Volume 42

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Bougainvillea Propagation

Author: Russ Higginbotham

PP: 37


Bougainvilleas are spectacular climbing plants, native to South America. In Australia, although they certainly grow best in warmer areas, they can be found growing outdoors as far south as Hobart (Latitude 42 S), if given the right position.

This paper is not meant to cover all aspects of Bougainvillea propagation; rather, it describes the methods used at our nursery.

Grevillea Propagation

Author: Jean G. duMoulin

PP: 68

We have been producing grevilleas for a number of years. During that time we have used many different techniques to propagate them. In this paper I will discuss some of the techniques we are currently using to propagate grevilleas.

There is always something new to try and there are all the old standard rules to keep as well. Whenever we are forced to compromise these rules, we will have less successful propagation results or even total disasters. Two of the most important of these rules are, good, well-managed stock supply and a high regard to hygiene throughout all the propagation procedures.

Stockplants, for us are very important for two reasons. One reason is to ensure the availability of cutting material to cover the numbers of cuttings we need to put down for a batch. The other is to ensure that the quality of cutting material is high. We found it to be a difficult and expensive task to meet these two criteria as our nursery was only a propagation nursery with no containers from

In Vitro Culture and Micrografting of White Pine Meristems

Author: Barry Goldfarb, Gail E. McGill, Wesley P. Hackett, Olivier Monte

PP: 412


Our long-term research goal is to develop a vegetative propagation method for mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees. Unfortunately, rooting from cuttings of white pines, like most other conifers, decreases with increasing plant age. Rejuvenation, that is restoration of rootability to mature tissue, may be possible by tissue culturing or grafting shoot apical meristems. Recently, rejuvenated shoots have been obtained via meristem culture from Sierra redwood, Sequoiadendron giganteum, (Monteuuis, 1991) and via meristem micrografting from maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, (Dumas et al., 1989) If rejuvenated shoots can be obtained from mature white pines, they will be used as a stock block source of rootable cuttings to clonally propagate superior genotypes. In this paper we describe our efforts to develop methods for tissue culturing and micrografting of white pine meristems.

Micropropagation of Select Deciduous Trees and Shrubs

Author: Gayle R.L. Suttle

PP: 415

Microplant Nurseries, Inc. has been producing large numbers of trees and shrubs by micropropagation since early 1980. Our main production items have been ornamental and shade trees and fruit tree rootstocks of apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach/almond, and walnut. We are perhaps most well known for our high quality micropropagated Acer rubrum cultivars as well as birch, flowering cherry, flowering crabapple, amelanchier, elms, and linden. We carry over 35 lilac cultivars. Microplant also works with individual growers on a proprietary basis growing a whole range of plant material such as bulb crops, small fruits, (grapes, blueberries) and specialty shrubs and perennials.

Our nursery primarily sells product directly from the laboratory either as in vitro rooted plantlets or as microcuttings without roots. Our customers acclimatize the material for themselves. Since we don't handle this step, we have, by necessity, been forced to create a very hardy, relatively large plantlet as our finished

Micropropagation of Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis L.)

Author: Robert L. Geneve, Sharon T. Kester, S. Yusnita

PP: 417


Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis) is an important nursery crop native to eastern North America. It is a deciduous small tree in the legume family. Eastern redbud is a variable species with cultivars selected for lavender, pink, or white flowers (Raulston, 1990). In addition, cultivars have been selected for purple (‘Forest Pansy’) and variegated foliage (‘Silver Cloud’). The inherent variability in this species (Robertson, 1976) indicates a potential to select additional traits such as disease resistance and drought tolerance to improve marketability. However, production of cultivars of eastern redbud have been limited because they are difficult to propagate from cuttings or grafts (Dirr and Heuser, 1987). Progress in the propagation of eastern redbud has recently suggested that cutting propagation can be successful for cuttings taken from mature trees during a narrow developmental window during early shoot development (Tipton, 1990) or with cuttings treated with relatively

Effects of Lighting and CO2 Enrichment on Acclimatization of Micropropagated Woody Plants

Author: Kenneth W. Mudge, Joseph P. Lardner, Katherine L. Eckenrode

PP: 421

In order to test the effects of CO2 enrichment and light intensity on the acclimatization and ex vitro performance of micropropagated woody plants we have designed and constructed an inexpensive CO2 enrichment/fogging chamber which could be easily adapted for commercial use. CO2 enrichment during acclimatization has been shown to be beneficial with mountain laurel, lilac, grape, apple, and raspberry, but not with serviceberry, blueberry, or sweet cherry.
A Survey of Plant Tissue Culture Laboratories in North America

Author: Mark P. Bridgen

PP: 427

In 1987, it was reported that there were over 250 commercial plant tissue culture laboratories in the United States (Jones, 1987). However, there has been no comprehensive list of plant tissue culture laboratories published in the United States.

