Volume 45

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The Influence of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment on the Rooting of an Australian Ornamental Plant

Author: B.R. Loveys, W.J.S. Downton, H.M. Fan

PP: 41


Factors which affect the capability of cuttings to form roots are of great interest to plant propagators and nursery people since a significant proportion of ornamental plants are propagated this way. Plant physiologists also find the events leading to the formation of adventitious roots of interest as there is considerable evidence that the process is under hormonal control. The dramatic effects on root formation of application of synthetic auxins may be taken as evidence for the involvement of naturally occurring auxins in root initiation and development. However, attempts to relate changes in endogenous auxins in cuttings to their ability to form roots has not produced a clear picture and have been summarised by Gasper and Hofinger (1988). For example, Wu and Barnes (1981) found that there was no difference in the endogenous auxin content of two Rhododendron cultivars, one of which was difficult to root and the other easy. Tréfois and Brunner (1982) showed that there

Practical Experience with Total Quality Management

Author: Howard Bentley

PP: 72


This paper does not claim to be a "how to" guide in the preparation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) system, but aims to give an insight into the basic guidelines that must be followed when embarking on TQM. The process is still in its infancy at Plant Growers Australia (PGA) and from our experiences I will attempt to recount the processes and problems encountered to date.

There is growing world-wide recognition of the importance of the relationship between quality, productivity, and competitiveness. TQM can improve all three of these key business areas. TQM was first instigated in the USA but has been further refined and developed in Japan over the last four decades. Companies in Australia and the U.S.A. have been slow to take up this management approach but the process is now starting to gain momentum. According to business experts, TQM will be a requirement of all businesses that wish to remain competitive both in Australia and internationally.

The main objectives of

Horticultural Use of the Genetic Variation of New Zealand and Australian Teatrees

Author: Warwick Harris

PP: 376


The name teatree comes from the use of these plants for making a herbal tea by Captain Cook in his voyages to New Zealand beginning in 1769. This use was part of Cook's strategy to overcome scurvy, one of the curses of long distance sea travel in those days. The botanist on Cook's first voyage, Daniel Solander, identified two species of teatree which he ascribed to the genus Philadelphus. Seeds of these were taken back to England and by 1778 four kinds of New Zealand Philadelphus were being offered for sale by an English nurseryman (Brooker et al., 1988). These plants fetched a price of 7s 6d (75¢) each, which, on the basis of the inflation that has occurred since that time, must have been an astronomical price! One of these was named P. aromaticus, and the essential oils that give this aromatic character have been recently developed as new products in New Zealand and are reputed to have significant pharmacological properties.

On Cook's next voyage in 1773, the

Blue Mountain Azaleas

Author: Denis Hughes

PP: 384

Blue Mountain Nurseries was established by my father Stanley Hughes in 1932. His interests were strongly associated with the growing of plants beginning with quick crops, such as vegetables and bedding plants. With his primary interests being ornamental plants, it was not long before perennials, bulbs, cut flowers, and floristry became an appreciable part of his business. The war years saw vegetables returning to the forefront of his endeavours and elite plants were always kept to produce seeds for the following crops or for dividing and naming.

Examples of these were:

  • Winter and spring harvesting cauliflowers.
  • Psylliostachys suworowii—red form. This form does not seem to be available now.
  • Helichrysum bracteatum—pastel pink forms. This has become common in seed lists.
  • Polyanthus "Pacific Strain"—a selected seed strain with a wide mixed colour blend.
Learning To Identify Plants

Author: Bronwyn Nichols

PP: 387

I am currently teaching a group of students to identify plants. I begin by teaching the "easy" plants, then move on to plant genera that have less obvious features. The first signs of confusion come when they are shown the two species of native Fuchsia. How can F. excorticata, a small tree with pale stringy bark be related in any way to the small-leaved ground creeper F. procumbens? It is not until these plants flower that the students can see why.

One group of plants that is of particular interest to learn to identify is deciduous trees. When in a deciduous state, one tree looks much the same as another, but even when in this state each genus has very distinctive characteristics. These include differences in bud size and shape, stem colour, branch patterns, leaf arrangement, and bark colour and texture. For example, Fagus spp. have long slender pointed buds, Aesculus spp. have large sticky buds, the bark of Platanus spp. comes off in big flakes, the buds of Acer spp. are always in

Sphagnum Moss Production: Experience from Environmental Room Trials to Compare Growth of Two Species of Sphagnum Moss

Author: P.E. Smale, M.A. Nelson, P.A. Alspach, E.A. Halligan

PP: 389


Sphagnum moss is one of the world's most common plants with an almost universal distribution in lands where water is abundant. It grows under conditions of extremely low nutrition and has been used in the monitoring of both atmospheric and water pollution (Clymo, 1987; Wegener et al., 1992).

In the recent past its major use has been in the nursery industry for orchid production, fine-seed germination, and the transport of bare-root seedlings (Blain et al., 1987). This utilises the moss's ability to hold approximately 20 times its dry weight in water.

More recent uses include surgical dressings, sanitary pads, disposable napkins, bedding and stable litter, and as a packaging material. Each of these utilise this unique water-holding capacity.

The current New Zealand export value is approximately $18 million mainly to Japan, Taiwan, and Korea for use in their orchid industries.

Although a number of species grow and flourish in New Zealand, the market utilises mainly Sphagnum

Threatened Species and Their Recovery: The Challenges or the Art of Intelligent Tinkering

Author: David R. Given

PP: 393

Perhaps I can best start by telling three stories of rare and endangered plants— three stories which embody parabolic truth.

The first concerns the most fascinating plant which I have ever had the privilege of studying. The Royal Horticultural Society bestows its merit awards on those plants which are outstanding species for garden culture. If ever the Society awards a wooden spoon I have the ideal candidate—Helichrysum dimorphum.

Discovered by Leonard Cockayne in the early part of this century, with further discovery of populations by Arnold Wall, H. dimorphum has only ever been found in the middle part of the Waimakariri Basin where it occurs in the rainshadow region between the alps and the front ranges. Even here it grows in only a few sites. By the 1970s only two reasonable-sized populations remained.

This Helichrysum is our only lianoid or scrambling member of the genus. Its grey colour and thin wiry stems make it difficult to see. It makes use of matagouri as a scaffold

A Review of Factors Affecting the Establishment of Magnolias in New Zealand

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Roy A. Edwards, Mervyn I. Spurway

PP: 396


It was noticed that several grafted plants within the Lincoln University magnolia collection had performed poorly or died. It was decided to examine the possible reasons for this and to evaluate other plantings with the objective of explaining why these problems of establishment have occurred, so that recommendations can be made to help improve the success in establishing magnolias in the future.

Alternative Pest Management At The Christchurch Botanic Gardens

Author: Andrew Hodge

PP: 403


In 1993 the Christchurch Botanic Gardens nursery and conservatory staff recognised a need to change from their traditional chemical "cocktail" approach of pest and disease prevention to an alternative system.

This change was brought about through concerns for staff and public safety, increasing environmental concerns related to using synthetic chemicals, restrictive health regulations, escalating chemical costs, increasing pest resistance, and the better availability of "how to" information for using alternative systems.

Direct Cover, Economical Control

Author: Brian W. Frost

PP: 405

Direct cover is economical because cost efficiency is all important and it is control because that is what we seek to do with water to keep unrooted cuttings turgid. Direct cover brings these two aspects together successfully for many greenhouse crops. A typical propagation unit is to a nursery, what the kitchen is to a home, full of expensive equipment but vital to the well being of its operators. To contain costs the unit often proves to be a bit small at peak production times. Direct cover enables us to spread the borders of propagation.
The Propagation of Hydrangea paniculata with the Use of a Misting System

Author: Rachel Vogan

PP: 406


Bayliss Nurseries was established in 1899. I started working there as an apprentice in September 1987 and I was the first female apprentice that the nursery had seen for some time. One of my first success stories was with the propagation of Hydrangea paniculata ‘Grandiflora’. The species is a bushy shrub that originates from Japan and China. It is one of the most spectacular plants I know. It produces lovely, long, deep-red stems and large panicles of white flowers in the spring continuing on into the summer. As the flowers age they get gently frosted with pink icing.

Perilla: Production in Japan and Potential for New Zealand

Author: J.M. Follett

PP: 408


Perilla (Perilla frutescens), a member of the family Labiatae, is an annual herbaceous plant native to Asia. It is used extensively in Japanese cuisine and has a wide variety of uses. There are two main types, red perilla and green-leaf perilla or "oba". Both types are commonly called "shiso". Red perilla is used as a dye for pickling fruits and vegetables, as a dried powder to be used as a side dish with rice, as an ingredient in cake mixes, and as a flavouring in beverages. It is generally harvested and sold as a bulk commodity directly to the processing industry. Red perilla flower heads are also used as a condiment with "sushimi", and 3– to 6-week-old seedlings or sprouts are used as a garnish. Green-leaf perilla, the product most commonly seen in the Japanese markets, is used as a vegetable. Its leaves are used as a wrapping for rice cake, in salads, and tempura. Perilla is also grown for its seed which can be used for oil production or for flavouring foods especially pickles.

Classical Biological Control of the Rose Aphid (Macrosiphum rosae) in Australia

Author: Jörg Kitt

PP: 76


Classical biological control (CBC) can be described as an attempt to regulate pest populations (mites, insects, mammals, weeds, pathogens) by using their natural enemies (parasites, predators, pathogens) that are imported and released into a new environment for this purpose (De Bach, 1974). The underlying hypothesis of CBC is that populations are regulated effectively by natural enemies and that exotic pest species have escaped this regulation by geographic isolation from their natural enemies (Van den Bosch and Messenger, 1973). Successful CBC combines permanency, selectivity, environmental safety, and economy in pest management (DeBach, 1974) and can be considered as a cornerstone in integrated pest management (IPM). Data from Huffaker et al. (1976) shows a return of $30 (U.S.A.) for each dollar spent in biological control of agricultural pests in California. Despite these positive benefits CBC is still a minor method of pest control compared to the use of pesticides.

Propagation of Chilean Native Plants with Ornamental Value

Author: Peter Seemann

PP: 411

Many Chilean native plants may be used as ornamentals. Nevertheless, little knowledge exists on their propagation and culture. Experiments into the cutting propagation of six species have been carried out in order to determine the effect of auxin (IBA) concentrations on rooting. Results show the following: Crinodendron hookerianum roots best with 2500 ppm IBA; both Mitraria coccinea and Sarmienta repens have excellent natural rooting abilities; Desfontainia spinosa does not have an increased rooting response within the range of 0 to 5000 ppm IBA; rooting of Lomatia ferruginea cuttings fluctuates between 42% and 72% but no clear effects are obtained by the use of IBA; Embothrium coccineum roots best with concentrations up to 500 ppm IBA.
Soil Recycling, the Odering Way

Author: Ray Lawson

PP: 418

We grow two crops in soil based mix. The first, freesia, is grown for out-of-season cut flower production. A soil with a silty-loam texture and containing clay particles is best. At Odering's Nursery we feel that the best soil is taken from Virgin, clover-grown fields.

In the beginning of November the soil to be used is rotary hoed, heaped up, and transported to our nursery site for processing. The amount of soil required is 150 m3 and processing takes 3 days. Preparation of the soil for a Freesia crop involves the following steps. First the soil is steam sterilised at a temperature of 212F (100C). We use four bins, two at a time, with each holding two-thirds of a cubic meter. It takes 10 min for the steam to reach the top of a bin and then a further 10 min to complete sterilisation. Following sterilization, bins are transported to a concrete pad and emptied. Next, an equivalent volume of mix, consisting of sphagnum peat and sharp sand (3: 1, v/v), is added to the sterilised virgin soil.

The Latest In Plant Variety Rights: Part I

Author: Bill Whitmore

PP: 419


Interest in obtaining plant variety rights (PVR) has grown rapidly in recent years. Back in mid-1990 there were 588 plant varieties protected under the Plant Variety Rights Act 1987. By the middle of 1995 the number of protected varieties had grown to 1035. With numbers of this order, those of you who are working in the horticultural industry are probably unavoidably involved with protected varieties. In saying this I am not trying to paint a picture of plant variety rights being an unavoidable evil. It is quite the contrary. I believe that the growing interest in plant variety rights is an indication that people in the industry see plant variety rights in a positive light, as a means of obtaining constructive investment in horticulture.

The Latest In Plant Variety Rights: Part II

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: 421


This part of the presentation will cover some recent developments on the technical side of plant variety rights (PVR) and should assist existing or future applicants. I will conclude with some general comments on labelling protected varieties that will be of interest to all as protected varieties are becoming increasingly common.

The Requirement to Supply Photographs and the Technical Questionnaire at the Time of Application. It has been proposed to amend the Plant Variety Rights Act 1987 to make it compulsory for a photograph of the variety and the correct technical questionnaire for the species or genus to which the new variety belongs, to be supplied at the time of application. The Commissioner would then be unable to accept an application if photographs and the technical questionnaire are not supplied.

This change has arisen because the PVR Office has experienced difficulties in obtaining technical information from some applicants. This delays the testing of


Author: Deb Donahoe

PP: 425

DEB DONAHOE: It is an honor and privilege to be here this morning to welcome such a prestigious organization to our State of Connecticut.

The green industry in our state is the largest economic sector of agriculture. It generates more than $600 million on the wholesale level. More than 14,000 acres are in cultivation, more than 500 acres are under glass, and over 5000 workers are employed. We produce woody ornamentals, annuals, perennials, ornamental grasses, cut flowers, potted crops, Christmas trees, sod, and herbs.

We have many outstanding green industry professional organizations, such as the Connecticut Nurserymen's Association, Connecticut Florist's Association, Connecticut Christmas Tree Association, Connecticut Groundskeepers, and the Farm Bureau to name a few, in addition to famous horticulturalists including Drs. Sidney Waxman and Dick Jaynes.

On behalf of the Connecticut Nurserymen's Association I welcome you to Connecticut. I hope this will be a time of learning, sharing, and


Author: Mike Johnson

PP: 426

MIKE JOHNSON: As all of you should know, this meeting has been dedicated to Cecil and Jim Wells. Those of us here in our declining years among us know the Wells' family quite well; however, as I look about I see many young faces who may not know how important these people have been to the International Plant Propagators' Society.

Jim was one of the founding members of the Society and was its president the first 2 years of its existence. I think it is safe to say that without his perseverance, determination, and vision we might not be in this room today as there might not be an International Plant Propagators' Society.

When the time came for this Society to become international, Jim was very instrumental in helping the chapter in England and Ireland get started, as well as those in New Zealand and Australia. Cecil and Jim's vacation time from their nursery was taken with traveling to these far-off places to help the local nurserymen establish their chapters. The time and effort they gave


Author: David Beattie

PP: 427

PRESIDENT BEATTIE: It is my pleasure to make the next award. Will Darrel Apps come forward. I have know Darrel for a number of years and have enjoyed our friendship and enjoyed working with him. In fact I owe my job at Penn State to him. I enjoyed working with him when he was at Longwood Gardens and with the Perennial Plant Association. Darrel was the Secretary-Treasurer of the Eastern Region for 3 years. To show our appreciation as an organization, we have an original botanical print from about 1810 of a hand-colored daylily. I took a look at it earlier and it is amazing how vibrant the colors are after all these years.

Author: Tim Brotzman

PP: 427

TIM BROTZMAN: This is the fifth year that Fellow recipients have been given. We have an outstanding group of individuals for you today. They are recognized for their contributions to the field of propagation, but also for their contribution to the Eastern Region at large. The recipients are the following:
  • Jack Alexander: The first award goes to a person who has been a member for 18 years. Every year he moderates the New Plants presentation of our conference. He is a noted propagator and is always willing to share his knowledge if you call.
  • Darrel Apps: You have heard earlier this morning about the contributions of our next recipient. He has been a solid supporter of I.P.P.S. and he is intent to flaunt his floral creations across the landscape of the U.S.
  • Dick Bir: The next individual has only been a member for 10 years but has had a very productive time. He has participated every single year that I have been here. He could be a Southern Region member but because of the altitude

Author: Alan Jones

PP: 428

ALAN JONES: It is a great honor and privilege to present to you the recipient of the 1995 Eastern Region Award of Merit. This is the highest award the Eastern Region can bestow on a member. Recipients must have over 10 years of active membership, as well as providing outstanding contributions to plant propagation within the nursery industry.

This year's award winner has a lengthy and impressive background.

His academic life started with a bachelors in pomology from Penn State, then a masters in vegetable breeding from Ohio State, and if that was not enough he went on to get his Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Wisconsin.

With this background I suppose it was inevitable that he would end up in plant breeding.

In 1960 he took up the call and the challenge to become head of the holly breeding program at Rutgers University in New Jersey, but soon found that man cannot live by Ilex alone, so he added a Pyracantha breeding program.

In the 35 years he has been at Rutgers he has


Author: Peter Orum

PP: 428

PETER ORUM: It is my pleasure as the director to the International Board from the Eastern Region to announce the recipient of the International Award of Honor for 1995 because our recipient is a member of the Eastern Region.

First let me give you a little background on the award. It was established by the International Board to recognize outstanding contributions at the international level in our Society. The Award recognizes exceptional and distinguished service to I.P.P.S. and outstanding accomplishments in the field of plant propagation.

Only a small number of individuals have received this award and include individuals, such as Bruce Briggs, and our own Jim Wells, Ralph Shugert, and Bill Snyder.

The International Board gathered in Harrogate, England this August and announced the recipient for 1995 at that meeting. Our honoree this year is well known to many of us in the Eastern Region. He has been a member for 36 years and we recognize him from his many contributions in the form of

Biological Control Agents for Damping-off Disease in Bedding Plants

Author: A.R. Harris

PP: 81


Damping-off diseases are common wherever seedlings are grown. Nurseries experience disease outbreaks despite the use of good hygiene and fungicides, and would welcome an economical, environmentally safe biological control product (Harris, 1995). Some bacteria and binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates can control the fungi that most commonly cause damping-off diseases in nursery seedlings: Pythium spp. (Broadbent et al., 1971; Harris and Adkins, 1993; Harris et al., 1993b, 1994c), and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Cardoso and Echandi, 1987; Harris et al., 1994a,b; Howell and Stipanovic, 1979; Kommedahl and Windels, 1978). Plant growth promotion in the absence of known pathogens also has been reported for soil bacteria (e.g. Broadbent et al., 1977; Lifshitz et al., 1987) and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Harris et al., 1993b, 1994b).

This paper summarises experiments designed to screen several isolates of soil bacteria and binucleate Rhizoctonia for biological control of damping-off diseases and

Putting Roots on Shrub Roses

Author: Mike Hoffman

PP: 429

Bailey Nurseries propagation facility, (Nord Farm), has been in production for about 14 years. At present, we have 13 acres under plastic for the propagation of woody, perennial, and annual plants. Each house is filled and emptied at least two times per year.

Most propagation is carried out in ground-level sandbeds. The sand which is mined on the premises is 20 to 24 in. deep and drainage tile is used to enhance drainage. The sandbeds are leveled, watered, and treated with vapam before cutting propagation. Cuttings can be stuck about 2 weeks after the vapam treatment.

Rose cuttings are taken from our container production beds or flown in from Arizona where we field grow shrub roses on contract. From our container production, we try to get as long a cutting as possible, (usually about 5 in.), and trim off the flower heads and strip the bottom leaves. This yields a fairly skinny cutting about 4 in. long. We allow 3 to 4 weeks between cutting harvests from the containerized roses.

The Propagation of Hardy, Woody Plants from Root Cuttings: A Review

Author: Peter Del Tredici

PP: 431


Many successful plant propagation techniques draw their original inspiration from observing the behavior of plants in nature. What plant propagator has not observed sprouts arising at some distance from the main stem of a tree or shrub and thought to themselves that this plant might be propagated from root cuttings. Such observations can be traced back at least to the propagation of hardy, woody plants from root cuttings in the days of John Evelyn, who, in 1706 (and perhaps as early as 1664) observed that species of Ulmus, Prunus, and Populus produced root sprouts that could be dug up and planted. Remarkably, Evelyn also gave detailed instructions for how to propagate trees from roots: "To produce suckers, lay the roots bare and slit some of them here and there discretely, and then cover them." The most famous case of plant propagation from root cuttings is, of course, that of the breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. This was the plant that the notorious Captain Bligh of the

Putting Roots on Plants Economically

Author: Roy Daum

PP: 440

My talk today will describe how we looked back into the past and took those things which were applicable to our situation and formulated a method to put roots on plants as cheaply as possible.

