Volume 43

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The Adventitious Rooting of Vegetative Cuttings Using Hydropropagation

Author: R.I. Wilkinson

PP: 41


Cuttings need external conditions that will minimise stress, if they are to survive and form roots (Elliot and Jones, 1980) These conditions involve water, temperature, light and oxygen Protecting the cutting from water stress is usually achieved by misting or fogging Temperature is often regulated so that the rooting medium is 5 to 10C warmer than the aerial temperature. High light intensity can result in overheating of the cutting and consequently shading is preferable, particularly under glass Oxygen is essential for root formation (Zimmerman, 1930) and poor aeration conditions due to waterlogging will lead to death of cuttings Factors such as the use of rooting hormones (auxins) (Thomas, 1982) and slow-release fertiliser in the rooting medium (Carter, 1985) can promote quicker rooting of cuttings.

Boland and Hanger first described the concept of hydroponic propagation (Boland and Hanger, 1991). The system potentially overcame water stress by standing the cuttings in

Timber Species Propagation

Author: Hans Porada

PP: 81


The propagation of tree species for timber production is governed by the same basic principles and objectives that govern the propagation of tree species for horticultural use. Furthermore, the same methods of propagation are also used What will vary, however, is the emphasis placed by a nursery on the number of species to be propagated. Forestry nurseries often focus on only one or two species. As timber production enterprises are usually large-scale programs over long rotations, the propagation of a timber species not only must be cost efficient, but at a scale capable of consistently producing large numbers of uniform, high quality propagules able to survive and grow under field conditions.

What, then, are the techniques used to propagate timber species? In a broad sense, they can be grouped under two headings.

  1. Natural (or in situ) methods from seed in the soil, seed trees, or direct seeding; and coppice
  2. Artificial methods, all of which require transplanting
Vegetative Propagation of Three Plants with Commercial Potential, Averrhoa carambola L., Gevuina avellana Mol., and Hillia valerii Standl.

Author: Brent McKenzie

PP: 389


The biodiversity programme has been conducted at Invermay since 1989 (Halloy, 1992). One of the objectives is to introduce a range of new plants into New Zealand agriculture and horticulture, thus decreasing the dependence on a relatively narrow range of plants. The majority of plants has been introduced from areas of South America that correspond geographically and climatically to parts of New Zealand.

Averrhoa and gevuina are not new introductions to New Zealand, but their production potential has not been fully evaluated. Hillia may be a new introduction to New Zealand. The purpose of this paper is to describe research focused on determining propagation requirements for new plants from the biodiversity programme.

Propagation of ×Cupressocyparis leylandii and Magnolia grandiflora

Author: Joe C. Powell

PP: 393

Rooting ×Cupressocyparis leylandii, Leyland cypress, and Magnolia grandiflora, southern magnolia, requires totally different approaches. Leyland cypress is more likely to root than southern magnolia; therefore, I will start with the leyland cypress.

At Powell Propagators and Nursery, approximately 91,000 Leyland cypress cuttings were direct stuck starting in January and ending in March 1993. Three thousand of these were stuck in 4-in square pots, about 30,000 in 3-in. round pots, and the remainder in 2 ½-in. pots.

A solution of 6000 ppm of KIBA and 1500 ppm of KNAA in water was used on one half and a solution of 6000 ppm of IBA and 1500 ppm of NAA in alcohol was used on the other half Each cutting was given a 5-sec quick dip.

Cuttings were taken from stock plants at the nursery or from apartment complexes in the area Terminal cuttings were prepared by cutting to about 6 in. The bottom leaves were removed and the tips were trimmed. However, cuttings for the 3000 4-in. pots were not cut into

Variation in Sensitivity of Azaleas to Herbicides

Author: W.A. Skroch, C.J. Catanzaro

PP: 395

Azaleas differ in their susceptibility to pre- and postemergence herbicides. Treflan (trifluralin) and Surflan (oryzalin) reduced shoot and root growth of certain cultivars. Surflan decreased stem diameter and strength of ‘Hino Crimson’ and ‘Snow’. Image caused foliar injury on the cultivars tested, whereas Poast and Vantage, sethoxydim formulations, did not. Damage caused by other herbicides was cultivar dependent.
Storage and Production of Selected Conifers from Hardwood Cuttings

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 397

Many propagators have collected, stored, and rooted Thuja, Taxus, and Juniperus from hardwood cuttings without supplement bottom heat (Bailey, 1967; MacKay, 1962; Wells, 1967). Briefly, cuttings are taken in the fall or winter (Carville, 1979; Rigby, 1981), sealed in polyethylene bags, and stored at 28 to 32F for up to 4 months. They are then removed and stuck in outdoor beds without supplemental heat.
Cultivar Introductions of Ilex, Pyracantha, and Rhus from Rutgers University

Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr

PP: 400


Initial work in the woody ornamentals breeding program at Rutgers University was with plants of Ilex opaca. The first introduction was ‘Jersey Knight’, originally selected from the wild at Locust, New Jersey, by the late Dr. Charles Connors and tested as Brown No. 9 Plants of ‘Jersey Knight’ are vigorous and exhibit a dense habit of growth with large, semi-glossy, green leaves. More than just a good pollen producer, progeny tests of seedlings from hundreds of controlled crosses showed that ‘Jersey Knight’ was the best of the male parents utilized ‘Jersey Knight’ is fully winter hardy at -15F, and is widely regarded as the best staminate cultivar of I. opaca in the trade today.

‘Jersey Princess’ is a seedling selection from a controlled cross of an unnamed pistillate plant × ‘Jersey Knight’. Plants of ‘Jersey Princess’ develop a narrow to medium conical habit, are winter hardy at -15F, exhibit high vigor and the darkest glossy, green foliage of any plant of I. opaca that this holly hybridizer

Effects of Growth Stage, Branch Order, and IBA Treatment on Rooting Stem Cuttings of ‘Yoshino’ Cryptomeria

Author: Laura G. Jull, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, J.C. Raulston

PP: 404


Little research has been published on vegetative propagation of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D Don, and its cultivars by stem cuttings. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of growth stage, branch order, and indolebutyric acid (IBA) treatment on adventitious rooting of stem cuttings of ‘Yoshino’ cryptomeria.

Movement, Dissipation, and Impacts of Isoxaben (Snapshot TG) in Nursery Runoff Water

Author: Chris Wilson, Raj Bandary, Ted Whitwell, Melissa Riley

PP: 408

Granular preemergent herbicide formulations are preferred by the nursery industry because they are easy to apply. These materials are broadcast applied over the top of containerized crops and then activated by irrigation. Much of the applied herbicide may land on the surface surrounding the target pots where it is available to move offsite in runoff water and into containment ponds used for water recycling (Gilliam et al.,1992).

Concern over the fate of herbicides in the environment and their potential for accumulation, especially in surface and ground water supplies, is justified (Mahnken et al, 1992; Keese et al., 1991, 1992; Mangus et al., 1985). This issue is particularly important in nurseries that recycle their irrigation water.

The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of isoxaben from Snapshot TG formulation (DowElanco) in irrigation runoff water and to monitor its dissipation in the containment-pond water. The influence of residual concentrations of

Propagation in School and Out—Myth and Reality

Author: Fred W. Garrett

PP: 413


This is indeed a special privilege for me to be surrounded by four of my former students, all graduates of Sandhills Community College, offering a 2-year curriculum in applied horticulture. These former students today represent a total of 49 years of "real world" employment since they graduated The exposure to propagation from both the theoretical and practical approach will undoubtedly be reflected here today as we discuss the knowledge and experience they received compared to their expectations and actual needs when they graduated to positions involving propagation.

Growth of Three Species Produced in a Pot-in-Pot Production System

Author: John M. Ruter

PP: 418


Production of trees and shrubs in containers offers a number of production, marketing and establishment advantages compared to field-grown plant material. A problem associated with the production of container-grown plants is exposure of the root system to extreme temperatures. Roots are not as hardy as foliage and stems, and extreme temperatures limit the production of container-grown plants. Root systems of plants growing in the ground are insulated by the surrounding soil and are not exposed to the large fluctuations in root-zone temperature that occur in containers.

To address some of the problems associated with container production, the idea for a "pot-in-pot" (PIP) production system was developed (Parkerson, 1990). With this production system, a holder pot is permanently placed in the ground. The container-grown plant is then placed inside the holder pot. Using this production system, roots are protected from extreme temperatures, and windthrow problems are reduced.


Wetting Agents And Gels—Where They Have A Purpose

Author: Ted Bilderback

PP: 421

A series of experiments were conducted over a period of 7 years to determine the benefits of using wetting agents and hydrogels in horticultural sub-strates. A summary of observations, results, and conclusions of these studies are presented in this paper.
Crop Scheduling: A Business Practice or a Customer Service?

Author: Clive R. Larkman

PP: 86

To many of us crop scheduling means rotation between a wheat crop, a lucerne hay crop, a barley crop, or something of that nature. In reality it just means planned and/or organised production of your crop.

You are probably aware that in most businesses, whether they are producing nuts, bolts, cars, or aeroplanes, the production is done according to schedule. They work to a plan i e., a certain number of a certain product is produced at a predetermined time of the year. If you produce suntan lotion then your production is greater just prior to summer Well, plants are no different—their production also has to be preplanned.

I'll digress a little bit here and talk about customers. One of the current buzz words, favoured by business consultants and financial advisers, is "trading partners." The trading partners are a pair or a set of businesses whose success, productivity, and profit depends on each other. It basically means you the seller depend on your buyer's successful business for your

Propagation Medium Moisture Level and Rooting of Woody Stem Cuttings

Author: Robert D. Wright, William H. Rein, John R. Seiler

PP: 424


Intermittent mist systems are commonly used to reduce transpirational water loss from cuttings during propagation A problem with this system is maintaining a wet leaf surface without overwetting the rooting medium. Water and air compete for pore space in a medium (Loach, 1985), and oxygen availability may be reduced as the volume of water in the medium is increased. Propagators face a dilemma in providing adequate but not excessive moisture to stem cuttings both above and below the medium surface. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a range of moisture levels in the propagation medium on the cutting water potential, adventitious rooting, quality, and survival of stem cuttings of ‘Blue Rug’ juniper, ‘Hino-crimson’ azalea, and ‘Helleri’ holly

Plant Product Trends

Author: Richard VanLandingham

PP: 429

Many different direct and indirect forces create plant product trends. Our industry was once controlled by the production end of the business, but now it is more market driven The ultimate consumers' perceived value of our product has always been the basic control of what sells and what we need to produce. Most often these values have been determined by experience with our product. In recent years more information has been available for consumers, including product availability.

Presently, the ultimate consumer for plants is the retail customer, a homeowner, and usually a woman. Just a few years ago a high percent of the plant material was sold to large commercial jobs with a much different ultimate consumer with a different perceived value. The plant product trends of the future will depend on the ultimate consumer.

The retail segment of our business will always use a high percent of our product Color has been a major selling feature for retail sales for one reason—it is visually

Trends in Plant Product Mix: A Retailer's Perspective

Author: Larry Newlin

PP: 431

I would hate to be a grower trying to figure out what New Garden Landscaping and Nursery is going to buy in 5 or 10 years. We are fickle. But, alas, so are our customers. For every generalization I might make, there is buying-pattern evidence that contradicts it. We are operating in a time when trends are difficult to discern, and we find ourselves as a company swept up in a dynamic environment of customer lifestyle- and buying-habit shifts, government regulation, radical weather patterns, and a variable economy.

We have three landscape designers, a landscape architect, six landscape crews, four landscape management crews, and a nursery-stock buyer who spends half his time purchasing plants for retail sales and landscaping and half in retail sales. He and several department managers purchase about one million dollars wholesale value of green goods. A few buying facts:

  • Twenty percent of the cultivars of woody ornamentals used in our landscaping and sold in retail were not in our inventory
Plant Product Trends from the Salesman's Viewpoint

Author: Jack Lowry

PP: 434

Customer opinions can tell us how well we are really doing. I felt a recent customer comment to me reflected a trend in today's market "Our industry needs to move into the 20th Century." The customer wasn't even asking for the 21st Century.

Another customer said, "Maybe we are going back to the way it was some years ago when most of the industry relied on the wealthy and the people interested in large, unusual specimen material. The average homeowner will not be able to afford landscaping."

Today there is a very different approach to buying from previous tunes. Customers are not in a hurry. They are waiting much longer after they buy a home before they buy plants. And they are buying more carefully. Many contractors are watching their inventories. Some do not carry inventory but buy when they get the jobs.

Retailers are thinking turn-over. Trade show business has been slow in the early part of 1993 We hope business at the winter shows will be brisker.

