about germinating the seeds of native species, but have not often recorded their knowledge. Other professionals with an interest in the subject have published some information, but there is still only a limited amount of detailed information in print on how to get seeds of plants of our native flora to germinate. A recent review of literature on seed germination relevant to New Zealand native plants (Fountain and Outred 1991) covered only 38 articles and 113 species.

About 10 years ago I decided to study seed biology of plants in South Island native forests. My aim was to improve our understanding of this vital phase in the forest regeneration process. Since 1989 I have published articles on seed germination, seed crops, dispersal, and seed predation in New Zealand Natural Sciences, Canterbury Botanical Society Journal, and New Zealand Journal of Botany.

Here I want to outline the methodology I use and some results of simple experiments on

Zantedeschia aethiopica

Author: Jim Pringle

PP: 158

Zantedeschia aethiopica is not a calla. This is a common misinterpretation by many in New Zealand. It does belong to the Zantedeschia genus, the leaf is similar, but there are many differences. Some of those differences I will endeavour to explain in this presentation. Firstly though let us look at some of the known taxa of Z. aethiopica.        We have the arum — which is the white bloom — it has various forms including winter and summer flowering.
        In New Zealand we have the better known ‘Childsiana’, which is
        also white and also comes in various forms but this has been mainly
        induced by treatment with hormones and or containerising, creating a bonsai effect.
       We also have the ‘Green Goddess’. This is a well known cultivar in
       New Zealand.

If we look at the Callas, we have numerous cultivars. The big thing that needs to be remembered is that all of the Callas are deciduous. They have a specific growing season and require a dormancy. This is probably one of the essential differences.

The Multiplication and Distribution of Improved Clonal Selections of Fruiting Plants

Author: Peter Smith

PP: 48


To confine my view to the last 25 years I unhesitatingly nominate the multiplication and distribution of selected clones of fruiting plants as the most important development that has assisted our business. As supporters of schemes dedicated to improving quality and performance of fruit-bearing plants we are a vital link between plant breeders, research workers, and the Australian fruit industries.

Our nursery is located in the Sunrise district, which is at the heart of the Murray/ Darling river basin. We aim to service the needs of fruit growers in this. basin. This river system supports Australia's two largest, fully irrigated fruit production industries, grapes (Vitis) and citrus. These two industries contribute significantly to our gross national product. It is fundamental to the sustainable success of these industries that we grow the most improved clones with the best possible health status.

The first 10 years of my working life were with the Commonwealth

An Overview of the South African Seedling Nursery Industry

Author: Warrick R. Nelson

PP: 161

The concept of a seedling nursery industry only began in South Africa with the introduction of containerised seedling propagation methods and the development of large, specialised nurseries dedicated to servicing the market for vegetable seedlings. These specialised seedling nurseries really only developed from 1975 with the introduction of the Speedling system using the Todd Planter Flat (Todd, 1981). This was of particular interest for producing cabbage seedlings, but very quickly found another market in plantation tree seedlings (Barrett, 1980).

Some 2.2 billion seedlings are grown annually in South African nurseries (Nelson, 1991). The major vegetable seedling crops are cabbages, tomatoes and lettuce. Multi-seeded onions are also popular in some areas.

A particularly interesting aspect of these nurseries, apart from their sole purpose being to propagate containerised seedlings, was the strong cross-cultural influences when the same nursery propagated a wide range of seedlings

Progress with Green Tea and Cultivated Sphagnum Moss Production

Author: Peter E. Smale

PP: 163

At the I.P.P.S. Conference in Auckland 1988 (Vol. 38) I shared with you the methods developed for propagating over a million green tea cuttings at the time of establishing an industry here in New Zealand. Then I spoke in Christchurch (Vol. 45) about developments towards propagation of sphagnum moss as a cultivated crop in an artificial environment.

Because these things occurred here in the Nelson region I was asked to bring the Society up to date with developments and report on progress.

The Genus Skimmia and its Production at Hadlow College

Author: Chris Lane

PP: 169


Skimmia is the most important ornamental genus of hardy, woody plants in the citrus family (Rutaceae) and ranks highly amongst woody evergreen shrubs for park and garden culture. Only one species, S. japonica and its subspecies reevesiana, are of commercial ornamental horticultural significance. The three other species (S. arborescens, S. laureola, and S. anquetilia) are mainly of botanical interest, although the hybrid S. ×confusa (S. anquetilia × S. japonica) is of distinct horticultural merit.

Skimmias are fairly slow growing, of compact habit, tolerant of most soil types, and do best in partial shade. Male clones are grown for their flowers. The terminal panicles, usually creamy white, sometimes tinged with pink, are often fragrant. Female and bisexual clones usually have smaller flowers but are followed by clusters of brightly coloured red fruits which persist throughout the autumn and winter months.

Opportunities for Breeding Woody Ornamentals, With Particular Reference to Sambucus

Author: Kenneth R. Tobutt, Jacqui Y. Prevette

PP: 172

With a few important exceptions, little systematic plant breeding has been undertaken in woody ornamentals. A research programme at HRI- East Malling is focused on the breeding and genetics of ornamental trees and shrubs and good progress has been made with elderberry, Sambucus spp. With S. nigra, various crosses have been made among the cultivars ‘Aurea’, ‘Guincho Purple’, ‘Laciniata’, ‘Fastigiata’, and ‘Pulverulenta’, and subsequent generations have been raised. Yellow leaf and purple leaf were identified as dominant characters, while laciniate leaf, fastigiate habit, and variegated leaf are recessive. Trials have begun on several selections containing two or more of these characters. Propagation for commercial release of the most promising cultivar is under way. With S. racemosa, a second generation cross has been raised from ‘Sutherland’ × ‘Tenuifolia’. This segregates for leaf colour, leaf shape, and vigour, and trials of several promising selections have begun.
Trends and New Plants in the Cut Foliage Industry

Author: Roland Boers

PP: 175


This paper describes the approach of a cut-foliage project in Ireland called Forest Produce, based in County Kerry and producing foliage for supermarkets in the U.K. and mainland Europe.