The U.S.D.A. is currently trying to tabulate an accurate estimate of the value of the U.S. horticulture industry. As the micropropagation industry is a major part of U S horticulture, it is valuable to know the economic impact from the plants produced in vitro. Before economic information can be gathered, the size of the plant tissue culture industry needs to be known. In order to achieve this goal, we started to tabulate a list of laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This compilation will be published as "The Directory of Plant Tissue Culture Laboratories in North America" (Bridgen, 1993). The objective of the Directory was to collate a directory of private and public plant tissue culture laboratories in North America which are

Evaluation and Propagation of Lacebark Elm Selections by Hardwood and Softwood Cuttings

Author: John C. Pair

PP: 431

The many new cultivars of lacebark or Chinese elm that are being introduced require increased vegetative propagation of the species. Conventional softwood cuttings were used to propagate superior selections. IBA concentrations of 5,000 to 10,000 ppm produced 73% to 93% rooting of wood collected from two mature specimen trees in May and June. Hardwood cuttings taken in February from vigorous young trees rooted up to 100% at 10,000 ppm IBA and established well in the nursery. Rooted hardwood cuttings produced over twice the growth of softwood cuttings taken the same season. Many new selections are under evaluation.
Grafting Viburnums: New Ideas and Techniques

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 436

The grafting of viburnums is not new Case Hoogendorn (1952) presented to the second meeting of the Plant Propagators Society a very comprehensive paper. From 1952 to the present, much of the need for grafting viburnums has been diminished by improved rooting of cuttings. However, rooted cuttings of the Viburnum carlesii type can still suffer horrendous losses during overwintering and in the transplant phase as a bareroot liner. Mortality rates as high as 60% to 70% for bareroot V. carlesii and V. × burkwoodii can be encountered. Much of this problem can be linked directly to a poor cutting root system. A comparison of the root systems of equal age with bareroot V. × rhytidophylloides ‘Alleghany’ and V. × burkwoodii will show the ‘Alleghany’ plant to have two or three times the amount of root mass. Transplant losses of ‘Alleghany’ are virtually nil while those of V. × burkwoodii can be substantial. For some viburnums, such as V. carlesii and V. carlesii ‘Compactum’, grafting can still have an
Grafting of Junipers

Author: Dave Bakker

PP: 439


I am going to talk about the grafting of junipers. As you know, certain cultivars of plants cannot be propagated economically by seed, layering, cuttings, or tissue culture. As a last resort they are grafted. In the past juniper seedlings of Juniperus virginiana, J. communis, and J. scopulorum, were used. They were disease prone and erratic in seed bed stands. We now use rooted cuttings of J.. ‘Hetzii’ as rootstocks. ‘Hetzii’ has proven to be compatible with all cultivars of J. virginiana, J. communis, J. scopulorum, and J. chinensis.

Propagation of the Temperate Woody Flora of Mexico

Author: Rob Nicholson, John Fairey, Carl Schoenfeld, Melvin Shemluck, Ed

PP: 442

The floristic affinities between the northeastern U.S. and northeast Asia have been known and studied by botanists for over 100 years. Less well explored is what affinities the flora of northeastern Mexico has to these two regions. Many of the temperate woody genera of Mexico are familiar, including Cornus, Cercis, and Ostrya. It is logical to assume that most were recent arrivals, having migrated southward during the Pleistocene glaciations. However, recent studies of fossil pollens in coal deposits in Veracruz State detected pollen of Abies, Picea, Liquidambar, Fagus, Quercus, Ulmus, Juglans, Populus, Alnus, and Celtis. As these deposits were dated to the Middle Miocene we can see that temperate elements in Mexico predate the glacial epoch by 18 million years. This indicates a more complex relationship between the floras of Mexico and other regions than previously thought. It is accurate to think of this flora not only as recent disjunctions but as a separate and distinct flora with a
Composting Leaves for Potting Mix

Author: Thomas L. McCloud

PP: 447

At Appalachian Nurseries, we have been composting leaves for over 10 years. We began this procedure more out of service to our local borough than as a possible source of potting media. However, as our compost pile grew over the years, we decided to use it in our potting mix to cut costs. The subject of this paper is how we have developed a low input, low tech, unregulated, low cost method of composting leaves and nursery debris. It has become a win-win partnership for our local municipality and Appalachian Nurseries.

The basics of the partnership are these we provide the space and the borough of Waynesboro provides the leaves and equipment.

If that sounds simple, maybe that's because it is. I am a firm believer in the KISS theory.