Many growers who used rewholesale yards

Basics of Propagation by Cuttings—Temperature

Author: John E. Preece

PP: 441

Proper control of air and root zone temperatures is critical for rooting of stem cuttings. The optimum air temperature for growing the crop is probably the best for propagation. Bottom heat should be manipulated in two phases, with a higher temperature for root initiation, then a somewhat lower temperature for root growth and development.
Basics of Propagation by Cuttings: Light

Author: Brian K. Maynard

PP: 445


No one would deny that the amount or type of light reaching a cutting is important to the success of plant propagation. There is ample evidence that light profoundly affects the formation and growth of roots. Why is it then that the level of light, and the sources of light are mentioned so rarely in reports and studies of propagation methods? In the industry it has become a matter of course to provide 50% shade, or to whitewash the propagation greenhouse Beyond these measures little attention is given to manipulating the light level around the cutting to increase rooting. Not that it is all that difficult to vary the amount of light a cutting receives. Shading in a variety of forms and densities is available from most grower supply firms. Also, easy-to-use light sensors are available that will measure irradiance in footcandles (FC) for as little as $50 to $250. Understandably, however, much of the attention given to light is directed toward its frequent byproduct—heat

Basics of Propagation by Cuttings—Timing: Age-Related Effects on Adventitious Root Formation

Author: Robeirt L. Geneve

PP: 450


The observation that some plants have a greater potential to form roots on cuttings was known to the earliest horticulturists and recorded by Theophrastus (300 B.C.). Today, root formation in cuttings can be categorized based on their response to auxin. Cuttings are easy to root if application of auxin is not required for rooting. Cuttings can be classified as difficult to root if they require auxin to root at high percentages. Finally, cuttings that fail to root even after auxin application are considered recalcitrant. In many cases, a species' ability to form roots is modified as an individual plant ages. Species with cuttings that are easy to root are not affected considerably by plant age. However, age-related influences must be considered a major limiting factor for cuttings that are difficult or recalcitrant for rooting.

The basic influence of plant age on root formation can be illustrated in red pine (Pinus resinosa) (Gardener, 1929). Red pine is considered a

Using Compost on Liner Beds

Author: Bill Hendricks

PP: 455

We all know that organic matter improves soil. There are several materials we can use to accomplish this. Manure, cover crops, leaves, peat, and nursery and yard waste are examples More recently in several areas of the country, commercially composted materials have become available These come in the form of composted yard waste, municipal sludge, and even municipal garbage. Getting enough organic matter to replenish our soils is a continuing problem and looking into these composted alternative sources became a reality over 3 years ago when we started testing the use of composted municipal sludge from the city of Akron, Ohio.

As we looked into the use of composted material we found some interesting facts. The composting process ensures that nutrients normally lost through leaching from uncomposted materials will be retained due to their altered chemical state in mature composts We also found that applying composted material to our fields gives us a far greater amount of organic matter

Important Considerations for an Arboretum Propagator

Author: Kris R. Bachtell

PP: 457

When one considers what is unique about an arboretum, the wide array of interesting plants quickly comes to mind. These plants are often unusual or very rare—frequently they are magnificent old specimens with a character all their own. Although the types of plants being grown and tested at an arboretum may vary with the institution's mission or region of the country, displaying a wide diversity of plants is central to most.

Because of the richness and diversity of arboretum collections, the propagation and production of these plants frequently present special challenges to the propagator In many ways, propagating plants at an arboretum is unique. The work is:

  • Highly diversified. a large variety of different plants are grown, although the number of plants per lot is typically rather small.
  • Specialized often plants are unique or rare, possessing unusual characteristics, such as variegated foliage or dwarfness.
  • Challenging: often stock plants are aged and frequently in a declining
Fern Propagation from Spores

Author: Kenneth O'Dell

PP: 462

I was born in Western Canada and moved to the states and established a nursery in western Tennessee, about 40 miles northeast of Memphis. My facilities include 155 polyhouses, all 20 ft × 96 ft Most polyhouses have 5 ft side walls. Six houses are gutter-connected greenhouses with Ambirad radiant heat, fertilizer injectors, raised benches, cool cell pads, and cooling fans. This is where we start the ferns from spores. We also have 40 propagation houses without heat—we move the ferns into this area after being potted into 2–¼-in. rose pots.

Ferns are easy to grow and they are profitable. This year the theme for the I.P.P.S. is back to basics. There is not much more basic than growing ferns from spores. There are many good fern books available which list more taxa than you will care to grow. Edgar T. Wherry, Ph.D , Professor of Botany, Emeritus, University of Pennsylvania put together a very fine book on ferns which I often use Most books have a couple of paragraphs telling how to

The Use of Composted Tree Chippings as a Potting Medium

Author: John Rayner, Colin Arnold

PP: 89


Wood wastes are extensively used in potting media, with pine bark and sawdust dominating most types of container mixes in Australia. However, there are other wastes and by-products that, with appropriate treatment, could also be used as media components. In the United States there is a great range of composts available for container mixes, some being derived from construction wood wastes and sewage sludge (Mecklenberg, 1993). This paper discusses the use of one of these materials—composted tree chippings. It looks at both the production and current use of the material, as well as trials to compare and evaluate its performance as a medium.

Currently the Box Hill City Council nursery uses this material extensively in different mixes used in the production of a wide range of species. Its use forms par of an overall strategy at the nursery to minimize the use of non–renewable resources and reduce the use of horticultural chemicals

The research component of this paper was

Side Shearing to Increase Shade Tree Quality

Author: James Peckosh, E.B. Gee III

PP: 464

In the spring of 1988 a box of 500, 3-in tall, tissue-cultured trees—two hundred fifty each of Acer platanoides ‘Crimson King’ and A. rubrum ‘Autumn Flame&rsquo—was purchased from A. McGill & Son and split between James Peckosh and E.B Gee, III.

Because of the limited space, James Peckosh planted his trees in root-control fabric containers, side by side. His trees grew very fast in height ad became whippy and top heavy. To reduce top weight, and avoid having to stake the trees, he sheared the side branches back to two sets of leaves. The tops were never cut back. The results were enhanced stem taper, increased caliper, increased overall growth, and elimination of staking.

E.B. Gee's trees were grown in a more conventional manner. He planted his trees 4 ft apart and 10 ft between rows. The trees that were side sheared were twice as large in 2 years as those that were not. Both groups were watered and fertilized in the same manner. Heartland Nursery has successfully used this technique of pruning

How We Root Taxus baccata ‘Repandens’

Author: William S. Yoe Jr

PP: 465

Over the past 25 years we have successfully rooted Taxus × media cultivars However, T. baccata ‘Repandens’ has been a real challenge for us. We were producing inconsistent numbers from year to year and never caught up with our production or marketing goals, which have been on the increase.

Taxus baccata ‘Repandens’ is a consistent performer not only for the grower, but the landscaper and owner as well. Even though not extremely cold tolerant, it is shade and drought tolerant, and is one of the finest low-growing taxus for the landscape. We like growing this plant in the field to its perfect form.

For about the last 3 years we have made a switch from raised benches with bottom heat, to ground beds with root-zone heat. We have been very pleased with this change for our hardwood production. Along with our T × media production, our T. baccata ‘Repandens’ were included in our new rooting beds.

Timing and Preparation. After several hard frosts, usually between November and December in our area,

Sexual Propagation of Taxus cuspidata ‘Capitata’

Author: Tony Vrablic, Ralph Shugert

PP: 467


The typical form of Taxus cuspidata now has the cultivar name of ‘Capitata’. The species is indigenous to Japan (four islands), Korea, and Manchuria Many nurseries propagate this cultivar sexually for two basic reasons. First, unless upright terminal cutting wood is used the progeny will maintain the same growth habit as if they were attached to the mother plant. Secondly, a cutting-grown T.cuspidata ‘Capitata’ does not have the full basal branching that one observes in a seedling-grown plant. Therefore at Zelenka Nursery, Inc. all T.cuspidata ‘Capitata’ is sexually propagated.

The frustrations in sexual propagation of T cuspidata ‘Capitata’ are sporadic germination, and poor quality in seedling height and caliper. We shall share with you seed source, stratification, culture, and transplanting practices.

Rooting Second-Generation Syringa vulgaris Cultivar Microcutting

Author: John Larsen

PP: 469

Rooting second-generation microcuttings means taking a cutting off a rooted microcutting that was produced by tissue culture and rooting that cutting.

The rooting of second-generation microcuttings of Syringa vulgaris culitvars is just an additonal means of propagation for us when we have shortages of certain cultivars. We do not count on it yet as a major means of propagation

We began rooting tissue-cultured cuttings a few years back. Through a little trial and error and help we developed a simple system for rooting these cuttings. We treat the second-generation cuttings the same as the microcuttings we get from the tissue culture lab.

Currently we are sticking all of our microcuttings in a Techniculture tray. This tray is a 12–½ in. × 12–½ in. × 1–1/8 in styrofoam tray that holds 400 plugs. The plugs are made from peat with a polymer holding the peat together. We do not use rooting hormone on any of our microcuttings. Once a tray is planted, it is covered with a clear plastic

Fog and Air Circulation Techniques to propagate Aesculus parviflora and Trifoliate Maples

Author: Phillip C. King

PP: 470


In the 6 years that our firm has worked with fog propagation, we have undergone a metamorphosis of technologies and techniques. A short explanation of our present system should clarify the factors necessary for the propagation of these very desirable plants—Aesculus parviflora and trifoliate maples

Reducing Plant Stress with Shading

Author: Robert Kuszmaul

PP: 474

Nurserymen use a wide range of materials and methods to minimize the adverse effects of sunlight and wind. Lath structures, shading compounds, white plastic, poly shade fabric, and planted windrows are all tools that can be used to reduce direct sunlight and slow wind currents. Utilizing these methods will allow the grower more control over plant transpiration.

Poly shade fabric has been used by the nursery industry for decades. It can be purchased in various degrees of opacity such as 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%. It can be installed for the entire growing season when working with a light sensitive crop, or for short-term use to minimize desiccation.

Conditions that might warrant the use of shade fabric include: transplanting, trimming, or general changes in the growing environment.

At D&B Plants, weather conditions and the sensitivity of plant material are taken into consideration at the time of transplanting Shade fabric is placed over the plant material, and removed in stages as required.

Fertilizers: Interactions and Overwintering—A Review

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 475


Plant nutrition plays a critical role in the rooting of cuttings Research (Andersen, 1986) has shown that essential nutrients are calcium, nitrogen (in very limited amounts), potassium, and phosphorus Important trace elements are zinc and boron but it is difficult to ascertain what the exact requirements are. Nitrogen is by far the most complex and difficult to use and prescribe. While it is apparent that it is essential for such things as cell division and new root development, nitrogen can also place many demands upon the plant energy systems. The supply of nitrogen is complicated by simultaneously trying to meet but not exceed what is required.

New Father Fiala Crabapple Introductions: Field Production of Own Root Crabapples from Liners to Finished Stock

Author: Roy G. Klehm

PP: 480

About 20 years ago, while visiting Brother Charles and working with him on tetraploid daylily breeding, I noticed a few small ornamental crabapples that he had previously budded in a near-by row These trees had excellent foliage retention, attractive small berries, and neat sales appeal names like ‘Christmas Holly’, ‘Garnet’, and ‘Egret’.

When I asked "Charlie" about the origin of these, he simply said that another priest friend of his from Ohio had sent him the buds a few years ago for him to try. Brother Charles said that a Father John L. Fiala of Medina, Ohio, had been breeding and evaluating crabapples for sometime and thought that these may have commercial value.

Well, of course my interest was piqued and little did I know at the time where this all would lead

This morning I'd like to show these on their own roots and then go into a few of the better selections as we presently value them.

Plants shown included:

The lilacs: Syringa vulgaris ‘Albert F Holden’, S. × hyacinthiflora ‘Blanche

New Plant Forum

Author: Jack Alexander, Vern Black, Bruce Briggs, Steve McCulloch, Ruth

PP: 481

Acer ‘Cinnamon Flake’ originated as a chance seedling among hundreds obtained from the Rochester Parks 30 years ago. It appears to be an A griseum hybrid and is more vigorous than the species having attained a height and width of approximately 33 ft It was named ‘Cinnamon Flake’ because of its unusual cinnamon colored bark which is finely and vertically fissured with thin paper-like flakes.

Its summer foliage is a rich green and its fall coloration is a spectacular red. In winter its cinnamon-colored back is quite attractive. ‘Cinnamon Flake’ can be grafted onto A. saccharum, the sugar maple. Our oldest grafts, now 8 years old, are vigorous and show no signs of incompatibility. They have grown to a height of 14 ft with a 12-ft spread and have a trunk diameter of about 5 in. All of these selections can be seen at the Horticulture Research Farm at The University of Connecticut.

New Large-Bracted Dogwoods from Rutgers University

Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr

PP: 487


During the first 5 years of the woody ornamentals breeding program at Rutgers University, hybridization studies were limited to intra- and inter-specific hybridization of plants of the genus Ilex, and of the genus Pyracantha. Starting in 1965, plants of the various cultivars and numbered selections of Cornus florida, C. kousa, and C. nuttallii available in the trade were assembled in a performance trial as the starting point for interspecific hybridization between these three species of large-bracted dogwood. Such a field trial of tree species is essential to a long-range hybridization program: first, the trial allows one to observe the degree of genetic variability available within the various species and thus obtain a measure of the potential improvement one can expect to achieve via a program of controlled crosses; secondly, the performance trial provides the parent material used in making the crosses; and thirdly, the trial provides the current standards of excellence for

Using Artificial Light in Plant Propagation

Author: Gordon Biddle

PP: 95

We are all aware of the importance of light in the growing of plants, of the reaching for light by plants in crowded situations, and of phototropism—the directional attraction to a light source by plants. It has not been my experience, however, to hear much talk of the effects of light on the propagation of plant material.