Review of Techniques used at Angers to Increase Genetic Diversity

Author: Alain Cadic

PP: 177

This paper surveys various techniques to develop and select new woody ornamental cultivars. Mutagenic treatments have proved valuable in modification of characteristics such as plant habit, flower colour, earliness of flowering, or to modify chromosome number in species such as Forsythia, Weigela, Malus, Lonicera, Clematis, Hydrangea, and Pelargonium P. ×hortorum and P. peltatum (syn. P. ×hederaefolium)]. Intra- or inter-specific hybridization is preferred if existing genetic diversity is broad enough and plant biology makes it possible. Combinations of these techniques have also been successfully used in Forsythia and Weigela. Genetic transformation has been developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector to introduce disease resistance in Pelargonium and to change flower colour of Pelargonium and Forsythia.
New Plants at Andre Briant Nurseries

Author: Pascal Pinel

PP: 182


Andre Briant Jeunes Plants is a specialist propagator of hardy ornamental nursery stock liners. The present owner, André Briant (I.P.P.S. GB&I Region President in 1993) purchased the business from his father's company in 1963 when it was a general ornamental nursery. Briant felt there was a market for a specialist propagator and transformed the general nursery into a liner producer selling to growers. Some 15 years ago, Briant met Didier Mathis, a passionate plantsman, and together they decided to make new plants a feature of the range offered by Briant. Mathis took on the role of finding new plants for Briant Nursery. The nursery currently propagates and grows approximately 10 million young plants each year (pot liners, bareroots, and plugs) which are sold throughout Europe (50% in France and 50% exported). Twelve percent of its turnover is represented by new cultivars, protected by breeders' rights. This paper describes how the nursery brings new plants to the market

The Development of Australian Plants for Foods and Flavourings

Author: John Rayner

PP: 184


In recent years a small, but growing, industry has developed in Australia based around "Bushtucker" or "Bushfood" plants. There are currently up to 30 or more Australian plants being used for a range of products, from fresh and dried plant parts to plant essences and flavourings. The development of this industry has been influenced by a number of factors including adventurous chefs using the plant products in the first place; community concerns over "clean" and environmentally friendly foods; the new tastes and flavours available; and the unique Australian nature of the product (assisted in part by "The Bushtucker Man" television series). A recent report identified 14 of the most commonly used plant species and provided some financial estimates for intensive cultivation of these species (RIRDC, 1997).

There is certainly demand for the plant products. In 1995–96 the total sales value through the food processing part of the industry was AUS$4.5 million (Econsult

Selecting and Breeding of New Plants at the Boskoop Research Station for Nursery Stock

Author: Margareth E.C.M. Hop

PP: 188


Plant breeding has been undertaken at the Dutch Research Station for Nursery Stock in Boskoop since the 1940s, resulting in several popular cultivars such as Buddleja ‘Pink Delight’, Cytisus ‘Boskoop Ruby’, Pieris japonica ‘Debutante’ and ‘Cupido’, Agastache ‘Blue Fortune’, and Lonicera ‘Honey Baby’. In 1990 the Dutch government withdrew finance for plant breeding research but nurserymen undertook to financing the selection of new crops in certain categories, through their commodity board.

In 1992, 5-year programmes started on four categories of plants:

  1. Showy container plants for the impulse market;
  2. Herbaceous perennials for low-maintenance amenity plantings;
  3. Small trees for private gardens;
  4. Woody ground cover plants for amenity plantings.

These four categories of plants cover 75% of all the species grown in nurseries.

Useful Characteristics for Breeding in Heuchera, Pulmonaria, and Tiarella

Author: Dan Helms

PP: 192


There are a good number of garden-worthy genera in which very few cultivars have been bred or selected. This paper focuses on the author's work on breeding and selecting new cultivars of Heuchera, Pulmonaria, and Tiarella. Gardeners regard a number of species within these taxa as "nice woodlanders". I wanted to go beyond this and began collecting as many species as possible to enrich the genetic "palette". These were crossed in a range of combinations and hybrids analyzed to the following criteria:

  • Is the new strain sufficiently different from current offerings (i.e.: are differences obvious to an observer standing 3 in away)?
  • Does the leaf or flower excite customer interest?
  • Is hybrid vigor evident?
  • Does it have a wide climactic range? (determined from Pan-American trials)
  • Is it capable of propagation in tissue culture to fulfill consumer demand?

Between three and ten selections would generally be made from each 1000 seedlings. Visitors to the nursery were polled

25 Years of Plant Propagation and How They Have Helped my

Author: Vic Levey

PP: 51

It is now 25 years since the W.O.G.G (Wholesale Ornamental Growers Group) of Queensland, now W.O.N (Wholesale Ornamental Nurserymen Pt Ltd), requested a mandate from the Annual Conference of the Federation of Australian Nurserymen in Sydney in March of 1973 to organise the inaugural meeting of the I.P.P.S. in Australia. This was granted by that Conference and the W.O.G.G (W.O.N) went ahead. The first Conference of the I.P.P.S. in Australia took place at Leura, NSW in October of that year.

The rest is now history, but I feel we should not forget the part played by those involved, many of whom are no longer with us. People such as the late Jack Pike, Alan Newport, Roy Guernsey, and Peter Spinnaker Re-reading the papers from that Conference is quite illuminating. There is just as much relevance in them today as then. Jim Wells, the Founder of I.P.P.S., made a special trip from the U.S.A. for the occasion and his words certainly bear repeating. Jim titled his address "The plant propagator

Maximising Output from a Propagation Unit

Author: Chris Holmes

PP: 195


Output can be maximised by making a system as efficient as possible, especially by analysing and planning the various processes in order to achieve the greatest possible efficiency in production. Greater efficiency is the key to greater profitability although too many growers still believe profit comes from screwing the supplier on price (Coutts, 1997). Growers will also need to improve their labour efficiency, by as much as 10% year on year (Rowe, 1997), because labour costs won't come down, more labour is likely to be used as you expand, and there are few other areas left to improve.

In terms of direct costs labour can account for between 25% and 60% of net sales and is therefore the single biggest cost.

Comparison of Japanese Maple Production in United Kingdom, France, and Italy

Author: M. Studd

PP: 197


This Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship was undertaken to study the production of Acer palmatum in France and Italy and to see if any of the methods used there could be used to improve the quality of Japanese maples produced and retailed in the United Kingdom. To compare production methods I visited three recommended producers: Filli Gillardelli, 20041 Agrate Brianza, near Milan, Italy; Maymou Nurseries, 64100 Bayonne, near Biarritz, France; and Liss Forest Nursery, Greatham., Hampshire, U.K. Both Gilardelli and Maymou produce their plants in open ground and I was particularly interested in the part played by soil and climate in their production method and their effect on the quality of the resulting plants.

Notes on the Propagation and Cultivation of Romneya coulteri

Author: Karen Hawkridge

PP: 200


Romneya coulteri is native to the Santa Ana Mountains, southeast of Los Angeles, California, where it is said to be abundant. The Irish botanist Dr. Thomas Coulter discovered it in 1833. The generic name commemorates the Irish astronomer Dr. F. Romney Robinson, a friend of Dr. Coulter.

Romneya coulteri was not introduced to the British Isles until 1875, when seeds were received by E. G. Henderson and Co. and by Thompson of Ipswich. The first recorded flowering took place in Ireland where a small plant at the Glasnevin Botanic Garden opened one bud in the autumn of 1876, having been planted in the March of the same year. The following year it flowered abundantly after reaching 1.8 m in height.