The situation I referred to is that Four Season Nursery and Landscape is a first generation nursery. As with most young people, we were full of enthusiasm, lots of energy, and very little money. But where there is a will there is a way.

We started out strictly as a landscape company with a $10,000 loan, no equipment, and no land—a typical start for a nursery business. At that time, 1972 to be exact, there was a scarcity of good quality plant material for our landscape jobs. Well it didn't take us long to decide that maybe we should grow some of that material.

Not having any real propagating experience, I went seeking information. I first called a college roommate who was in the nursery business. He gave me a lot of ideas and encouragement. One of the things he said was keep the acronym "K.I.S.S." in

Research Update on Tissue Proliferation

Author: Brian K. Maynard

PP: 442


This paper is intended to update the I.P.P.S. membership on a condition, known as tissue proliferation (TP), which affects a number of rhododendron cultivars. It would be impossible to summarize all the information on TP in this brief forum. The reader is directed to have in hand any or all of the articles listed at the end of this paper, in particular that by Linderman (1993).

Tissue proliferation refers to a gall-like growth usually found at the base of the main stem on certain cultivars of Rhododendron, primarily, though not exclusively, when they are propagated from tissue culture. These galls range from 5 to 20 mm in diameter, usually are loosely attached, covered by a rough spongy rind, and may or may not produce small, spindly, short-lived shoots. TP typically shows up in the second or third growing season out of propagation (e.g., from a tissue culture microcutting) and galls may wither each winter only to regrow the following year. TP appears not to be contagious,

Shrub Rose Breeding and Evaluation at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

Author: Kathy Zuzek, Harold Pellett

PP: 447


At the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA), where minimum winter temperatures of -25 to -30F are typical, the number of repeat-flowerng shrub roses hardy enough to survive a winter without protection is limited. Those that show slight to moderate levels of cane injury after a Minnesota winter are typically from one of three groups: hybrid rugosas, and Explorer and Parkland roses from Agriculture Canada. The number of disease-tolerant, hardy repeat-lowering roses is smaller yet.

The Woody Ornamental Research Program at the MLA has taken a two-pronged approach to increasing the number of hardy, disease-tolerant shrub roses for gardeners in the northern tier of the U.S. Existing cultivars that have not yet been trialed in Minnesota are being planted and evaluated to identify those that will perform well. A hybridization program to develop new cultivars is also under way.

The Effect of Growth Regulators on Growth and Overwinter Survival of Rooted Cuttings

Author: Anna Perkins, Nina Bassuk

PP: 450


Successful cutting propagation of many woody plant taxa is limited by poor overwinter survival in the first propagation year (Smalley and Dirr, 1986). Plants which fail to survive the winter after rooting are often characterized as having had budbreak inhibition or bud dormancy following rooting. Application of the auxin rooting hormone, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), to the cutting base has been shown to inhibit budbreak (Hartmann et al., 1990). Sun and Bassuk found that although IBA increased percent rooting and root number inMalus MM 106, it delayed and reduced axillary budbreak in rooted cuttings.

It has been hypothesized that growth inhibition in rooted cuttings results in insufficient carbohydrate reserves for sustaining the cuttings during winter and early spring, and for inducing insufficient cold hardiness (Smalley and Dirr, 1986). Smalley and Dirr found that cuttings of Acer rubrum ‘October Glory’ which broke bud had significantly more carbohydrates than cuttings

Use of Paclobutrazol to Regulate Flower Bud Initiation and Stem Elongation in Rhododendron catawbiense ‘Boursault’

Author: Paul C. Larson

PP: 459


For years, researchers have been experimenting with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol to control stem elongation in rhododendron. This presentation, however, will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using paclobutrazol in a large-scale production setting.

Use of the Bonzi® formulation of paclobutrazol, marketed by Uniroyal Chemical Company, was initiated at Prides Corner Farms in 1991 by Dr. Martin Gent, a research scientist at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Gent's work at Prides Corner Farms and at his experimental plots in Hamden, Connecticut, prompted us to pursue the use of Bonzi in our production system. Rhododendron catawbiense ‘Boursault’ was selected as a cultivar that would benefit from applications of Bonzi, due to its typical growth habit of growing tall and setting very few flowerbuds. In a typical year, untreated ‘Boursault’ grown in a 2-gal container will produce flower buds on only bout 5% of the

Grafting on Bare–Root Stock of Small Standard Trees

Author: Dave Bakker

PP: 464

I will discuss and describe the grafting on bare-root understock of small standard trees of the following:
Aseptic Germination of Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum Seed

Author: Ian E.M. Donovan

PP: 466


Trillium species are a delightful group of spring-flowering woodland plants for the shade garden. The North American species are frequently more showy than the Himalayan and Northeast Asian forms. They are long-lived, easy-care plants when sited properly. Hence, they are much sought after by sophisticated temperate-zone gardeners in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Trillium species would be an excellent perennial nursery crop if they could be easily propagated in volume. And therein lies the problem. They are slow to flower from seed, taking up to 3 to 7 years to build a large rhizome (food storage organ) if one is able to germinate the seeds. Seeds of some species have been reported to exhibit double-dormancy. Division is also a slow, but not impossible, process. Several species are classified as threatened or endangered in the wild, which is the source of many plants marketed today.

Work was undertaken several years ago to develop a method for propagating

Grafting on Roots

Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 469


Root pieces have a number of advantages over regular understocks. They are among others things, readily available when harvesting nursery stock, can be dug from original plants, are compatible with plants from which they originate, and prevent abnormal growth habits that can occur with seedlings. The disadvantage is, root pieces that can be used as root cuttings will generally produce shoots if used, but are the only choice for grafting of taxa that can not be produced any other way.

Root pieces are harvested when plants have ripened sufficiently so that they could be dug bare-root. After harvesting, roots should be packed in moisture-retentive material and stored at 0C. They could be cut into pieces at this time to facilitate accurate counts. At no time should roots be permitted to dry.

Size of root pieces optimally should be from 6 to 15 mm thick, their length can be between 10 and 20 cm depending on the pot size if they need to be potted. Branched roots are best. Roots

Seed Germination of Endangered South Australian Plants

Author: Birgitte Sorensen, Manfred Jusaitis

PP: 86


As part of ongoing studies on the conservation biology of endangered plants of South Australia, experiments were conducted to establish protocols for their effective propagation. The species studied were all endemic to South Australia and were classified as nationally endangered (Briggs and Leigh, 1988).

This paper describes experiments on propagation of five endangered species from seed.

Vegetative Propagation of Rare and Unusual Conifers: An Alternative Approach

Author: Kim E. Tripp

PP: 472


Vegetative propagation of rare and unusual conifers from stem cuttings serves diverse needs. At botanic gardens and arboreta these plants are grown for botanical study, ex situ conservation, and/or horticultural evaluation, and commercial distribution. Often, vegetative propagules are the first or only type of propagules available since, unlike viable seed, stems and shoots are available to collectors year round (i.e., whenever they may have the good fortune to locate the plants—especially when dealing with plants growing as small, isolated populations in remote areas). Vegetative propagation allows propagation of physiologically mature tissue resulting in whole, mature plants—which can greatly accelerate cone production in cultivation, either for taxonomic studies or seed production. Vegetative propagation may also be used as a back-up method when both seed and vegetative material are limited.

By definition, propagules of rare and unusual taxa are generally scarce and

Propagation of Hinoki Cypress Cultivars

Author: Ronald St. Jean

PP: 477

Chamaecyparis obtusa cultivars are used very much in the landscape because they can tolerate both shade and sun conditions. In Japan where plants grow to 60 ft or more they are a source of important lumber products, while the slower growing and dwarf cultivars are used in the landscape.

Propagation of this species is easy. At Bald Hill Nurseries, Inc. we propagate cultivars of C. obtusa by cuttings and by grafting.

Fasciation in Plants

Author: Robert L. Geneve

PP: 479

The typical fasciated plant produces a large flat, ribbon-shaped stem. Any growing plant part can become fasciated including stems, flowers, fruits, and roots. However, the most observable and spectacular fasciations occur in rapidly growing vegetative and flowering stems. Here, the change in size and shape of the stem leads to an increase in the number of leaves and flowers along the flattened stem. I have observed normal flowering lily stems with 13 to 15 flowers, while nearby, fasciated stems produced 45 flowers bunched together across the stem (Fig. 1).

The word, fasciation, comes from the Latin word, fascia—to fuse. So in a broad sense, the fusion of plant parts can be considered a form of fasciation. This fusion of plant parts has been the driving force behind evolution and it is interesting to think of degrees of fasciation as the normal condition of modern plant species.

The primitive flower form is represented by having many leaf—like petals. The star magnolia

Inexpensive IBA Root-Promoting Solutions

Author: Calvin Chong, Bob Hamersma

PP: 483


Nursery propagators regularly stimulate cuttings to root using indolebutyric acid (IBA) dispensed in powder (talc) or liquid formulations. Commercial liquid rooting preparations are readily available in a wide range of concentrations and are easier to dilute to meet the rooting requirements for cuttings of different species (Dirr, 1981; Dirr and Heuser, 1987). IBA solution may induce better rooting than powdered IBA and at high concentrations [≥e1% (10,000 ppm) IBA] may also stimulate rooting of many difficult-to-root species (Chong and Daigneault, 1986).

Plug Production of Bedding Plants within a Nursery Production Program

Author: Craig B. Colley

PP: 488


Bailey Nurseries has built itself a fine reputation for its bare root trees and shrubs. Over the years it has diversified to keep up with the changing markets. In the last decade, the trend in the nursery business has been an increased demand for containerized woody and perennial plants. To satisfy customer needs, a large expansion into these areas was undertaken and a larger propagation facility was needed.

Cuttings would need to be rooted not only for the field liners or sold as liners but for container-grown plants as well. In order to meet this demand, the Nord farm was bought in 1980. Since 1981, 90 polyhouses and a 45,000 ft2 Van Wingerden gutter-connected range have been built. Still expanding, we are currently constructing a 1.5 acre Hanois Nordic range.

Back in the early 1980s when the first 20 polyhouses were built at the Nord farm, a small percent of these were used for propagation year round. The others were used solely for softwood cutting propagation. The

Germinating Difficult Herbaceous Perennial Seeds

Author: Brian J. McGowan

PP: 493

Many perennials have a reputation for being difficult to germinate. It is not the complexity of the process, but rather the lack of information about germination requirements of particular seeds that leads to this misunderstanding.

I am going to discuss some of the basic issues that impact the germination of seeds in genera that are often perceived as intimidating, but are nevertheless very worthwhile growing.

A number of factors can affect the germination process. In many cases, it is not a single factor, but a combination of factors that produces success. The most frequent obstacles to germination are:

  1. Impervious seed coat.
  2. Lack of long-term viability or complex requirements due to age of seed.
  3. Different conditioning requirements.
  4. Different temperature requirements at germination.

Specific requirements often apply to many members of a family of plants. For example, many legumes have impervious seed coats. These need to be physically abraded in some manner. Seed from the

Propagation and Production of Wildflower

Author: Heather McCargo

PP: 495


The topic of this paper is propagation and production of wildflowers. It is based on the work I did from 1990 to 1995 as propagator at Garden in the Woods, the botanic garden of the New England Wild Flower Society in Framingham, Massachusetts. The nursery at Garden in the Woods was established to propagate plants for the garden's collection, to conduct research on propagation and cultivation techniques for native species, and to produce plants for sale to the general public. Every year approximately 16,000 pots of nursery-propagated native plants (mostly herbaceous wildflowers) are sold from this facility to support the Society's various education and conservation programs.

When I became propagator, I wanted my nursery practices to reflect the Society's mission of native plant conservation. In my mind, this means plant propagation that preserves the genetic diversity inherent in wild native plants and cultivation practices that are conserving of natural resources. I see

New Perennials to Propagate

Author: Pierre Bennerup

PP: 498

The perennials I have chosen to present today should be on every perennial growers list. Although relatively new, they are not B.I.O. plants, (meaning "Botanic Interest Only," to quote John Elsley of Wayside Gardens, Hodges, South Carolina).

First is the Galaxy Series of Achilleas. This group was originally hybridized by Heinz Klose in Germany by crossing Achillea millefolium with A. taygetea (Bot. Ed. note: the species taygetea is not a valid name) and A. filipendulina. The resulting crosses and back-crosses have yielded colors from pure white to shades of yellow, pink, salmon, red, and bronze. In combination with each other or with other border perennials, they are nothing less than dazzling. They bloom off and on from late spring to fall. They are easy to propagate and grow from division or tip cutting in early spring or any time during the growing season a week or two after they have been severely dead-headed. In general, these plants should be dead-headed because they are fertile

Propagation of Daphne ×burkwoodii ‘Carol Mackie’

Author: John Padua

PP: 499

Daphne ×burkwoodii ‘Carol Mackie’ is a beautiful landscape plant with variegated foliage and fragrant light-pink flowers. It grows 3 to 4 ft high and 4 to 6 ft wide. This plant has proven to be quite winter hardy in Vermont, at least to -40F, and grows well in full sun or part shade. There are apparently two or more clones being sold as ‘Carol Mackie’ in the trade. My discussion will be on my experience with the clone that originated in Vermont in the late 1960s as a branch sport on Daphne ×burkwoodii ‘Somerset’.

I began growing and propagating ‘Carol Mackie’ in 1982. The first summer that I took cuttings I got better than 90% rooting. These plants grew like weeds in the field for the next few years. It was easy to get excited about such a nice new plant growing so well. The Daphne gods must have been with me on that first crop! For the next few years rooting results were erratic and I experienced some difficulties growing the plant, especially in containers. We have since worked out some of the

Pesky Problem with Propagation of Acer palmatum: Pseudomonas

Author: Nancy Jo Vermeulen

PP: 501

I would like to broaden the assigned topic of my paper from the propagation of Acer palmatum ‘Red Feather’ to include the production of A. palmatum cultivars in general, specifically a pesky disease problem we have experienced for several years.

In preparation for this paper I could not find any reference to Pseudomonas in any of our Proceedings nor in any of the books in our library. It appears to be a relatively recent disease affecting Japanese maples and because of the extent to which it affects the success, or lack of it, of our grafted Japanese maples crops it needs to receive much more attention. I hope by this paper to generate that attention, hopefully leading to successful preventive measures.

Pseudomonas, also known as "black stem", is a soil-borne bacteria which consists of several strains. Our first evidence of the disease in our program dates back about 8 years. We graft our maples in February on understocks which are potted the previous spring. Most of these were what we

Testing Prevents Disasters

Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 93

Imagine the situation in which all of a batch of your most difficult-to-propagate tubestock died soon after potting up because of extreme salinity in the mix. Or imagine the situation in which despite all assurances from your potting mix manufacturer your phosphorus-sensitive plants kept dying in large numbers. Or how about a batch of nice yellow rhododendrons that died, because the supposedly acid mix contained chunks of limestone. Imagine, too, having your income for the year eliminated because your cyclamen seedlings died through suffocation in waterlogged mix.

These are all recent examples of actual disasters in Australian nurseries that could have been prevented through the use of very simple tests that take only minutes of your valuable time. Use of an EC meter, a phosphorus test kit, a pH meter, and a milk carton before potting would have prevented all of these disasters. The $300 cost of this testing gear would have prevented losses of income amounting to well over a million

Rooting Lilacs from Softwood Cuttings

Author: C. Peter Nickerson

PP: 502

I'd like to begin my talk on lilac rooting with a little history. Prior to 7 years ago, French hybrid lilac cuttings were taken the first week of May from a stock block or containerized material. Very soft cuttings were taken and treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) in talc or with an IBA solution [water and alcohol, (1: 1, v/v)]. Results were very uneven and the continued growth of the liners was uncertain, at best.

As demand for lilacs from our customers increased, tissue-cultured lilac liners were purchased to supplement the lining-out stock propagation was generating. Cuttings were made from these young plants and we were very successful in rooting the cuttings from these juvenile micropropagated liners. I wondered if the higher rooting percentages would continue through successive generations. Because additional tissue-cultured liners were purchased for a second spring, I was able to compare the results from these plants with cuttings from second generation tissue-cultured liners.

Propagation of Hydrangeas at Half Hollow Nursery

Author: Bruce L. Amundsen

PP: 503


With the recent popularity of hydrangeas comes renewed interest in their propagation. Following is an overview of the most common methods currently used for popular taxa with specific techniques used at Half Hollow Nursery. Methods using seed, layering, tissue culture, and cuttings are discussed; propagation from cuttings is emphasized, since this technique is the easiest and most cost-effective.

Korean Stewartia Propagation

Author: Robert J. Gouveia

PP: 506

Stewartia pseudocamellia Koreana Group (syn. S. koreana), Korean stewartia, is a beautiful, easy-to-grow, small- to medium-sized tree. It has white camellia-like flowers in midsummer, striking autumn foliage, and attractive exfoliating bark. It was recognized with a Styer Award of Garden Merit in 1990.

At Jackson Nursery, we have tried to propagate this plant from seed but have achieved erratic results. The seed is doubly dormant and requires both warm and cold stratification. Thus we prefer to propagate Korean stewartia from cuttings. We have found that the procedure described below also works for other Stewartia species that need a dormancy period.

We take three-node cuttings from plants in the nursery, starting around mid-June and finishing in mid-July. Length is not particularly important as long as three nodes are available, but most cuttings average 4 to 6 in. long. We prefer to use terminal shoots.

We collect the cuttings in the morning and keep them in plastic bags until we can

Grafting Trifoliate Maples

Author: Joy Sprinkle, Rob Nicholson

PP: 508

If a plant species is an excellent garden subject and no cultivars are in the trade it usually signals some problem with clonal propagation. Such is the case with the trifoliate maples.

Trifoliate maples have a compound rather than simple leaf, and are composed of three similar leaflets, one terminal leaflet with two attending laterals.

They were first introduced to the United States as early as 1891 when C.S. Sargent of Boston's Arnold Arboretum brought back seed of Acer nikoense from the mountains of Japan. Since then three more species of trifoliate maple have been introduced and are now among the most highly regarded landscape trees.

Japan and Central China are home to a species of trifoliate maple known as the Nikko maple. Originally named for the Japanese temple city of Nikko, the tree was once known asAcer nikoense but a nomenclature change has brought it to its present Latin name of A. maximowiczianum. It is a component of the cool-temperate forest, preferring moist and fertile

New and Unusual Plants Worthy of Use and Propagation

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 513

Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceae). A true ash, this plant closely resembles its cousin,Chionanthus virginicus with profuse white flowers in late spring. It is a small tree or large shrub. Fall color is golden yellow tinged with purple. Propagation is by seed which has a cold-stratification requirement.

Hibiscus ‘Lohengrin’ (Malvaceae). A seedless hybrid developed by Hal Bruce at Winterthur Museum between H. paramutabilis and H. syriacus. These are large shrubs and are completely hardy in Zones 6B. Propagated by cuttings.

Hydrangea paniculata ‘Tardiva’ (Hydrangeaceae). An outstanding selection of H. paniculata with strong vigorous upright flower spikes. Blooms in late summer to early autumn. Easily propagated from cuttings.

Camellia sinensis (Theaceae). The tea plant of the orient. An excellent fall blooming camellia with masses of tiny white flowers—very fragrant. This plant is not particularly hardy beyond Zone 7, but could be pushed north if planted in the shade. Easily propagated from

Seed Propagation: Stacking the Deck in Your Favor

Author: Richard H. Munson

PP: 517

Plant propagators sometimes face the need or desire to propagate, by seed, plants about which little or nothing is known. In the arboretum and botanic garden world this is a common occurrence. Coupled with the need to propagate a plant is usually a dearth of seeds. Rarely will you encounter a situation where you have adequate numbers of seeds to run a controlled experiment with multiple treatments. What, then, are your options that will assure, at least, some degree of success? How do you stack the deck in your favor?