The light emitted by the sun has many different forms of radiation mixed up in the total product, each characterized by its precise wavelength. Most common amongst these radiations are ultra violet light (UV) at the short wavelength end of the scale, visible light in the middle area, and infra red (IR) emissions of long wavelength producing heat as we know it. UV emissions are of wavelengths of less than 380 nm (1 nm, is one millionth of a mm), while IR is above 780 nm, with visible light being in the area between these two boundaries. It is the energy produced between 380 and 780 nm about which I am referring in this article, and which we call light.

Light provides

Container Nursery Plant Culture in Waxed Corrugated Cardboard Media

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 491

Media containing 25% or 50% by volume of uncomposted waxed corrugated cardboard mixed with 25% or 50% of spent mushroom compost and(or) sawdust were evaluated for container culture of four woody shrubs. The shrubs used were: dogwood (Cornus stolonifera ‘Flaviramea’); forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia ‘Lynwood’); ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius); and weigela (Weigela florida ‘Aureovariegata’). There were two fertilizer regimes: liquid (20–20–20); slow-release (Sierra 17–6-–12 plus minors, 3–4 month release time). Shoot growth data showed that all four shrubs supplied with liquid fertilizer grew better than those with slow-release fertilizer. Among the media tested, certain waxed cardboard blends supported growth of dogwood, forsythia, and ninebark equal to a bark control medium and a commercial nursery mix.
Establishing and Maintaining a Seed Orchard

Author: Rob Lovelace

PP: 495

Our company supplies tree and shrub seed for the nursery trade to produce seedlings for ornamental uses, reforestation conservation uses, mine reclamation, and understocks. Most recently we have begun to produce and collect seed for use in wetland programs

From our beginning in 1973 we have tried to respond to the needs and requests of our customers. Our customers told us in the beginning that their primary concern was a reliable, consistent seed source. We realized the only way to address this challenge was to establish our own seed orchards. Today, 60% of seed we sell is produced. from our orchards and more production is coming on line each year. Certain Species such as the oaks take many years to reach bearing age. Therefore establishing seed orchards is a long-term project requiring considerable up-front investment.

Evaluation of a Chlorophyll Meter to indicate Relative Growth Rates of Similar Plant Material

Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 497


Technological advances in electronics have provided us with new equipment to enhance our ability to quantify treatment differences in plant material One such instrument provides a non-destructive evaluation of leaf chlorophyll levels. Early testing and present use of this instrument focuses on nitrogen fertility of grasses (usually grain crops). The work has resulted in a rapid determination of nitrogen crop fertility levels that identifies fertilization needs for the crop.

This study was initiated to determine if a chlorophyll meter could be a useful tool for production of woody nursery stock. Preliminary information indicated a possible relationship between perceived growth and chlorophyll readings within species. Verification of a correlation between chlorophyll levels and growth of related plant material could allow plant breeders to use information as early indicators of plant performance.

This report is the result of 2-years' data that measured chlorophyll levels

Question Box

Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 503

Question. For John Larson. What is the rooting percentage for the third generation of cuttings?


PP: 507

The Awards Luncheon was held in President Ford Room of the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Propagation of Astilbe

Author: David J. Beattie

PP: 509

Astilbes are members of the Saxafragaceae family, native to North America and Asia, and are hardy, deciduous perennials. Most grow in dense clumps although some spread by underground rhizomes.

Astilbes can be propagated by seed, tissue culture, or division. Seed propagation is not recommended because cultivars do not come true from seed. Although Astilbe chinensis var. pumila plants are often propagated by seed, the most uniformly dwarf plants are produced from asexual divisions.

Astilbe seeds are small so when they are sown they should be lightly pressed into the germination medium Seeds do not appear to require a stratification requirement, and germination temperatures should be maintained at about 65 to 70F.

Some astilbe cultivars are being tissue cultured, especially in England. I do not recommend this method because of the propensity of astilbe to mutate (sport)— particularly red cultivars.

Most astilbes are propagated by division of the crown. In commercial propagation it

The Propagator and the Computer: The Perfect Partnership

Author: Mike Kolaczewski

PP: 511


There are many tools that help you to accomplish your job of growing plants. There is another tool that can help your to sell your plants as well as run your business more efficiently. I am speaking of course of the computer. This is a tool that many people use every day, yet there are people out there who are still not taking advantage of these wonderful machines

For many people, a computer is like a mystic relic, to be looked at and not touched. Yet if you were to sit down and take a few hours of your time, you would find out just how much you can accomplish on one of these desktop wonders. With the advent of home computers there has literally been an explosion of businesses that 10 years ago did not exist. The green industry should not be an exception to this new technology. If you have a small nursery or landscaping venture, you can perform many tasks with just one machine.

The obvious functions are bookkeeping, inventory, payroll, and several others that are

Differentiating Plant Clones in Culture and Maintaining "Virus Tested" Blueberry Clones

Author: Michael V. DeGrandchamp

PP: 513


In 1986 the Michigan Department of Agriculture instituted the "Michigan Virus Tested Blueberry Clean Stock Program" for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). DeGrandchamp Blueberry Farm Inc. entered into the virus tested program that same year Part of the program required the maintenance of a foundation stock block for scion wood. It was decided at that time to maintain the stock block in vitro and produce scion wood as microshoots from tissue culture. The in vitro multiplication of 25 cultivars was contracted with an outside tissue culture laboratory Unrooted microshoots are shipped to our nursery, rooted in our greenhouses, grown outside for 1 or 2 years and then sold to commercial growers.

Breeding Hardy Woody Landscape Plants

Author: Harold Pellett

PP: 517

The goal of the landscape plant improvement program at the University of Minnesota is to develop and/or identify superior woody landscape plants that are tolerant of the climatic conditions of Minnesota and other northern areas We approach this goal through two main activities: evaluation and breeding. In the evaluation area we try to acquire as many plants as we can that we think may have any chance of surviving under our conditions. Unfortunately, in the past couple of years we have had to curtail this activity greatly due to dwindling support. We also do a lot of cold hardiness testing in the laboratory to acquire definitive data on actual hardiness levels of different cultivars throughout the winter season. Plant improvement activities include breeding programs involving hybridization between different species or between plants of the same species that possess different desired traits. We also grow out open pollinated progeny for selection of superior plants in cases where we
Adventitious Root Initiation—Future Research on the Site of Auxin Action

Author: Charles W. Heuser Jr, Francis H. Witham

PP: 521


It has been shown many times under controlled conditions that auxins are the applied phytohormones which consistently enhance adventitious root production. Indeed, research has shown that division of the root initial cells is dependent upon either applied or endogenous auxin (Hartmann et al. 1990.) In a recent review, Jarvis (1986) summarized the evidence supporting the idea that auxins have a central role in the initiation and development of rooting. However, even though auxin involvement in adventitious root initiation is well established, knowledge of the mechanism of auxin action in adventitious root initiation remains unclear (Blakesley et al , 1990) It is important to understand the mechanism of auxin action for the propagator as well as the basic scientist. This paper deals with experiments performed in our laboratory on the regulation of adventitious root initiation in mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.]R. Wilcz).

Effects of Reduced Humidity and Paclobutrazol on Acclimatisation of Tissue-Cultured Plants

Author: Kerrin P. Henderson, Acram M. Taji, Richard R. Williams

PP: 97


Plant tissue culture is now a widely used propagation method Its main advantage is the ability to rapidly multiply selected cultivars and to produce genetically uniform plants. The techniques range from simple micropropagation using a bud, node or leaf segment, to cell or protoplast culture. Commercial production mainly involves micropropagation. Whatever the technique used, the final step involves the transfer of the cultured plants from the protected environment of the culture vessel to the nursery bench. The process of the plant adapting to this change in environment is known as acclimatization.

Under in vitro conditions of low light intensities and in the presence of carbohydrate in the medium, plants are heterotrophic i.e., they are unable to photosynthesise to meet their carbohydrate requirements. The high humidity in the culture vessel also results in plants unable to control water loss through transpiration (Brainerd and Fuchigami, 1981; Capellades et al, 1990;

Alternative Methods for Sterilization and Cutting Disinfestation

Author: M.T. McClelland, M.A.L. Smith

PP: 526


In recent years, increasing evidence has been reported on the adverse effects of chlorine on our environment. Most of the controversy over chlorine pollution has been centered around two sources: (1) chlorinated hydrocarbons, which deplete the atmospheric ozone layer protecting us from damaging ultraviolet rays, and (2) the manufacturing processes using chlorine (e.g., plastic polyvinyl chlorides and paper bleaching) which produce a multitude of toxic chlorine compounds called organochlorines.

Health effects linked to the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in humans and wildlife include breast cancer and reproductive problems. Many of the compounds are carcinogens and mutagens. While working on a community education project on the dangers of chlorine pollution, we became concerned about what chlorinated products we might routinely use as part of our nursery operations.

At McHenry County Nursery, we have made every effort to use

Hostas in Australia

Author: Max Moore

PP: 103


I first became interested in the genus Hosta after I visited England in 1977 and saw large specimen plants displayed at the Chelsea Flower Show and in many gardens that I visited. This interest remained dormant until 1978 when, on becoming a member of the I.P.P.S. at the Hobart conference, I saw a display of Hosta plants in the Hobart Botanic Gardens conservatory This rekindled my interest, and on my return to Melbourne I began searching for hosta plants. I managed to obtain plants from various nurseries and slowly built up a collection of the cultivars then available. These included H. sieboldiana, H. crispula, H. ventricosa, H. fortunei var. albopicta, H. fortunei Aurea, H. plantaginea ‘Grandiflora’, H. undulata, H. ventricosa ‘Aureo-maculata’, and H. undulata var. univittata

In the beginning, it was difficult to find collectors or growers. In fact, it was even difficult to find people that knew what a hosta was. This dearth of information has been partially overcome by

Propagation and Growth of the Tree Dahlia—Some Observations

Author: Allen Gilbert

PP: 105

The giant tree dahlia (Dahlia imperialis) has been grown by horticulturists, nursery propagators, and gardeners for about 100 years. A survey of books and literature on propagation shows that very little information is given specifically to tree dahlias apart from the fact that unlike the garden dahlia, they can be propagated by cuttings taken from the cane-like growths after flowering has finished in late autumn.

This paper discusses the propagation of tree dahlia from leaf-bud cuttings, softwood tip cuttings, canes, and single-bud-cuttings Also discussed is the summer pruning of tree dahlia plants to achieve dwarfed forms that will encourage new landscape usage of this plant and may promote pot culture of tree dahlia plants within the nursery trade.

The tree dahlia belongs to the same group of plants as the common garden dahlia Some botanists consider that modern hybrid garden dahlias and the tree dahlia originated through a common source—a cross between D. pinnata and D. coccinea.

I.P.P.S. and the Creation of a New Australian Botanic Gardens

Author: Peter Smith

PP: 107

In 1978 the Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation proposed to the Australian Government a proposal to establish a series of regional botanical gardens in which inland regional flora would be exhibited. These gardens would enhance the botanical collections existing in our coastal rim of gardens, which are associated only with our state capital cities and densely populated areas. The proposal was accepted in principle and there are currently six gardens being planned for development They are Alice Springs, Port Augusta, Longreach, Mt. Isa, Kununurra, and Sunraysia.

The Sunraysia Oasis Botanical Gardens will be a garden of world significance. It will bring together the plants of the world as the region of Sunraysia has brought together the peoples of the world. European migration to our region, immediately after the second world war, was very large.

The gardens are an expression of our community&39;s horticultural maturity. It is a way of paying homage to our pioneers It will be a

Is IBA an Effective Promoter of Root Formation on Cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis?

Author: A.S. Carter, M.U. Slee

PP: 109

Cuttings of a single clone of Eucalyptus grandis ex Hill. showed a positive rooting response to the presence of IBA applied as a liquid to the cutting base. The magnitude of the response varied with each of three identical trials conducted during winter, spring, and summer and it was not possible to define any optimal dose rate in the range 0 to 10,000 ppm IBA. A concentration of 2000 ppm was as equally effective as 4000, 6000, 8000, or 10,000 ppm. Root formation on cuttings dipped in IBA for 1 second was no different to that on cuttings dipped for 5 or 10 seconds. No advantage was achieved by allowing the base of treated cuttings to dry before the cuttings were inserted into the propagation mix.
The Production of Evergreen Azaleas in a Sub-Tropical Climate

Author: Chris Bunker

PP: 114

It is often thought that Brisbane is too hot to grow Indica azaleas (Rhododendron). Our climate is subtropical with summer day temperatures averaging near 30C and winter day temperatures 15C. We are situated on a latitude of 27°S and have an average annual rainfall of 1150 mm (45 in.) which predominantly falls in the summer months.

This paper will outline how we have adapted this particular plant to our environment.


Careful matching of cultivar to environment is perhaps the key to success in any crop. In azaleas we look for the following traits for a successful cultivar:

  • Flower colour
  • Amount of flower
  • Flower of longevity and holding capacity
  • Number of flowers flushes in a year
  • Foliage colour
  • Growing habit of plant
  • Overall appearance
  • Resistance to diseases
  • Ability to propagate.