It should be noted that our nursery is located in a medium density residential zone within the borough of Waynesboro. Because we are using only leaves and plant debris in this procedure, the state regulations directing composting of this type in

Hydroponic Propagation of Aglaonema

Author: Neville Raward

PP: 70


We started to experiment with growing indoor plants hydroponically in 1978. We found best growth with Aglaonema ‘Silver King’, A. ‘Silver Queen’, A ‘Parrot Jungle’, and A pseudobracteatum.

Hydroponically grown Aglaonema are cheap to transport. As many as 250 (300 mm tall) plants can be packed into one carton. They can be kept, wrapped in peat moss in bundles of 10, for up to two weeks. The plants can be potted up at the other end and be ready for sale in approximately three months instead of a typical six months for saleable plants from cuttings.

The Use of Composted Rice Hulls in Rooting and Potting Media

Author: Wayne Lovelace, Dan Kuczmarski

PP: 449


By 1990 the demand for pine bark, the primary component of our growing media, had risen dramatically. Prices were increasing, and reduced availability became a real concern. Forrest Keeling Nursery sought alternative media components which would be readily available, cost effective, and support good plant growth. Much to our delight aged rice hulls found us. A rice hull is the sheath of the rice grain and is a waste byproduct in rice processing. Once separated the hull is run through a hammer mill having screens 3/16-in. sieve size. The milled hulls are then placed in piles which are composted for a minimum of 18 months. The hulls are then suitable for incorporation into media.

After preliminary comparison testing it became evident that aged rice hulls would support plant growth at least as well as pine bark. A side by side comparison was conducted between our conventional mix (80% pine bark 20% sand) and a mix of pine bark, rice hulls, and sand (2 2 1, by volume) with

Is Eastern Europe a Useful Source of New Landscape Plants for the Midwest?

Author: Mark P. Widrlechner

PP: 451


Climatic extremes and unfavorable soils limit landscape plant diversity in the midwestern U.S. Since 1983, I have coordinated the NC-7 Regional Ornamental Trials (Widrlechner, 1990) for evaluating new landscape plants in the region and for increasing the future diversity of well-adapted plants found in commerce. I acquire, propagate, and distribute promising new plants for long-term testing at 38 sites representing the region's climates and soils.

Plants for testing can come from breeding programs or public gardens, but often originate from wild collections. Selecting promising plants for testing from the native woody flora of the temperate world is not simple, especially when many species are poorly adapted to our region. Fortunately, past experiences from the NC-7 Trials may increase the likelihood of future success. For example, populations of trees and shrubs collected in the former nation of Yugoslavia were distributed for testing in the mid-1970s. Analyses of the

Market Driven Plant Selection and Production—From Sales Representative or Customer Input

Author: Anne McKinstry

PP: 456

Part of Bailey's Mission Statement is the commitment to produce a broad selection of plant material. Trying to predict the plants that will be popular 4 to 5 years into the future is a challenge. Even the experts in any field can miss the mark. We don't have a crystal ball or use a fortune teller. Several sources or information are used to select new plants. A major source of input at Bailey Nurseries is sales representatives.

At Bailey's, a scheduled week-long meeting (the Plant Planning Meeting) held in late fall gives some insight on what to grow for future catalogs. New plants, market trends, and production schedules are discussed at that meeting. A cozy group of about 20 from sales, administration, inventory, and production attend. One month prior to the meeting, each sales representative submits a list of five plants for review. I title mine, "The Plant Wish List". Plant descriptions, pictures, and at times samples are sent to the office. When ‘Reliance’ grape, a new hardier seedless grape

Eight Witches'-Brooms of Acer palmatum and Their Propagation

Author: Richard P. Wolff

PP: 459


This discussion would not be complete without mention of the splendid work by Alfred J. Fordham, former research horticulturist at the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, Massachusetts. His publication of June 23, 1967 titled "Dwarf Conifers from Witches'-Brooms" gives an historical picture of brooms in U S.A. and Germany. This publication is a fine landmark treatise of broom theory, combined with the practical side of collecting, growing, and evaluating brooms at Arnold Arboretum.

William G. Schwartz, a Philadelphia attorney and nurseryman (Green Mansions Nursery, Media, Pennsylvania), has been my associate in locating and growing Acer palmatum brooms, also called bud-sports. The brooms mentioned are from both our collections. He is constantly sending me up the tree to procure scions at the risk of my life. He states, "Dick Wolff, a retired pilot, should have no fear of height ".