Developments in Biological Control for Nursery Stock

Author: Neil Helyer

PP: 202


Biological control has been used commercially on protected edible crops for more than 25 years in most Northern European countries. Many pests are similar for most horticultural crops, whether grown outside or under protection. Nursery stock plants however, are subject to some additional pest organisms not usually associated with edible crop production. These include vine weevil, many aphid and caterpillar species, plus transient minor pests such as psylids, gall midges, etc.

The basic technology behind biological control is independent of the crop, so the lessons learned in one branch of horticulture can usually be modified to suit another. For non-edibles, programmes which integrate biological and chemical controls, are more usual because of the wider range of selective pesticides available. The U.K. is fortunate that any pesticide approved for use on an edible crop can automatically be used on a non-edible crop grown under similar conditions. An example is the recently

New Approaches to Optimising Environments for Rooting Cuttings

Author: Richard Harrison-Murray, Linda Knight

PP: 206


Achieving high rates of success in rooting leafy cuttings is strongly dependent on the provision of a suitable environment. Improving existing propagation environment technology offers the prospect of bringing new plants to the market by enabling nurseries to propagate cuttings that are currently considered too difficult. There are two obstacles to such progress: the difficulty of identifying the optimum conditions for a particular plant, and the difficulty of describing that environment in a way that others can reproduce reliably in their own facilities. This paper outlines new approaches to overcoming both of these obstacles.

Walnut Graft-Union Callused by Heating Cable

Author: Damiano Avanzato

PP: 211

Trials were performed using electric heating cable instead of hot-pipe callusing to maintain walnut grafts at the recommended 25 to 27C for callusing. Hot-callus pipe and hot-callus cable gave similar results. Best results were obtained when cable was used on in-situ-grafted walnut seedlings. Under nursery conditions graft take was 70%. At the end of the growing season plants had achieved a grade-out similar to 1-year-old grafted plants.
The European Launch of Debutante® Dahlias

Author: Paul Brooking

PP: 215


The selection, propagation, production, and marketing of any new plant is a long process. This paper will not cover every detail of the process but will highlight some of the key points and expand them.

Debutante® Dahlias (Debutante® Dahlias is a Registered Trade Mark) is a new range of genetically dwarf, true double-flowered dahlias raised in New Zealand by Dr. Keith Hammett. They are classed as Miniature Decorative by the National Dahlia Society. In New Zealand they are known and raised under the name Baby Dahls. Dr. Hammett first began to collect, raise, and hybridise dahlias in the mid 1960s. He emigrated to New Zealand in 1967 where he worked as a plant pathologist for the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. In 1973 Dr. Hammett acquired a 10-acre property which he has since developed as a plant breeding operation actively working with a wide range of material including Lathyrus, Dahlia, Dianthus, Petunia, Clivia, Polyanthus, Chrysanthemum, and

Planning For Successful Plant Promotion

Author: Neil Robertson

PP: 219


In the last 6 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of large-scale coordinated plant promotions and these now account for 40% of Farplants' total sales. As the retail market becomes increasingly competitive garden centre buyers, who are already spoiled for choice, will become much more selective. Inferior promotions will quickly fall by the wayside but those which have been well planned will stand the test of time. As garden centre groups and multiples continue to expand, so too will the demands on their suppliers. Therefore, those growers who do not gear up to supply top quality, well-marketed plants in real volume and on time, will get left out in the cold.

Lessons from the Development and Launch of Cut Flower Chrysanthemums

Author: B.J. Machin

PP: 224


Between the two World Wars, the introduction of new cut flower cultivars was relatively simple, although grossly inefficient. Breeders had very small nurseries and existed by selling seedlings outright to leading commercial growers and by selling cuttings to amateur growers. The flower growers who bought these seedlings would discover that only a small percentage of them fulfilled the requirements of the commercial market and it took time to find the best cultivation techniques and to gain the confidence of the markets. However, once successful, most of the other growers would produce them and good cultivars (such as Dendranthema ‘Mayford Perfection’, ‘Friendly Rival’, and ‘American Beauty’) tended to last for years.

Intellectual Property Rights for Plant Raisers

Author: Peter Hillier

PP: 227


This paper will look at different forms of intellectual property, that is patents, designs, copyright, and trade marks. Particular attention will be given to trade marks, contrasting this form of protection with variety rights and varietal names. The information contained in this paper is based on U.K. practice, although customs and laws in other countries and states are much the same.

Patents relate to inventions, that is the way things work, as opposed to how they look. The typical cartoon showing a line of people queuing outside the Patent Office with contraptions they have invented is apocryphal but incorrect. The Patent Office only deals with written documents (though sometimes machinery is demonstrated to an examiner in order to persuade him or her of the merits of a particular invention). To gain a valid patent an invention has to be novel and non-obvious.

Generally you must file a patent before you disclose your invention to the public anywhere in the world.

Irrigation Setup and Reducing Water Use

Author: Chris Rolfe

PP: 53

To grow a quality plant in the shortest time in a given climate, the water and air content of the potting mix should be in balance and adequate fertiliser should be available throughout the crop cycle. Supplying the right amount of water at the right time to all plants in a production area is the key. This requires an irrigation system that applies water evenly and a control system that allows the required flexibility to match climatic and crop variations.

How does your system measure up? For fixed overhead sprinkler systems, which are still the most popular system in the industry, there are irrigation standards that you can calculate for each lock.

Your irrigation system should have:

  • Mean application rate — less than 15 mm per hour
  • Coefficient of uniformity of sprinklers — more than 85%
  • Scheduling coefficient of application — less than 1.5

What is the significance of these measurements? Well let’stake them one at a time. If you apply water at less than 15 mm h-1 then it is likely

The System of Plant Variety Rights in the European Union

Author: Sergio Semon

PP: 230

Plant breeders' rights are a form of intellectual property rights. In the past 2 years protection has been available throughout the European Union by a single application to the Community Plant Variety Office. Applications can be made for varieties of all botanical genera and species as long as the variety is new, distinct, uniform, and stable, and an acceptable denomination is proposed. Since its inception the Office has received more than 5400 applications from breeders all over the world, and granted in excess of 2250 titles. Within these, ornamental species make up more than 50% of applications, Rosa being the species most applied for; breeders from the Netherlands have submitted over twice as many applications as those from any other country.
The Importance of Labels in the Retail Plant Market

Author: Brian Pinker

PP: 234

Consumers are faced with a staggering array of products and services vying for their money. Sometimes they buy for a reason, sometimes on impulse. Your challenge, if you propagate plants for retail sale, is to ensure that when a consumer comes to make their buying decision, it is your plants that get bought rather than someone else's (or something else altogether).

Good labels helps producers to present plants so that they appeal to consumers, many of whom are thirsting for information and need to be convinced that the plant they're looking at is indeed one they should buy. A name label alone is simply not enough. Even a £10 camera comes with comprehensive instructions and advice for getting the best out of your purchase.