Our trials to access the above characteristics can quite of often take 2 to 3 years. One year is enough time to evaluate fully the potential of a new cultivar, as quite often the plant can perform above or

Protea Stock Plant Nutrition

Author: Andrew Mathews

PP: 48


This paper describes some of the trials carried out at Proteaflora in Monbulk, Victoria. The general aim of the trials was to achieve consistent production of good quality cutting material The work described in this paper concentrates on the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rooting and subsequent growth of cuttings

In previous experiments we established that nitrogen and phosphorus were the most critical elements in the fertilization of our stock plants

In the trial described here two clonal cultivars were used:Telopea ‘Shady Lady’ red and Leucospermum cordifolium #27.

Government Regulations and Nursery Accreditation

Author: Ian Smith

PP: 117

There have been many changes to government regulations and operational strategies and policies which may have significant impact on nurserymen throughout Australia. I will discuss accreditation and water management regulations and their implications for nurserymen through examples.

The Eltham Shire in Victoria is introducing a Pest Plants Local Law to ban or restrict sales of environmental weeds from nurseries. Similarly, there have been government initiatives on a national weed strategy and more rigorous policing on noxious weed regulations. There has been more emphasis on health and safety issues and the environment. Examples include changes to pesticide regulations and safe work practices.

Government organisations and, in particular, the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service, have changed significantly. This will influence the importation of PVR plants and the development of plant exports.

There is obviously an emphasis on the environment and regulations that will minimise

Dormancy Release of Tree and Shrub Seeds Using a Compost Activator Pretreatment

Author: F.J. Cullum, A.G. Gordon

PP: 125

Results from initial trials at Writtle College indicate that the germination of several economically important tree and shrub seeds, including Acer campestre, Cratageus spp., and Tilia platyphyllos, can be improved by a compost activator treatment developed initially for rose rootstocks. Treated seeds gave a higher field emergence and germinated earlier than untreated controls and subsequently produced better quality seedlings. However, the improvement was not as marked or as consistent as had been found with seed of rose rootstocks. Further work is now being supported by a grant from the Horticultural Development Council.
Cost of Production in Commercial Micropropagation and Research Strategies

Author: R.A. de Fossard

PP: 131

Research strategies in commercial micropropagation essentially require a thorough understanding of the components in the cost of production allied with a dissection of the processes involved in the technique (de Fossard, 1976, 1990, 1993). The major component is overheads and the first task is to distribute these costs to various parts of the laboratory. The laboratory can be conveniently divided into three main areas—the preparation area, the inoculation area and the incubation area.
Learning from Changes in the Marketing of Plants

Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 141


The purpose of history is to learn from the lessons and experiences of the past for use in the present and future. This paper presents a brief history of ornamental horticulture over the last 40 years and draws some personal conclusions about the present and future of our industry, and in particular about the market.

  • In this decade we heard the first warnings about the dangers of organic phosphate insecticides.
  • It was a decade of flower and vegetable shows.
  • The rose was the plant—Britain's Royal National Rose Society had over 50,000 members in 1957.
  • Public parks were popular—they were full of colourful displays of bedding plants, roses, and herbaceous borders, all set off by acres of neatly trimmed grass.
  • We had no garden centres, only nurseries, and no plant retailers–nurserymen sold to the public.
  • All the plants sold were either bare root or balled in sacks.
  • We sold our plants in the autumn and early spring.
  • The Dutch supplied many plants to the U.K. market.
  • There were
Plug Production for Seedlings

Author: Andrew Eames

PP: 144

The term plug describes modules ranging from 1.5 ml by volume up to 4 cm square—or larger. These are clearly extremes and most seedlings are produced in plugs ranging from about 2 to 10 ml in compost volume. In nursery stock terms it is quite appropriate to think of plugs as mini-liners; the description fits them quite well.

The first experiments with plugs, or modules, occurred in the 1950s. It is debatable whether the idea was actually invented—they probably gradually developed from a scaling-down of larger techniques.

It is certain that American growers must be credited with the first commercial use of what we would now recognise as plugs. They were certainly in use by 1960, and after a relatively slow start their use accelerated; by the early 1970s they were in widespread use throughout the U.S.A. and they were beginning to be used in the U.K. Since that time they have become a very important tool in the production of pot and bedding plants.

There are no statistics about numbers of

Some Recent Advances in Vegetable and Flower Seed Technology

Author: David Gray

PP: 146

The reasons for variation in seed viability, and for the variation in the size of plants grown from seed are described, together with a basis for selecting seed lots to give high germination and uniform stands of plants. The use of seed priming by polyethylene glycol, combined with fungicides and plant growth regulator treatment to improve subsequent seed performance, is outlined.
Digging into Composts

Author: Margaret Scott, Neil Bragg, Spence Gunn

PP: 150

Workshop session on peat and its alternatives for container composts: the assessment, sourcing, use, and management of materials. AIM OF WORKSHOP

In the UK, and much of Europe, the use of peat as an ingredient in container composts has become an important environmental issue. Environmental groups have given publicity to peat as a non-renewable resource, and to the need to preserve peat bogs as a habitat for wild plants and animals. They have highlighted horticulture as a consumer of peat and hence as a threat to the conservation of peat bogs.

Rightly or wrongly, this has resulted in customer pressure on the horticulture industry to develop alternative ingredients for soil amendments and container composts.

This workshop aimed to highlight the characteristics of peat that have made it so valuable as a container compost ingredient, and which would therefore need to be present in any alternatives. It was also intended to demonstrate the improbability of finding a single material that can

Understanding Vegetative Propagation

Author: Brian Howard

PP: 157


There are compelling reasons why propagators in the U K should seek increased understanding of relevant underlying principles. The nursery industry here is extremely diverse, producing many thousands of individual taxa on nearly 3000, mainly small, nurseries which are spread throughout the country. Different attitudes towards propagation, different technical backgrounds and working practices, and different commercial objectives compound this diversity. Against such a variable background there is little purpose in developing narrow blueprints for a few specific plants. Nurserymen need new insights, information, and knowledge with which to adapt and improve their operations in ways that suit themselves. If they don't have the correct understanding nurserymen can easily develop the wrong understanding, which at best may prevent progress, and at worst be counter-productive as they move to meet the challenge of market-led propagation systems (Vallis, 1992).

Magnolia Propagation

Author: Christopher G. Lane

PP: 163


There are many methods which can be employed to propagate magnolias, for example seed, softwood cuttings, semi-ripe cuttings, micropropagation, layering, budding, and grafting Two methods employed at Hadlow College will be discussed. Firstly softwood leaf-bud cutting of a range of deciduous magnolias, including the results of a small wounding trial on Magnolia stellata ‘Royal Star’. Secondly chip budding a range of difficult to root deciduous magnolias onto pot grown rootstocks The two propagation methods will be discussed separately. Only a brief outline of the method of preparing softwood leaf-bud cuttings and the process of chip budding will be given as these are well known to propagators. More emphasis will be placed on other factors such as source of material, the wounding trial, rootstocks for budding, tying materials, etc.

Fuchsia Options

Author: Deborah Law

PP: 167


Tamborine Mountain Plants is a specialist nursery reliant on only one major product for the year. Therefore, it is important to establish as many marketing options as possible of that one plant for success of our business. Tamborine Mountain Plants has become Australia's biggest fuchsia nursery. Our fuchsia marketing options are:

  • As cuttings
  • As tubes
  • As 4–in. and 6–in. pots
  • Baskets—6–in. and 8–in. plastic, fibre-lined 14 in.
  • Retail—using mother stock beds as display gardens
  • Mail Orders

Each stage of a product has an advantage to different customers.

Inspecting a Plant for Problems: What to Look For

Author: Rosemary E. Madden

PP: 55

When one is presented with a problem during plant propagation or cultivation, the cause(s) may be known and the problem rectified. Under other circumstances, for example, through lack of knowledge of the environment in which you're working or the plant which you are producing, a remedy may not be as straight forward.

Early diagnosis and the adoption of a holistic attitude to the growing of any crop or line are paramount Over time, if records are maintained one may learn to predict outbreaks of disease, pests, or other problems, and take precautions against recurrences.

Developing Crop Protection Strategies for the Nursery

Author: Audrey M. Litterick

PP: 170


The production of quality, healthy plants is more important than ever before. Consumers have become increasingly demanding in recent years and if nurseries are to survive in today&39;s highly competitive environment, they must produce a consistent, quality product. There has been a gradual increase in records of disease on ornamentals. This may be partly because of a greater awareness of crop health. It is also because there has been an expansion in ornamental production in the U.K. and because there is increasing specialisation within nurseries. The use of re-circulating systems for nutrients and water also causes an increase in disease.

It is increasingly difficult to achieve effective crop health management on ornamentals. The technology surrounding crop protection is constantly changing. New products, techniques, and services are being developed and existing ones are being changed, adapted or removed from the market There is very little data on ornamental crops in

The Botanical Gardens of Russia and Her Neighbours

Author: Igor A. Smirnov

PP: 173


In 1706 a decree from Peter the Great established the first botanical garden in Moscow as a medicinal herb garden. At present, this first garden is a branch of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. The second oldest botanical garden, laid down in St. Petersburg in 1714, was called "the pharmaceutical garden". The Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences was originally based on this pharmaceutical garden in St Petersburg. From the time of the first garden until the beginning of this century, 20 botanical gardens have been established (Lapin 1984).

In the 1930s and 1940s large botanical gardens were created in many cities of the former Soviet Union including Omsk, Rostov on the Don, Almati, Baku, Dushanbe, Kiev, Minsk, Ekaterenburg, and Ufa. They played an important role in the conservation of native flora and the enrichment of cultivated plants. Before World War II, unique institutions were founded, such as the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden (within the

Rhododendron Propagation—Methods and Techniques Carried out in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A.

Author: Christopher George

PP: 178

For me, the missing link in the Rhododendron production cycle is propagation. At Osberton Grange, we are growing-on 300,000 rhododendron plants at any one time, but I have never had the opportunity to study the propagation stage.

Therefore, in spring 1993 I used my Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship Award to visit the U.S.A. to fill in this gap in my experience My first visit soon achieved this goal, as it took me to the source of all the rhododendron plants grown at Osberton Grange.

Plant Improvement and Nursery Production Techniques in New Zealand

Author: James Newell

PP: 183

New Zealand has given the British Isles many popular garden plants such as Cordyline, Hebe, Leptospermum, Olearia, and Pittosporum. With assistance from a Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship Award I spent one month in New Zealand looking at plant improvement schemes and production techniques.

The plant improvement schemes I studied concentrated on New Zealand's native flora. At Auckland Regional Botanic Gardens, a Hebe breeding programme started in 1982 by Jack Hobbs, has produced 12 named cultivars. Most names carry the ‘Wiri’ prefix, for example, H. ‘Wiri Joy’ and H. ‘Win Image’ These have a superior appearance and garden performance to other cultivars especially in the hot and humid Auckland climate where septoria leaf spot (Septoria exotica) and downy mildew (Peronospora grisea) are a problem (Hobbs, 1991). I am uncertain about their hardiness in the British Isles. Another notable plant introduction in recent years is Weinmannia ‘Kiwi Red’.

Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research Ltd., near

Determination of the Cotoneaster Collections in three European Botanical Gardens

Author: Jeanette Fryer

PP: 185

At the National Botanic Garden, Salaspils, Latvia, I worked with the Curator and Head of Dendrology, Dr. Raimonds Cinovskis, on the determination of the extensive collection of cotoneasters grown in this interesting garden.

Consisting of around 120 taxa, including some species from native sites in the Baltic States and Russia, this collection holds many fine specimens worthy of cultivation. Particularly attractive were the white flowered Cotoneaster megalocarpus and C. submultiflorus, and the pink flowered C. roseus. These three species all have red fruits in the autumn.

After gathering propagation and herbarium material from the gardens I travelled to Bjuv, in southern Sweden, to work with Dr. Bertil Hylmo, who has studied the genus Cotoneaster for the past 30 years and has a magnificent collection of around 300 taxa growing in his "Cotoneasteretum."

Many beautiful cotoneasters which could be—and should be—utilized by the nursery trade are grown in this Swedish garden.

We were joined by

Fungus and Relative Humidity

Author: Bent Løchenkohl

PP: 189

The environment in propagation units is ideal for fungi to grow—nice warm temperature and high relative humidity (RH). At the same time it is difficult to use fungicides in a propagation unit. Therefore, cuttings have to be free of fungal diseases by good care of the stockplants. Under normal conditions in a greenhouse, should there exist a high RH, climate computers are able to control it—this is not the case in a propagation unit.

Fungi grow small hyphae, 4–6 µm in diameter, that develop into mycelium. In order to grow, fungi have to absorb water so that nutrients can move into the hyphae. If transpiration is too high, the hyphae dry out and the Therefore, from the fungi's point of view it is not the RH but transpiration and subsequent condensation which controls its growth.