In this paper I will be presenting information on eight of seventeen Japanese maple brooms in my

Propagation of Ligustrum vulgare L. by Forced Softwood Cuttings

Author: Guochen Yang, Paul E. Read

PP: 462


A forcing solution containing 200 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC per liter and 2% sucrose has been demonstrated to be an effective means to produce softwood growth that can provide quality explant material for in vitro studies and micropropagation during the winter dormant season of woody species (Read and Yang, 1985, Yang and Read, 1989). The success of this method encouraged us to attempt to modify explant response by incorporation of appropriate growth regulating chemicals into the forcing solution (Read and Yang, 1989). The purpose of this report is to illustrate how this approach can be successfully adapted to propagation by softwood cuttings.

Drought Stress on Scion Wood

Author: Albert Bremer

PP: 465

Generally our budwood is cut from local nursery stock blocks. However, during the summer of 1991 our nursery obtained its budwood from central Illinois which was in the midst of a drought. This created a number of unforeseen problems.

Rootstocks which were to be budded grew very well that summer in Michigan and averaged 3/8 inches in diameter. The small drought-stressed sticks received from Illinois were immediately chip budded. When the small scion wood buds from the drought-stressed stock block were conventionally grafted, cambial contact between the graft surfaces was insufficient or non-existent. To overcome this problem, scion buds were placed on the rootstock graft area at an angle to permit at least minimal cambial contact. The buds were then completely covered with poly tape.

After six weeks buds appeared healthy. However, another inspection in December showed more than half of the buds dead. An attempt to rebud the unsuccessful grafts was planned for the spring. This rebudding

Propagation of Cotinus coggygria ‘Velvet Cloak’

Author: Michael Byers

PP: 465

Our first experience with propagating Cotinus coggygria ‘Velvet Cloak’ was in 1989. Cuttings were taken in late August, treated with 5,000 ppm IBA in talc, and stuck in a peat: perlite mix (1 1, v/v) with intermittent mist. Every cutting rotted within 14 days. In 1990 we collected cutting wood that was just completing a growth flush in early July and treated it the same as previously. Fifty-seven cuttings rooted out of 231 stuck. The cuttings that did not root had rotted at the base very shortly after being stuck. Realizing that excess water was detrimental, we stuck the next years crop in sand (#400 silica sand) to minimize moisture retention. There was a marked decrease in the amount of rotting, but very little rooting occurred. We believe the coarseness of the sand caused the cuttings to produce excessive callus, but no roots. In February 1991, we stuck hardwood cuttings taken from bareroot plants. They were stuck in 92 cell plug trays using a peat moss and styrofoam mix (1:1, v/v).
Propagation Methods at Berthold Nursery

Author: Nancy Gillian

PP: 466

I would like to share with you the hardwood and softwood propagation methods we use at Berthold Nursery which is located in Woodstock, Illinois, on approximately 400 acres.

We start our season with hardwoods, doing approximately 5 to 6 thousand cuttings. Cuttings are taken December through March when the outside temperature is above freezing. We propagate plants such as dogwood, privet, spirea, honeysuckle, and currant by this method.

Until a couple of years ago all our hardwoods were lined directly into the field after they were fully callused in our cooler. However, after returning from our 1989 I P P.S. meeting in Toronto Canada, I wanted to try a technique I saw being used at Canon Nursery. They were sticking their hardwoods into media in 5-gal cans, and keeping them in their container area. This idea appealed to me. I like this method because I can control their environment. I also have easier access in the spring and can keep an accurate check on rooting success. This allowed me to

Freeze Damage on Taxus Cutting Wood

Author: Edward R. Fox, Bill Molter

PP: 468

Recently, we experienced a propagation problem at Home Nursery when freeze damaged Taxus cutting wood was used. Historically, we have always taken taxus cuttings from field grown plants rather than the container grown ones. In the fall of 1990, we switched and began taking our cuttings from container grown plants because harvesting was easier and quicker due to closer plant spacing. In addition, because the plants were in covered polyhouses, the cuttings could be taken during bad weather.

Last fall we planned to compare the performance of cutting wood taken from containers with that from field plants. We began with cuttings from field plants and then proceeded to take them from the containers. However, in early November we experienced several days of record to near record lows. A record low of 8°F on November eighth was 7°F below the previous record on that day. At the time there were no visible signs of damage to the taxus and we were more concerned about the fate of some of our

Overwintering Rooted Cuttings of Viburnum carlesii

Author: Jon D. Pickerill

PP: 468

Viburnum carlesu, and its hybrids and cultivars, have typically been a high-demand and short-supply item at Wilson Nurseries. As a propagator, I'm sure I'm not alone in having been frustrated countless times by this plant. Numerous mistakes and many dead plants later, I have learned a few things about these viburnums which I would like to share.

At first, we tried in vain to make V. carlesu fit into a propagation schedule which we successfully used for most of the plants that we propagate. Softwood cuttings were taken in mid-June from plants in production. We made and bundled the cuttings in the field and stored them at 45°F prior to sticking. The cuttings were treated with 10,000 ppm K-IBA and stuck in sand in a 30 ft × 168 ft quonset house and misted with a Growing Systems mist boom.