Many propagators have developed informal protocols, or processes, by which they gather information before attempting to germinate seed. Without realizing it, I informally developed my own way of obtaining information for the many plants that do not appear in reference manuals. Recently, Rob Nicholson and I published an expanded version of a seed germination protocol (Munson and Nicholson, 1994). In it we described a protocol for obtaining information and also provided

Mist Propagation of Perennials Using Side or Lateral Shoots

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 519

The perennials discussed in this paper are those that typically do not develop a stem or branch with leaves and internodes. Instead, they grow from a crown at the soil surface with leaves grouping themselves around a thickened fleshy base in what are variously called: offsets, suckers, side shoots, lateral shoots, or heeled cuttings. They will be called shoots in this paper. When the stock plants are growing in the ground the preferred method of making cuttings is to cut the shoots by inserting the snippers into the ground at the base of the plant. Some of the plants have shoots that are tender and will be bruised or crushed if they are pulled off by hand.

The general rule is that these perennials root better in the spring or fall when it is cooler than in the summer. Hormondin #3 is normally used. A light mist is preferable, beginning with a short burst at 10-min intervals and after 5 days increasing the interval to 20 min. Just enough mist is needed to prevent visible wilting of

Question Box

Author: Ralph Shugert, Steve McCulloch

PP: 520

Question: For Joerg Leiss. Could you explain once again how to produce Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’ using root pieces to graft onto?
New Plant Forum

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 523

Ajuga reptans ‘Carol’ This plant was found in the Wyncote Pennsylvania garden of Roger Copeland. ‘Carol’, a sport of ‘Burgundy Glow’, has proven to be 100% stable. It is probably one of the most colorful variegated foliage plants on the market. The maroon, cream, and green variegation is exceptionally vivid and distinct. As with all Ajuga taxa, ‘Carol’ is extremely easy to propagate by division.
POSTER SESSIONS Daylilies Worthy of Commercial Production

Author: Darrel Apps

PP: 529

There are nearly 38,000 daylily cultivars, however, only a few are worthy of widespread commercial production. Over 270 people are actively hybridizing daylilies so older cultivars are being rapidly superseded. The cultivars listed below were selected for the mid-Atlantic and northeastern states and are based on beauty and then performance factors1, such as:
  1. Winter hardy in containers
  2. An increase of 3 to 1 or greater each year
  3. Three weeks or more of bloom time (20+ buds)
  4. Clean, green foliage until fall
  5. Free from insects and diseases
  6. Divide easily
  7. Preferably set few seeds
The Use of Mycorrhizal Fungi During Propagation

Author: Peter N. Donnelly

PP: 98


It will be well known to some nurserymen that many of the Cupressaceae family of plants are somewhat slow and difficult to propagate (Blythe, 1989). Callus tissue readily forms on the base of cuttings, gradually turning from a white to dark-brown colour, growing slowly larger to a final size of up to 20 mm in width. The cutting may remain in this state for over 12 months, the foliage still retaining a healthy appearance. This problem is also common in other genera, such as, Grevillea and Hakea. Our interest in this phenomenon arose after the discovery of a seedling variant of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra named ‘Limelight’ in the nursery 9 years ago. It also has a tendency to form a callus without readily forming roots. This paper reports the use of mycorrhizal fungi as an aid to root initiation in Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ‘Limelight’ at both fresh-cutting and callused stages. In this paper we refer to two main types of mycorrhizae. These are ectomycorrhizae and

Effect of Microwave Treatments on the Germination of Seeds

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 532


Twenty-five seeds each of Leucanthemum ×superbum ‘Alaska’ (syn. Chrysanthemum maximum ‘Alaska’),Lathyrus latifolius, and Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) were soaked in cold water for 24 h. Seeds were then removed and placed upon moist paper towels. The seeds were subjected to 900 watts microwave radiation for a specified period of time, sown in a tray of sterile soil, and germinated in a greenhouse at 70F. Germination results were taken daily with the final counts made on Day 10 of the test period.

The resulting seedlings were place in identical garden situations (exceptLathryus was not set out due to lack of space) to evaluate longer-term effects.

An Aid to Plant Propagation and More

Author: Carlo Belgiorno

PP: 534

V-trays with their aerated inverted V's can be used for the germination of seedlings and the rooting of cuttings in horticulture, forestry, and by the gardening public with great satisfaction.

The aerated inverted V's produce a very vigorous and fibrous root system. There is a good exchange of air in the root zone which gives the plant an edge over rootrot problems.

The fibrous root system develops into an inverted V shape which can be butterfied outward. The lower-inverted shape root systems intercept water movement which promotes a quicker positive take.

Plants grown in V-trays and V-pots have better transplantability. This feature can be used as a marketing tool by the manufacturer, the grower, and the retailer.

Propagation of Allegheny Pachysandra by Divisions and Root Cuttings

Author: Timothy C. Brotzman

PP: 535

In August or September we dig mother plants of Pachysandra procumbens (Allegheny pachysandra) cutting them into single stems which must include some of the below-ground, white (etiolated) portions. The presence of roots is an obvious advantage but not a necessity in developing a good liner. Heavy root pieces are graded out and trimmed to be planted as well.

Single stem divisions, about 75 in number, are planted in a deep plastic "grape box" (15 in. × 22 in. × 7 in.). We find this deep box works well to support divisions that may be 8 to 12 in. tall. Root pieces are densely spread in a more conventional flat (15 in. × 24 in. × 3-½ in.). A loose, aged medium of rice hulls, peat, and pine bark (10: 3: 7, by volume) is used. Both boxes and flats are placed under shade (in the woods works well) and watered as needed for 1 year. These boxes and flats have been overwintered in an unheated polyhouse, outside under plastic or loose leaves, and in a deep 3-to 4-ft covered pit. No overwintering losses

Environmentally Friendly Nursery Production Practices

Author: Calvin Chong, Bob Hamersma

PP: 536


The ornamental nursery/landscape industry has been one of the fastest growing agricultural sector in Ontario. Nursery research at Vineland has provided leadership and direction in research and development to make this industry competitive and viable. Research has focused on: propagation, container production, new and innovative technologies, and environmentally friendly practices.

Black Vine Weevil

Author: Richard S. Cowles

PP: 538

Black vine weevil (Fig. 1) is the Trojan horse insect pest of nurseries. The flightless, nocturnally active adults enter propagation areas from outdoors and often remain undiscovered. The soil-dwelling larvae are not easily found until they grow large enough to have caused economic loss, or are inadvertently shipped to customers. A non-exclusive list of favored hosts includes members of the Ericaceae, Pineacea, Primulaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Taxaceae, and Vitaceae.

Black vine weevil develops through egg, six larval instars, pupa, and adult female life stages (they are parthenogenic). Larvae generally overwinter, however, adults may live more than 1 year and also can overwinter. In warm propagation areas, larval development is accelerated, so adults can emerge in February or March, whereas adults developing from overwintered larvae in field populations emerge in June and July. Adults require approximately 4 weeks of feeding before they can lay eggs. Because there are different

The Impact of Flowers on Adventitious Root Formation in Chrysanthemum Cuttings

Author: Carrie DeVier, Robert L. Geneve

PP: 540

It has been generally accepted that the removal of flower buds from cuttings is beneficial to the rooting of cuttings (Hartmann et al., 1990). The antagonistic interaction between flowering and rooting has been observed in a number of species including carnation, dahlia, fuchsia, geranium, and chrysanthemum (Selim, 1956; Woycicki, 1938). This study compared the rooting ability of mum cuttings from vegetative and flowering plants of similar chronological age and in similar growing conditions. In addition, an attempt was made to separate the flowering stimulus from the competition for resources as the mechanism for rooting inhibition.

Root formation in Dendranthema (chrysanthemum) cuttings was reduced as flowers developed on stock plants. The negative impact of flowering on root formation could be partly overcome by IBA (1 mM) in cuttings taken when buds began to show color. However, after flowers began to open rooting was dramatically reduced and IBA had little effect on improving

Lagerstedt Hot Callusing Pipe

Author: Don Cross

PP: 541

Hot callusing is a method used in grafting to expose the graft union to a higher temperature for a period of time to speed cell division in the graft union.

Aesculus glabra ‘Homestead’ grafts were made on 16 January 1992.

The callusing pipe was placed in a cold greenhouse on a sand bed. A central-heat pipe produces a constant temperature of 70F. Grafts were placed into the pipe slots (Fig. 1) with the graft union in the pipe slot. The rootstock roots are placed on sand and covered with a slightly moist sphagnum moss to prevent drying of the rootstocks.

The scions of the finished grafts are placed on sand and covered with burlap—this is to keep scion buds from swelling. Fourteen to 21 days were allowed for heat treatment. During this time, callusing begins but no bud swelling occurs.

By 14 February, 94% of the grafts were callused. At this time they are removed and placed in boxes and covered with slightly moist sawdust. One month later the grafts were planted into containers. Six weeks

Flowering of Rhododendron and Kalmia in Response to Application Date of Bonzi or Sumagic

Author: Martin P.N. Gent

PP: 543


Growers would like field-grown Rhododendron and Kalmia to have a compact growth habit and flower in the 3rd year from propagation. Thirty years ago, Stuart (1960) showed that growth-retarding chemicals, in combination with a cold and day-length forcing treatment, would induce flowering in Rhododendron a year after propagation. The triazol chemicals, uniconazol and paclobutrazol (Davis et al., 1988), may induce flowering more effectively than those used previously. The reduction in stem elongation due to triazols can last for several years. A drench of paclobutrazol at more than 1000 ppm essentially inhibited any growth ofRhododendron in the following year (Wilkinson and Richards, 1991). I applied lower concentrations of paclobutrazol (Bonzi) and uniconazol (Sumagic) in three seasons to determine how concentration enhances flowering of Rhododendron and Kalmia.

The Propagation of Rose Stem Cuttings in Three Propagation Media

Author: Tammy Hoag, David Schmidt

PP: 546


There are innumerable factors which have an effect on the success of a propagation trial, including the method of propagation, propagation environment, medium composition, water availability, and pH.

This paper compares the rooting percentage and root quality of rose stem cuttings in three different propagation media to determine a successful and reliable medium for the standard propagation of several different rose cultivars by cuttings.

Rooting Procedures for Alstroemeria Divisions and Micropropagated Cuttings

Author: Virginia M. Keith, Mark P. Bridgen

PP: 550


The breeding of Alstroemeria has been ongoing at the University of Connecticut since 1985. Four cultivars of the Constitution Series were patented and introduced in 1994: ‘Freedomp’, ‘Libertyp’, ‘Patriotp’, and ‘Redcoatp’. These Alstroemeria can be propagated asexually by the division of rhizomes or through micropropagation. As a result of a Goodyear grant from the state of Connecticut, we are conducting research to develop a commercial production protocol for theConstitution Series. As part of this research, rooting procedures for both conventional divisions and micropropagated cuttings are being evaluated.

In Situ Seed Germination for Rehabilitation of Waste Fly Ash

Author: Manfred Jusaitis, Anne Pillman

PP: 103


The coal-fired power station at Port Augusta in South Australia generates 600,000 tonnes of fly-ash waste each year.

Establishment of a vegetative cover on fly-ash lagoons would stabilise the surface against erosion and considerably improve its microclimate and aesthetics. Plants were required to tolerate the saline and alkaline medium, as well as the hot dry climate and prevailing strong winds at the site. Direct seeding was considered to be an efficient method for revegetating the large areas involved, but little information was available on the germination success of plants sown directly into fly ash, although several reports had demonstrated the feasibility of growing plants on fly ash or fly-ash-amended soils (Holliday et al., 1958; Meecham. and Bell, 1977; Rees and Sidrak,1956).

Initial screening of seeds for germination and growth on fly ash, or on fly-ash/soil mixtures and overlays was performed in glasshouse pot trials (Pillman and Jusaitis, 1991). The most promising

The Role of Micropropagation in the Incidence of Tissue Proliferation in Rhododendron ‘Montego’

Author: Richard Kiyomoto, Mark Brand

PP: 552

Tissue proliferation (TP) is a condition primarily seen in certain micropropagated rhododendrons. Cultivar Montego was studied because plants grown in containers and in vitro cultures show distinctive morphological and physiological phenotypes which identify plants or cultures which are prone to TP.

Our goal in this study was to test the hypothesis that adventitious events during micropropagation are involved in the induction of TP-like culture characteristics and to test if the cytokinin 2iP plays a role in this induction.

Comparisons were made between ‘Montego’ with TP (TP+) and ‘Montego’ control plants that had no TP (TP-) in their propagation history. This was done to avoid the possibility plants or tissues derived from plants with TP may retain the potential to express TP even if TP was not apparent. TP- stock plants were obtained by rooting cuttings from the original ‘Montego’ plant grown from seed. Cuttings were supplied by Dr.David Leach of the Holden Arboretum. TP + ‘Montego’ plants or

Utilizing Band Pots For Herbaceous Plant Production

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 554

Purpose. Band-pot technology is not new to plant propagators. Indeed, this type of container, originally known as milk carton blanks or pots, has been in use for many years with several variations of different types of materials. This presentation shows the utilization of this container to grow herbaceous plants and the subsequent uses for this band-pot-grown product.

Why Use Band pots. I looked at using band pots after considering several factors.

  1. Presently, most of the mail order nurseries sell their perennials, bare root. Customers receive their plant material via mail or UPS. They then either pot it up or plant it into their gardens. People in most cases pay full retail prices for a bare-root plant.
  2. In general, most perennial crops are 8 to 12 weeks in production duration after transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings. It is possible to grow plants in band pots and bring them to marketability several times during 1 year or season.
  3. The reutilization of containers can effect
"To Seek and to Share" … Founding a New I.P.P.S. Region

Author: Peter Orum

PP: 556

The I.P.P.S. continues to seek active members in all areas of the world. One of the newest regions to be established is IPPS-Denmark, the Scandinavian Region.

Sponsored by the Eastern Region, the first step was to organize and find interested people in the new region. There were already some active I.P.P.S. members. An organizing conference was held in 1992.

With the financial and moral support of the International and the Eastern Region membership, brochures were produced in both English and Danish and potential members were contacted throughout Scandinavia.

The first conference was held in Odense, Denmark in September 1992. Attending were Eastern Region organizer Peter Orum and International Secretary John Wott. Later that same month, IPPS-Denmark President Erik Lund-Andersen attended the International Conference in Sacramento, California and obtained acceptance of the new Region.

The second conference was held in Jutland, Denmark, in September 1993. September, 1994 saw the third

Rooting Response of Microcuttings of Hybrid Dogwood

Author: Deborah D. McCown, Andrew J. Daun

PP: 557

Flowering dogwoods are among America's most elegant and popular small trees. While dogwoods can be grown from seed, most are propagated from cuttings. Elite selections for superior flowering and interspecific hybrids of Cornus florida and C. kousa for disease resistance require clonal propagation. Successful cutting propagation of dogwoods has required use of rooting hormones. A survey of I.P.P.S. Proceedings recommended that softwood-tip cuttings should be treated with IBA at 0.3% to 2% in talc or 2500 ppm IBA + 2500 ppm NAA as a liquid dip for high percentage rooting.

Knight Hollow Nursery has been micropropagating several cultivars of interspecific crosses of C. florida and C. kousa for 4 years. Woody Plant Medium solidified with 1.4 g litre-1 phytogel and 4 g litre-1 agar and supplemented with 6 mM calcium gluconate and 1 µM zeatin is a satisfactory culture medium. Growth is rapid and subculture cycles are normally 4 to 6 weeks, Our experience with woody plant microcuttings in

Low-Tech Fern Propagation

Author: Richard H. Munson

PP: 559

Fern propagation has been discussed a number of times in past Proceedings, most recently in 1993 (O'Dell). In order for fern spores to germinate, and eventually produce fern plants, certain requirements must be met: a ready supply of viable spores; sterile, or at least pasteurized, growing medium; a clean, translucent watertight container; a certain amount of light; and a continuous supply of moisture. Although the basics of fern propagation remain unchanged, a method that uses small, recycled containers may be useful to small nurseries and to teachers for classroom demonstrations.

Grocery stores and restaurants frequently use hinged plastic containers for takeout salads, nuts, alfalfa sprouts, and other perishable foods. Normally these have a clear lid for product viewing and either a clear or opaque bottom. These leftover containers, once thoroughly cleaned, make excellent growing chambers for fern spore germination. Normally, the lid has an interlocking rib that connects the

Propagation of Summer Blooming Azaleas

Author: Christopher S. Rogers

PP: 560


In the 1940s Ed Mezitt saw the need for extending the flowering season in the New England landscape. He began working with native azaleas and was successful in developing a wide range of flower colors and plant habits. These plants begin blooming after mid-June in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, and add color at a time when most woody plants have finished blooming. Several are sufficiently winter hardy to thrive in all but the northmost areas of New England.

Control of Root Outgrowth by Copper Hydroxide in Capillary Mat Plug Production

Author: Myra Stafford, Robert L. Geneve, Jack W. Buxton

PP: 561

Capillary mat subirrigation offers several advantages over standard overhead watering. It provides a relatively constant supply of water reducing fluctuations in the water content of the medium caused by evaporation between overhead watering cycles. Also, it is a viable option to meet new or pending regulations for managing water and water effluent for greenhouse production. The drawback for plants grown on capillary mats is root outgrowth from the container into the capillary mat (Koranski and Kessler, 1991). Root outgrowth reduces the life of the mat, can make removal of plants from the mat difficult, and reduce the quality of the seedling for transplanting.

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of treating the outside, bottom of plug containers with Spin Out (a commercially available formulation of copper hydroxide in latex paint) to control root outgrowth into capillary mats during plug production of marigold seedlings.

Seeds of marigold (Tagetes Little

New Concepts in Improving Ornamental Plant Adaptability with Stress-Tolerant Rootstocks

Author: J.C. Raulston

PP: 566


Fifteen years of ornamental plant adaptability trials at The NCSU Arboretum with widely diverse species from around the world has shown the single most important environmental/climatic limitation to be root survival under wet, hot summer conditions. As temperatures rise, respiration rates increase, which create a requirement for more oxygen to permit root survival. Sudden flooding of poorly drained soils during maximum temperature periods can create temporary, but quickly fatal, anaerobic conditions for roots at the time of peak oxygen demand. This situation is unique to the southeastern U.S. Conversely, soils in southwest and western states are dry (and subsequently well aerated) during periods of high temperatures, while central and northeast areas are cooler when rains occur.

In addition, modern container production with carefully formulated media of coarse texture and rapid drainage allows simple, successful production of plants with fragile root systems which

Fate of Herbicides in Container Nursery Runoff

Author: Ted Whitwell, Jeanne A. Briggs, M.B. Riley, N.D. Camper

PP: 570

Multiple preemergence herbicides applications are used in nurseries to control troublesome weeds throughout the growing season. Much of the applied chemicals are subject to runoff losses from the irrigation water, and recycled irrigation water may contain herbicide residues that could be harmful in the production of landscape plants. In 1991, we started research to determine the fate of herbicides in nursery runoff water. Two nurseries that recycle irrigation water were surveyed over a 2-year time period by analyzing containment pond water and sediment samples monthly. Pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, and oryzalin herbicides were detected in water and sediment at times in both nurseries; however, herbicides did not accumulate over time and there was no strong correlation between amount detected and amount or timing of herbicide application. On-site, nursery runoff studies were used to evaluate quantities lost from a single herbicide application and the length of residual activity in containment pond water. Approximately 5% of the amount of oryzalin and oxyfluorfen applied moved in the runoff water from the first irrigation after treatment. Herbicide residues decreased over time in the containment pond and no residues were detected 3 weeks after herbicide application. Micro plot studies indicated plastic bed covers enhanced runoff losses compared to gravel. Other field runoff studies with Snapshot TG (isoxaben and trifluralin) revealed that as much as 12.5% of the applied isoxaben was lost in the first 5 days after application. Isoxaben dissipated below detection limit in the pond water 60 days after application. Sprayable isoxaben was more subject to runoff losses than granular formulations and light played an important role in the dissipation of isoxaben. Greenhouse studies revealed that herbicide residue levels detected in the irrigation water were 100 times lower than the level that would cause measurable landscape plant damage. Grassed water ways and vegetated filter strips will lower the levels of pesticides reaching the surface water bodies.
Irrigation Tailwater Regulations in the 1990s

Author: Mark W. Andrews

PP: 574


A reliable supply of quality water is the life blood of the nursery industry. Agriculture consumes 42% of all industrial water used nationwide. This figure increases to 85% in California where agriculture represents 10% of the State&39;s industry (Bolusky and Regelbrugge, 1992). As the 1990s continue, there will be a growing struggle between agriculture, industrial, urban, and environmental interests over water. As this struggle intensifies, water regulations will likely increase.