It takes some time to get used to considering evaporation instead of RH as controlling the growth of fungi. Even in a greenhouse with 100% RH, evaporationtranspiration occurs because some areas are warmer and others

Photosynthesis in Cuttings During Rooting

Author: Bjarke Veierskov

PP: 189

It is well known that a large variation exists among plant species in their ability to utilize light for growth. Most of these variations are caused by genetic differences where some plants (shade plants) are light saturated at very low levels of irradiance, while others are not light saturated at naturally existing light conditions. Because plants generally grow close together with many overlapping leaves, light saturation is seldom observed under normal growing conditions.

Cuttings are different. They often only have a few leaves, and not having a root system, are unable to absorb water. To compensate for the lack of roots, mist propagation and enclosed plastic are used to ensure a high relative humidity in the environment surrounding a cutting during rooting.

A high level of irradiance causes a high carbohydrate production.

This carbohydrate is normally used for growth in an intact growing plant. In a cutting growth has ceased, and this leads to carbohydrate and starch accumulation in

Production of Seedlings

Author: Bent Petersen

PP: 190

A/S Frisa Plants is a producer of annual (summer) plants for gardens and pot plant nurseries. All production is based on seed propagation—this places seed quality, germination, and vitality at the center of production

All seeds are germinated in flats with one seed placed in each cell Therefore, it is of utmost importance that seed quality is the best. Fungal diseases occurring during germination may be caused by pathogens on the seed. To ensure the proper fungicide treatment after sowing, all seed lots are tested for the fungus/fungi they may be carrying. Immediately after sowing, the flats are treated with the fungicide required to control any fungal problems identified on the seeds. The flats are placed in a mist room for one day and then into the propagation room with or without light as needed. For most seeds the best germination is observed in the light (10 to 20 W m2). The young seedlings are shaded the first few days after germination.

Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

Author: Knud Jepsen

PP: 190

A/S Knud Jepsen Nursery was founded in 1963 and today consists of two production units with an overall yearly production of more than 10 million Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Most production is for export with Germany being the major market. The latest addition to the nursery, 19,000 m2 in size, is run by the most advanced greenhouse control equipment available today. Because of this, plants are only handled when they are propagated and at the time of sale.

A cornerstone of production is quality and research. Two full-time staff members are assigned to research. This ensures that production is utilizing the latest techniques and new cultivars are introduced regularly. We have our own plant breeding program to ensure new cultivars for the market.

All propagation begins with stock plants (elite plants) which are kept in a section of the nursery where only the propagator is allowed. These plants are tested regularly for diseases and uniformity. Cuttings taken to produce plants for sale. Cuttings


Author: H.E. Kresten Jensen

PP: 191


Until a few years ago, standard practice in the greenhouse industry was to keep the night temperature for potted plants set lower than the day temperature The reasoning was, that photosynthesis at day should be promoted by a high temperature and respiration at night should be limited by a lower temperature. In addition, the free heat from the sun during daylight should he utilized and the energy consumption at night should be limited to reduce production cost. Plant height and elongation growth was not considered—compact growth was obtained by the use of chemical growth retardants.

The use of chemicals, i.e., growth retardants, is now questioned and in society there is a general wish that chemicals should be used to a lesser extent. In Germany and Sweden, Alar is prohibited and this may also happen in Denmark for this and other chemicals. For these reasons growers and researchers are looking for other means to control plant height.

Therefore, much interest was generated by

The Propagation of Australian Native Plants from Cuttings at the Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG)

Author: Paul Carmen

PP: 60


The Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) is a major scientific and educational resource, and has the world's most comprehensive display of living Australian native plants.

The ANBG occupies 90 ha on the lower slopes of Black Mountain in Canberra, together with 80 ha at Jervis Bay (Jervis Bay Botanic Gardens). There are approximately 91,000 plants, representing more than 5,900 taxa, growing at the ANBG. These plants are held in open-ground plantings, permanent pot collections and in glasshouses.

The objectives of the ANBG are to grow, study, and promote Australia's indigenous flora and vegetative propagation plays a major role in the achievement of these objectives

Shading of Plants

Author: Niels Erik Andersson

PP: 194


The use of shading screens in the greenhouse not only influences the irradiance but also the greenhouse climate, e.g., relative humidity and air temperature (Andersson, 1991; Andersson and Skov, 1991). The aim of shading plants is first and foremost to reduce the energy load and to create the right level of light for the plant species which are grown in the greenhouse. A shading screen also influences the natural ventilation of the greenhouse (Andersson, 1991a;Andersson, 1992) and thus the air temperature and humidity It is possible to take advantage of the reduced ventilation rates when rooted cuttings become acclimatized after propagation.

Biological Process Control in Greenhouses: A Physiological Approach

Author: Carl-Otto Ottosen, Eva Rosenqvist

PP: 196


Photosynthesis takes place practically everywhere on the earth from the Arctic to the tropics where plants, unlike animals living in the same conditions, need to be able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions to survive The latter phrase may sound dramatic, however, most ornamental pot plants are exposed to major changes in environmental conditions even in a greenhouse, and especially during the last journey from the greenhouse to the consumers

The ability of plants to adapt to changes in environmental conditions partly depends on their original ecological niche A prerequisite for optimal production of these ornamental pot plants is knowledge about their natural demands, and especially their physiological adaptability.

Photosynthesis as an expression of a plant's reaction to climatic conditions is the basis of part of the research project "Biological Process Control in Greenhouses" that is carried out in collaboration between the Department of Floriculture (Danish

Effect of Nitrogen on Blueberry and Juniper Grown in a Fish Waste Compost:Fir Bark Medium

Author: Rita L. Hummel, Shiou Kuo, Diane W. Privett, E.J. Jellum

PP: 201

Juniperus horizontalis ‘Bar Harbor’ and Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ rooted liners were transplanted from 2–¼-in.to 1-gallon containers in a 1 ground bottomfish waste hemlock/fir sawdust compost: 3 Douglas-fir bark (v/v) growing medium. Nitrogen was applied as a liquid once every 2 weeks at the following concentrations: 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 ppm, N as NH4NO3. Results indicated that the addition of 450 ppm N once every 2 weeks was sufficient to produce the best overall growth and quality of blueberry and juniper plants.
Disease Control in the Propagating House

Author: Ralph S. Byther

PP: 205

To understand strategies for disease control in propagating houses, it is necessary to understand some basic concepts of how diseases develop. Three components must be present before a disease will occur: (1) a pathogen (micro-organism that is capable of causing disease), (2) a susceptible host plant, and (3) favorable environmental conditions for the disease to develop. In addition, all three must be present for a sufficient length of time to allow infection to take place. If any of these components is lacking, no disease will develop If these components are present at a less than an optimum level, disease will develop at a slower rate.

Because of the environmental conditions in a propagating house, the potential for disease is very high. Free moisture, high humidity, and mild temperatures favor the development of many fungal and bacterial diseases Propagation houses could almost be considered by a pathologist to be an ideal inoculation chamber to study diseases. The vast majority of

The Potential for Chemical Root Pruning in Container Nurseries

Author: Richard P. Regan, Thomas D. Landis, James L. Green

PP: 208


Deformed root systems of container-grown plants are a longstanding concern of nursery managers, landscapers, and foresters (Armstrong, 1951; Burdett, 1979). Kinked or circling roots can strangle the plant, impair long-term growth, lead to instability or toppling, and cause death. Halter et al.(1993) found a reduction in growth and an increase in root deformities in 11-year-old lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta ssp.murrayana, planted as container stock. Plants with deformed roots are more sensitive to environmental stress, such as drought, and to attack from insects and disease. Certain plants develop deformed roots rapidly, especially when they are grown in small containers.

Root systems become deformed when the growing root tips deflect off the smooth container wall, grow sideways, and accumulate on the periphery of the root ball Harris (1967) suggested that if roots where encouraged to grow in the center of the medium, plants could remain in containers longer, before serious

Using "Limiting Factors" to Design and Manage Propagation Environments

Author: Thomas D. Landis

PP: 213


One of the basic concepts of ecology is called the principle of limiting factors which states that, when a process is governed by several factors, its rate is limited by the factor that is closest to the minimum requirement (Odum, 1971). Conceptually, the idea of limiting factors can be visualized with the wooden barrel analogy which Whitcomb (1988) used to explain mineral nutrient deficiencies. Plant growth is represented by the water in the barrel which is constructed of wooden staves, each representing a different limiting factor (Fig. 1). The water level (plant growth rate) at any one time or location is limited by the height of the shortest stave (limiting factor) in the barrel.

If we expand this concept to nursery design and management, we can identify those environmental factors that are potentially limiting to plant growth. The main factors of the atmospheric environment are light, temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide and the two principal

Question Period I


PP: 219

Jeff Bohn: Are there any detrimental effects of copper on mycorrhizal fungi?
Question Period II


PP: 220

Richard Walhood: With regard to your international acquisitions, how are you affected by plant quarantine laws or is that another function of the university?
Intensive Cultivation of Taxus Species for the Production of Taxol®

Author: Nicholas C. Wheeler, Richard F. Piesch

PP: 222

Taxol®, a novel anti-cancer drug registered in the U.S. in 1992 for the treatment of ovarian cancer, is derived from plant tissues of the genus Taxus. While the bark of Pacific yew (T. brevitolia Nutt.) is the only current approved source of Taxol, several alternative sources are under development. One promising alternative is the intensive cultivation of yew plants in tree nurseries, as is being developed by Weyerhaeuser Company. Since 1987 the company has been active in Taxus research and has embarked on a large scale production program to supply yew biomass for the production of Taxol. We believe this approach can best provide a dependable, long-term and economical supply of paclitaxel, the active compound on which Taxol is based. The program is supported by Bristol-Myers Squibb, the pharmaceutical company developing the drug in the U.S., and by the National Cancer Institute.
New and Outstanding Plants

Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm, Tamara Buchanan, J. Michael Evans, Roger Gossie

PP: 228

Northern inside-out flower, Vancouveria hexandra (Hook.) Morren & Decne., a Pacific Northwest native, is an attractive, reluctantly deciduous, herbaceous, groundcover for shade and semi-shade sites along the Pacific coast. It grows naturally in coniferous woods west of the Cascade Mountains.

Its common name, inside-out-flower, comes from exposure of the ½-inch long stamens and pistil by the sharply reflexed sepals and petals. The sepals and petals are both white, but the petaloid sepals are the larger and showier of the two. The nodding flowers, in open panicles above the foliage, are each about a half-nch wide.

The foliage, however, is the quality making this plant a useful landscape subject. Some people say it's airy, or fern-like. Compound leaves stand up to a foot high on wiry stems which emanate from ground level. Individual leaflets are up to 2 ½ in. long and nearly as wide, often ovate in shape overall. The leaflets are quite unique, having three rather indistinct lobes with shallow

Introduction to Growing Perennials from Seed

Author: William L. Ashburner

PP: 64


Perennials in the last decade have enjoyed enormous success amongst the gardening public. The movement to a more free-form and care-free style of gardening, and in particular the "cottage gardening" trend has buoyed sales of perennials. They now account for a sizeable but undocumented market share Nursery persons unfamiliar with perennials have found it necessary to grow them to maintain sales. This has resulted in some cases with inappropriate propagation techniques and has resulted in plants being produced below the growers' usual standard.

Intermittent Sprinkler Irrigation Reduces Water Loss from Container-Grown Plants

Author: Nabila S. Karam, Alex X. Niemiera, Robert Wright

PP: 240

Water application efficiency can be improved by approximately 4% to 10% via intermittent irrigation. However, efficiency, regardless of application method, is primarily a function of pre-irrigation moisture content and the volume of water applied; efficiency decreases as volume and substrate moisture content increases. For pine bark, relatively high efficiencies can be achieved if irrigation occurs when the pre-irrigation substrate moisture content is below 88% and the volume of water applied does not exceed 300 ml (0.32 qt).
Reduction of Nitrates in Nursery Surface and Ground Water

Author: Ronald R. Amos

PP: 244


Nitrogen is an essential element in the production of plants. Management of nitrogen to prevent surface and ground water contamination will be affecting all nursery operations in the future. Some nurseries have already had to address this problem. Nurseries provide a product that is a benefit to the environment, but past and current fertility practices have created environmental problems. Federal and state governments are examining nitrate sources in agriculture and commercial agriculture will most likely be looked at more closely than family farms. Potential problems and some solutions in greenhouses, fields, and container areas will be discussed. Examples of what Evergreen Nursery is doing to combat these problems will illustrate what has been done in one operation.