By August, 90% or better were rooted. The plants were allowed to go dormant and were lifted from the sand beds in November. The dormant rooted cuttings were then wrapped in plastic and stored in a freezer at

Assessment of Wetting Agents for Use in Nurseries

Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 73

Techniques for rapid evaluation of the short-term effectiveness of wetting agents and their longevity in nursery situations are described and authenticated. Propagation media need contain no more than 0.1 ml/liter of the most effective wetting agents tested.
Feeding Cuttings to a Slow Death

Author: Mark L. Richey

PP: 469

Everyone has experienced those mysterious overwintering deaths that occur in seemingly healthy stands of rooted cuttings. It's easy to rationalize what caused the problem without ever really rooting out the source so as to prevent it from happening again. We faced that situation this year at Spring Meadow Nursery. Cuttings flushed and then the new shoots collapsed within a very short time. Lab reports said that no pathogens were present, but there was considerable cambium damage The question we had to answer was "how?" or if it happened again "how would the nursery survive economically?".

Certain patterns showed up with the problem. Plants that had been stuck or potted in the last half of the year showed the most loss, but only the ones in bark media. Cuttings stuck in perlite overwintered fine, for example Euonymus alatus ‘Compactus’ were rooted in perlite and then upgraded to 2¼–in pots in mid-September using a pine bark medium. Overwinter losses with the 2¼-in. pots were about 50%, but the ones

Mist Nozzles that Work for Us

Author: Fred G. Bauer

PP: 471

We found it necessary to close out production of all junipers and drastically increase our summer softwood liner production because of changes in our liner production business in past years. In the past we only kept enough propagation equipment on hand to meet our production schedule. However, with the increase in summer production we found ourselves short of mist nozzles. In the past, we had our nozzles custom assembled and modified from parts available through a local source. However, the gentleman who did this procedure died, and we have been unable to locate a machine shop that was willing to do this identical modification.
In vitro Root Suckering of Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Author: Kathryn Louis, Chris V. Hanson, Wesley P. Hackett, Carl A. Mohn

PP: 472

The development of an in vitro protocol for the growth of roots and the subsequent production of microshoots from the suckering of the roots of two clones of Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) was studied. Root growth was greatest with attached shoot tips. Adventitious bud initiation from root explants was greatest using Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 3% sucrose and 1.0 mg/liter thidiazuron. The addition of 0.01 mg/liter NAA did not enhance adventitious bud initiation. Shoot development and elongation after adventitious bud initiation was achieved by growing the adventitious bud clusters on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/liter BA for 8 weeks (2 cycles). Rooting and acclimation of the root-derived shoots was the same as traditional shoot-tip-derived shoots.
Seedlings Versus Tissue-Cultured Kalmia latifolia: The Case of the Missing Burl

Author: Peter Del Tredici

PP: 476

Basal burls, also known as lignotubers, are defined as aggregates of developmentally suppressed shoot buds which form at the base of the primary stem of seedlings as part of their normal ontogeny. Basal burls are commonly found in plants native to Mediterranean-type climates where fire is an important part of the local ecology. Following traumatic injury to the main stem, basal burls will sprout out vigorously to produce new shoots. In Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel), the tendency to form basal burls seems to be greater in seedlings than in tissue-cultured plants, an observation that has important implications for the field of plant propagation.
Clonal Propagation of Biofuel Trees with Emphasis on Silver Maple

Author: John E. Preece, Carl A. Huetteman, W.C. Ashby, P.L. Roth

PP: 483

There is a potentially great market for propagules to be used to establish woody biofuel plantations. Propagators and the nursery industry should be poised to profit from this market.
Production of Recommended Species of Ornamental Grasses

Author: Bill Hendricks

PP: 488

I have always had a fascination with grasses. However, about 10 years ago this interest took a commercial turn as I saw a developing trend in grasses expanding into a profitable production item Miscanthus and Pennisetum were among the first grass plants produced. There are hundreds of species and cultivars of ornamental grasses and grass-like plants and today we are growing about 45 different species and cultivars.

In the beginning we found, as with woody ornamentals that we were more familiar with, there was no one way to produce this wide diversity of plants. In general, we found that producing our liners in raised beds, 4 ft wide with a 6 in. × 6 in spacing for smaller growing forms and 6 in. × 8 in. or 10 in for larger growing forms, gave us nice clumps in a single growing season. We also found that by working with 1-year clumps we had a more vigorous plant than from second or third year plants. Beds are set up with overhead irrigation and watered on a regular basis as needed.