In spite of the recent changes in Congress and the deregulation of Federal laws, most Americans want environmental laws strengthened rather than weakened. In a recent survey, when asked about safe drinking water laws, 76% favored stricter laws, while 15% did not (American Nurseryman, 1995a). The current environmental consciousness of society and concern for safe drinking water makes it necessary for the nursery industry to understand and become proactive in current and future water

Mycorrhizae of the Epacridaceae and Its Use in Propagation

Author: Cassandra McLean

PP: 108


Mycorrhizae benefit several commercially produced plants (Galea and Poli, 1994). This paper is a brief overview of mycorrhiza of the Epacridaceae and how they may be used in propagation. Members of the Epacridaceae are difficult to propagate (Thompson, 1986; Williams, 1986). The seeds in some species are extremely small and are not used in propagation, although they appear to germinate readily in the wild (Reed, 1989). Germination rates can be as low as 3% to 7% with Epacris impressa Labill. Cuttings are the usual method of propagation; however, success varies enormously—between 0% and 100%. With low survival rates and losses at planting out several attractive epacrids are not grown commercially. This is unfortunate as there is a large public demand for them.

Anecdotal evidence suggested that adding soil from beneath established plants improved the strike rate of epacrids, suggesting that the mycorrhizae which are present in all epacrid roots play a role in establishment.

Compatibility of Worker Protection Standards and Integrated Pest Management Strategies

Author: Raymond D. French

PP: 577


The Worker Protection Standard Law went into full implementation this year. Southern Growers Nursery has made the capital expenditures, spent the extra man hours, and put forth the effort to comply with all regulations. These efforts include: increasing employee training, providing and maintaining personal protective equipment, building decontamination sites, buying and using notification signs, establishing a central posting sight, and maintaining records. After considerable expenditures of both money and effort, we are to the best of our knowledge in compliance with this new law.

Fall Fertilization of Nursery Crops

Author: Ronald F. Walden

PP: 580


Fall fertilization should play an important role in nursery production programs. Knowledge of the leaf tissue N level in plants prior to dormancy is essential for maximizing spring growth. A desirable level of leaf tissue N can be attained by following the proper procedures for fall fertilization.

Application of Israeli Low-Volume Irrigation Technology

Author: J. Kevin Parris

PP: 582


Two years ago Gilbert's Nursery faced a dilemma. We were rapidly increasing the number of taxa we were producing as well as increasing overall production. We were operating mist systems in our six propagation houses off a well capable of delivering 26 liters (7 gal) of water a minute. Four pressurized tanks were used to increase our water volume, but this was not enough to comfortably supply our 1394 m2 (15,000 ft2) of propagation houses with sufficient pressure to operate our misting sprinklers. We were solely using the Olson 0–4000 sprinkler. We liked this type of misting device because it also allowed us the capability of watering in liners after they rooted. However, it delivers 6 liters (1.5 gal) per min. This was putting an incredible strain on our pump which also supplies our propagation room, break room, bathrooms, and offices with water. We also had twelve other propagation structures totaling 1498 m2 (16,128 ft2) which we were misting with recycled pond water.

Unique Bottom-Heat System for Propagation of Ornamentals

Author: Marla Townsend

PP: 584


Hawksridge Farms, Inc. was established in 1982. At present, we are approximately a 24-ha (60 acre) container nursery. We have 35 full-time and 15 seasonal employees. Of these employees, four full-time employees and three seasonal work in propagation.

We grow approximately 650 taxa of trees, ornamental shrubs, needled evergreens, ornamental grasses, bamboo, vines, and perennials. We propagate approximately 75% of what we grow.

The nursery has had a propagation facility since it began. However, 1983 was when the first bottom heat house was built. Several other nurseries were visited, and a lot of ideas were synthesized in development of the bottom heat system we utilize at our nursery. A few changes have been made over the years, but the basic concept has stayed the same.

The main crop used in our bottom heat houses is our needled evergreens. We grow a lot of upright conifers that would be hard to root if we did not use bottom heat. We grow approximately 100 cultivars of

The Controversy Continues: Comparisons of Propagation Techniques of Magnolia grandiflora

Author: Pat McCracken

PP: 587


Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) is prized for landscaping due to its lustrous, evergreen leaves and large, fragrant flowers. In the past, southern magnolia was traditionally propagated from seed. Seedlings exhibit highly variable growth characteristics. Selections have been made for hardiness, growth habit, leaf shape, large flowers, and dark-colored, textured leaf undersides (Dirr, 1990). Named cultivars are recognized by landscape architects and designers, and are being requested in increasingly larger numbers. This increase in demand has made it necessary to utilize asexual propagation techniques (Berry, 1991). These techniques include rooting, budding, grafting, and tissue culture. Each of these techniques has certain advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this paper is to address the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and to present rooting results on southern magnolia.

Propagation of Magnolia grandiflora Cultivars

Author: Robert H. Head

PP: 591


Grafting and Budding Production of Magnolia grandiflora Cultivars. Grafting and budding require rootstocks which vary in growth response, winter hardiness, transplanting adaptability, and are compatible with selected scion cultivars. Although, only a limited number of plants can be generated by each worker, skilled grafters have a high grafting success with most cultivars. March is the best month for grafting and budding in South Carolina—but March is very busy with the nursery shipping season, and greenhouse space is generally limited.

Each cultivar has a root system morphology that is unique to itself and this is also true of M. grandiflora seedling rootstocks. Seedling rootstocks have a direct influence on the phenotypic development of the scion cultivar. Rootstock effects on scions have been shown with many plant species and cultivars. Differences in root growth and root size can be seen by examining root development of different M. grandiflora cultivars.

The Importance of Propagation to a New Nursery

Author: Jeff C. Adcock

PP: 594


The objective of this paper is to show how I used propagation to assist me financially in the rapid establishment of a 25-acre nursery in 6 years with only $60,000 of financial assistance from the bank.

Death, Taxes, and Weeds

Author: Stuart L. Warren

PP: 598


When was the last time you said "I did not have any weed problems last year"? I have never heard anyone make that statement. Why are weeds so dependable that you can always count on having weed problems. This article will examine the reasons that weeds are as dependable as death and taxes.

A common definition of a weed—is a plant out of place. Weeds range from oak seedlings to daylilies to prostrate spurge growing in areas where they are not wanted. This definition does not distinguish between plants that possess truly weedy characteristics from those that are only occasional nuisances. A weed is a weed because it possesses certain definable characteristics that set it apart from other plant species. A better definition might be weeds are plants that are competitive, persistent, and pernicious. In other words, a true weed is a plant out of place and intends on staying there. True weeds exhibit the following characteristics:

  • Competitive and aggressive
  • Able to grow, survive,
Benzyladenine-Induced Offset Formation in Hosta Dependent on Cultivar

Author: James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes, J. Raymond Kes

PP: 605

Ten hosta cultivars were treated with either 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 ppm benzyladenine (BA). Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars tested. At 30 days after treatment (DAT), increases in offsets ranged from 116% for ‘Francee’ to 3500% for ‘Francis Williams’ at 3750 ppm BA. At 60 DAT, responses to 3750 ppm BA ranged from 150% with ‘Royal Standard’ to 2250% with ‘Francis Williams’. The number of unfurled leaves on offsets (stage of development) was cultivar and BA dependent. However, all cultivars treated with 3750 ppm BA had an average offset stage of development of three unfurled leaves or greater at 60 DAT. Control plants of 40% of cultivars averaged less than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivars, and growth index was either increased or not affected by BA rate.
Timing and Potassium Indole-3-Butyric Acid Treatments on Rooting Stem Cuttings of Cephalotaxus harringtonia

Author: Andrea L. Southworth, Michael A. Dirr

PP: 611

Stem cuttings from a prostrate clone of Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Forbes) K. Koch (Japanese plum-yew) were taken monthly from Sept. 1994 through Aug. 1995, treated with 0 or 10,000 ppm K-IBA, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 16weeks. Cuttings taken from December to Feburary, and treated with K-IBA averaged 85% rooting, 10 roots per cutting, and 35 cm total root length. The next highest rooting percentages (78%) were noted for nontreated cuttings taken from March to May. Poorest rooting occurred for cuttings taken from June to August and September to November. Chemical name used: potassium indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).
Improving Nutrient and Water Management in Nurseries

Author: G.C. Cresswell

PP: 112


Inefficient irrigation practices have had a major influence on the development of container media and on fertiliser use in nurseries. In New South Wales (NSW) more than 80% of nurseries with automatic watering use overhead sprinklers (Doumit, 1991). Sprinklers have two main short comings. Firstly, they water an area of ground or bench regardless of whether plants are present. At plant spacings normally used in nurseries, just 20% to 30% of the bench or floor area is covered with pots (Rolfe et al., 1994). Consequently up to 80% of irrigation water either falls between pots or on unproductive ground such as roads or pathways. The second shortcoming is that sprinklers generally do not distribute water evenly over the production area. Large irrigation volumes are needed to ensure that pots in dry areas receive adequate water. In some commercial nurseries, there can be a 6 to 7 times difference in water applied between the driest and the wettest pot and the average rate of

Field Production of Cornus Cultivars

Author: Don O. Shadow

PP: 615


At Shadow Nursery we are propagating Cornus florida, C. and C. florida × C. kousa cultivars by T-budding. This is the eighteenth year we have used this propagation method in producing these dogwoods on a commercial basis.

Marketing Wetland Natives and Endangered Plants Under Federal and State Permitting Regulations

Author: Robert B. McCartney

PP: 617


The topic I have been asked to cover is really two rather different subjects. Each could be the subject of a much more lengthy presentation. They relate in that they both involve native plants, natural ecosystems, environmental regulations, and the Green Industry.

I will try to briefly discuss wetland native plants and spend a little more time on the subject of endangered plants and the attendant ethical and legal considerations.

Legislation to Protect the Environment and Endangered Species. In the 1970s during the Nixon administration, sweeping federal environmental legislation including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act became law. These federal laws from the 1970's plus other state and federal environmental laws since that time have affected the green industry in various ways well known to most of you. Legal requirements to protect wetlands have severely restricted development in many areas. Restoration of damaged wetlands or

Plants With Commercial Promise

Author: J.C. Raulston

PP: 620


With the word "commercial" in the title, this has become a conservative selection list of plants easy-to-propagate, relatively fast, relatively "known", and with propagation stock available. Perhaps the greatest factor in profitability of nursery stock today is speed of growth with ease of culture. The following plants are offered as examples of plants either presently expanding rapidly in usage, or projected to do so in the near future.

A Message of Congratulations on the 2nd Annual Conference of IPPS Japan Potential Region

Author: S. Tsumura

PP: 625

It is a great pleasure for me to express congratulations on the 2nd Annual Conference of IPPS Japan Potential Region in Miyazaki, and also to welcome overseas and home participants. In addition, I have a deep respect for the communication opportunities among people concerned in production, marketing, consumption, and research.

Because it is mild in winter and sunshine is abundant all the year round, Miyazaki is an important centre for the production of horticultural crops in Japan, especially the glasshouse production of pumpkin, sweet pepper, and cucumber. At present, we are facing big changes in horticulture and agriculture on an international scale. Therefore, the creation of good cultivars and the introduction of new technology into the field are necessary. Recently, there have been remarkable advances in biotechnology, and we await the application of these advances to the production and management of crops.

I believe the presentations and communications during this Conference

Drawing a Picture on the Earth

Author: T. Watanabe

PP: 625

Miyazaki prefecture is well known as a tourist resort. In former times, however, Miyazaki was not well known as there were no tourist attractions or hot springs. One man's vision was responsible for developing Miyazaki as you see it today, his name was Mr. S. Iwakiri. He was born in in Miyazaki City in 1893. After graduation from Tokyo University he entered the head office of Sumitomo Co., and soon came back to Miyazaki.

In 1926, Mr. Iwakiri bought four used buses from Ford Co. and founded the Miyazaki Motorcar Company. In 1931, sight-seeing buses began running between Miyazaki and Aoshima. At that time, the bus guides of the Miyazaki Traffic Co. had the best reputation in Japan. Nevertheless, the number of tourists visiting Miyazaki was not large because there was no hot spring. Mr. Iwakiri thought that it was necessary to develop alternative tourist venues.

Mr. Iwakiri became interested in the Phoenix palm and from 1931 he started planting Phoenix palms on the Nichinan coast. Iwakiri

Environmental Control in Plug Production

Author: Yoshiaki Kitaya

PP: 626


The commercial use of seedling plugs (called plugs hereafter) has recently increased rapidly worldwide in horticulture. They have many benefits, such as easier transplanting, faster growth, and greater uniformity compared with conventional nursery plants. However, the scheduling of plug production is still a common problem because of the difficulty in controlling plug growth in glasshouses. The precise control of environmental factors is needed to produce high quality plugs with rapid turnover. Short and thick stems (i.e. short height) is essential for quality plugs. This article summarizes the responses of plugs to environmental factors from an environmental control point of view.

Cultivar Differences in Shoot Proliferation and Rooting of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

Author: Hisashi Harada, Yasuhiro Murai

PP: 627

Cultivar differences in shoot proliferation and rooting of Prunus salicina were investigated. The number of shoots on woody plant medium (WP) containing 2 µM BA was greater in cultivars Ooishi-nakate and Santa Rosa. While the cultivars, Ooishi-wase, King, Cocheco, Sordum, Manchurian, and Methley showed low proliferation rates. Maximum shoot length was found in ‘Cocheco’. ‘Sordum’ had the poorest shoot elongation.

Rooting ability was higher in cultivars Ooishi-wase, King, Cocheco, Santa Rosa, Manchurian, and Methley, but that of Ooishi-nakate and Sordum were low. In most cultivars tested, IBA was more effective for rooting than NAA.

Cultivar Differences in Shoot Proliferation and Rooting of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) in Vitro

Author: Y. Murai, H. Harada, Y. Yamaji

PP: 631

Using seven cultivars of apricot (Heiwa, Mochi-anzu, Yamagata-3, Jinshirou, Shinshu-ohmi, Alfred, and Goldcot), differences in shoot proliferation and rooting ability were investigated. Woody Plant (WP) medium was more effective for the culture establishment of apricot compared with B5 and MS media. High proliferation rates were obtained in ‘Alfred’ and ‘Goldcot’, but ‘Jinshirou’, ‘Yamagata-3’, and ‘Heiwa’ gave low rates of shoot proliferation. For shoot length, ‘Goldcot’ and ‘Alfred’ gave the best elongation, but poor elongation occurred with ‘Yamagata-3’, ‘Jinshirou’, and ‘Heiwa’. Rooting ability differed among the four cultivars tested, Heiwa and Mochi-anzu had the highest rooting rate at more than 50%, by comparison a rooting rate of less than 20% occurred in Alfred and Goldcot.
Micropropagation of Venus Fly-Trap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis)

Author: T. Yamamoto, T. Shiba, M. Horikawa

PP: 634

Experiments were carried out on a large-scale propagation of Venus fly-trap through leaf explant culture. When whole leaf explants excised from a donor plant grown in vitro were cultured on half-strength LS media with different concentrations of BA, adventitious shoots were mainly formed from the petiole of the explants, and few formed from the leaf blade of the explants. The medium supplemented with 2 mg liter-1 BA was the most effective for organogenesis. The shoots grew into plantlets which were transferred to the medium with 0.1 mg liter-1 NAA. The differentiation and subsequent growth of the rhizomes as better in the medium solidified with Gelrite than in that with agar. The adventitious shoots formed in a row on the rhizome in the medium. These shoots were excised from the rhizome and were transferred to the medium for further proliferation. By these procedures, a large number of regenerated plantlets were obtained, and the plants after acclimatization have grown well in pots.
Diurnal Changes of the Net Photosynthetic Rate and Evapotranspiration Rate of Plug Sheets in the Glasshouse

Author: T. Shibuya, Y. Kitaya, T. Kozai, M. Nakahara

PP: 638


On-line estimation of evapotranspiration rates (FW) and net photosynthetic rates (FC) in situ of plug sheets is important for optimum control of the glasshouse environment and the soil mix moisture for growth of the plugs in a relatively small volume of soil mix.

Water Quality of Stored and Runoff Water in Plant Nurseries and Implications for Recycling

Author: Elizabeth A. James

PP: 117


This project was initiated by the Australian nursery industry and the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation in response to the increased impact of water use on available water resources and government strategies to reduce the environmental effects of water use and improve the quality of discharged waste-water. Its aim is to provide information and practical advice for Australian growers wishing to recycle excess water from the irrigation of nursery and cutflower crops.

Australia has a water quality management strategy which is developing a national approach to the environmental management of water use. It is important to consider the whole catchment when determining environmental management goals, and the emphasis of water management in Australia will become increasingly catchment-based. Legislation is currently enacted separately in each State and so regulations differ. In the future, it is hoped that the States will follow guidelines developed for a cohesive

The Production of Ground-Cover Plants

Author: Shigetoshi Sekiya

PP: 641

Since olden times, in Japan, mosses and underplants have been used for gardening. More recently, however, so-called groundcover plants native to Japan or foreign countries have begun to be produced and popularized widely. Our company which has existed for 20 years began the mass propagation of groundcover plants 10 years ago. At present, we have about 500 taxa, and are producing 8 million potted plants per year. The propagation methods of some representative plants in our nursery are shown as follows:
  1. Stem cuttings
       Climbing plants: Hedera helix, Gelsemium sempervirens
       Woody shrubs: Hypericum, Cotoneaster salicifolius
       Perennial herbs: Phlox subulata
  2. Leaf petiole cuttings
       Perennial herbs: Mesembryanthemum spectabilis, Ajuga reptans
  3. Root cuttings
       Woody shrubs:Ardisia japonica, Hypericurn calycinum, Pachysandra terminalis
       Perennial herbs: Hosta ssp., Phlox subulata
       Bamboo grass: Shibataea kumasasa, Sasa veitchii
  4. Division
       Woody shrubs: Pachysandra terminalis
       Perennial herbs:
Container Culture for Oak-Tree Production from Seed

Author: Masakatsu Morita

PP: 642

In Japan, the container production of green plants started around 1965. At that time, the cultivation techniques were not fully understood and for many nurseries it was a case of trial and error when it came to problems with soil condition, plant height, container size, production facilities, etc. Also, no one knew exactly whether or not the market would increase. In 1974, I began the container production of green plants, especially oak trees. I shall now trace my efforts in oak-tree container production.
Changes in the Root Systems of Trees in Container Production

Author: Shouzou Watanabe

PP: 643

In general, the container production of trees often results in root circling. Complex changes in root systems occur under conditions of high temperature and high humidity in Japan. Root circling is caused by the roots having few lateral and fibrous roots. This results in an inhibitory effect on stem enlargement, bud formation, and leaf expansion. From personal observation I believe that the root circling within the container is caused by two apparently contradictory factors, i.e., drainage and water holding capacity of the soil in the container. Therefore, it is very important to increase the number of lateral and fibrous roots by adequate watering of the soil in the container. By following this procedure, it became possible to promote the rapid growth of trees as shown in the pictures.
Horticultural Production in New Zealand

Author: Peter Waugh

PP: 643

Geographically, New Zealand is widely spread, from 33° South to 48° South. Specific crop-related activities are concentrated in close proximity to either population concentrations or favourable growing microclimates. Most forestry propagation occurs within the vicinity of established forests. These are throughout the South Island but most especially in the north, south, and west coastal regions and in the North Island on the central plateau.