Effects of Biocontrol Agents on Plant Growth

Author: Robert G. Linderman

PP: 249

Soilborne root diseases frequently limit the growth and survival of plants propagated in nurseries as well as field-grown crops The first level of defense against such diseases has been the application of chemical pesticides marketed for the control of root diseases. The number and availability of such chemicals, however, has dwindled in recent years because of human health risk and the high cost of registration and re-registration. This has forced the search for viable alternatives, including improved cultural practices and biological controls. A few biocontrol agents are available to nurserymen, but most have been developed for use in food crop production, and little is known about their efficacy in nurseries My research program is dedicated to developing improved strategies for finding and characterizing effective biocontrol agents for application in nurseries. This report is to describe some of the effects of the biocontrol agents on plant growth discovered during this research.
A Protected Diffusion Zone (PDZ) to Conserve Soluble Production Chemicals

Author: James L. Green, Shaun Kelly, Bryan Blackburn, James Robbins, Bru

PP: 253

Inefficient, repeated applications and waste discharge of agricultural production chemicals can be curtailed if means, such as the protected diffusion zone (PDZ), are provided to retain the chemicals within the plant root zone and to deliver them at appropriate times in adequate concentrations to meet requirements for plant growth and pest control. Application of fertilizers and pesticides in the PDZ of the closed, insulated pallet system (CIPS) or in the "Conserver" within the open plant root zone will decrease waste discharge of the applied, soluble chemical, e.g., potassium nitrate or Subdue.
Using Manmade Snow to Protect Outdoor Perennials

Author: Michael Poynter

PP: 258

Skagit Gardens is a wholesale grower of bedding plants and container-grown herbaceous perennials. We are located at sea level lat. 48.5°N in northwestern Washington state. We overwinter about 2 million plants per year outside

Hardiness varies greatly among varieties but, in general, a plant is much less hardy in a pot on top of the ground than it would be if planted in the ground. Our particular climate can be cold in the winter (below 10F) for several weeks at a time. Due to our strong marine influence, it can also be in the 50s and 60s in the winter. Our experience has been that greenhouse grown plants tend to be soft and leggy if the weather gets unseasonably mild and we cannot reliably produce a plant that will be hardy in the interior regions of the continent. We do carry a crop of perennial liners in the greenhouse through the winter and some of the 4-in. crop inside to help with early availability for the local and warmer climate customers. These houses are kept as cool as

The Commercial Propagation and Production of Fuchsias at Tamborine Mountain

Author: Deborah Law

PP: 259

I spent most of my young days at boarding school on the coast or on my father's sheep property in far South West Queensland, approximately 600 miles away, and then 20 odd years on another sheep property even further west. I came to Tamborine Mountain in 1976. Tamborine Mountain is about one hour's drive from Brisbane and about 20 min. from the major coastal highway which runs along the east coast of Australia. It is about 1800 ft above sea level, giving it a temperate climate in contrast to the subtropical climate of the coast and the arid conditions of my earlier life I was offered a job in a production nursery on Tamborine Mountain and it wasn't long before I established my own small nursery on a third of an acre at the rear of my home. Three years later, when a well-drained and well-positioned 4.5 acre piece of land became available, the present nursery was established By then, I had a clear picture of the ideas I wished to build into the new nursery and of the opportunities arising
Strategies in Commercial Micropropagation

Author: R.A. de Fossard

PP: 261

I can trace my learning curve in micropropagation from 1961 and now I can pose questions such as "What is important to the achievement of a successful micropropagation operation? Where should I direct my research?" In a few words, the answer is "to the achievement of high success rates in the acclimatization stage".

In this paper I will be concentrating on my experiences with culture media and my current approach to the selection of media And to start at the end product I will present my latest basal medium and ideas for using it (Table 1) The medium consists of a micronutrient section, a growth factor section, and a gelling agent. Macronutrient, auxin, cytokinin, and carbohydrate sections are treated as experimental variables. Full strength macronutrients are listed in Table 2—and these are diluted (either in groups or as individual components) to prepare different concentrations to suit different purposes. Types of auxins, cytokinins, and carbohydrates and their concentrations are

Exciting New Peony, Hosta and Hemerocallis Introductions

Author: Roy G. Klehm

PP: 267

Working with plants and servicing customers is an ever-changing, learning process We all fail our customers when we don't bring forward the newer and better cultivars. Presented here are some of the many new and exciting creations available in these three perennial plant genera that can excite customers and staff to create better business. They also offer a solution for the old, unexciting, and often times far surpassed clones.

New and improved clones presented were:

Peony: ‘Coral Charm’ PP #4247, ‘Pink Hawaiian Coral’, ‘Golly’, ‘West Elkton’, ‘Cora Stubbs’, ‘Martha Reed’, ‘Nice Gal’ [Paeonia lactiflora ‘Nice Gal’], ‘Etched Salmon’, ‘Ann Berry Cousins’ [see also P ‘Anne Cousins’], ‘America’ PP #4246, ‘Scarlet O'Hara’, ‘Pink Parasol Surprise’, ‘Gold Rush’, ‘Paree Fru Fru’, ‘Fringed Ivory’.

Hosta: ‘Sun Power’, ‘Solar Flare’ PP #7046, ‘Fragrant Blue’, ‘Fall Bouquet’, ‘Great Expectations’, ‘Fragrant Bouquet’, ‘On Stage’, ‘Summer Music’.

Hemerocallis: ‘Mini Pearl’, ‘Siloam Doodlebug’, ‘Carefree Yellow’, ‘Sun Capers’, ‘Heron’, ‘Red Regatta’, ‘Golden Tycoon’

Perennial Production at Valleybrook Gardens Ltd.

Author: John Schroeder

PP: 268


Valleybrook Gardens is a large, wholesale production nursery located near Abbotsford, British Columbia Abbotsford is in the Fraser Valley region of BC, east of Vancouver, and is in USDA Zone 7.

Our sales are primarily made to independent garden centers throughout western Canada and the Northwest U.S. Production consists primarily of herbaceous perennials in containers, but also includes herbs, ferns, ground covers and grasses. Some annuals are grown in 15-cm (gal) containers for summer sales as well Several million containerized plants are grown annually, comprising over 1000 taxa

The production of herbaceous plants puts a grower into a separate class, distinct from both greenhouse growers and nursery managers, but sharing characteristics of each. Propagation, as well as a considerable amount of production, takes place in protected environments, yet many plants perform best outside in a nursery environment. The boundaries between these different classes of growers is

Question Period IV


PP: 272

Lawrence McMurtrey: Regarding the artificial snow, could you give us an estimate of cost including labor and everything? How much would it cost per acre for just one snow application?
The Future—Computer Applications

Author: Brian Collins

PP: 67


In my view, the future will see the use of computer systems within nurseries extending beyond the administrative functions to cover production and operational functions. The question facing nursery managers will change from "What can computers be used for?" to "What should computers be used for?" Table 1 lists some typical computer applications.

The History of the Flower Bulb Industry in Washington State

Author: Charles J. Gould, Gary A. Chastagner

PP: 275

Washington State has been the major producer of iris, narcissus, and tulip bulbs in the United States for many years and ranks only behind the Netherlands and Great Britain in the acreage of these bulbs in the world. Why has this state been so successful?

Several factors have contributed to this success They include good soil, intelligent and creative farmers, scientific research assistance, and especially a very favorable climate. The cool, moist winters in western Washington encourage root growth which produces larger, better quality bulbs than those grown elsewhere in the United States while the warm, dry summers facilitate digging and proper curing. The cooler spring and summer weather in this area also helps to control certain diseases which cause severe losses in warmer climates.

The question is often asked as to how Washington bulbs can compete with the cheaper and more plentiful bulbs from overseas The answer is quality. Washington bulbs produce flowers that are larger, have

Flower Bulb Growing and Forcing

Author: John Roozen, Richard Roozen

PP: 280

Although commercial bulb growing has been attempted at various times in most parts of the world, major production has become centered in certain temperate countries with comparatively mild climates. Generally, these countries lie in the north temperate zone, between lat. 30° and 55°. In these areas, extremes of winter and summer are tempered by winds from oceans or other large bodies of water. In the United States, Washington State leads in the production of bulbous iris, tulips, and daffodils. Available precipitation records indicate that the Skagit Valley, located in the northwestern part of the state, more closely fulfills the natural curing requirements of the main bulb types than does any other major growing area. Skagit Valley also has an abundance of Puget silt loam and Puget clay loam soils. Drainage is a major factor in bulb production and is a critical factor when selecting fields. Crop rotation with large acreage agronomic crops like green peas and grains to break the disease
Vegetable Seed Production in Washington State

Author: Kenneth G. Christianson

PP: 282

I am pleased for the opportunity to speak to the International Plant Propagators' Society on the subject of vegetable seed production in Washington State. I always enjoy speaking on this subject which appears so little known or understood by the public. So, this morning I hope to inform you on the historical background of our state seed industry, to introduce you to Alf Christianson Seed Co, and to provide a better understanding of the vegetable seed trade in Washington State and the markets we serve.

The first record of cabbage seed production in the United States was in 1866 on Long Island, NY. Prior to this time all production of vegetable seeds for the Western Hemisphere took place in Europe. The first cabbage seed commercially produced in Washington was in 1896 in LaConner by Mr. Tillinghast. Early settlers learned quickly that the moderate summer and winter climate and rich soils of the Skagit Valley region were conducive to the production of high yields of quality seed. By the

Production of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Rooted Cuttings for Reforestation by Weyerhaeuser Company

Author: Gary A. Ritchie

PP: 284

Although most forest planting stock has historically been propagated from field-collected seed, the recent availability of high-quality genetically improved seed has spawned efforts to bulk up quantities of this material using a rooted-cutting approach. Around the world, many important timber producing conifers (Cunninghamia lanceolata, Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus radiata, Picea mariana, P. sitchensis, P. abies) and hardwoods (Populus spp., Salix spp., Eucalyptus spp.) are being propagated in this manner.

At Weyerhaeuser Company, in western Washington state and Oregon, an effort has been underway since 1986 to develop a system for commercial production of coastal Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, planting stock through cuttings. The system is being applied to bulk up seed from elite, control-pollinated (CP) families. The three-year propagation regime begins with greenhouse production of stock plants, followed by rooting of cuttings under fog, and finally finishing the rooted cuttings in an outdoor bare-root nursery. Production is currently at about 1 million per year—enough to plant about 2000 acres. Future scale up is anticipated.

Field Propagation of Light Sensitive Species by Seed

Author: Robert J. Buzzo

PP: 289


Lawyer Nursery of Plains, Montana has been in the business of producing seed propagated liners and understock since 1959. In 1988, the company purchased a bare root nursery facility in Olympia, Washington in order to take advantage of the coastal climate and add diversity to the product line.

The bare root seedlings and transplants produced in Montana and Washington are marketed throughout the United States and Canada. Our product line is shipped to nurseries, commercial orchardists, conservation districts, highway departments, reclamation projects, and the like

In order to propagate 275 different species of woody trees and shrubs, we utilize numerous specific seed treatments designed to overcome seed dormancy. Seed treatments vary from simple cold stratification or acid scarification to burying seed below the frost line for 2 to 4 years We typically sow some seed every month of the year in Washington with the exception of January and February. The largest part of the crop

It's Good Business to Buy Recycled

Author: Eric Nelson

PP: 292

The rapid growth of recycling programs threatens the stability of the very markets upon which recycling depends. Strong recycled -material collection systems require equally strong markets for recyclables to remain viable. In support of the development of recycled material markets, King County has developed a recycled product procurement policy requiring County agencies to purchase products manufactured with recycled materials wherever practicable. King County purchases recycled products and materials valued at over 1 million dollars per year. The successes of our "Buy Recycled" program may serve as a useful model for businesses, since environmentally sound practices are important to customers and may represent marketing opportunities:
  • Recycled paper is used for all stationery, business cards, photocopying, and printing, and the chasing arrow logo identifies the recycled content of all printed materials.
  • Re-refined motor oil is used by all County vehicle fleets and a "Follow-My-Lead" bumper
Direct Stick Rhododendron Production

Author: Chris Santana

PP: 293

At Monrovia Nursery Company, we do most of our Rhododendron cutting production directly into liners (rose pots). We are currently growing 44 cultivars from rooted cuttings. We take our cuttings from containers in the field in October and November.

When the cuttings come in from the field, we prepare them by cutting back the leaves (if it's a large leaf) and cutting out the bud that has formed The cuttings are approximately 3 to 4 in. long, depending on the variety. After the cuttings are prepared, they get a chlorinated wash with 5 ppm chlorine After they've been washed, we wound the base of the cutting 180 degrees apart. After this process, the cuttings are ready to be stuck in the mist house.

The rose pots are run through a flat filler and filled with a Rhododendron cutting mix, which is 3 peat moss · 2 perlite (v/v) The pots are taken to the mist house where the Rhododendron cuttings will be stuck. We use Hormodin #2, #3, or Dip ‘n’Grow as hormones. The cuttings are stuck into the

Plastic Lumber

Author: Kathy Van Veen

PP: 294

In 1991 the Environmental Learning Center at Clackamas Community College approached us regarding the experimental use of plastic lumber in a greenhouse situation. We had a propagating house due to have its crumbling beds replaced that year, so we agreed to try it. We were given, free of charge, enough plastic lumber to replace a section of rooting bed 6 ft wide and 30 ft long, including the side boards.

The plastic lumber consists mainly of recycled milk jugs, yogurt containers, and nursery pots. The plastic is melted and extruded, like toothpaste, into boards. It is said to take 180 milk jugs to make one 2 in. × 6 in., 8-ft board.

The lumber comes in various colors and stabilizers are added to keep the color from fading. The boards we were given were either grayish-green or marbled black.

At the end of March, the cost was $1.25 to $1.35 per ft compared to $0.77 to $0.94 for preserved wood. In addition to being expensive, it is rather difficult to work with. It is heavy, but very strong.