We have

Advances Using Indole-3-butyric Acid (IBA) Dissolved in Water for—Rooting Cuttings, Transplanting, and Grafting

Author: Joel Kroin

PP: 489


Since the 1930s the plant growth regulator indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has been used in the rooting of cuttings and other growth processes. Other uses for IBA include promoting root regeneration when transplanting plants and to possibly improve grafting success. Concentrations used for rooting range from 10 to 20,000 ppm IBA. The method of use and concentration of IBA is determined by many variables including plant type, time of year, propagation conditions, etc.

Liquid sources of IBA include premixed concentrated liquids containing up to 1.03% IBA dissolved in organic solvents such as ethanol (up to 99.5%) (EPA registrations as of 1992), and water soluble tablets containing 20% IBA which are made into a solution by the grower (U.S. registered Rhizopon-AA Water Soluble Tablets) (Blazich, 1988, Hartmann et al, 1990; Macdonald, 1986) IBA dissolved in water has proved to be more effective for rooting than IBA dissolved in alcohol, or the other auxins, indoleacetic acid (IAA) or

Cell Pack Production of Perennials by Tip Cutting: The Green Leaf Method

Author: Ronald Strasko

PP: 493

At Green Leaf we produce cell pack perennials by four basic methods seed, division, root cuttings, and tip cuttings. My talk will concentrate on the Green Leaf system of vegetative tip-cutting propagation with only a brief mention of the other three propagation methods.

We sow seed-grown perennials by two methods—a mechanical seeder and hand seeding in open flats. The bulk of our seeding is by machine, but there are types that are not practical to sow mechanically. For example, it's easier to hand sow the irregular seed types such as large seed (Baptisia), seed with tails (Gaillardia), and seed with special needs or long germination periods. After hand-sown seedlings are up, they are transferred to cell-packs.

We do a few plants from divisions—hardy geraniums, Hemerocallis, and Japanese anemones. Many divisions, however, are just to big for cell flats.

Root cuttings are used with some Geranium, Japanese anemone, Phlox paniculata, Pulmonaria, Aegopodium, and Stokesia. Our root cuttings are done

Propagation of Daylilies, Hostas, and Astilbes

Author: Duncan McDougall

PP: 495


At Casertano Farms in Cheshire, Connecticut our principle crops have been annuals, poinsettias, mums, and Easter and Christmas products. Two years ago we started raising perennials for the wholesale market by utilizing some empty hoophouses used for producing annuals. The houses are 22 × 150 ft and heated with a hot-air system. The first three greenhouses were filled with surplus stock from some of the Holland bulb companies and daylilies from my private farm in Woodbury, Connecticut. We soon had five houses filled with seed perennials. Today, we have eleven greenhouses and twelve acres of land being exclusively used for perennial production.

We irrigate from a large well that eliminates potential algae problems with our micro-irrigation systems, but have a backup pond for use during drought periods. Water is supplied by upright sprinklers placed every 12 ft. Emitters can be changed to increase or decrease the amount of water needed for individual crops. Therefore, it is

Successful Cutting Propagation of Hamamelis × intermedia ‘Arnold Promise’ and Hamamelis mollis ‘Brevipetala’

Author: W. Stephen Effner

PP: 497

Despite their relative scarcity in the American landscape, witch hazels are plants of great merit. These plants can breath life into an otherwise dreary winter garden with their showy flowers and sweet fragrance—with many cultivars featuring excellent fall foliage.

Hamamelis × intermedia ‘Arnold Promise’ and H. mollis ‘Brevipetala’ are two of the finest this genus has to offer. The literature about their successful propagation by cuttings is filled with both controversy and contradiction. Some sources claim this technique is easy while others say it is, if not practically impossible, certainly economically infeasible. In this paper I would like to share some of my experiences, both good and bad, in the propagation of these plants from cuttings.

Rooting Procedures for ‘Arnold Promise’ and ‘Brevipetala’. The rooting of both cultivars is extremely easy. I use semi-ripe cuttings collected in the second week of July. The cuttings are approximately 5 in long, treated with 8,000 ppm IBA (Hormondin #3),

Water Quality in Propagation

Author: Edward Bunker

PP: 81


Over 70% of the world's surface is covered by water, but 97% of this water is salty. Of the remaining 3% of fresh water, 2/3 is tied up in glacial ice. Only about 7/8 of 1% of the world's freshwater is liquid, and 95% of that is underground. In most countries 90% of people depend on ground water as drinking water. Looking at these figures it is clear why our ground water resources are so precious.

To many of us water is taken for granted. Most of us have water on tap in our homes to use for drinking and washing, and watering our gardens When we take a glass of water to drink, and we look into it and through it, how many of us realise the effort that has gone into making that water safe for us to drink. It has been taken from a storage facility, many kilometres away, and after many treatments and tests, it is delivered to our home. We take for granted that all has been done to it that is necessary, to make it safe for our use.