Vegetable production and supporting propagation activities are centred in South Auckland (Metropolitan Auckland has a population 1 to 1.5 million), south of Palmerston North to service the capital Wellington, and on deep volcanic pumice soils on the west side of the central North Island, particularly around Ohakune. South Island production occurs north and south Christchurch, and in the region of Nelson and Blenheim in the northern South Island.

Ornamental production is widespread with concentrations in the Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Hawkes Bay, and

Growing and Flowering of in vitro Propagated Lilium japonicum Thunb.

Author: Hironori Ohba, Masahiko Yano, Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 644

Lilium japonicum Thunb., sasa-yuri, proliferated by scale culture and enlarged in vitro, were investigated with regard to growth and flowering in the field. When the annual growth of bulbs in the field was observed, leaf emergence of the first year bulbs was seen to be low, but the second year bulbs showed a high leaf emergence rate regardless of bulb weight. Bulbs weighing 1.5 g and more at transplanting had flowers in the second year. A bulb's weight at harvest time was clearly related to stem leaf emergence and length of shoot. The lilies with long shoots and many leaves had larger bulbs. The flowering rate was higher on the larger bulbs, and 80% of the bulbs, which weighed more than 6 g, had flowers. It is, therefore, possible to produce flowers in the field during the second year of cultivation, provided the bulbs are grown up to 6 g or more during the first year.
Productivity of Micropropagated Plants and Rooted Cutting Grafts of Rose cv. Madame Violet in Rockwool Culture

Author: Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 652

Rose cv. Madame Violet was propagated by shoot tip culture, cutting graft, cutting, and softwood grafting, and was cultured on rockwool for 2 years. The productivity of micropropagated plants, rooted cutting-grafts, rooted cuttings, and softwood-grafted nursery plants was 9.7, 7.2, 7.6, and 4.9 flowers/plant-year, respectively, in the first year, and was 12.0, 11.1, 11.6, and 7.9 flowers/plant-year in the second year. The flowers were harvested from rooted cutting grafts and softwood grafted nursery plants every 50 to 60 days. Micropropagated plants and rooted cuttings had harvestable flowers continually. The formation of many leader shoots by rejuvenation produced the high rate and continual productivity of micropropagated plants. The length of stems, 75 to 80 cm, was the same in micropropagated plants, rooted cutting grafts, and rooted cuttings. The flowers cut from softwood grafted nursery plants were significantly shorter than those of the other plants and were below 70 cm. Of the softwood grafted nursery plants 31% were infected with crown gall.
Photoautotrophic micropropagation of Cymbidium: Effects of CO2 Concentration, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density and Sucrose Concentration on Plantlet Growth

Author: J.W. Heo, C. Kubota, T. Kozai, Y. Kitaya

PP: 656

Cymbidium plantlets are produced in vitro normally under heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions in the presence of sucrose. Leafy nodes of other species have been grown successfully to plantlets through photoautotrophic culture (i.e. without sucrose) under CO2 enrichment. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine if cymbidiums in leaf can also be micropropagated without sucrose, and if so, to determine the optimum culture conditions.

Cymbidium PLBs with two or three leaves were cultured in vitro on half strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium under varying concentrations of sucrose, CO2 and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 42 days; the treatments were

Mass Propagation and Distribution of Rhododendron

Author: Tadao Fujimori, Tomio Nishimura

PP: 660

From 1972, Akatsuka Shokubutsuen has imported 400,000 pots of rhododendron and distributed them in Japan. During this time, tissue-culture propagation has been adopted for mass production and we now have planned production of nursery plants resulting in saleable pots of rhododendron. These tissue-cultured plants were registered as "Rhody". "Rhody" production was licensed with many agricultural corporations from the north (Fukushima Pref.) to the south (Miyazaki Pref.) of Japan. And recently, more hardy and heat-tolerant clones were registered under the name of "Super Rhody".
Use of PeSp Seedlings in Production of Fruit Vegetables

Author: T. Yamamoto, Y. Onodera, S. Yasuari

PP: 660

A PeSP seedling is a kind of plug plant grown in a small cell which is a square of 14 mm and 23 mm in height. The production of fruiting vegetables in a glasshouse using PeSP seedlings has recently spread because the package of seedlings can be easily transported a long way. This study investigated the growth characteristics of PeSp seedlings. The results were summarized as follows: stem length, number of leaves, and the dry-matter weight of each organ of the PeSP seedlings of sweet pepper were larger than those of traditionally produced seedlings one month after transplanting. An especially marked difference in the dry matter weight of the roots was noted between the two kinds of seedlings. Over the same period, the dry-matter weight of PeSP seedlings of tomato was also greater than that of traditionally produced seedlings. By increasing the basal dressing of nitrogen, the yield of tomato, using PeSP seedlings, was increased compared with traditionally produced seedlings, however, the
Micropropagation of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) by Liquid-Shake Culture of Multiple-Bud Bodies

Author: Seibi Oka

PP: 661


Mulberry is an important woody crop used for silkworm rearing and is cultivated in many temperate countries throughout the world. It is conventionally propagated by grafting or cuttings. In vitro micropropagation of mulberry has been studied for various species (Oka, 1985; Hossain et al., 1992; Jain et al., 1990; Yadav et al., 1990). In these studies, micropropagation through multiple shoot formation has been exclusively performed on solid media. Micropropagation by liquid-shake culture is employed in several vegetables and ornamental flowers (Takayama, 1991). In woody plants, however, only a limited number of studies have reported on micropropagation using liquid culture (Alvard et al., 1993; Hammerschlag, 1982). In preliminary work, we reported that multiple-bud bodies (MBB) could be induced from shoot tips of mulberry seedlings immediately after development of the first true leaves in the liquid-shake culture of a medium supplemented with CPPU, a urea-type cytokinin

The Australian Native Foods Industry: New Challenges for the Plant Propagator

Author: John G. McCarthy

PP: 46


There is already a broad range of foods currently available which are legitimately native to Australia. In addition to well known edible fauna, we have a diverse range of native food-producing flora capable of being commercialised in a short period of time. Species selection has been strongly influenced by culinary successes from restaurants specialising in Australian native cuisine.

Further development of such an industry will offer a commercially viable supplement to marginal agricultural enterprises, irrigated and dryland. Additionally, in the short-term, it has the potential to offer Landcare groups, aboriginal communities, farmers, bush regenerators, and local councils economic returns on revegetation programs and financial incentives to preserve wild populations.

Our neglect of native foods is a legacy of foreign traditions that has seen land use ethics evolve which have failed to adopt and adapt to indigenous land ethics. It has been naive of us to assume that we can

Growing Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in the Subtropics

Author: Anne M.J. Soby

PP: 121


Kalanchoe blossfeldiana are spectacular in flower as either an indoor plant or a bedding plant. It is native to Madagascar and belongs to the Crassulaceae family. From experience, there is a set way of propagating and growing each plant species. Every crop has a set of optimum growing conditions, including propagation material, ideal temperatures, specific nutrient levels, and other relevant growing requirements.

Decisions regarding the growing requirements for new crops must be made with the benefit of experience gained over time, especially in the subtropics.

Accumulation of Benzyladenine in Green Globular Bodies in a Micropropagation System for Pteris ensiformis

Author: W. Amaki, H. Higuchi, Y. Kanda, Y. Niimi, Y. Hayata

PP: 665


The rhizome explants of several ferns produce a tissue (GGB, green globular body) on benzyladenine (BA)-supplemented medium in vitro. The surface of GGB is covered with meristematic tissues. The GGB was rapidly multiplied on a BA-supplemented medium, and plantlets regenerated on a BA-free medium From these experimental results, we proposed a micropropagation system using GGB as the propagule (Fig. 1). However, the time required for the regeneration of plantlets from GGB segments and the frequency of subcultures gradually increased when our proposed system was applied to Pteris ensiformis ‘Victoriae’. In this study, we examined the effect of transient transfer of GGB to BA-free medium on the rate of plantlet regeneration, and determined the content of BA in GGB.

The Propagation of Virus-free Sweet Potato Cuttings by Hydroponics in Miyazaki Prefecture

Author: Hiroki Ohta, Kazuya Bekki, Toyofumi Shimizu

PP: 668

It is well known that virus-free, sweet potato cuttings have advantages for crop production, although there has been no effective method to propagate a large quantity of cuttings in a short time. After several years of experiments, a hydroponic system has proved to be a successful method to propagate sweet potato cuttings; this system is a deep flow technique (DFT) hydroponic system. The system requires a clean culture bed, an automatic nutrient solution control system, and an air mixing device as shown in Figure 1. This system, as used by an agricultural cooperative and some growers in Miyazaki prefecture, is shown in Figure 2. In this process the cuttings are multiplied in a soil-less culture system through all stages, therefore, the cuttings are free of viruses, soil fungi, and nematodes. The plants propagated in this way are disease-free, better rooting, and produce higher yields. Because of these advantages, utilization of this hydroponic system to propagate virus-free sweet
Some Observations on the Breeding of Japanese Camellias

Author: Akin Nagatomo

PP: 669

In my garden, there grows a 20-year-old camellia with beautiful white flowers which I have named ‘Kusano-Shiro’. This plant produces a lot of seed every year, and I have produced many young plants from it. I wish to report my observations on the segregation of flower colour and form in F1 crosses.
Introducing Genes into Zygopetalum by the Use of a Particle Gun

Author: Saburo Yasugi, Ryutaro Nagata

PP: 670

Protocorms and small seedlings of Zygopetalum grown aseptically were bombarded with accelerated gold particles coated with plasmids containing a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as the reporter. Blue transformed cells were detected by the enzymatic GUS assay. Neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene was used as the selectable marker. Two kinds of plasmid were used, namely pBI 121 and pBI 221. Gun parameters influencing DNA delivery such as the number of bombardments and helium gas pressure as the particle propulsion were investigated. The optimal conditions for introducing foreign genes were two bombardments at 1300 psi helium gas pressure. Although there was a possibility of the escape from kanamycin, several transgenic plants were obtained after a 4-week selection culture.
Trial of Half-Cotyledon Selection Scheme Aided by Tissue Culture for the Acceleration of Tea Breeding

Author: S. Yamaguchi, J.I. Tanaka

PP: 676

The breeding of tea plants is a time-consuming job because tea is a woody plant taking many years to grow from seed to maturity—the time of final evaluation of field performance. So, breeders have proposed various early selection procedures at the seedling stage.

In this paper we present a new method using divided halves of seed cotyledons for the early selection of tea. One half is for the maintenance and multiplication of the original stock, cultured on a solid medium (MS basic), and the remaining half

Effects of an Anti-Auxin-Like Substance Containing Fluorines and Chlorinated Indole Auxin on the Seed and Vegetative Propagation of Two Turf Species

Author: H. Gemma, J-M. Du, M. Takemura

PP: 677

The effects of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA) and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-CI-IAA) on the seed and vegetative propagation of two turf species were investigated. As a result, TFIBA was seen to promote noticeable root growth on turf seedlings and sod.
Flower Production by Japanese in Brazil

Author: Masanobu Arai

PP: 681

Brazil is 8,500,000 km2 in area, 23 times as large as Japan, and the population is 146,000,000. Although the capital is Brasilia, the biggest city is Sao Paulo which has a population the same as Tokyo.

Japanese people are involved in agriculture in Brazil, especially wheat farming, and fruit and flower production. Ninety percent of the flower growers are Japanese, and they live around Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo has the same climate as the highlands of Taiwan—it is a subtropical zone. The quality of potted flowers in Brazil, e.g. poinsettia, dendrobium, and ferns, is very high in spite of unheated production systems, because the climate is good for flower production with low humidity and a large difference between day and night temperatures. The growers also use a lot of insulation.

The price of agricultural land is:      $10 m-2.
The cost of a glasshouse:               $2 to 3 m-2 - wooden glasshouse
                                                     $6 to 7 m-2pipe - frame glasshouse
Gardening in New Zealand

Author: Jo Dawkins

PP: 681

Since the beginning of civilisation, gardens have been mentioned in history—the Garden of Eden, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and no doubt Japanese history has important gardens too. Throughout history mankind has used Nature for peace and meditation. The olive branch is a symbol of peace and every country has a national flower.

New Zealand is approximately the same size as Japan and lies in geographically similar degrees of latitude, north and south of the Equator. Tokyo is 36° North, Auckland City 36° South.

The first English settlers arrived in New Zealand 160 years ago. Although the natural vegetation was lush, green, and different, they brought with them reminders of their country—trees, shrubs, flowers, fruit trees, and English birds. Most of the plants grew well and some have become weeds. From this beginning an informal style of gardening has developed using plants from all parts of the world. A flowering Prunus can be planted beside a tropical hibiscus, a camellia beside a

Propagation of Roses and Transition of Nursery Management

Author: Takashi Onishi

PP: 682


Nowadays, people in Japan love to have plants and flowers as a part of their lives and living areas. The consumption of potted miniature roses is increasing because they are cheap, attractive, and have many different coloured flowers. Production is also increasing as it is possible to produce them all year round by means of a short growing period and cutting propagation. We are involved in potted miniature rose production.

Ornamental Horticulture in Australia, the Propagators Role

Author: E.J. Bunker

PP: 683

Australia was initially settled by people of European background. The English and European influence in gardens and public spaces is outlined.

A brief resume of early nurseries and their role in a changing society is shown. Australian society changed, so nurseries grew and specialist staff were needed. A propagator who looks after crop scheduling, cutting production on mother stock, and the actual propagation unit is central to every successful nursery.

Modern nursery practice in Australia is up to world standards and is in some cases ahead of the industry elsewhere. Nursery accreditation, plant quarantine, tissue culture, plant variety rights among other things have had a distinct impact on the nursery industry in Australia.

Export and its potential in cut flowers, tissue-cultured plant material, and in young green plants is a growing business, expanding at about 12% per year.

A brief review illustrated with slides of the authors business was shown.

Selection of Lophostemon confertus Provenances for Use in Urban Landscapes

Author: Geoffrey S. Williams

PP: 123


Among the many factors that limit urban tree establishment and growth, drought, compaction, and low soil oxygen levels are perhaps the most critical (Handreck and Black, 1994; Hitchmough, 1994; Kozlowski, 1985; Patterson, 1976). The potential for a given plant to succeed via its genetic make-up rather than the availability of resource inputs must be maximised. One genetic improvement strategy that has proved highly successful and is standard practice in forestry is provenance selection which is the process of tapping into naturally occurring within-species variation (Turnbull and Griffin, 1986). Trials have shown that provenances in many species differ in an enormous range of characteristics, including the factors of interest to landscape professionals such as drought tolerance (Pallardy, 1981) and temperature tolerance (Widrlechner, 1994). Lophostemon confertus is a widely used tree in urban south-eastern Australia. It is distributed naturally in habitats associated with

Setting up a Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory

Author: Lynley Watson

PP: 684

Plant Microculture Laboratories was established in April 1992, with an initial goal to propagate calla lilies (Zantedeschia) for local nurseries to grow on to export bulbs and the longer term aim of becoming a contract tissue culture laboratory, undertaking the development and propagation of a wide range of crops, cut flowers, and ornamentals.

The laboratory was set up in an existing building which left some compromises in the design. The available space was allocated to two incubation rooms, a supervisors office and a transfer area to accommodate 12 laminar-flow hoods. The kitchen and development laboratory were established in a separate area.

It soon became apparent that the process of tissue culturing large volumes of plants requires an encompassing quality system and a decision was made to implement the ISO 9002 system which is internationally recognised and well suited to such an operation. We expect to gain accreditation to this standard in October this year (1994).

Calla lilies

Propagation and Production of Zantedeschia Tubers for Export

Author: T.E. Welsh, B.L. McKenzie

PP: 685

The floriculture industry in New Zealand is gaining a reputation for the supply of novelty flowers to world markets. Zantedeschia (calla) has been one of the bulbous crops gaining in importance for exports of both cut flowers and dormant tubers. This paper will outline the various techniques used for propagation and provide detail on production of flowering-size tubers from a propagule.

Seed propagation has been a common means for reproduction of true species or open-pollinated selections. However, the diversity of colour type and growth habit are greatly limited from seed-true lines. The hybrid selections which make up the mainstream of the New Zealand export industry are clonally propagated by tissue culture. Natural division of established tubers is sometimes used as a means of increasing flowering stock, however, divided tubers are likely to carry over disease and they are not recommended as export quality stock.

Zantedeschia propagules require two growing cycles to become a

Propagation of Camellia japonica in Horticultural Rockwool

Author: Ralph Scott

PP: 687

Our Nursery grows 225,000 camellias annually and is situated at Kurrajong Heights which is 80 km west of Sydney in the Lower Blue Mountains at approximately 500 m above sea level. The climate is mild with minimum temperatures of 0C in the early mornings during winter, to a maximum of 40C during mid summer.

Propagation commences in mid December, which is early summer in Australia.

Our Nursery began using rockwool 10 years ago, when we were researching different propagation materials. The rockwool is delivered to the nursery in sheets,each of these consisting of 21 smaller blocks measuring 38 mm × 38 mm × 57 mm

Juvenility and Rooting Potential on the Stem Cuttings of Pyrus betulaefolia

Author: H. Gemma

PP: 689

To establish a method for cutting propagation of Pyrus betulaefolia, an attempt to understand the biochemical mechanism of juvenility which increases the rooting potential was made by analyzing the endogenous polyamines in cuttings taken at different stages during the rooting process. As expected, cuttings taken from the juvenile phase showed higher rooting potential than those from the mature phase. When treated with 30 ppm IBA, endogenous putrescine (Put) increased in parallel with increased rooting. In contrast to juvenile cuttings, changes in Put, spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) in mature cuttings were less even with IBA treatment.
Tissue Culture of Passionfruit

Author: Roderick A. Drew

PP: 128

A protocol has been developed for micropropagation of the passionfruit hybrid ‘Super Sweet’ (Passiflora edulis × P. edulis f. flavicarpa). Apical shoot tips were initiated on MS medium plus 10 µM kinetin and grown to apically dominant shoots. They were dissected into nodal sections and again cultured on MS medium plus 10 µM kinetin. Shoots that developed from axillary buds were dissected and rooted as micro-cuttings by short exposure to ½ MS medium containing either 10 µM NAA or 10 µM IBA before transfer to hormone free medium. Ninety percent rooting was obtained after 7 days exposure to medium containing NAA. Exposure to either auxin for >5 days resulted in increased callus production and reduced shoot growth.
The Propagation of Persoonia virgata

Author: Lynda M. Ketelhohn, Margaret E. Johnston

PP: 133


In southeast Queensland, stems of Persoonia virgata are commercially harvested from naturally occurring populations and sold on the domestic flower market. As this product is not yet exported, an actual figure on the quantity of plant material bush harvested is difficult to obtain. It is therefore difficult to determine if permanent damage is being done to certain natural populations by bush harvesters. The arguments put forward for stopping bush harvesting include the risks of spreading diseases, such as Phytophthora, and depleting natural seed banks (Baker, 1994).

However, the propagation of this species has not yet been successful enough for the commercialisation and domestication of this potential new crop. This limits its export potential due to the fact that there is no guarantee of continuity of supply, uniformity, or quality of the product.