Labels can supply that reassurance with helpful care information, illustrating features, and benefits (such as flowers, fruits, or autumn colour not immediately obvious at the time of sale), and of course can include a brand, a guarantee, or an endorsement (such as the

Trends for Garden Centre Retail Promotion

Author: Chris Primett

PP: 235

The garden centre market in the U.K. has been going through a tough time during the 1990s. The total value of the garden market fell by 5% from 1990 to 1994. However, within this overall picture plants were one of the few sectors to hold their value. In 1996, the U.K. garden market was worth £2.8 billion of which plants accounted for £950 million at retail prices.

After a period of rapid growth during the 1980s, garden centre retailers have been facing the challenge of a static market. The response has been a marked increase in the number of acquisitions and buy-outs and the development of initiatives such as loyalty cards by retailers aiming to retain or increase their market share.

The trend towards market segmentation (Table 1), which started 20 years ago, has resulted in three well-defined types of outlet for garden plants (Table 2). Together these are responsible for about two-thirds of the retail market as a whole.

Specialist retailers such as plant nurseries, which are driven by

Finding New Plants - Their Development and Production

Author: Peter Catt

PP: 239

Having an interest in all plants, it's only natural to search out new ones. My nursery's reputation has been built on finding and introducing new plants both from home and abroad or reintroducing appealing plants largely out of cultivation.

Looking back over old catalogs, the first new plants I introduced to the U.K. were Cornus florida ‘Barton White’ and ‘Sweetwater’ and Pieris ‘Brouwers Beauty’. These were all from the U.S.A.

At the same time I introduced the first plants of my own: Potentilla fruticosa ‘Orangeade’, an upright form with bright orange-red flowers and P. fruticosa ‘Pretty Polly’, a pink that holds its color in the sun better than most.

In 1984, I introduced Spiraea japonica ‘Lisp’, Golden Princess™ spirea, a chance seedling found in a local garden, but thought to be a cross between S. japonica ‘Gold Flame’ and S. japonica ‘Little Princess’. This was shown at the Chelsea Flower Show by Blooms of Bressingham. This was the first plant I had protected by Plant Breeders Rights (PBR) that

Plants for Our Future: Collecting Plants Around the World

Author: Pierre Piroche

PP: 241

I have been interested in plant searches since the late 1950s. I traveled mainly in Asia then to Australia and Tasmania for close to 7 years before I finally settled in Canada.

Putting my life as a bum behind, it was a little while later in the late 1970s when I got the bug again to look for plants and over the years collected plants in many areas in South America, East Africa, several times in China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and lately in Laos.

I am a nurseryman, not a scientist; therefore, I look at plants more for their ornamental and medicinal value than for their scientific classification or other application.

Since I began traveling I have witnessed the mass destruction of flora throughout the world by deforestation and other means. We have lost countless plant species and countless other forms of life. We have lost many opportunities to gain knowledge. We have greatly impoverished our planet and are continuing to do so at an enormous rate.

One of the main purposes of Piroche Plants

Selection of Deciduous Tree Magnolias

Author: Paul Reimer

PP: 242


Magnolias are often called aristocrats among landscape plants. This is because of their lovely, large flowers and glossy leaves. The number of available hybrids has exploded in recent years. My talk will focus on selection in two specific areas of deciduous magnolias, what I call the "tree magnolias" and the "yellow flowering" magnolias.

Hardy New Plants for Northern Gardens

Author: Wilbert G. Ronald

PP: 246


It is a privilege to speak to you today about developing new plants for northern gardens. My talk today will cover plants hardy in Zone 4 and colder regions. Since so much of the stock grown in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia is shipped to colder eastern zones it is important that you propagate hardy cultivars on hardy rootstocks. For over 30 years I have worked with these northern plant materials and those experiences have given me an appreciation for plant breeders who have made dramatic strides over the past 30 years. For example, there were only one or two large shade tree cultivars available for colder zones when I entered the field. Clonal propagation was very limited outside of flowering crabapples and possibly a few elms. Today there are 20 to 30 available shade trees for Zones 2 and 3. Now if we hear a complaint it is that we have too many cultivars for the limited market available.

As a plant breeder and nurserymen you first need to know that if you



PP: 250

HANNAH MATHERS: In the tree fruit area, rootstocks have been heavily studied. Do you think we have spent enough time studying rootstocks in ornamentals?

WILBERT RONALD: Rootstocks need to be a focus for future studies and more needs to be done. Problems, such as chlorosis resistance, need attention.

ANONYMOUS: Are you doing any work with summer-blooming magnolias?

PAUL REIMER: Most of our work has been done on the spring-flowering ones. However, we are doing some work with Magnolia sieboldii.

ANONYMOUS: What was the name of the silver dogwood?

WILBERT RONALD: ‘Ivory Halo’. It is patented in the U.S. and registered through C.O.P.F. Plants in Canada and it's in Europe as well.

Collection, Propagation, and Use of Native Plants

Author: Paulus Vrijmoed

PP: 251


Before we begin let us decide what we mean by native plants for the purpose of this presentation. By native plants we mean plants found growing naturally in a certain area. They include native perennials, shrubs, and trees. These are the plants present in that area before other plants were introduced, intentionally or unintentionally, from elsewhere. These native plants evolved in their natural habitat over time and they can be assumed to be the most optimum plants for the sites where they are found. Along with the plants evolving in their particular area other life forms have evolved with them, such as mammals, birds, and insects, as well as more primitive life forms, including fungi and soil organisms which, together with nonliving elements, form complex ecosystems.

Native plants have an important role to play in maintaining the diversity of ecosystems in the less disturbed outlying areas where forestry and agriculture dominate, as well as in the urban areas. In

Growing Functional Nitrogen-Fixing Native Trees and Shrubs for Land Reclamation in British Columbia

Author: Carol E. Jones

PP: 257

Native actinorhizal trees and shrubs have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil nitrogen concentrations. This is of particular value for the reclamation of low nutrient mine wastes. Nursery studies were conducted to assess practical methods for inoculating Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata, Elaeagnus commutata, and Shepherdia canadensis seedlings with appropriate strains of Frankia bacteria. Results indicated that application of a liquid inoculum achieved good success. An additional application method using Mikro-Beads™ is also discussed.
Experiences With Drip Irrigation

Author: Gary Eyles

PP: 58

In the early 1980s we decided to change our nursery from a field growing to a container growing nursery. One of the decisions we had to make was what style of irrigation to use. Some of the factors affecting this decision were:
  1. The amount of available water. One dam and the town water supply. The dam was not enough for our needs and the town supply too expensive for overhead irrigation.
  2. Plants are generously spaced making overhead watering very wasteful.
  3. A system of rows and blocks of plants made a drip system easy to design.
  4. The length of time plants remained in one position was a minimum of 18 months.
  5. Use of a large polybag container suited the use of drippers.
  6. Although it was much more costly to install drip irrigation, it meant that water was not a limiting factor.