Trying Hard to Stay Small

Author: Ray Swanson

PP: 295

Many of us entered the industry because of our interest in the beauty and diversity of ornamental plants I bought Boulevard Nursery, a small retail garden center in Olympia, Washington, and have spent the last 15 years increasing the size of the inventory and creating appeal for the customers. It involves things that are not plant related like making more display areas and designing parking lots.

For more control over what we offer, we needed facilities to grow some of the short term, or non-woody, crops. For that we have greenhouses at another location.

A few years ago we built an insulated room for germinating seeds early in the season primarily to save on heat costs. It has racks for the trays and fluorescent lights on some of them. We are able to control the temperature with simple equipment. A 1500 watt household heater, a 20-in. box fan for circulation, and an exhaust fan for most days. We recently put in a household air conditioner to keep the room cool for summer germination of

The Use of Velcro Strips for Rooting

Author: Barbara Selemon

PP: 296

My talk today will be a tale of a trial rather than a propagation tip that can be taken out the door. I will discuss the use of velcro strips with IBA applied to mature trees in the landscape as an aid in the rooting of these difficult species.

As the propagator at an arboretum, I am often faced with the difficult task of propagating rare specimens. Some may have been originally grafted while others fit into the category of being difficult to propagate because of maturity, stress or poor health. Two such plants that I am working on are Magnolia scheideana, a native of Mexico and Quercus robur ‘Concordia’, a yellow-green cultivar aptly named the golden oak.

Banding, a method of etiolation using velcro strips to exclude light with added IBA talc, was attempted on mature trees in the Arboretum in the summer of 1992. Weather conditions earlier this year during the so-called non-summer of 1993 were so cool and wet that trials were not repeated. Gathering information from a couple of sources,

New Alpine Plants to Propagate

Author: Jill Dawson

PP: 71


At the Snowline Landscapes Australian alpine wildflower nursery, we have over 100 species in cultivation. Many have perfumed flowers or foliage and most have not been introduced to the horticulture industry.

The nursery is in Alpine Ash Forest at 1000 m altitude, 9 km northwest of Falls Creek, Victoria and is regularly covered by up to 1 m of snow in winter. It covers 1200 m2 and includes a solar-and gas-powered greenhouse and automatic-watering system.

When the nursery was established in 1983, little was known of the growth patterns of these plants. Initially, plants were collected from the wild and their growth observed. Those species which flourished were selected for propagation and the remainder are at the experimental stage.

Plants are propagated from wild stock by seed, cuttings, or division. Plants are potted into a standard commercially available mix then grown on in polystyrene boxes to protect the roots from freezing.

Many species have a germination success rate

High Density Actinidia × deliciosa Production in a Climatically Controlled Environment

Author: Darrin W. Kuypers

PP: 297

Aztec Nurseries is presently engaged in a seven-year research project for the development of the commercial production of Actinidia ×deliciosa [syn.A. chinensis] (kiwifruit) in a climatically controlled environment (CCE) that creates several challenges.

In an attempt to maximize production versus area due to capitalization cost of a controlled climatic environment, changes must be recognized in almost all aspects of production: The physical structure, plant spacing, plant sex, pollination, fertilization, watering, pruning, and training will all have some variation in the Kiwifruit production compared to open field production.

In recognizing that an average field production modified with a structure above would be insufficient in the lb/ft2 to be economically viable, we attempted to change the physical structure from a horizontal to a vertical lateral production. In this process high-tensile strength wire was placed 12 in. apart horizontally on a vertical structure to a height of 8 ft.

Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants from Seed

Author: Linda Date

PP: 299

The assumption that native plants are easy to grow because they are abundant in nature isn't accurate when you try to grow them in containers in a nursery setting. Since there isn't a lot of information in print on propagating native plants it's up to the individual grower to study the habits and cultural conditions of natives and try to come up with the answers.

At Firetrail Nursery, we propagate Pacific Northwest native plants mostly from seed. The plants I'll be discussing are native groundcovers and woody shrubs.

There are a number of reasons why you'd want to propagate native plants from seed. One that's very controversial right now is genetic diversity. My understanding of introducing genetic diversity is that you use seed of a particular plant species collected from a number of different sites, allow the plants to cross pollinate and let nature take its course. Conversely, landscape restoration projects usually require the seeds to be collected on the restoration site so as not to

Propagation of Red Raspberries

Author: Patricia N. Miller

PP: 301

Adventitious shoots are produced on the roots of red raspberries (rubus idaeus) during the growing season They are especially abundant on 1– to 2-year-old plants. These shoots elongate, push up through the soil and then root. After the plants are dormant the new bare root plants can be dug and transplanted or can be held in cold storage for several months prior to planting.

Root cuttings can also be used to propagate new red raspberry plants if care is taken to prevent drying of the roots before planting. One can purchase dormant roots from certified berry growers to use as a source of root cuttings. Root cuttings from potted plants are often used by researchers to increase the number of greenhouse grown plants.

When it is desirable to produce plants free of soil and in a vector-proof environment, micropropagation can be used to propagate red raspberries. Plants produced in vitro are more expensive and are not available in large numbers unless ordered a year or more in advance In addition

Plant Pot Recycling in the Greater Seattle Area

Author: Susanne Foster

PP: 302

In 1991, the Association for Women in Landscaping (AWL) initiated the "Recycling Committee" representing 850 members from four professional groups of the Green Industry: AWL, Washington Association of Landscape Professionals (WALP), Flower Growers of Puget Sound (FGPS), and the Washington State Nursery and Landscape Association (WSNLA). We pursued two ideas:
  1. We collected and published information about professionals who were interested in getting rid of plant containers and those professionals who were interested in re-using containers. We call this network the "Plant Container Exchange Directory"; it lists phone number, business name, and respective pot sizes and quantities, for free, deliverable etc.
  2. We involved the public in pot recycling by setting up the "Plant Pot Drop Spot Event". We knew that some retailers were already offering a drop-off service for pots to their customers, but usually on a limited scale. Problems are limited space, trashy appearance of that corner of the
Wisteria Propagation by Root Cuttings

Author: James F. McConnell

PP: 304

Wisteria is not a difficult plant to reproduce, however, very little is written about the propagation of Wisteria by root cuttings. Common propagation methods include softwood cuttings and budding. When rapid propagation is necessary and large quantities of softwood cuttings are not available, it may be expeditious to use root cuttings. Wisteria sinensis ‘Aunt Dee’, a cold-hardy selection of Chinese wisteria from Minneapolis, Minnesota was used in this rooting trial.

In December, 1-year-old field-grown plants were dug bare-root and prepared for retail sales. Root pieces were selectively removed from the plants with polarity being careful maintained. The root pieces were later cut into 2½– to 3-in sections. At no time were the cuttings allowed to dry. The cuttings were packed in sawdust and stored at 33F in a cooler. No hormones were used to treat the cuttings prior to planting Ground level beds in an unheated greenhouse were prepared to receive the cuttings. The rooting media was a fine grade of

Ouestion Box

Author: Bruce Briggs

PP: 305

Question: How do you control moss and algae?
Native Woody Shrub Propagation Three Key Steps

Author: Terry L. Finnerty

PP: 311

The increased demand for native, woody plant species in public and private landscapes has resulted in a renewed interest in native, woody shrub propagation. This poster presents a comprehensive approach for incorporating the large amount of information that is already available on many of the native, western, woody shrubs into existing propagation programs.

Facts are meaningful only when they can be attached to ideas. Unless students (people) are taught a system for learning or processing information, facts are of little use to them. (Wurman 1990, parentheses inserted by author.)

History of Ardmore Nurseries Ltd

Author: Alen Beaumont

PP: 315

Beaumonts Nurseries Ltd was started by our grandfather and father in 1933 at Manurewa as a growing and retailing concern. The emphasis was open ground growing and the location for the nursery was moved several times around Manurewa, until 1970, when a permanent area was purchased in Ardmore. In 1970 the company was divided, creating Beaumonts Garden Centre in Manurewa and Ardmore Nurseries in Ardmore. Ardmore Nurseries is owned and operated by Barry and Allen Beaumont.
Propagation of Acacias and Eucalypts

Author: Steve D. Blakemore

PP: 317

The old saying that "the only people who made money during the gold rushes were the storekeepers" had quite a bit to do with our decision to establish our shelter nursery partnership during the heady days of New Zealand's "horticultural boom years." Driven by the Kiwi Fruit successes, New Zealanders were charging headlong into growing anything and everything from babacos to lychees. One of the first things all these ventures needed was shelter, and that's where we came in with our container nursery It's interesting to reflect that in the Wairarapa nearly every horticulture venture has foundered except for pip fruit which is steadily expanding. Fortunately our nursery has survived, widening its scope, and eventually being sold as a going concern a few months ago.

I am a keen farm forester and a soil conservator by training and this has given me a special interest in eucalypts and acacias. It's no surprise therefore that these species continued as one of the mainstays of our nursery In this

Restoring a Lowland Forest Remnant

Author: Martin Conway

PP: 320


In Nelson Province there has been a systematic destruction of the forest cover from the time of settlement. This destruction, particularly of the coastal and lowland forests and beech forests at lower altitudes on more accessible sites, has resulted from timber milling and farm development

Forest clearance continued until recently in Nelson and Marlborough with the felling of beech forests and associated podocarps for the export of wood chips.

Extensive areas of forest have been set aside for protection in national forests, maritime parks, and other reserves. However, much of this protected land is mountainous beech forest with lowland coastal and wetland plant communities poorly represented

Many landowners today recognise the value of the remaining bush remnants and wish to see them protected This is possible through agencies such as the QEII National Trust or the Department of Conservation but legal protection alone may not be enough to ensure the survival of the bush

Propagation of Mint (Mentha)

Author: Fred E. Bienvenu

PP: 73

An essential oil industry based on production of high value peppermint oil for export is emerging in the upper reaches of the river valleys of northeast Victoria. Research into essential oil production at the Ovens Research Station (ORS) by the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, commenced in 1976. This paper gives an overview of the production process, including methods of propagation.
The Design and Development of Seaview's Propagation Facility

Author: Ashley Craig

PP: 325

Early this year, the need arose to expand and modernise our propagation area with the following attributes:
  • Where possible, existing structures to be utilised.
  • Flexible/adaptable, where there is an ability to propagate a number of plant species under different temperature, water, and light regimes within the same structure.
  • Easy to use/workable, whereby there is a central control unit without the need for constant monitoring, or adjusting of timers, throughout the day.

With these factors in mind it was decided to utilise an existing durolite house with vents, electricity, and water were already in place, and which required only a concrete floor It was decided that a new work room (where cutting preparation, deflasking of tissue cultures, etc., are performed) would be built.

The workroom is fully lined and it utilizes both artificial and natural lighting. The floor is painted with epoxy resin to aid cleaning. Work benches are free standing, height adjustable, and the working

The Flora of the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands

Author: Alice M. de Nys

PP: 327

The subantarctic islands include the Auckland, Antipodes, Bounty, Snares, and Campbell Islands. Geographically, these islands all lie between the subtropical convergence and the antarctic convergence. Most of the subantarctic islands were formed 1 million to 65 million years ago during the Cenozoic period.

Bounty Island (47°41'S; 179°02'E) is comprised of a cluster of weather-beaten granite rocks with no vegetation and no fresh water.

The Snares Islands (48°00'S; 166°35'E) consist of Main and Broughton Islands, some 20 to 30 seastacks and a string of rock islets (Herning, 1979).

The Antipodes Islands (49°4'S; 178°43'E) are the smallest of the New Zealand subantarctic islands. The islands consist of Antipodes Island, Bollons Island and a number of small islets and seastacks. These islands are remnants of one large and several subsidiary Pleistocene volcanic cones (Malloy and Dingwall, 1990).

The Auckland Islands (50°50'S; 166°00'E) are a small island group including Auckland Island and Adam Island.

A Personal View on Staff Relations and Training

Author: James L. Dean

PP: 330


Often I think I'm incredibly lucky to be involved in a job that covers such a wide variety of skills and interest. On any given day I might be taking cuttings, organising staff, doing the books, weeding, or marketing. A great combination of earthy, people, and administrative skills. I'm sure life is similar for a lot of you

The questions arise. How do we best manage time and staff? How do we create a good working atmosphere? Why are we in business? For the last question I suspect for most it's a love of plants and a decent way of making a living.

At the moment I have an apprentice working for me and this year I am the Nursery Representative for the Education Advisory Committee at Richmond Polytechnic, Nelson. This has given me the opportunity to look at training and the changes taking place.

To produce a quality product which is essential in today's environment, it's imperative to have a working environment where the employees are learning skills and are motivated, happy, and

Production and Propagation of American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in North America—a New Zealand Perspective

Author: John M. Follett

PP: 333


Ginseng is an herbaceous perennial that is cultivated for its highly valued root. It is purchased as whole dried roots, pieces of root, powdered, or in capsules, and it is used in teas, soups, wines, and in a wide assortment of herbal and cosmetic preparations. Ginseng is used mainly in Asia, although its use is gaining popularity in other cultures. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a close relative to the Asian or Korean ginseng (P. ginseng) Both species are of economic importance and each has a distinct use in Chinese medicine. The main commercial production areas in North America of American ginseng are Wisconsin and Ontario with significant expansion in recent years in British Columbia. Interest in the production of this crop is high and expansion in North America is likely to continue

Propagation, Industry, and Education

Author: Grant Hayman

PP: 340

At present, I am studying for NDH (National Diploma in Horticulture specialising in nursery production). I have completed 2 years as a student at Aoraki Polytechnic and now have a full-time job as nursery propagator for the above nursery. I will discuss my experiences, thoughts, and facts on the present and future of education in horticulture especially in propagation.