Most Persoonia spp. have been difficult to propagate, either by seeds or by cuttings. Even though there is an abundance of

The Use Of Hot Pipe Callusing For Bench Grafting

Author: N.D. Dunn

PP: 139

The use of hot pipe callusing of subjects usually difficult to bench graft is described. The technique allows the use of bareroot rootstocks for ease of handling and the subsequent economic raising of the trees in line with the majority of bench grafting of fruit and ornamental trees on the author's nursery. The application of the technique to Aesculus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Juglans, and Quercus is described.
Top Worked Larch Production

Author: Steen Berg

PP: 142


The paper covers production of the following cultivars as undertaken at Yorkshire Plants:

  • Larix decidua ‘Karstern’—Green foliage with light tips, produces a round ball of green.
  • Larix kaempferi ‘Diana’—Contorted growth with a long leaf, curious but attractive.
  • Larix kaempferi ‘Dwarf Blue’—A tight round ball shape, with steel blue foliage.
  • Larix kaempferi ‘Pendula’—Graceful weeping form with light blue foliage.

All are showy plants in spring and summer, and have very attractive autumn colours. They make attractive plants for the patio or small feature trees with spring, summer, and autumn interest.

Propagation of Hibiscus by Grafting

Author: Anthony Marks

PP: 144


This paper covers grafting of Hibiscus syriacus cultivars ‘Oiseau Bleu’ (syn. H. syriacus ‘Blue Bird’), ‘Hamabo’, ‘Meehanii’ (a variegated cultivar), ‘Monstrosus’, ‘Red Heart’, ‘Woodbridge’, and ‘William R. Smith’. Grafting allows the production of a saleable hibiscus plant in full flower in less than a year, whereas, production from cuttings can take two to three times longer. The method described might be applied to other species such as Lilac and Viburnum.

Winter Bench Grafting of Walnut Varieties

Author: Andras Lantos

PP: 146

Walnut (Juglans regia) is regarded as difficult to propagate, needing more heat for callus formation and healing than easier species. In Hungary it cannot be propagated by chip-or T-budding, or by outdoor whip or cleft grafting in the spring. This paper describes trials using bench grafting. One- and two-year old seedlings of J. regia were used as rootstocks. They were lifted in late autumn and cold stored until grafting time. Scions of the local clones ‘Alsoszentivani 117’, ‘Milotai 10’, and ‘Tiszacsecsi 83’ were collected before grafting and were cut to one-bud sections. Whip grafts were made by hand in February and March 1994. The grafts were forced for 2 to 3 weeks, until an unbroken ring of callus was formed at the point of graft union then moved to cold storage and planted into the open ground at the end of April. Success rate was 70.5% for ‘Alsoszentivani 117’ and 91.5 % of the trees of this clone were in size category 1.5 m+.
Propagation and Production of Hamamelis Cultivars in the Field by Chip Budding

Author: Christopher G. Lane

PP: 149


The conventional propagation method for Hamamelis cultivars in Europe is a summer side graft onto pot-grown rootstocks of H. virginiana. Having seen the type of plant produced by nurseries in New Zealand, where they chip-bud onto field-grown rootstocks, I decided to try this method myself. Over the last few years I have budded between 1000 and 2000 plants per year with varying success.

Effectively Using Tissue Culture for Ericaceous Plants

Author: Steve McCulloch

PP: 151


Briggs Nursery is a pioneer in the field of plant tissue culture. Nearly 25 years ago Bruce Briggs cooperated closely with Dr. Wilbur Anderson on research focused to develop a micropropagation system for rhododendron. At that time progress was slow and sometimes disappointing—but a system was developed to effectively micropropagate rhododendron. In 1976, Dr. Anderson (Anderson, 1976) published an outstanding paper presenting a new medium that could be used to micropropagate rhododendron.

Currently Briggs Nursery produces yearly over 3 million ericaceous plants, including rhododendron, using tissue-culture methods. Over the past 25 years, we have built and used three different laboratories, and grown on over 20 million tissue-cultured rhododendrons.

The heath family or ericaceae is comprised of nearly 70 genera with over 1900 species (Bailey, 1976). This family is composed of mostly shrubs, perennial herbs, small trees, or occasionally vines. Many genera in the ericaceae are

Propagation of the Olive in Italy and Australia

Author: Luigi Bazzani

PP: 51


Man has propagated the olive (Olea europaea L.) since it was first cultivated 5000 years ago. Essentially, the various methods of propagation used have not changed. In the last few years there has been a worldwide revival of this ancient crop. This interest has prompted research to develop specific rootstocks and with the same characteristics deemed desirable in other fruit crop rootstocks, e.g., apple, citrus, and grape.

These rootstocks must be propagated asexually and have the following characteristics: (1) Easily propagated by cutting, (2) Resistant to soil-borne diseases and (3) Able to impart vigour (i.e., drought resistance) or reduce vigour (dwarfism) in the selected cultivar.

Rootstocks can be propagated by ordinary semi-hardwood cuttings in spring, summer, or autumn. The following spring these rooted cuttings can be grafted with the desired cultivar. An alternative is to use a "step-graft" (Editor's note: also known as cutting-graft technique). The principle behind this

The Motives for Using Micropropagated Plants and Their Management by the Nursery Stock Producer

Author: Rodney Richards

PP: 154

The reasons for using micropropagated plants are explored from a nursery stock producer's point of view. Comments on the suitability of micropropagated material to achieve specific management objectives are made from practical experience of using micropropagated plants. The relationship between the supplier of micropropagated plants and the client nursery is discussed.
Hardwood and Softwood Cuttings: Factors Affecting Rootability

Author: Bernard P.A.M. Kunneman

PP: 157

Although propagation of nursery stock by cuttings has become far more efficient there are still problems. The most striking questions relate to the factors that determine rootability in individual cuttings, which lead to variable results even when cuttings are taken from a single source and treated identically. Attempts to find easily identifiable characteristics that would enable propagators to grade out non-rootable cuttings before striking are described.
Methods for Difficult Hardwood Cuttings With Bottom Heat in Hungary

Author: Gábor Schmidt

PP: 161


The use of leafless hardwood cuttings is a traditional propagation method for easy-to-root woody plants. Hardwood cuttings of some "problematic" species root as well as or even better, than leafy softwood cuttings if special techniques, such as the heated-bin treatment developed at the East Malling Research Station in England (Howard, 1968; Howard and Harrison-Murray, 1988; etc.), are used. Another way is to root the cuttings indoors instead of outdoors, usually under a plastic tunnel in a heated greenhouse (De Boer and Van Elk, 1983; Joustra and Verhoeven, 1984; Macdonald, 1989).

In Hungary, the heated bin technique was tried in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Good initial rooting (or callusing) was usually obtained in the bin, but, owing probably to poor weather during winter and spring, survival in the field was so poor that the method was finally abandoned (Schmidt and Tusnádi, 1979; Horváth et al, 1984).

The aim of the present study was to explore the possibilities for

Liriope muscari Production and Use in the Southeastern United States

Author: Jim Berry

PP: 165


Liriope muscari is an evergreen, basal-leafed, herbaceous, lily-like, monocotyledonous perennial. It is commonly called lilyturf, monkey grass, border grass, or big blue lilyturf. A closely related genus, Ophiopogon, is also commonly called monkey grass. Liriope muscari is in the Liliaceae and is native to China and Japan. The species is cold hardy to U.S.D.A. Zones 6 to 10. There are four other species in the genus. Liriope spicata and L. gigantea are also commonly used as ornamental landscape plants. Lilyturf is a clumping lily. The clump enlarges by rhizomes and possesses tubers. These tubers seem to store water and have no vegetative reproductive features. The species varies in height from 7 to 70 cm.

Liriope muscari has foliage that is evergreen, basal, linear, straplike, sometimes revolute, entire, ciliate, prominently parallel veined, midrib protruding below, glabrous and glandular dotted on both sides, dark green to light green to variegated, and to 60 cm (2 ft) long

Natural Regeneration and Propagation of Bamboos and Grasses

Author: William T.J. Tooby

PP: 169


lnterest in grasses has clearly been on the increase over the last few years and at Bransford Garden Plants we have attempted to build on this tide with our involvement in various projects and gardens which have helped to show the potential of these plants.

Grasses and bamboos belong to the largest botanical family in the world, Gramineae. However, sedges—which belong to a different family, Cyperaceae— can be used in horticulture in a similar way to true grasses and many of the remarks in this paper refer to sedges as well as grasses.

Using the Opportunities for Geranium Propagation

Author: Paul W. Howling

PP: 172

A range of techniques, both modern and traditional, for the propagation of Geranium species and cultivars are considered. The assessments are set in the context of a growing market for herbaceous perennials with customers demanding both new introductions and a continuous supply of established cultivars.
The Propagation and Development of Penstemons

Author: Roger A. Bentley, Bob J. Hares

PP: 177

Penstemons have enjoyed a strong recent revival. The constant influx of new cultivars has resulted in confusion in nomenclature. The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens Penstemon Collection at Pershore College has been reviewed and, where possible, synonyms identified. At the College, softwood cuttings taken in April or May have rooted reliably under polythene tents in 10 to 14 days, may be potted on in June or July and be saleable in the following spring.
Seedling Production of Acer griseum

Author: Robert Appleton

PP: 183


Acer griseum, the Chinese paper bark maple, originates from Sichuan and surrounding provinces in Central China and is very hardy.

It was introduced to the West by Ernest Wilson on one of his plant collecting expeditions for Veitch's Nursery in the U.K.

It is a small-to-medium-sized tree, up to 12 m in height with a rounded habit, and it is now endangered in the wild.

The most remarkable feature of this Acer is the exfoliating bark. As the mature outer bark layer peels off, it exposes the bright copperish coloured underbark. Another outstanding feature is the brilliant red and orange autumn foliage colour. Spring and summer foliage is a dark green. Since its introduction from China it has gained a reputation as one of the most splendid of maples, but because of the difficulties in propagation, its availability has been limited.

Acer griseum is remarkably uniform in its seedling progeny with a limited number of selected forms. Production of seedlings has been the propagation

Notes on Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Palm Seeds

Author: Philip McMillan Browse

PP: 185


The palms (Palmae) are a relatively large family (over 200 genera) of monocotyledons which are distinguished, despite their diverse appearances, by their woody habit—an uncommon feature in monocots. They are not, in general, readily propagated by vegetative methods and are, therefore, principally produced from seed.

Despite extensive and diverse uses which are made of palms—as specimens in the landscape, as container subjects, as indoor plants, and as economic crops—the propagation of palms from seed has received scant technical observation. It is, therefore, often a hit and miss affair, often producing erratic responses. There has been little in the way of controlled observation, trial or experiment to determine the limitations of the parameters within which the process occurs, for this group of plants.

The seeds of individual palm species vary dramatically in size from the coco-demer (Lodoicea maldivica) of the Seychelles, which has the largest seeds of the plant kingdom to

The Commercial Development of Australian Native Ornamental Plants

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 190


It has been estimated that Australia has up to 30,000 native plant species, a large proportion of which is not in general cultivation. Currently there is some commercial interest in selection and development of native plants for three main markets: cut flower production, pot plant production, garden and landscape planting.

The Role of Combustion Products (Smoke) in Stimulating Ex Situ and In Situ Germination of Western Australian Plants

Author: K.W. Dixon, S. Roche

PP: 53

Smoke derived from the combustion of plant material enhances seed germination in a wide range of native species not previously able to be germinated under nursery conditions. Almost 100 species from the families Rutaceae, Restionaceae, Epacridaceae, Thymeleaceae, Proteaceae, Dilleniaceae, and others have responded under controlled nursery conditions to application of aerosol smoke and smoked water. Thirty species which responded have not previously been reported as easily germinable by conventional whole seed propagation, although some had previously (though partially) responded to scarification, boiling, or hormonal treatments. The effect of smoke is highly species-specific and influences seeds of the same species from disparate provenances and different ages to varying degrees. Genera known to be highly recalcitrant to conventional seed propagation which responded to smoke treatment included Geleznowia (Rutaceae), Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae), Stirlingia (Proteaceae), Verticordia (Myrtaceae), Actinostrobus (Cupressaceae), and Pimelea (Thymeleaceae). Germination persentages of species which normally germinate in small numbers were also positively influenced by smoke treatment. Seed size varied amongst all positively responding taxa. Within the Epacridaceae, small-seeded (Lysinema and Sphenotoma) but not larger, woody-fruited species showed smoke stimulated germination. Significant applications now exist for the use of smoke in germinating a wide range of species for horticulture and land restoration. Smoke appears to be one of the more significant missing links in understanding the horticulture of many Australian species. This technology is now opening up new opportunities for commercial horticulture of Australian plants.
The Propagation of Some British Columbian Native Plants

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 196

With approximately 3000 species, British Columbia is fortunate in having a diverse and fascinating flora. The plants come from a wide variety of geographical and climatological locations—from the high rainfall areas of Vancouver Island's west coast and the alpine areas of the province's many mountain ranges, to the arid region of the southeast.

As in many other parts of the world, native plants are becoming increasingly important in the urban and highway landscape, which in turn results in more sophisticated production and marketing strategies to provide plant quality and promote sales. This paper outlines specific propagation methods used to produce some of the important genera for commercial sales.

Woodland and Alpine Plants in the Botanic Gardens and Nurseries of Japan

Author: Colin Parberry

PP: 199


The Great Britain and Ireland Region's Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship contributed funding towards a study tour of the islands of Hokkaido and northern Honshu, Japan. The overall aims were to broaden my horticultural knowledge and understanding of Japanese Botanic Gardens and horticultural techniques, while working within the Living Collections Department of Hokkaido University Botanic Garden and by visiting several commercial nurseries and National Parks. Throughout these areas are some of the most important locations for eastern Asian alpine and woodland plant species.

The geographical position of the areas studied range from 45° 25' N, in the sub-Arctic zone, to 36°N. Average annual rainfall was between 147 mm to 184 mm and 1170 mm to 2000 mm of snow, with temperatures from an average of -8.1C in winter, to 25C in summer.

These general climatic conditions combined with the varied geological and topographical components of the Japanese archipelago have given rise to a diverse

Clematis Old and New from Around the World

Author: Raymond J. Evison

PP: 202


The only clematis species native to England is Clematis vitalba, commonly known as "old man's beard."

The first clematis introduced into England was C. viticella in the 1500s, closely followed by other European species, such as C. cirrhosa var. balearica, C. integrifolia, and C. recta, the latter two being herbaceous clematis.

Then travellers to the middle East started to introduce species, such as C. orientalis; and as the New World of North America opened up, C. pitcheri, C. viorna, C. reticulata, and others started to arrive in England.

The first clematis hybrid was raised in 1835. This was a cross between C. integrifolia and, most probably, C. viticella. Clematis ×eriostemon retained the perennial-type habit of one of its parents, C. integrifolia. It is non-clinging in its habit and only grows to approximately 5 ft or so in height.

The great surge of interest in the development of hybrids happened as soon as C. patens and its many forms and cultivars

Restriction of the Root System, A Survey of Non-Chemical Methods

Author: Hanne N. Rasmussen

PP: 207


Regulation of the root system is an obvious necessity whenever plants need to be transported from the site of production to the final habitat. Therefore, in any commercial plant production the question of how to minimize root damage must be dealt with. Since the use of copper compounds is treated elsewhere in this symposium this will be a brief survey of other means of root regulation.

Methods that confine the root system in a limited space, i.e., container culture, differ markedly from methods of pruning that entail a loss of existing root mass, which usually is the youngest part of the root system. In the evaluation of these methods their effects on essential root functions should be considered. The importance that various root problems may have on plant quality depends on the culture in question, but a number of typical effects of root system restriction maybe outlined.

Control Of Woody Root Systems Using Copper Compounds

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 211


Nursery production of woody plants has traditionally been a field-based production system. Undercutting or transplanting of plants during the production system has enabled the nursery producer to develop a well-shaped root system with no circling or other root distortions.

In many countries container plant production has become a dominant production technique for woody plants. In the case of the Australian nursery industry container plant production has become the norm. A container production system has many operational and marketing advantages over field production. The climate of Australia is more conducive to the production of woody plants in containers. The lack of any real winter dormancy over most of the country is a major factor in this country-wide trend to container plant production of woody plants.

Although the climate of northern Europe still encourages large-scale field production of woody plants, there appears to be an increasing move into container production.

Cytokinin Effects on Shoot and Root Formation in Miscanthus ×ogiformis ‘Giganteus’

Author: Jeanette Møller Nielsen

PP: 216


Miscanthus ×ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’ is a sterile cultivar which traditionally has been propagated through rhizome division (Nielsen, 1987). In vitro propagation is an alternative method which could become important for large scale propagation. For in vitro propagation the type and concentration of the cytokinin used are of great importance. In the present study the short- and long-term effects of 6-benzyladenine (BA), thidiazuron (TDZ), kinetin (KIN), and isopentenyladenine (2iP) on in vitro cultures of M. ×ogiformis are reported.

Somatic Embryogenesis in Miscanthus

Author: Karen K. Petersen, Inger B. Holme, Mona Lillelund Hansen

PP: 220

Shoot apices and leaf explants of Miscanthus shoot cultures were grown on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.36, 13.6, or 136 µM of the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The explants were exposed to 2,4-D for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks and then transferred to 2,4-D free MS medium. A higher percentage of shoot apices produced callus and embryogenic callus than leaf explants. Shoot apices were less sensitive to 2,4-D than leaf explants. Transfer to growth-regulator-free medium after short exposure to 2,4-D caused some of the callus to die. High concentrations of 2,4-D suppressed the development of roots until transfer to growth-regulator-free medium.
Long-Term In Vitro Storage of Miscanthus Cultures

Author: Jürgen Hansen, Ebbe Elbrønd Andersen

PP: 226

In vitro cultures of Miscanthus consisting of single shoots on rooting medium were stored at a temperature of 8, 12, 16, or 20C and a photon fluence of 5, 10, or 20 µmol m-2 s-1 for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 26 weeks. With increasing storage period the survival and root and shoot formation measured after 14 days of acclimatization and 14 days of growth were improved considerably. A storage temperature of 8C resulted in the best survival of plants and a temperature of 16C was optimal for shoot formation. Root and shoot formation were improved with increasing photon fluence during storage.
Development of Embryo Dormancy and Abscisic Acid Concentration During Seed Maturation in Beech

Author: Finn V. Povlsen

PP: 231

Nuts of beech (Fagus sylvatica) were harvested from a single tree at nine different developmental stages during the period 3 June to 28 September 1993. Seeds were tested in a standard germination tests at 5 and 15C. Seeds incubated at 15C were unable to germinate at any stage of development. Seeds harvested after 16 August had reached a point of maturity where they were able to germinate at 5C. To test the effect of covering structures on dormancy, seeds harvested 16 August and later were germinated as whole seeds, seeds without pericarp, and seeds without pericarp and testa (naked embryos). Again only seeds incubated at 5C germinated after at least 3 months at 5C meaning that the seeds possess true embryo dormancy, requiring cold treatment for dormancy breakage.

At all stages of development ABA was extracted and quantified by a radio-immunoassay. The development in ABA concentration showed a pattern well known from other orthodox seeds, with a sharp rise in concentration at the time where the seeds reached maximum fresh weight. The ABA content decreased during the maturation phase—upon full maturity we found a low concentration of ABA. Concurrently with a high level of ABA an increase in protein accumulation is found, especially in the heat-stable fraction. These heat stable proteins belong to a group of proteins called late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. The function of these proteins are yet unknown, but their appearance in practically all species with orthodox seeds has been correlated to development of desiccation tolerance and dormancy.

The Diverse Origin of New Plants for the Nursery Industry

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 239

The last decade has shown that the introduction and marketing of new plants are vital for the successful economic growth of the nursery industry. A major feature of many nursery catalogues is promotional information on new plant introductions. This paper reflects upon the diversity of the origins of plants which are commercially grown.

The 19th and early 20th centuries were an important era for the discovery of new species. Reading about the travels of the early plant explorers such as David Douglas, George Forrest, and Ernest H. Wilson, one is able to appreciate the hazards and personal risks they took to collect seed and plants for European and American institutions. David Douglas was renowned for his discoveries in western North America. His collections included Arbutus menziesii, Mahonia nervosa, and Ribes sanguineum. George Forrest's collections in China, Burma, and Tibet included such excellent plants as Pieris formosa var. forrestii, Magnolia campbellii subsp.