One block was set up as a trial simply connected to the town water and manually turned on and off. This worked well apart from, as you would expect, the manual on/ off. An automatic controller was

Mycorrhizal Inoculation of California Native Plants in Containers

Author: Mike Evans

PP: 260

At Tree of Life Nursery, we grow California native plants for ecological restoration, revegetation, and authentic early California landscaping. Our plants need to stand up to the rigors of the harsh, dry planting sites typical of southern California. More important than the rate of growth in the nursery are the sturdiness, vigor, health, and self-sustaining capabilities of the plants when they leave the nursery. For this reason, we began looking seriously at mycorrhizae approximately 12 years ago.

From our experience, the first step the nursery should take if interested in mycorrhizae is to seek the services of an expert in the field. We learned early that our expertise in propagation is completely different from the expertise required to produce healthy inoculum and maintain a program for making plants mycorrhizal. The expert at Tree of Life Nursery is Dr. Ted St. John, who has been on staff for about 10 years.

After experimenting with methods of inoculum production, we determined

"Collection and Use of Native Plants in the Landscape" Question-Answer Period


PP: 261

KATHY ECHOLS: Are you marketing the products you are currently using?

MIKE EVANS: Yes. It is labelled in California as a soil conditioner with the name VAM80.

LAINE MCLAUGHLIN: Do we have reason to think that this same fungus will work up here in the northwest or will we have to start from scratch?

MIKE EVANS: That's a good question; will it work here. Bob Linderman at Oregon State is one of the premiere researchers in the world and we've been in contact with him. We're working on some strains of Glomus that will tolerate acid soils, but G. interadices has not been very promising under acid conditions. It grows best in the pH 6.5 range and even slightly alkaline soils.

HANK BROKAW: I would like to know if you find different concentrations of the mycorrhizae with different depths in your 15-gal containers? If so, to what do you attribute that?

MIKE EVANS: Yes, we do find different concentrations. We discard the entire top (3 inches of medium) simply because there are not many roots there

Don't Let the Well Run Dry: Water Conservation Practices for Container Nurseries

Author: Richard Regan

PP: 262


Plant nurseries are looking for ways to help conserve water and solve environmental concerns regarding water quality and runoff. In addition, water costs are increasing and water use regulations are more restrictive. Managers must determine which irrigation systems and production methods best fit their nursery. First, consider the basic practices that have been shown to conserve water and reduce runoff (Kabashima, 1993). These practices are based on improved irrigation systems, irrigation scheduling, and using tail-water return systems. Secondary consideration should be given to plant water use, water application, and the plant environment. Usually, these methods are effective in conserving water only after implementing the previous practices.

Water Recycling at Byland's Nurseries: An Extensive Water Catchment and Recycling System

Author: John Byland

PP: 266

Twenty-five minutes is not a long time to talk about water recycling so I will endeavor to give you a brief overview as to what we have done at Bylands Nurseries to solve our water runoff problems. Byland's Nurseries is a diversified wholesale nursery located in British Columbia's Okanagan Valley. We are classified as a Zone 5 or 6 depending on location and proximity to Lake Okanagan which has a significant moderating influence on our climate. The climate is semi-desert with many years only receiving 12 to 15 inches of rainfall or snowfall equivalent. Like many nurseries we were a field grower that converted to container-grown plants to fulfill a demand from our customers, and like many growers we started growing container plants on a very small scale.

Container plants require large amounts of water when compared to field-grown plants and, of course, the disposal of this water can be a huge problem. On a hot summer day up to 1 inch of water is applied daily on our container plants. On

Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Nursery and Greenhouse Runoff

Author: Ward Prystay

PP: 268

Nutrients, copper, and biocides contained in runoff from nursery and greenhouse operations pose a risk to the receiving waters and groundwater drinking supplies. Due to the concentration of these compounds in the wastewater, nursery effluents can be classified as an agricultural waste and the direct disposal of these effluents to the environment is an offence under the federal Fisheries Act and the provincial Waste Management Act. Under correct circumstances, wetlands specifically designed and constructed for water treatment can offer a cost effective, low maintenance water treatment alternative to the nursery and greenhouse industries.
"Nursery Water Issues" Question-Answer Period


PP: 273

ROBERT APPLETON: I presume you're using gravel or sand in your construction. Would there be any benefit in adding a bark base to increase the amount of carbon?

WARD PRYSTAY: Yes. We chose to use the gravel as a control in the experiment. We didn't want to have either system influenced by the presence/absence of gravels or the presence/absence of an organic soil. Subsurface-flow wetlands have to be designed with an extremely porous medium to allow flow of accumulated debris or solids within the system. For low-carbon wastewaters like nursery or greenhouse effluents, having a organic soil would be beneficial.

BRUCE BRIGGS: It's been observed in the past that the waves of rippling water was more effective than recycling with a pump. Have you observed this?

JOHN BYLAND: No. We felt that using aerators or splashers was such an easy solution that could be done quickly.

JIM CONNER: I'm using secondary effluent water right now from a wetlands area. The wetlands, of course, are removing nitrogen

Size-controlling Fruit-tree Rootstock Production: Methods Used at Traas Nursery

Author: John Traas

PP: 274


At Traas Nursery our primary product is dwarfing and semidwarfing fruit-tree rootstock. We currently raise 12 different cultivars of Malus for apple rootstock, Prunus avium F12/1 for cherry rootstock, Cydonia A (often called Quince A) for pear rootstock, and Prunus insititia Saint Julien A for plum and large stone fruit such as peaches and nectarines. The range of size control available in our Malus line varies from approximately 25% to 80% of standard. All our stock is vegetatively produced from clonal selections, either by mound-layering, stooling, or hardwood cuttings. No seedling stock is raised at all. The advantages of clonal production as opposed to seedling production is well known. Uniformity is critical when planning new orchards of high density plantings. With some plantings as high as 3500 trees to the acre, there is no place for trees that do not develop to a uniform size, particularly if they grow larger than anticipated. Our main markets are nurseries that

Sanitation for Clean Liner Production

Author: Bill Smith

PP: 277


Briggs Nursery produces 7 million plantlets from tissue culture on an annual basis. At any given time 2 to 4 million plants are either in rooting or in a production phase.

At Briggs Nursery plants are always being sold or moved and by utilizing facilities and personnel on a year-round basis the empty houses are continuously being refilled.

The threat or potential for diseases, weeds, liverwort, and/or mosses is always present. Some of the disease organisms that are a concern are: Botrytis, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocladium, Phytophthora, Theiophis, powdery mildew, downy mildew, rusts, leaf spots, and mushrooms.

Where disease organisms originate, how they spread, and what causes flare-ups remains a mystery. The nursery has used consultants and research people to help pinpoint sources of contamination. Their recommendation is always the same: maintain cleanliness and use good water management.