I am sure that our thoughts of safety in water

Propagation of Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’ from Root Suckers

Author: James E. Monroe Jr

PP: 499

Propagation at Greenbrier Nurseries is primarily devoted to the grafting of unusual Japanese maples. Each year we do about 20,000 units of Acer palmatum, as well as hard and softwood cuttings of many rare and unusual woody ornamentals. After grafting Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’ for two years, we found it to be a never ending battle to keep suckers off the young plants. Softwood propagation proved difficult, and plants that did root showed poor root development and were difficult to overwinter the first year. One thing that we did notice, however, was that the rooted plants that we had in production in 3-gal containers showed a tendency to produce suckers the second year. Our annual sales on C. avellana ‘Contorta’ are only about 500 plants per year, so we felt it feasible to develop a system to produce enough suckers to meet our production needs. This system is quite primitive when compared to our bottom-heated greenhouses and outdoor mist systems, but seems to be an adequate and underused
Video as a Training/Educational Tool in Plant Propagation Laboratory Exercises

Author: Martin M. Meyer Jr

PP: 500

We are now well into what has been referred to as the information age. Video camera recorders (camcorders) and video cassette recorders (VCRs) are used in many households. People now record on video tape instead of taking moving pictures. This can be instantly played back for checking capture and quality. Videotape has largely replaced movies in the classroom. Numerous commercial tapes are available for plant propagation instruction. Although some of these tapes are well prepared, they are not suited to material available for class use in "hands-on" exercises.

The recent introduction of small, hand-held camcorders makes possible the use of videotapes for individual classes. These camcorders are less expensive and more available to instructors even with modest teaching budgets. Tapes can be tailored to material available and the instructors teaching style to give the students more retention of the presented material. This paper will cover types of systems and equipment needed for taping and

Integrated Disease Management—Research and Development Using New Techniques and Bioremediation at Vans Pines

Author: Mic Armstrong

PP: 503

The success of our integrated disease management (IDM) program depends heavily on the skills of the propagation staff.

There are many diseases that can cause considerable havoc in a tree nursery, and some are resistant to fungicides (Sanders, 1989). Costs of controlling some diseases are increasing rapidly as pesticides become unavailable for "minor" users (Spooner-Hart, 1989). During the next few years, there will be more pressure to use alternatives. This presentation is about some of those new alternatives.

I have seen dramatic results using improved cultural practices such as horizontal air in a greenhouse However, some diseases can be so devastating that preventative fungicide applications are essential to the nursery. Nevertheless, we have found that good cultural practices decrease the amount of fungicide needed.

By restricting watering to as early in the morning as possible, some diseases are discouraged. This can be taken a stage farther in the greenhouse and with an understanding of

Reduction of Nitrates in Nursery Surface and Ground Water

Author: Ronald R. Amos

PP: 507


Nitrogen in an essential element in the production of plants. Management of nitrogen to prevent surface and ground water contamination will be affecting all nursery operations in the future. Some nurseries have already had to address this problem. Nurseries provide a product that is a benefit to the environment, but past and current fertility practices have created environmental problems. Federal and state governments are examining nitrate sources in agriculture and commercial agriculture will most likely be looked at more closely than family farms. Potential problems and some solutions in greenhouse, field and container areas will be discussed. Examples of what Evergreen Nursery is doing to combat these problems will illustrate what has been done in one operation.

Sex Identification in Dioecious Woody Landscape Plants

Author: Denise E. Costich, Thomas R. Meagher

PP: 513


Dioecious plant species, in which individual plants are either male or female, are commonly used in horticulture. In the majority of these species, the earliest possible identification of sex occurs at the time of flowering, a stage that may not be reached for a number of growing seasons in woody trees and shrubs. Often, one sex is preferred over the other, for example, female hollies are favored because of their attractive fruits, whereas female ginkgos are essentially worthless for landscaping purposes because of their fruits. In those species in which fruit production is favored, it is advantageous to know the sex of individual plants in order to ensure that both sexes are represented in a newly established planting. Thus, it would be of considerable commercial interest to growers to be able to determine the sex of dioecious plants in the seedling stage, potentially reducing the amount of acreage and labor necessary to grow the plants to flowering.