Use of Low Concentration NAA Sprays to Suppress Sprouting on Rootstocks

Author: W.J.R. Grant

PP: 57

Scions of both a variegated cultivar of Agonis flexuosa [Willd.] Sweet ‘Pied Piper’ on seedling rootstocks and Hakea francisiana F. Muell. on seedling Hakea salicifolia (Vent.) B.L. Burtt rootstocks are rapidly overgrown by rootstock sprouts if no control measures are taken. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) sprays have been used to impose sprout control in rootstocks. Due to phytotoxicity on the scion of single, high-concentration NAA sprays, the time of application, frequency and concentration of multiple low concentration NAA sprays have been investigated. For grafted A. flexuosa weekly 100 mg litre-1 NAA sprays to rootstock tissue only reduced sprouting without significant reduction in scion growth. Repeated pre-graft sprays of 200 mg litre-1 NAA three times per week for 2 weeks initially reduced stock sprouting but this effect was lost by 7 weeks. Post-graft NAA sprays (100 mg litre-1) significantly reduced sprout length for the duration of the experiment. There was large variability in scion growth and budburst. NAA sprays at the above pre-and post-graft concentrations and frequencies could not be recommended due to the high level of bud dormancy or death in these scions compared with control scions which all sprouted. Hakea salicifolia stocks, treated with the same pre-graft and post-graft spray regimes as A.flexuosa, showed total stock sprout control without stock phytotoxicity if post-graft sprays were applied. Pre-graft sprays, either separately or in combination with post-graft sprays, gave phytotoxic stock responses of callusing and leaf necrosis. The combined sprays controlled all stock sprouting but the pre-graft sprays only reduced sprout growth to half of that of the control. Dormant hardwood scions of H. francisiana did not burst during this 9-week experiment.
Practical Details of Importing Plants

Author: Rich Eggimann

PP: 242

I want to thank the I.P.P.S. for the invitation to come and speak to you today. I count this as a honor to speak before "The Cream of the Crop" of the nursery industry. Of all the different aspects of the nursery trade, shipping, marketing/sales, production, administration, my favorite area of responsibility has always been propagation. I feel a real kinship with you and your interest, so I count this as a distinct privilege to be here today.

I would like at the outset to admit to you a bias you will see throughout this presentation. I have been involved with the importation of nursery stock from Holland since 1975. I am familiar with the mechanics of the importation as well as its strengths and weakness. So, up front, my bias is favorable to importing plant material from Holland. And in conjunction with my bias, I acknowledge some limitations. I have only imported from New Zealand and Japan twice, so I can't speak with any authority concerning those topics.

In 1947, my father-in-law, Mr.

Introducing Foreign Woody Species to Australia and Associated Marketing Techniques

Author: Liz Darmody

PP: 246


Australia's geographic remoteness is a magnificent bonus for plant-lovers, with very few serious diseases and protected by stringent quarantine regulations. Despite its hot and dry climate, most foreign woody species introduced into Australia seem to thrive and adapt themselves well to the environment.

Without compromising the unique beauty of Australian native plants, they tend to be relatively short-lived and spindly in growth habit. Whilst being well-adapted to Australia's rather harsh conditions, "natives" are generally "poor performers", having great degrees of variability. This could be attributed to inbreeding.

Most Australian native trees are currently propagated from seed and possess self-incompatibility systems and partially or completely reject their own pollen. We are all aware that genetic diversity is needed to produce healthy vigorous progeny and research is currently underway into methods of strongly out-breeding Australian native trees to produce superior

"The World of Propagation" Question-Answer Period


PP: 248

Bruce Briggs: We see and hear the recommendation to plant "natives". What are "natives"?
HortBase: A World-Wide Electronic Information System

Author: James L. Green, John Matylonek, Andy Duncan, Evelyn Liss

PP: 249


HortBase is an innovative, peer-reviewed electronic information system for storage-distribution of horticultural information used in the classroom, in distance education, in life-long learning, and in commercial agricultural production. HortBase will retain the current roles and activities of: (1) Land Grant University agricultural production, communications, and library information science faculty who create and distribute information; (2) national professional societies, such as the American Society for Horticultural Science, who verify quality of information in their respective academic disciplines through peer review; and (3) national organizations such as the U.S.D.A. Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service and National Agricultural Library who provide guidelines, standards, and support on a national level.

There are three innovative concepts in HortBase: (1) national peer review—HortBase includes national peer review of synthesized

Plants Grow Children: A Master Gardener School Enrichment Program

Author: Marianne C. Ophardt

PP: 254

The Benton Franklin Master Gardener's Plants Grow Children program has grown like Jack's beanstalk since it began in 1988. Master Gardeners started teaching plant science to elementary school children in Benton and Franklin counties that year. The success of the program is evident in the over 51,000 children reached since 1988. They started out reaching 1291 children the first year. The 10,305 children participating in 1995 were from 439 classes and attended 34 different schools.
Sustainable Production of Cut Flowers

Author: Paul Sansone, Susan Vosburg

PP: 257

A sustainable system of cultivation is one that requires minimum inputs from off the farm and is not dependent upon synthetic fertilizers or pesticides to produce a marketable crop.

Serious consideration of sustainable systems for the cultivation of cut flowers is important to commercial success because of increasing environmental regulation and chemical costs. Every year more chemicals are banned from use in agriculture, especially those for minor crops such as specialty cut flowers. Chemical companies lack the economic justification for the registration necessary for the use of chemicals on minor crops. Environmental law is shifting the cost of cleaning up pollution from agricultural chemicals to the producers and users of these chemicals. More farms in the future will be burdened with the cost of removing agricultural chemicals found in soils, water tables, runoff, or spray drift. In addition, many pesticides become less effective over time as their intended targets develop resistance and immunity to these measures. Decreasing soil fertility and plant vitality are also symptoms of less than adequate cultivation methods.

"The Future" Question-Answer Period


PP: 264

Casey Van Vloten: Did you have contrasts already established with various locations or is it hit-and-miss in terms of demand for your product?
New Woody Plants from Tissue Culture

Author: Lynne Caton

PP: 265

Exochorda serratifolia ‘Northern Pearls’. A University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum introduction, which was selected from a seedling population from Beijing Botanic Garden, China. A spectacular display of pearl-shaped buds resembling a string of pearls, open to large, white flowers. Good flower effect and best used as a single specimen against an evergreen backdrop, or massed in the shrub border. Grows 6 to 8 ft tall and 4 to 6 ft wide at maturity, coarse texture, golden-yellow fall color with added winter interest from the persistant, fruit which is a 5-valved capsule that changes from green to brown at maturity.‘Northern Pearls’ is very hardy (-34F) Zone 4a, drought and heat tolerant, with no serious disease or pest problems. Propagation methods include softwood cuttings and tissue culture. As a member of the Rose family it can be cultured on Woody Plant Medium with BA.

Sorbus hupehensis ‘Pink Pagoda’. ‘Pink Pagoda’ is a University of British Columbia introduction. The wild species is

Desirable Characteristics of Propagation Media

Author: Michelle L. Oliveira

PP: 267


The field of soilless media is undergoing a rapid technological change and I would like to examine our current use of media components and look ahead to the new possibilities for propagation media. We will focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each medium component so you may have a clear understanding of why a particular blend of raw materials may work for your crops.

The propagation medium has three functions: (1) To hold the seedling or cutting in place during the rooting period, (2) To provide moisture for the cutting, and (3) To permit diffusion of air to the base of the cutting (Hartmann and Kester, 1990). In looking at a propagation medium for either seedlings or cuttings, we are usually seeking the proper blend of air porosity and water-holding capacity. If a grower is using a mist system to keep the relative humidity of the air around cuttings high, the medium must have a higher air-filled porsity. Indeed, many of the

How to Use Biological Control to Manage Propagation Pests

Author: Robin L. Rosetta

PP: 272


Biological control is the suppression of pest populations by their natural enemies. This, of course, occurs naturally in our environment. It is quite a "bug eat bug" world out there. How do we utilize this occurrence to our benefit in our pest management programs? In order to successfully implement a biological control program in propagation systems, the pest management professional will need to hit the books. Applied biological control or ‘biocontrol’ is an information-intensive science and art. The science requires an intimate familiarity of both the pests and their natural enemies. The art of biocontrol is taking this information and transforming it into a practical and economical program suitable for a specific nursery location. In order to do this, biological control should be viewed in the broader context of integrated pest management (IPM).

IPM is a pest management strategy using multiple tactics to suppress a pest population below damaging levels. An IPM program

Propagation of Grape Vines by Micrografting

Author: Alan Saunders

PP: 62


The French have a world patent on the green-grafting process. Green grafting has been used in commercial production of grape vines in both France and California. A personal interest in the work being done in France led me to apply for a Churchill Fellowship. This award allowed me to travel to California, Italy, France, Holland, and Germany during 1994 and witness the process of green grafting.

Cuttings, Clippings, and Miscellany

Author: Jim Borland

PP: 276

Beginning in my youth with rose cuttings stuck under mason jars placed beneath large spreading junipers through a 5-year tour at Denver Botanic Gardens (DBG) where 1000–2000 species were regularly propagated each year, the propagation of plants has been an integral part of my studies, my avocation, and vocation.

Throughout the often unusual nature of these endeavors it became apparent, in retrospect, that plant propagation in the isolated Rocky Mountains was as different as its horticulture and that the progression of the best in horticulture in the Rocky Mountain region can be ascribed to a "can do" attitude when presented with an "it can't be done" project.

Every propagator here worth his/her salt has tried to root cuttings of the local Juniperus communis ssp. alpina (common juniper) to no avail, though most have succeeded in keeping the massively callused cuttings alive for over a year in a mist bed. One grower even resorted to force feeding the fruits to starved chickens in

Using Physiological and Anatomical Studies to Optimize the Environment for Rooting Cuttings

Author: Sven E. Svenson

PP: 279


Landis (1993) grouped environmental factors affecting plant propagation into two groups: atmospheric and edaphic. The atmospheric environmental factors include: light, temperature, carbon dioxide, relative humidity, pathogens, insect pests, weeds, and cryptogams. The edaphic environmental factors include: water, mineral nutrients, pathogens, and insect and other pests. The biological agents in the environment may also be beneficial, such as mycorrhizae, root growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and biological-control agents.

If anatomical and morphological events are used to describe the process of adventitious root formation, then rooting occurs in four general stages: (1) dedifferentiation, (2) root initial formation, (3) root primordia formation, and (4) elongation of primordia leading to root system growth and development (Hartmann et al.,1990). Others have described rooting in two stages based on visible root morphology: root initiation (before roots are visible)



PP: 284

Mona Meyers: I have a question for Jim Borland and Sven Svenson. As I understand it, light intensity during root formation during your respective studies seem to be at odds. One of you is advocating low light intensities and the other using HID lighting. Could you both comment on this? Is HID lighting that different from the lighting Sven Svenson is referring to?
Challenges Faced by an Arboretum Propagator

Author: Barbara Selemon

PP: 285

To understand the challenges faced by the arboretum propagator, one must understand what an arboretum is and the mission it serves. Once this is understood, it will be clear that the propagation undertaken by an arboretum propagator is driven by very different goals than those of the commercial propagator. The goals that follow the mission are only part of the equation. Other challenges arise with the aging or maturing of the collections within the arboretum. This presentation will address the specific challenges I've faced as propagator at the Washington Park Arboretum, located in the city of Seattle.
Rewriting of Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States

Author: Thomas D. Landis, Franklin T. Bonner

PP: 288


A team of scientists from the U.S.D.A. Forest Service is currently rewriting the classic publication,Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Originally published in 1974, Agriculture Handbook 450 (AH-450) replaced the older "Woody Plant Seed Manual" which had been out of print for many years (Table 1). The AH-450 handbook has long been the primary reference for foresters and horticulturists on the collecting, cleaning, testing, and storing of woody plant seeds. Nursery managers also use the popular reference for information on seed propagation. Unfortunately, although it has been reprinted five times, AH-450 is currently unavailable.

To fill this void, Timber Press published Seeds of Woody Plants in North America in 1992 (Table 1). Because there are no copyrights on government publications, the authors borrowed heavily from AH-450, but added 200 new genera and 1000 new literature citations. The vast majority of the new additions are native to Asia or are

Worker Protection Standard: How It Affects Cutting Propagation

Author: Raymond L. Pavitt

PP: 292

The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for agricultural pesticides, issued by the U.S. EPA in August, 1992, (40 CFR part 156 subpart K, and 40 CFR part 170) required labeling changes for many pesticide end-use products registered under section 3 or 24(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Among those end-use products are biological pesticides and, more specifically, plant growth regulators including rooting hormones.

Pesticide Regulation (PR) Notice 93-7 was issued to manufacturers on 20 April 1993, and outlined the requirements for meeting the labeling revisions required by WPS. Included in PR Notice 93-7 were the deadlines specified in WPS: After 21 April 1994, all products must bear the new WPS labeling when sold by the manufacturer. After 23 October 1995, all products must bear the new WPS labeling when distributed or sold by any person. Pre-WPS approved labeling was simple for a rooting hormone; however, the accepted labeling under WPS included

"Propagation Challenges" Question-Answer Period


PP: 295

Mike Anderson: A question for Tom Landis. I bought the Timber Press manual 2 years ago and must admit don't use it very much because all the information is presented only in the metric form. How will the new manual handle that?
The Pitfalls of Grafting

Author: Richard F. Bush

PP: 296

Pitfall 1: Translucent-white, 4-mil Plastic on Cold Frames. A couple of winters ago I covered my cold frames with translucent-white, 4-mil plastic. Before, I had always used clear plastic. I speed up callusing with a hot callus device and it is necessary to have a totally hermetic seal on the grafted area. I use laboratory parafilm to hold the graft tight and seal it at the same time. The grafts spend 2 weeks in the callus device, transplanted into 1-gal containers, and put into the cold frames in February. The translucent-white plastic apparently filters out the sun rays that degrade the parafilm and the plants were effectively girdled. It is not necessary to cut the parafilm when it is under clear plastic as the parafilm will degrade.

Pitfall 2: Hot Callus Device Temperature Pitfall. My hot callus device is outside with a poly covering to protect it from low temperatures. I placed a thermometer a couple sta1ions from the thermostat. The heat wire broke just down from the

Propagation Stock Orchard Management and Wood Selection of Fruit and Ornamental Plants

Author: Jonathan La Forge

PP: 297

Propagation stock sources at L.E. Cooke Co. vary from purchased liners, seedlings, budwood, grafting wood, seed, tissue culture, and unrooted cuttings from seedsmen and commercial suppliers in the U.S., arboretums, and government repositories, to our own 60 acres of seed orchards, bud-scionwood orchards, 5 acres of cutting beds, and 20 acres of field division blocks and berry tipping beds. Because we practice a foundation stock plant program, L.E. Cooke also has Foundation screen houses, a registered mother block, and registered scion and seed tree blocks. These sources provide the 1300 cultivars in our production of 7 million trees per year and over 3500 cultivars in our total collection, many under evaluation from plant breeders and our own customers.

In any discussion of management of these sources, the use of their products controls the stock plant treatment.

Bench Grafting, When Is the Best Time?

Author: Guy E. Meacham

PP: 301


There are many factors to consider when grafting a wide range of hardy ornamental nursery stock. This paper will outline some of the factors that we at J. Frank Schmidt and Son consider when setting up our grafting calendar for the year.

Improving Grafting Techniques for Apples

Author: Allen Gilbert

PP: 63

This paper examines minor systems changes to the grafting techniques of old aimed at obtaining better grafting results with a variety of types of grafts on apples. Specific reference will be given to the use of open-ended, humidified plastic caps over the grafts to protect the graft, and to increase the humidity within the graft environment to prevent the graft scions from dying due to dehydration.
Sex and the Single Plant: Seed Propagation: The Basics

Author: Ray Maleike

PP: 305

While there are many ways to propagate plants, some of which are very sophisticated, the increase of plants by seed is still a very common practice in the nursery industry. Seedage may be the only way to propagate the plant, is usually less expensive than other methods of propagation, produces plants for evaluation (pest resistance, aesthetics, etc.) and known characteristics, can be used for the production of understock, can be used as clonal propagation, and usually requires less space then other methods (Hartmann and Kester, 1975). However, seed-produced plants may show extreme variability, have a poorer root system, the sex of the plant will not be known, seed may have very low viability, or be unavailable (Macdonald, 1986).

Seed of most plants that have evolved in temperate zone climates have developed protective mechanisms that allow the plant to germinate under the most favorable conditions. This generally means the seed will germinate in the spring following the year

Growing Fibrous-Rooted Oak Liners: A Methodical Approach can Yield Striking Results

Author: Mark Krautmann

PP: 308

American oaks are distributed across every region of the country. Their bold structure helps define our forests and urban landscapes. Who can forget the sight of southern live oaks draped with Spanish moss, or immense midwest specimens of bur oak with their timeless majesty? Their drought tolerance makes them a reliable source of food and shelter for wildlife. The durability and strength of oak lumber cut from vast eastern forests over the past 200 years helped build the strength of our nation. In his memoirs, John Charles Fremont wrote of seeing an oak woodland in northern California in March, 1844: "From the upland we descended into broad groves on the river, consisting of the evergreen, and a new species of whiteoak…Among these was no brushwood; and the grassy surface gave to it the appearance of parks in an old settled country. We made an acorn meal at noon, and hurried on; the valley being gay with flowers and some of the banks being absolutely golden with California
Evaluating Acid Scarification Effects on Dormant Arctostaphylos nevadensis Seeds

Author: Joan D. Conrod Trindle

PP: 312

Tetrazolium (TZ) staining was used to indicate embryo viability of dormant Arctostaphylos nevadensisseeds following acid scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid for 0 to 45 min. Embryo viability did not notably decrease even after 45 min in acid, although in a few seeds the endosperm tissues appeared slightly glassy and water-soaked around the micropylar opening where the acid had penetrated through the soft "micropyle plug". Other than penetrating the plug tissue, acid did not affect the seed coat even after 45 min. As in earlier trials, 25 min in acid was adequate time for the plug to be eroded, without any apparent damage to embryo or the endosperm. In most cases, viable embryos stained evenly in shades ranging from light pink to red, while most endosperm remained white or very light pink. Thus a glassy, water-soaked appearance of endosperm rather than TZ uptake may be the best indicator of over-treatment in acid. Seed coat thickness was not reliable as a guide in determining optimum acid scarification times in A. nevadensis seeds.


PP: 315

Anonymous: What can I use to distinguish between two populations of pistache seeds, one resulting from open pollinations among 25 genotypes and the other a closed-cross between two?

Production Scheduling of Cuttings

Author: Christine Santana

PP: 316

Monrovia Nursery Company was founded on a 10-acre site in Monrovia, California, in 1926 by Harry E. Rosedale. Today, the nursery produces approximately 42 million plants on 1300 acres using 1700 employees. Currently there are three locations, Azusa, and Visalia, California, and Dayton, Oregon, that ship throughout the United States, Canada and some foreign countries. We grow 1300 different taxa of shrubs, trees, perennials, vines, and topiaries all in a range of sizes creating multiple propagation techniques and finish dates.

Propagation at Monrovia Nursery includes 19 acres of greenhouse between Azusa and Dayton (Visalia at this time has no propagation facility) that produce 33 million rooted cuttings annually. The different methods of propagation include: rooted cuttings, tissue culture, seeds, division, grafting and air layering. Rooted cuttings comprise 90% of our production; seed approximately

Controlling the Propagation Environment with a Computer

Author: Thomas R. Fessler

PP: 320

I have been around the nursery business for 27 years having been groomed by my father. As a kid one of the first jobs I had was stripping the leaves on azalea cuttings after school and on weekends. I have been at the nursery full-time for 14 years, starting in ornamentals production, from propagation to sales.

I have always been interested in doing things the easy way. As kids, my brother Rick and I worked in the nursery. One job we hated was cleaning wood flats after liners were transplanted from them. Broken and rotten flats were discarded so we didn't have to clean them. One day we decided to break some newer flats and discard them, the only problem was, we got caught. Our dad made us repair them and it was a lesson well-learned.