The ABCs of Propagating Herbaceous Perennials by Stem Cuttings, Root Cuttings, and Division

Author: David J. Beattie

PP: 279

Propagating herbaceous perennials is very similar to propagating woody plants. Methods such as cuttings and tissue culture are used and the same environmental factors influence propagation: temperature, photoperiod, light, and humidity. However, there are some important differences. For instance, while the perennial propagator uses some mist propagation, cuttings usually root faster, so are often placed in poly tents, covered with Remay, or simply syringed periodically. Probably the biggest differences in asexual propagation are: today, few herbaceous perennials are grafted, with the exception of tree peonies; herbaceous perennials require little or no rooting hormone; and many perennials are divided while very few woody plants are propagated by this method.

With experience, the perennial propagator becomes aware of some of the keys to successful propagation. This involves an intimate knowledge of each taxon, a daunting task with the thousands of different plants that a large nursery

Propagation of Magnolias: Rooting Techniques, Post-Rooting Care, and Overwintering of Rooted Cuttings

Author: Alexander Howkins

PP: 282

Magnolia species and cultivars of Magnolia acuminata, M. denudata, M. kobus, M. liliiflora, M. ×loebneri, and M. ×soulangiana comprise an important sector of both retail and landscape contract sales for Specimen Trees Wholesale Nurseries Ltd.

Specimen Trees Wholesale Nurseries Ltd. is located in Pitt Meadows, a part of the greater Vancouver area in southwestern British Columbia. The nursery is comprised of 480 acres, 16 acres in container, 6 acres under poly greenhouse, and a 9000-unit pot-in-pot system.

We produce four species and 13 cultivars of magnolias (see List A). Approximately 2000 units of each magnolia taxa are produced in rooted plugs, #2 pot, or #15 pot. Field-grown stock is grown from 1.25 in to 3.5 m in size.

The greatest hurdle we have overcome over the past 8 years, is the successful propagation of magnolias from cuttings, making them a viable crop for our business. Magnolia cuttings are readily rooted, however, the overwintering of the cutting has proven most

Pre-Treatment of Bulk Samples of Certain Eucalyptus Species to Enhance Germination

Author: David 0. Cliffe

PP: 60

Increases in germination percentages were achieved when seeds of several Eucalyptus species were subjected to a pregermination treatment and then separated in sugar solutions. In one species, E. pilularis Smith, an increase in germination percentage of 29% was achieved.
"Liner Propagation and Production" Question-Answer Period


PP: 285

PETER CATT: Can you help with the problem we've seen with the strength of the fertilizer solution on newly magnolia cuttings?

SANDY HOWKINS: We leave the rooted cutting in the plug until it has started vegetative growth. One of the reasons we feed it is so the root system does get used to a salt-based fertilizer. When you transplant the cutting still in the peat plug into a container medium containing 10 lb of fertilizer per yard, the plant is protected somewhat by that peat plug.

LAINE MCLAUGHLIN: Do the peat pots come with hoes poked into them?


ANONYMOUS: Can you use the same procedures for evergreen magnolias?

SANDY HOWKINS: Yes, you can. The only difference is that we do cut the leaves and we only take off the top 1/3 and the cutting has 5 or 6 nodes.

Seedling Propagation of Four New Zealand Podocarpus Species

Author: Robert Appleton

PP: 285


New Zealand (N.Z.) forests have suffered a systematic destruction of the forest cover from the time of settlement 4000 years ago that was only accelerated by colonization 150 years ago.

This destruction, particularly of coastal and lowland forests on more accessible sites was principally for timber and clearing for agricultural production. This has ceased in recent years with a ban on all indigenous logging except from certified sustainably managed forests. Fortunately, extensive areas have been set aside in national parks, national forests, and reserves. Of the 6 million ha, 1 million ha remaining is privately owned. However, the publicly protected lands are not fully representative of the whole range of N.Z. landscapes, natural areas, and ecosystems. Some of the under-represented areas are the estuaries, freshwater wetlands, scrublands, tussock grasslands, and lowland forests.

In recent years, conservation has become of much wider interest to the public in general and many

Quality Assurance to the Customer of Pot-Grown Liners

Author: David Hutchinson

PP: 290


The propagation, growing, and marketing of plants for garden and environmental planting have seen many changes. The customer is tempted to purchase plants with eye-catching sales promotion displays and makes that vital purchase on impulse and not necessarily by experience. The garden plant buyers and managers, many of whom have trained and been recruited from the food and retail side of the large corporate businesses, are familiar with quality management systems. They demand complete assurance that the supplier provide on a set date a specific quality plant.

These trends are set to continue which in turn presents the propagator, the nursery grower, and the supplier with new challenges and standards in order to be successful in supplying the market.

A small group met in December 1994 to develop a system to demonstrate their commitment to supplying the customer with consistent quality and service. The group of five primary liner growers formed the

Propagation of Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) from in Vitro Plants Derived from Shoot Tips

Author: T. Yamamoto, T. Tomiyama, R. Watanabe, Y. Shibusawa

PP: 295

We reported already the propagation of crape myrtle by culturing nodal explants from in vitro seedlings. However, it is more desirable for clonal propagation to obtain regenerants using an explant from a greenhouse-grown plant. From that point of view, we studied propagation of crape myrtle using shoot tips of a dwarf type of plant grown in pots. At first, donor plants were produced by culturing shoot tips on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Nodal segments and shoot tips excised from the in vitro plants were used as explants. The axillary buds were easily induced from the meristems of nodes on the MS medium without hormones. The combinations of hormones, such as benzyladenine (BA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and gibberellic acid (GA3) had little promotive effect on the induction of axillary buds. The multiplication of shoots occurred through two types of organogenesis, one is branching by enhanced induction of axillary buds from the shoot and the other is formation of
"Propagation in Other Parts of the World" Question-Answer Period

Author: Unknown

PP: 296

DICK BIR: Could you speculate on the hardiness of the Podocarpus you showed?

ROBERT APPLETON: My particular covenant is at about 200 m. There is an alpine species that goes right to the bush line. We could easily find Podocarpus that would go right to the bush line. I don't know what zone that is, but it is pretty northern. You would be talking about a frost period for every month of the year. One of the advantages for that type of plant is that it is very small and would have a great deal of ornamental value in gardens.

ARDA BERRYHILL: David, how do you, as an extension officer, fit into that scheme and is it open entry?

DAVID HUTCHINSON: I fit in by helping each nursery get a program focused on the business side of doing the code of practice. That is, get the staff together and go through the training programs to see that they can meet their commitment. I do that on a contractual basis with each company. I do not do the actual inspections; that's left to a third party.