At present we have diverse and fragmented forms of training and education within the industry. Starting with secondary education and working up:

  • High schools: School Certificate in Horticulture and 6th Form Certificate in Horticulture
  • Polytechnics and other providers: TOPS (Training Opportunities Programme). These are short-term courses up to 12 weeks on the basics.
  • Trade Certificate Board: TCB (Apprenticeships). Training within the workplace.
  • RNZIH (Royal New Zealand Institute in Horticulture). These qualifications are taught in various Polytechnics throughout New Zealand and include:
          CHT (Certificate in
Capillary Beds—My Experience

Author: Len Lokum

PP: 343


When planning to set up the nursery, the following criteria were laid down.

  • It was to be a one-person operation.
  • The production level was to be 6000 to 8000 saleable units per year.
  • Use of electronic controls was to be kept to a minimum, mainly as a cost-saving measure on both equipment and power.
  • Hand watering, being a time-consuming exercise, was to be kept to an absolute minimum and the use of overhead sprinklers was to be avoided because of its problems and wastage of water.

In this paper I would like to share with you my experiences with capillary beds. After looking at different methods of providing the needed water to the plants, it was decided that the Kinsealy Capillary Beds system was the best one to use. This system is outlined by Lamb et al. (1975).

Although certain measurements are given, it is not necessarily to adhere to them. The system is very adaptable and can be used with success on many different sites.

Propagation of Rootstocks by Trench Layering

Author: Richard McKenzie

PP: 345


The trench layering method of vegetative propagation has endure the test of time. Its modern rival, tissue culture, has so far not been able to match it in terms of producing the first choice product nurseries require for the production of high quality, high-performance trees. Rootstocks propagated by trench layering remain the most cost effective, meet the size specifications required, are easy to transplant and handle, and are available when required to take advantage of optimum planting conditions. In addition, rootstocks are not usually adversely affected by the vagaries of weather and in the event of a bad growing season are usually of a buddable size at planting time anyway.

New Zealand Plant Collection Register: An Update

Author: Mike Oates

PP: 348

New Zealand is very rich in both indigenous and adventive flora. It is important to know the extent of this resource, where specific species are located, and how vulnerable they are. This is especially true of plants in cultivation.

Since 1988 a small group of Institute members have been working on a register of plant collections of all sizes held in New Zealand. This work is a first step to documenting the extent of the plant genetic resource. As such it is simply a quantitative exercise, getting all the information together in one place. The register was initially compiled in March 1992 from returns received from a questionnaire sent out during 1991. Since that time two further updates have been published with the latest register containing details of 400 generic collections and 97 theme collections.

A Review of Kauri (Agathis australis) Nutrition and Assessment of Current Nursery Container Mixes

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Mervyn I. Spurway

PP: 350


Kauri forests once covered much of the early land mass of New Zealand. Now only a remnant of the great forests remain—a mere 5% of the pre-European kauri forest has been spared from the axe and burning (Ahmed and Ogden, 1987).

Kauri is a large, long-lived tree which normally grows for more than 600 years with individuals exceeding 2 m d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) and often 1000 years of age (Ahmed and Ogden, 1987). Sale (1978) in his book, which reviews the history of the kauri in New Zealand, states that forest authorities consider this to be the tree capable of yielding the greatest volume of millable timber in the world. Sale goes on to explain the significance of this tree in the early maori history and European colonisation, including its uses and the wastage that has occurred. Fires were particularly common in logged kauri forests, many being deliberately lit by gum diggers (Ecroyd, 1982). Fortunately some great kauri giants have remained and are protected in

The Production of Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’

Author: Paul D. Ward

PP: 357

The production of Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’ from start to finished product in 5 months, excluding growing of the rootstock, is discussed below.
Hop Propagation in Australia

Author: Peter J. Hamilton

PP: 77


The hop, Humulus lupulus, is a dioecious, perennial, climbing vine used as a flavouring in beer. The female hop "cone" contains resins and essential oils that give beer its bitterness and contribute the hop flavour (Neve, 1991).

Hops were originally introduced to Australia by the early settlers and was grown around Sydney. Sydney's climate did not enable the production of high yielding, good quality crops, and hop production soon moved to Victoria and Tasmania where climatic conditions were more favourable (Pearce, 1976).

The Australian hop industry of today is located in north east Victoria and Tasmania. The total commercial area in Australia is at present 1160 hectares, with Victoria growing 330 ha, and Tasmania 830 ha. This area produces annually 3000 tonnes, with a gross value of A $16 million. Australia exports approximately two–thirds of the hop crop to a range of overseas countries. The other third is sold to the Australian domestic breweries. Australian Hop Marketers

Grafting Ilex dipyrena—How to Repeat Beginners Luck!

Author: Steuart Welch

PP: 358


Ilex dipyrena is a rather distinctive and handsome species among the many in our collection of 40 plus holly species and cultivars at Cannock Wood Nursery. This large shrub to small tree species, is native to the Himalayas. Although it is not a great garden centre plant there is a demand for it from plant collectors who have seen it growing in the wild, as well as those who see it in our collection. We grew our plant from cuttings taken from Eastwoodhill in April 1976. That attempt involved about 12 cuttings which produced about 4 to 5 trees. At that time I was a novice so records were non-existent except for the labels on the bench. One tree was planted in our garden and has grown to approximately 3 m by 1993. Further attempts at propagation have been fruitless, or maybe I should say plantless, which is frustrating as the cutting material looks perfect. The cuttings just sit and callus but no roots! Hence my paper title of how to repeat beginners luck! As with all my holly

Populus wilsonii and Populus lasiocarpa—Root Grafting Trials

Author: Steuart Welch

PP: 359


Populus wilsonii is native to southwestern China. To be more precise, the Chinese record it growing on the Southern slopes of the Qin Ling Mountains, Shannxi Province and down into the Sichuan Province. The Chinese do not appear to use it in either their planting or hybridising programs and it remains rare in cultivation. The extent of wild populations is unknown to the author. Hiller's Manual of Trees and Shrubs describes it as a highly ornamental, medium-sized species and it is from Hillier's Nursery that New Zealand's only recorded accession originated.

Also noted in literature is the belief that all P. wilsonii in Western cultivation are a single female clone due to them being uncommonly uniform in habit. P. lasiocarpa also comes from southwestern China and is best known as the Chinese necklace poplar. Hillier's describes this tree as a magnificent, medium-sized tree with leaves sometimes up to 30 cm long and 23 cm wide which are bright green with conspicuous red veins and

Regeneration of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Axillary Bud Induction in Vitro

Author: T. Yamamoto

PP: 361

Donor plants of 10 cultivars of sweet pepper were produced in vitro from seeds. Having been excised from the donor plant, nodal segments were placed on a modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The axillary shoots induced from the explants were transferred to the rooting medium. Benzyladenine (BA) in the medium for culturing of donor plant was not effective on the induction of axillary buds from the nodal segments. Rooting of the axillary shoot was promoted by 0.2 mg/liter indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the medium. Cultivar difference in potential for plant regeneration was observed, which was mainly attributable to the difference in rooting ability among these cultivars. The plants propagated by nodal segment culture developed normally in the greenhouse as well as those grown from conventional seedlings.
Summary of Evaluation of New Containers For Nursery Production

Author: Ken Tilt, David West, Bill Goff, John Olive

PP: 369


Since nurseries began using containers as a major production tool in the early 1960s, there has been a constant struggle to overcome some of the problems inherent in this type of production. A few of these include maintaining adequate availability of water throughout the day and the season, reducing labor requirements, minimizing water runoff, reducing turn-over problems, moderating temperature extremes in the root zones. This paper discusses results of five research/demonstration projects evaluating these ideas.

The research evaluated sub-irrigation, Environmental Friendly Containers™, Poly-Jacket/Insulator™ and the Poly-Jacket/Water Saver™ containers, pot-in-pot above ground containers, and the Soil Sock™.

The project that started our interest in container design was one that evaluated the effects of subirrigation or collecting leachate in 2-in. saucers at the base of a container vs traditional irrigation. We discovered that live oaks grown with a constant reservoir of water at the

Minimizing Loss in Rhododendron and Pieris Production

Author: Richard C. Beeson Sr

PP: 372


We begin taking our cuttings between 20 October and 20 November. We start with a clean cutting, one that has been sprayed regularly all summer. The benches are sprayed with a mixture of 1 Clorox : 9 water (v/v).

We cut the hardened growth off about 2 to 3 in. from the top. Next we strip all the leaves off the cutting except three or four, then wound one side about 1½ in. from the bottom of the cutting. About ¼ in of the base is quick dipped in a rooting solution of 7500 ppm IBA in 50% wood alcohol. The cutting is stuck about 2 in. deep in a peat cup filled with a mix of 1 perlite 1 peat moss (v/v). The cups have already been placed in a heated bench. We use a mist system over the top that activates for 15 sec every 10 min during 8 h of daylight until rooting begins. We then cut down the misting time a little each day.

After the roots have formed, we spray the benches in the greenhouse with Alliette every 21 to 24 days until they are potted in the spring. We used Subdue at

Update on Fungicides

Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 373

Although I am not a plant pathologist, I hope my practical experience from custom spraying and exchanging information with nurserymen and researchers for more than 18 years have given me enough knowledge to make my presentation worthwhile. I especially want to thank Dr. Ron Jones at North Carolina State University and Dr. Jerry Walker with the University of Georgia for their help over the years and their suggestions for this update.

Integrated pest management (IPM), or Integrated Crop Management (ICM), and record keeping should be foremost in our plans for plant protection.

Using Copper Compounds to Modify Roots on Container-grown Trees

Author: Bonnie Lee Appleton

PP: 376


Girdling roots—roots which grow around tree stems and other roots—may shorten a tree's life span if they constrict the vascular system and restrict water and nutrient movement or if they fail to anchor the tree adequately (Gouin, 1984, Holmes, 1984; Whitcomb, 1984) Girdling roots generally start in one of three ways:

  1. Plants may be put in planting holes with glazed clay walls that restrict structural development and cause roots to circle;
  2. new lateral roots may develop behind the ends of primary roots that are cut during field-grown nursery stock harvesting (Watson et al , 1990);
  3. or roots may circle on the outside of the medium root ball for container-grown trees.

A common planting recommendation for circling roots resulting from container production, has been mechanical disruption, slicing or "butterflying," of the root ball (Flemer, 1982; Gouin, 1984). The value of these practices, however, is questionable, according to limited and contradictory research conducted

Making Profit from the Swamps

Author: Robert Papetti

PP: 380

My topic, "Making Profit from the Swamps" might be made more general by calling it "Wetland Mitigation "

As a child I grew up in a floodplain area that had drainage ditches, springs, marshes, pot holes and spring floods. I hunted and fished these areas and became quite familiar with the plants that would grow under those conditions. Back then we called these areas swamps; today they have acquired the name wetlands. Tidal marshes, creek banks, and general bay and ocean shore lines are wetlands with a completely different type of plant life.

For the most part the nursery industry has concentrated on the obligate upland species for such things as soil erosion, windbreaks, and strip mining revegetation. The plants used most are natives. They are fast growing, adapted to a wide spectrum of soils and microclimates

A nursery can specialize in three separate groups of plants--obligate upland plants, obligate wetland plants, and facultative species that lie in between

As more environmentalists became

What's New In The Biology Of Adventitious Root Formation

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr

PP: 382


The First International Symposium on the Biology of Adventitious Root Formation was held in Dallas, Texas, 18 April through 22 April 1993, with over 140 participants, representing some 25 different countries. It was a unique opportunity for researchers from industry, government, and many different academic disciplines to get together and focus on the basic and applied aspects of adventitious root formation. The Southern and Western Regions of IPPS helped sponsor the symposium.

No participant had a magic bullet or quick solution to rooting problems, and more questions were raised than answered. Inability to agree on a model system was probably a healthy sign and points to the complexity of adventitious root formation

Meshing Perennial Plant Production with Woody Plant Production

Author: John L. Machen Jr

PP: 385


Growing a mixture of woody ornamentals, perennials, and annuals is our response to the public's desire for year-around color By broadening our product line, we have been able to increase sales, extend our shipping season, and use our labor resources and growing area more efficiently.

We are growing upright hollies, unusual conifers, and small trees in about 100 acres of field production. In 15 acres of container production, we have an assortment of woody ornamentals, perennials, water plants, annuals, and ornamental grasses. In contrast to most nurseries, we do not raise any azaleas, Japanese hollies, or junipers. We strive to offer a mix of varieties that add color and excitement to the landscape all year long.

This paper will summarize some of the efficiencies and challenges of meshing perennials and woody ornamentals during propagation, planting, growing, selling, and shipping.