In May of 1979, our nursery experienced a fire in our propagation house. Our dad always told us if there was ever a fire in a greenhouse, turn on the sprinklers and get out. I went in to turn the sprinklers on and there was no water. The electric line

A Unique Approach to Mass Propagation

Author: William R. Murphy

PP: 322

At Bailey Nurseries, West Coast Division, we are faced with propagation challenges that mandate a "unique approach to mass propagation". We are asked to propagate over 420 different taxa of woody plants, collect and stick 3-½ million softwood cuttings, and accomplish this task inside a very short window of time. We normally start around May 15 and end around August 15. This means we will stick approximately 45,000 cuttings per day. We stick 1 million hardy shrub roses of 90 different cultivars, 2 million shrubs of 200 taxa,½ million trees of 100 taxa, and 30 taxa of vines. This obviously requires a great deal of scheduling, planning, orchestrating, managing, and communicating. Attention to detail, patience, and good humor hold it all together.

The system we use was in large part developed by Mr. Jim McConnell, long time I.P.P.S. member and propagation manager at Yamhill for the past 15 years. It is his knowledge and insight that has allowed our program to grow and evolve

"Cuttings" Question-Answer Period


PP: 324

Margorie Sweeney: Where do you get your cuttings from?
Divide and Conquer: Propagation of Herbaceous and Tree Peonies

Author: Richard W. Rogers

PP: 325


If there is a critical moment in the propagation of herbaceous peonies (Paeonia), it comes at the very moment you attempt to divide a mature plant. All of your dreams for commercial success hinge on that decisive cut. Like the diamond cutter in the TV ad perched on the back seat of a moving car, the next stroke will determine if you'll walk away with two, five-caret stones or a lot of worthless chips.

In the next few moments, I will share with you how this operation is performed at Caprice Farm Nursery. Whether for walk-in customers who will closely inspect our peonies on-site or for our mail-order clients who rely largely on our reputation, we endeavor to provide our customers with healthy, well-grown plants of the highest quality.

Methods of Propagation for Aquatic Plants

Author: James K. Purcell

PP: 327

People not familiar with aquatic plants are sometimes intimidated by the prospect of cultivating and propagating them. Aquatic plants, unfamiliarity notwithstanding, are very easy—often annoyingly easy—to grow and propagate.

Basically, plants require light and nutrients (including water) to grow. Aquatics have an advantage over many plants in that by growing in water they have unlimited access to water, which is also a very efficient transporter of other nutrients. The primary limiting factor in the growth of aquatics then becomes growing space with sunlight. The best way for an aquatic species to survive is to secure as much available growing space with sunlight as possible. The aquatics best adapted to survive under these conditions are those that can grow and multiply quickly—very quickly, because many species of aquatics are using the same survival strategy. For example, if grown in optimum conditions, a single water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) can multiply to over 1

Quality Management for Nurseries

Author: Richard Bennett

PP: 67


Quality management systems are here to stay. Most production and manufacturing industries have been progressing down this path for some time with positive results in productivity, profitability, and customer satisfaction.

Horticulture and agriculture, being out of the manufacturing mainstream, have not been exposed to quality management systems thinking or activity until relatively recent times. The individual or combined powers of compulsion, competition, and self-interest are now quite active and many horticultural businesses have responded to the message.

There are a number of options available to the nursery industry to capitalise on this trend. These range from basic knowledge and skills training to high-powered programs tailored to a specific business enterprise. In the middle are a range of quality management systems which endeavour to cover the key activities of a business, through a step-wise process to more complex systems. The latter includes support activities

Terra Plug® Production

Author: Gina M. Falcetti

PP: 330

Terra Plugs® (U.S. Patent 5331908) are field-grown perennial plugs produced by a patented process developed several years ago by Carl Loeb and Bruce Gibson, the owner and general manager of Summersun Greenhouse Company. The nursery had been a large producer of bedding plants, baskets, and poinsettias and was interested in expanding into the perennial market. The search for an efficient and labor-saving way to produce field-grown perennials led to the concept of planting perennials directly into the field in 3-in. bottomless pots. The initial production crop was 500,000 plants and this year there are 2.7 million plants in the field. Currently we are growing 176 taxa, 40% of which are vegetatively propagated.

Propagation begins in the greenhouses at Mount Vernon, Washington in early April. Cutting material is taken from both container and field stock beds at the perennial farm. The first crops are those items requiring superior drainage or on which losses are fairly high, such



PP: 332

Anonymous: Can you recommend some peony cultivars that will grow in warmer areas?
Plant Propagators to the Rescue!

Author: Gary A. Ritchie

PP: 333


Ladies and gentlemen, I am honored to have been asked to keynote this excellent I.P.P.S. meeting and extend my sincere gratitude to the meeting organizers for having invited me to come.

The organizing committee asked me to conclude this convention with an upbeat review of some of the many important contributions plant propagators make to the service of humankind. In response to this request, I have selected the title "Plant Propagators to the Rescue" and have chosen three case studies in which plant propagators have played a key role in solving a significant social problem. Two of these cases involve my own employer, Weyerhaeuser Company, while one involves the government of a communist country. Two are from here in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), one comes from the Peoples' Republic of China. Two involve forest trees, one involves medicinal plants. Two involve vegetative propagation systems, while one involves seed-based propagation. I was personally involved in two of

POSTER SESSIONS Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers Affect the Growth and Quality of Selected Foliage Plants

Author: P.K. Murakarni, F.D. Rauch

PP: 338

Three formulations of an encapsulated urea product and one sulfur-coated urea were evaluated at 0 to 4 times the recommended rate on Chamaedorea elegans, C. seifrizii, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Spathiphyllum "Tasson’, and Rhapis excelsa against a standard controlled-release fertilizer at equal N rates. Each plant species responded differently to the fertilizer sources. Chamaedorea seifrizii and S. "Tasson’ did not exhibit preferences for fertilizer sources from top-growth measurements. Chamaedorea elegans, C. lutescens, and R. excelsa growth measurements indicate that fertilizer source affected growth and quality of the plants. The general recommendation for foliage plant production is an equal ratio of ammoniacal to nitrate nitrogen sources. Economically, this ratio makes the fertilizer more expensive than other traditional fertilizers. The use of a controlled-release urea fertilizer has the benefit of being a cheaper source of N and would lower the cost of production, but
Nitrogen Fertigation of Apple Nursery Stock: Effects of Application Rate and Cutoff Timing on Nursery Stock Size, Dormancy Development, Natural Defoliation, Freezing Tolerance, and Spring Regrowth

Author: Steve Castagnoli, Leslie Fuchigami, Timothy Righetti, Eugene Mie

PP: 339

Malus ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ nursery stock were grown under different nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes with two rates and three application cutoff dates in factorial treatment combinations. Nursery caliper size was increased by higher N rate and later N cutoff timing. The onset of dormancy was delayed by the high N rate. Natural defoliation was delayed by later N cutoff date. Mid-winter hardiness was reduced by the high N rate with no effect of N application cutoff timing. Spring budbreak was advanced by the high N rate in all except the first cutoff treatment and delayed by earlier application cutoff. Tree size after 10 weeks of regrowth in spring of the year following N application was increased by higher N rate and later cutoff date. Nitrogen rate and application cutoff timing are both important factors in improving apple nursery stock quality and performance in the orchard.
Chemical and Manual Defoliation of Apple Nursery Stock: Effects of Defoliation Timing on Defoliation Efficacy and Nursery Stock Quality

Author: Steve Castagnoli, Leslie Fuchigami, Fenton Larsen, Eugene Mielke

PP: 339

Malus ‘Braeburn’, ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ nursery stock were manually defoliated on one of five dates, chemically defoliated with one of three spray application timings, or naturally defoliated. Among the chemical treatments, the earliest application timing was most effective in promoting early defoliation. Nursery stock caliper size was affected by manual defoliation treatment, increasing with later defoliation date. There were no significant differences in caliper size among the three chemical defoliation treatments. Of all defoliation treatments, only the first manual defoliation treatment resulted in nursery stem caliper lower than that of the spring dug treatment.

New shoot growth in the following year, was greater with later defoliation date. Conversely, earlier chemical treatment resulted in higher new shoot growth. The amount of stem damage appears to be dependent on cultivar and defoliation treatment and timing. The relationship between dormancy development and stem damage associated with

Tie-off Layering of Hazelnut

Author: David C. Smith

PP: 340

Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) have traditionally been propagated for commercial orchards in Oregon by simple layerage, wherein a year-old shoot from the mother plant is bent into a U-shape and is inserted into a slot opened in the ground with a shovel. Several of the specialty hazelnut nurseries in Oregon are now using a system of mound layering locally called tie-off layering. Current season's shoots are girdled with hog ring staples and sprayed with a rooting hormone. Sawdust is then placed around the shoots to a depth of 8 in. These nurseries have concluded that the tie-off method produces more saleable trees per stool that are more heavily rooted and straighter stemmed than trees propagated using simple layerage.
Cytokinins and Donor Plants Affect Regenerative Capacity of American Elm Leaves

Author: Mary W. George, Robert R. Tripepi

PP: 340

Adventitious shoots have been induced to form on leaf explants of American elm (Ulmus americanaL.) with thidiazuron (TDZ) in the medium, but the effects of other cytokinins, donor plants, and basal media were unknown. The goal of this study was to examine factors that influence the regenerative capacity of American elm leaves. Excised leaves from 2-year-old seedlings were surface sterilized, and 1-cm2 sections were taken from the midrib portion of the leaves. Three to six seedlings were used as donor plants in various experiments. Zero, 7.5, 15, or 22.5 µM of benzyladenine (BA), TDZ, kinetin, zeatin, or 2-isopentenylaminopurine (2iP) were added to Driver Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) medium. Basal medium (DKW or Murashige and Skoog [MS]) effects on shoot regeneration were also examined. Leaves placed on DKW media with BA or TDZ formed adventitious shoots, with TDZ inducing up to 100% regeneration. Donor plant also affected the efficiency of shoot regeneration, with certain seedlings having 1.5
Evaluating Pulp and Paper Sludge as a Substitute for Peat Moss in Container Media

Author: Robert R. Tripepi, M.W. George and A.G. Campbell

PP: 341

Pulp and paper sludge is a byproduct of paper production, yet this fibrous material may be suitable as an alternative amendment for peat moss in container media. Newsprint mill sludge was composted 6 weeks and cured before use. One-year-old seedlings of lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) and amur maple (Acer tataricum ssp. ginnala syn. A. ginnala) as well as rooted cuttings of cistena plum (Prunus ×cistena Hansen) were planted in 3-liter pots containing a bark: sand (2: 1, v/v) mix, 25% or 50% peat amended media, or 25% or 50% sludge-amended media. After 14 weeks outdoors, shoot dry weight and changes in plant height were measured. All species planted in sludge-amended media grew as well as those potted in peat-amended or the bark: sand media. In fact, some species grew best in sludge-amended media. Lilac seedlings planted in 25% sludge produced almost double the amount of shoot dry weight and were 80% taller than plants in the bark and sand mix or 25% peat. Maple plants grown in 50%
Alaskan Natives: More Potential for Ornamental Nursery Crops

Author: Terry Finnerty, Dave Wattenbarger, James Kraemer

PP: 341

The purpose of this project was to:
  • Collect native Alaskan species.
  • Develop the propagation techniques for these selected species as potential new introductions in the Idaho nursery industry.
  • Include some species in the small fruit breeding and demonstration trials at the University of Idaho-Sandpoint Research and Extension Center in Sandpoint, Idaho.

This project has been conducted as part of a cooperative effort between the University of Idaho-College of Agriculture, Idaho nursery growers, the Idaho Department of Agriculture, and the Stillinger Foundation. Major collection areas were: the Interior (Fairbanks, Delta, Denali Park, etc), the Kenai Peninsula, Cook Inlet, and the Copper River Delta. Habitat types included alpine and arctic tundra, glacial and river outwash, spruce bogs, and boreal forest. This project has been conducted as part of a cooperative effort between the University of Idaho-College of Agriculture, Idaho nursery growers, the Idaho Department of Agriculture, and the

Experiences with Accreditation under the National Scheme

Author: David O. Cliffe

PP: 70


Accreditation schemes have existed in at least four States of Australia for a number of years. More recently, those individual schemes have been brought under the umbrella of a National Scheme called the Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme, Australia (NIASA) to enhance the effectiveness of the accreditation process.

Accreditation is a well established business concept that has been used to attract markets and increase levels of consumer confidence for many years. It is a voluntary process, no one is obliged to join. The decision to seek accreditation must be based on an individual study of its economic relevance to your business. There has to be a clear recognition that adhering to the accreditation guidelines will either improve your productivity or your marketing performance or both.

Accreditation is available to all categories of nursery business and to some allied traders, e.g. growing media suppliers.

In the case of Narromine Transplants the process of

Oregon Association of Nurserymen's Plastic Recycling Program

Author: Walter Suttle, Ron Lapotin

PP: 342

A program to recycle broken plastic pots, flats, and plug trays was initiated by the Oregon Association of Nurserymen in February 1995. Plastics accepted must be made of polyethylene (recycling symbol 2), polypropylene (recycling symbol 5), or polystyrene (recycling symbol 6). To participate, the plastics must be free of soil, separated by resin type, and delivered to 1 of 3 cooperating plastic consolidators in the Willammette Valley. The consolidators bale and ship the material to reprocessors for manufacturing into resin pellets or plastic lumber.
New Zealand Named Lavender Cultivars: The Advantages and Disadvantages

Author: Virginia McNaughton

PP: 345


Lavender! It is probably one of the most versatile herbs to grace our gardens. New Zealand has proved an ideal climate for growing many different lavenders, with the exception of extremely cold areas, as some species are frost tender. A revived interest in ornamental planting, cottage gardens, and formal gardens has led to an increase in breeding of lavenders for the domestic market.

I would like to mention some of the New Zealand named cultivars which, either because of their distinguishing characteristics have become popular, or probably will become popular with the public.

The Commercial Application of Trichoderma (Beneficial Fungi) in New Zealand Horticulture

Author: Donald McPherson, John S. Hunt

PP: 348


The Trichoderma species is one of a small group of beneficial fungi being successfully utilised on a commercial scale for biological control of other fungi. This microorganism has now been registered as a biofungicide in many countries including France, U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, Sweden, Chile, New Zealand (N.Z.), and U.S.A. In its natural environment Trichoderma is a resident of the litter and woody plant debris in humus or associated with plant matter in the soil. It acts as a mycoparasite or saprophyte to establish a niche for itself, often at the expense of other fungi which it may use as an alternative source of nutrients. It has been clearly demonstrated actively parasitising basidiomycete fungi including Rhizoctonia solani (Lewis and Papavizas, 1980), Armillaria mellea and Chondrostereum purpureum (Papavizas 1985). Trichoderma's biocontrol properties were probably first observed inadvertently in 1914 controlling boot lace fungus, A. mellea, after soil

The Conventional Tube

Author: Jan Velvin

PP: 354


This paper was initiated by the question: "Why does Lyndale Nurseries Auckland Limited use the tubes we do"?

  1. My first reaction to this question was—my very experienced partner Noelyn said to use them!
  2. My second thought was, it is the industry norm!

The rest of the exercise has been quite enlightening as I have worked my way through the question—but why and what is a liner nursery such as Lyndale trying to achieve? As a liner grower we are aiming to produce a quality-graded, individual, small plant that is healthy, well rooted, well shaped, and gives the greatest possible potential for quality growth to the customer when growing on this plant.Obviously there are influences on this exercise.

Rootrainers: A Nurseryman's Perspective

Author: Lee Gilbert

PP: 356


Morgans Road Nursery in Blenheim, specializes very much in Rootrainers for almost all of its approximately 300,000 annual stem production. The product range is quite diverse with Eucalyptus, Cupressus, Acacia, and other commercial type species grown in a small (Hilson) Rootrainer. An increasing range of New Zealand natives, a smaller range of exotic amenity species, and a selection of perennials and garden plants are grown in a large (Tinus) Rootrainer. The Rootrainer system has been around for a considerable time, being first patented in New Zealand some 18 years ago. The patent has since expired opening up production to a larger number of manufacturers.

Whilst the system carries the label of Rootrainer, the root-training principle is certainly not limited to this system. The principle is incorporated in many container types now in use, though some manufacturers do not have a good understanding of the principles involved. The use of this root-training principle,

The Use of Paperpots for Growing Revegetation Species

Author: Randall H. Maloney

PP: 358

In late 1993 our nursery was requested to propagate 30,000 native grasses, sedges, and rushes for planting around the margins of two lakes created during a land development project.

Part of the land development was adjacent to palustrine wetlands and, in particular, was in close proximity to a protected scientific wetland reserve. The landscaper engaged to undertake the revegetation and planting programme insisted that two main criteria must be met when the plants were to be supplied.

Firstly, the plants must be propagated from endemic species to maintain the genetic purity of existing vegetation and secondly, the plants were to be supplied either bare-rooted or in biodegradable containers to allay any possibilities during planting of plastics entering into the new or existing waterways and wetlands.

Of the 32 species selected, it was decided that only two species, Phormium tenax and Cortaderia toetoe would be propagated and provided bare-rooted, the balance of plants, being

Side-Slit Cell Trays: The Ford Report

Author: Adrian Ford

PP: 360

Our goal was to produce 5 million forestry seedlings per year in Rootrainers. Nothing on this scale had been attempted before within forest nurseries in New Zealand. So while we had no previous experience within New Zealand to go by, equally we had no preconceived ideas to influence our production methods apart from the precept that Rootrainers would be the container to use. This, at the time, was considered the container most suited to forestry's demands that seedlings grown in containers should have absolutely no root deformation that would, at some later date, impact on the stability of the tree.

Rootrainers had largely filled this requirement for the relatively small-scale production of forestry seedlings in containers at that time.

However, when consideration was given to much larger production runs, we realised that the production system had to be totally integrated in some flow-through concept, and that everything had to revolve and evolve around the container used.


Rooting in Transgenic Peas

Author: Jan E. Grant, Pauline A. Cooper

PP: 362


Grain legumes have generally been difficult to regenerate and transform. Of the major grain legume crops—soybean, chickpeas, peas, cowpea, peanut, common bean, faba bean, and lentils—confirmed transgenic plants have been produced in all except faba bean, lentil, and cowpea (for a review see Christou, 1994). In soybean, chickpeas, and peas, plants have been produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. For soybeans the method was unrepeatable, and for chickpeas inheritance of the transgenes was not demonstrated. For peas, there are four published reports of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (Puonti-Kaerlas et al., 1990; Schroeder et al., 1993; Davies et al., 1993; Grant et al., 1995). The Puonti-Kaerlas method takes 15 months to recover transgenic plants, all confirmed as tetraploid. While the method of Schroeder is successful in their hands, others have been unable to repeat it (A. de Kathen, University of Hanover and C.M. Stiff, University of

Advances In Micropropagation of Nothofagus alessandrii Espinoza, a Chilean Endangered Species

Author: Peter Seemann, Andrés Zurita

PP: 366

Nothofagus alessandrii is one of the 11 endangered woody plant species in Chile. Its propagation is normally carried out sexually. The use of micropropagation systems might be a better way to increase the propagation rate. Initial studies comparing both bud- and embryo-culture methods show that it is feasible to achieve the production of plantlets by using either a woody plant medium or others, supplemented with 0.5 mg litre-1 BAP or less. The rooting process of the new developed shoots has to be induced by dipping the single shoots in IBA solutions in the last stage of in vitro propagation.
Propagation of Eucalyptus grandis In Vitro

Author: Nancy Cranshaw, Dale R. Smith

PP: 371

Nodular tissue formed on cotyledonary explants derived from Eucalyptus grandis seedlings developed on NZFRI Eucalyptus Initiation Medium. If transferred frequently (7 days or less) on NZFRI Eucalyptus Proliferation Medium, somatic embryos formed on the nodular tissue. Infrequent transfer of tissue on the same medium tended to give rise to adventitious shoots. Variations of a somatic embryo germination protocol (Watt et al., 1991) gave rise to plants capable of transfer to the field.