Pre-chilling and Gibberellic Acid Improve Seed Germination in Lewisia Species and Meconopsis betonicifolia

Author: Christia M. Roberts, Sonya Baptista, Kirsten Brandt, Gerald B. S

PP: 297

Germination of naked embryos in Lewisia tweedyi was almost 90% within 4 weeks of decoating, suggesting that the species has a seed-coat-imposed dormancy. Maximum germination of whole seeds after 32 weeks under axenic conditions was 66.7% in L. tweedyi and 87.8% in L. cotyledon. Moist prechilling in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments improved germination in L. cotyledon and Meconopsis betonicifolia. Low percent germination over extended periods of time limits the commercial production of L. tweedyi.
Propagation and Production of Arbutus menziesii

Author: Dave Adamson

PP: 302

Arbutus menziesii is one of the most distinguishing features of the British Columbia (B.C.) inner south-coast landscape. These majestic trees characteristically grow on exposed rocky cliffs overlooking the sea, but will also thrive on well-drained wooded inland slopes. Their individual unique shapes amaze and attract even the most casual observer. Long limbs extending out over the water, often appear to defy the laws of gravity. Their branches, short, twisted, or crooked create very interesting, even exotic shapes. In striking contrast, they can also be very short and symmetrical, as if meticulously pruned. In B.C. they are typically associated with garry oak (Quercus garryana) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).

One of the most interesting characteristics of the tree is its shedding, paper-like bark, revealing a smooth and satiny, olive to reddish-brown trunk.

The range of the tree extends north to approximately 50°N latitude (200 km north of Vancouver, B.C.) and as far

The Role of Copper-based Root Control Treatments in Closed Subirrigation Systems

Author: Ross G. Hall, J.K. Mayotte, D. Thornby

PP: 304

Closed subirrigation systems offer the potential of water and nutrient savings along with increased growth rates and no polluting runoff. The use of a copper-based root control chemical on weed matting over capillary matting, as well as on the inside of pots, can prevent root penetration into the capillary matting and improve root development without having any adverse effects on growth rates.
"Seed Propagation" Question-Answer Period


PP: 310

DAVE HANNINGS: What is the final recommendation for germinating the Lewisia cotyledons?

CHRISTIA ROBERTS: You need high-quality seeds. Soak them in 10 mM GA solution for 24 h. Sow them into plugs. Pre-chill them at 0 to 5C for 4 weeks. Germinate them in a greenhouse kept at 15 to 18C and expect 85% germination.

BRUCE BRIGGS: We've noticed that seeds sown in vitro tend to have slower shoot growth than those germinated the conventional way. Have you seen this?

CHRISTIA ROBERTS: I didn't compare outside versus axenic germination. I germinated all my seeds axenically to observe germination without any disease or rotting and I was looking for a consistent source of high-quality explants for tissue culture studies.

MARTIN GRANTHAM: I know that cytokinins can be of use in getting seeds to germinate under suboptimal conditions given that any dormancy had been satisfied and I wondered whether you tried them with the Meconopsis.

CHRISTIA ROBERTS: I did not try it. I would stay with the use of

New and Unusual Plants

Author: Ken Brown

PP: 311

Pulmonaria ‘Victoria Brooch’ PPAF

COMMON NAME: Victorian brooch lungwort

ORIGIN: Pulmonaria vallarsae ‘Margery Fish’ × P. rubra ‘Barfeld Pink’. The name came from the berry-colored large blooms with ruby-red calyces on the silver background. The clustering and colors give mind to a Victorian brooch.

HARDINESS: U.S.D.A. Zones 4 to 9.

HABIT AND GROWTH RATE: ‘Victorian Brooch’ produces a low (9 inch) mound of numerous, highly silvered leaves with a unique undulating margin derived from its P. rubra heritage. Flowers very early.

ORNAMENTAL FEATURES: ‘Victorian Brooch’ incorporates the best traits from its parents: From ‘Margery Fish’, ‘Victorian Brooch’ inherited silvered leaves and a strong, though compact growing habit; from P. rubra, ‘Victorian Brooch’ inherited a unique flower color not seen before in Pulmonaria. Bloom period in Oregon was nearly 2½ months long!

CULTURE: Most Pulmonaria are drought and shade tolerant. Lusher conditions produce lusher plants and can open the way for mildew problems.

Propagation of the Tree Waratah, Alloxylon flammeum P. H. Weston and Crisp

Author: Nerida J. Donovan, Catherine A. Offord, Joanne L. Tyler

PP: 63

Alloxylon flammeum P. Weston and Crisp (family Proteaceae) is a native Australian rain forest plant which is classified as a rare and threatened species (Briggs and Leigh, 1996). It is not widely cultivated, but has attracted the interest of the cut flower industry and may also be a good rootstock for the more sensitive A. pinnatum. Both are showy flowering trees with large spectacular flowers ranging in colour from pink to red. There is limited published material on Alloxylon species and little is known with regards to their propagation. There is also a lack of availability of propagation material which prevents commercial production and makes research difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the best procedures for the propagation of A. flammeum.

Alloxylon flammeum, also known as a tree waratah, is closely related to the NSW waratah (Telopea speciosissima R. Br.). The primary horticultural use of waratah is for cut flower production, with blooms being highly

Large-Scale Production of Osteospermum: Ten Years of Development Effort

Author: Bjarne N. Larsen

PP: 317


In 1980 we began to grow Osteospermum using a pink and a white cultivar obtained from another nursery where they had been grown without success. Our production was until 1985 based on these two cultivars. During this time we often bad a large percentage of dead plants during the propagation and production phases. Propagation occurred by cuttings which were planted directly in the sales pot with one cutting per pot. After approximately 14 days the cuttings had formed roots and the acclimatization could be started. A weak root system, especially in the pink cultivar, resulted in sales problems and we had many complaints. Despite warnings from the sales organization we considered, however, that Osteospermum had the potential to become a success.

In 1985 we collected the cultivars available in English nurseries and gardens in order to test their production potentials. These plants were of very variable quality and became the basis of our first breeding attempts.

Leaf Abscission of Cuttings

Author: Bjarke Veierskov, Merethe J. Petersen

PP: 319


Leaves supply cuttings with necessary carbohydrates for the life processes. Leaves are also important for supplying the cuttings with hormones needed for root formation. Leaf abscission or leaf drop will, therefore, make it difficult for cuttings to undergo changes necessary for the development of a new root system. It is, therefore, of great interest to obtain increased knowledge of factors which may initiate unwanted leaf drop.

Leaf drop which occurs in the fall is initiated by a decreased flow of auxin out of the leaf. The decreased auxin level initiates synthesis of ethylene in the nodal region, and this ethylene activates enzymes that degrades the cell wall at the base of the petiole and subsequent leaf drop. The increased ethylene level also initiates senescence of the leaf which enables the plant to mobilize all the nutrients present in the leaf before the leaf falls off. The validity of this has been shown, not only by measurements of auxin and ethylene

Relationships between Stockplant Management and Rooting Environments for Difficult-to-Propagate Cuttings

Author: Brian H. Howard, Richard Harrison-Murray

PP: 322

Syringa vulgaris ‘Madame Lemoine’ is difficult to root from leafy softwood cuttings and, at best, can be propagated during a brief period in early summer just before the end of rapid shoot growth. Stockplants must be pruned severely during the previous late winter, and growing shoots in the dark for 2 weeks after budburst improves subsequent rooting compared to normal light-grown cuttings, by reducing stem thickness without reducing leaf area. This treatment appears to increase the carbohydrates available for rooting by reducing the amount needed for stem respiration. The environmental requirements for rooting these cuttings, which are of the same cultivar but differ in their rooting potential, were investigated by setting up gradients of light and wetting perpendicular to one another to give 16 combinations. Dark-preconditioned cuttings in high light had the highest survival rate when wetting was sufficiently generous to prevent wilting. In heavy shade they rotted in greater numbers, and more extensively, than other cuttings. Survival rates determined rooting, with the highest rooting levels produced by dark-preconditioned cuttings in the high light/high wetting zones, and least rooting when they were propagated at the lowest light level. Normal, light-grown cuttings failed to exploit the high light conditions as well as the dark-preconditioned ones, but they survived and rooted relatively better in the low light conditions. There is a general benefit from selecting relatively thin-stemmed cuttings of difficult-to-propagate taxa from any source and rooting them in 20% to 25% available light with generous wetting.
Bud-Grafting Difficult Field-Grown Trees

Author: Brian H. Howard, Wendy Oakley

PP: 328

Despite the widespread use of chip-budding, which enables faster and more complete union formation between rootstock and scion compared to traditional T-budding, there are various ornamental trees for which bud-take in the field remains unreliable and inconsistent among years and in different nurseries. Generally, the chance of success was increased by completing budding by early August, and by ensuring that rootstocks were growing vigorously during the budding period to ensure maximum cambial activity. Chip-buds of Acer platanoides ‘Crimson King’ are prone to dying before unions have formed, and experiments suggested that a root-derived factor is important in maintaining the viability of the scion during the slow union-forming process. Bud-take was correlated closely with the extent of root growth, and was depressed severely if root growth was restricted. It was necessary to avoid physical damage to the large buds of Betula pendula ‘Dalecarlica’ which was caused by pressure from the rootstocks stem as it swelled within the budding tie. Degradable rubber ties which did not cove the actual bud were preferred. On the other hand, the use of polyethylene tape to cover the small buds of Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’ provided adequate pressure to ensure the differentiation of tissues in the rapidly developing callus, which otherwise enveloped the scion-chip without forming a union.
Increasing Number of Adventitious Roots Accelerates Axillary Bud Growth in Cuttings

Author: Jürgen Hansen, Niels Bredmose

PP: 334

The promotive effect of an increasing number of roots per cutting on onset of axillary bud growth, stem growth, or number of leaves can be explained by phase controlled synthesis and transport of growth regulators. The production of cytokinin in adventitious roots is suggested to be proportional to the number of adventitious roots. This may increase the content of cytokinin in the axillary buds resulting in accelerated onset of bud growth.
Timing Methods Used in Propagation Practices

Author: Jerol W. Jones

PP: 338


Midwest Groundcovers is a wholesale plant nursery that grows and sells landscape plants to customers in the Chicagoland area as well as the entire midwest region of the United States. We have nurseries near St. Charles, Illinois and Glenn, Michigan consisting of approximately 320 acres of land, 2000 hoop houses, and 70 heated greenhouses. The St. Charles nursery is primarily container production and the Glenn Farm nursery is primarily field production of groundcovers and perennials. Over 500 taxa of plants are produced for sale in container sizes ranging from 2-inch flats to 5-gal pots. These crops include groundcovers, shrubs, evergreens, roses, perennials, grasses, and vines. The 1997 production schedule included 15 million cuttings, 6.5 million plants in flats, and 2.5 million plants in pots. Space for producing container material at St. Charles has been pretty much entirely developed. At Glenn Farm, production space for both the container crops and field

Applied Grafting in the Production of Ornamental Trees

Author: Joel Klerk

PP: 341


The firm started in Spring 1980 as a part-time nursery on a rented area, without starting capital. Today we produce about 20,000 shade and ornamental trees and about 10,000 lilacs. We employ 4 to 5 persons all year round. It has from the start been our goal to produce trees of high quality with due respect to the environment.

Growing Pot Plants with Reduced Phosphorus can Improve Root Structure and Avoid Drought Stress

Author: Kristian Borch

PP: 342


To increase consumer satisfaction, growers have to produce high-quality plants which are compact, stress tolerant, and free from diseases. This often does not harmonize with growers attempts to keep the production period as short as possible by growing bedding plants with optimum light, temperature, and a surplus of fertilizer to maximize growth rate. Such conditions often produce plants with elongated, lush shoots. However, this is at the expense of root development, and in turn poor stress tolerance. Therefore, it is recommended that before shipping growers harden their plants by giving a short period of lower temperature and reduced fertilizer and water at the end of the production cycle (Serek, 1990). This practice encourages root growth at the expense of shoot growth and is advantageous because plants with well developed root systems which exploit the medium uniformly and with room for further growth are best at withstanding the fluctuations in soil moisture

Supplementary Lighting to Stock Plants and Cuttings of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln.

Author: Kåre Willumsen

PP: 345

Stock plants and cuttings of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ‘Goldstrike’ and ‘Charme’ were subjected to different levels of supplementary lighting during cultivation in a greenhouse at low levels of natural light. The effects on yield and quality of cuttings, and on rooting and growth of the cuttings were studied. Based on increases in number of cuttings, fresh weight, dry weight, and dry matter content of the cuttings, a doubling of the supplementary light level to the stock plants from 73 to 146 umol m-2 s-1 was beneficial. The formation of roots in the cuttings was delayed by a doubling of the supplementary light level to the stock plants, while growth increment of the cuttings was unaffected by this treatment. Increasing levels of supplementary lighting during propagation strongly promoted rooting, growth increment, and quality of the cuttings, irrespective of stock plant lighting. The growth performance of the cuttings was modified by natural light conditions during propagation. From a practical viewpoint, these results indicate that 30% to 50% more cuttings could be harvested from stock plants of K. blossfeldiana by a doubling of the currently used level of supplementary lighting during cultivation. Subsequent growth of the cuttings is mainly influenced by the level of supplementary lighting during propagation.
Somatic Embryogenesis in Monocotyledonous Plants, State of the Art and Perspectives

Author: Karen Koefoed Petersen

PP: 353


A whole range of important agricultural and horticultural species are monocotyledonous plants. These include food, forage, industrial, and ornamental crops (Table 1). Somatic embryogenesis is possible in many monocotyledonous species, but with more or less success. Although our knowledge since 1958, when somatic embryogenesis was first reported, has increased considerably concerning the factors controlling initiation, development, maturation, and germination of somatic embryos, it is still far from routine in most plant species.