The goals of this paper

1992 Research Grant Award


PP: 517

The Research Award was granted to Dr. Brian K. Maynard, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881–0804. The title of his grant proposal is "Dose Response Curves and Carrier Effects on Rooting"
Certificate of Appreciation

Author: Steven Still

PP: 517

President Still presented a Certificate of Appreciation of behalf of the I.P.P.S — Eastern Region to Peter Orum for his effort in bringing about the establishment of the Denmark Region.
International Award of Honor

Author: John Machen Sr

PP: 517

John Machen, Sr., Vice-President International Plant Propagators' Society, presented the fifth International Award of Honor to Ralph Shugert.
Fellow Recipients—Eastern Region

Author: Tom McCloud

PP: 517

The I.P.P.S — Eastern Region named their third class of Fellow' at their 42nd Annual Meeting. Tom McCloud announced the following new Fellows'.

Author: Richard Bosley

PP: 518

Peter Orum, Midwest Groundcovers, St Charles, Illinois, was presented the Eastern Region Award of Merit at its annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri. He served as Eastern Region President for the 1989–1990 year, presiding at the 40th Annual Meeting in Cleveland, Ohio. His most recent efforts on behalf of the I.P.P.S. have been directed at bringing about the establishment of the Denmark Region.

Peter joined the Eastern Region in 1965. He began his service in the Eastern Region on the Long Range Planning committee as both a member and eventually chairman. He next served on the Board of Directors in 1984–1985. After leaving the Board he took on the task of starting the Endowment Committee as its chairman during 1986–1987. In December 1987 he became 2nd V P and 1988 1st V P and Program Chairman for the Toronto, Canada meeting.

He was born in Soborg, a suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark 4 December 1941. Orum grew up in Vraa, Vendsyssel (most northern province of Denmark) and worked in his father's small

A Review of Materials for Propagation Media

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 85


The aim in plant propagation is to produce healthy, well-grown plants, with minimum losses, in the shortest possible time. We must bear in mind that the propagation stage is the most vulnerable growth stage in nursery production and any adverse factors which affect the number and quality of plants being propagated is felt all the way down the nursery production line. This paper reviews the materials which are used in plant propagation media and attempts to determine how propagation management practices may influence propagation success.

Taxol—Update 1992

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 519

One year ago in December 1991 at the I.P.P.S Eastern Region in Long Island, I presented a paper with the same title as this one with the exception of the word 1992. I do not intend to repeat last year's;s words, but I will present a brief review for the sake of continuity.

The key word in the title of this paper is TAXOL, which is one of many taxane compounds According to a December 18, 1991 Wall Street Journal article, taxol having shown effectiveness against ovarian tumors, "Now appears to be a promising treatment for advanced breast cancer ". This statement is predicated on studies conducted by doctors at the University of Texas' Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.

One year ago, I mentioned an organization named "The Alliance for the Production of Taxol", and although loosely structured, it is still viable. This Alliance consists of nursery producers of Taxus, Ohio State University (OARDC), and the University of Mississippi. One of many purposes of the Alliance is to convince


Author: Rob Nicholson, Kris Bachtell, John Larsen, John Pair, Jack Alexa

PP: 522


Plants presented in alphabetical order

Acer × freemanii ‘Marmo’, Marmo Freeman maple, is an interspecific hybrid of A saccharinum (silver maple) and A. rubrum (red maple). The original tree, located in the plant collections of the Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois, was received from an unknown nursery source in the mid 1920s. It is cold hardy to U.S.D.A. Zone 4. It has a medium-fast growth rate.

It is a large deciduous shade tree with an upright-oval habit and strong central leader. The original tree is approximately 80 ft tall with a spread of 35 ft. Leaf shape resembles silver maple, but is not as deeply lobed. Foliage is an attractive medium green with a contrasting silver-grey underside and colorful red petioles. Fall color is often an interesting kaleidoscope blend of scarlet and maroon, offset with tints of green. Branch structure and general strength of the plant have proven to be superior to silver maple. No seed is produced.

With the exception of extremely dry locations,


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 526

The Question Box Session was convened at 2.30 p.m. with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Is the grating video that was producted by I.P.P.S.-Eastern Region still available? Is so advertise it in our newsletter.

KATHY FREELAND: I have the master of that video if we want to reproduce it.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Albert Bremer. You stated that you inserted chip buds at an angle. What species do you use this technique with?

MARTIN MEYER: He puts the chip bud in at an angle so that it crosses over to both sides. The cut in the rootstock is not cut at an angle.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Comment to Ralph Shugert from Dick Bir on rice hulls in media. We did quite a bit of work with rice hulls fromo an apple processor about 10 years ago. Composting is absolutely needed because: (1) Apple tree seedlings are weeks and plentiful. (2) A yellow mycelial growth from some non-parasitic fungus filled our container mixes. If they ever dried out they

Abnormal Growths on Micropropagated Elepidote Rhododendrons

Author: Mark Brand, Richard Kiyomoto

PP: 530


The occurrence of abnormal growths or tissue proliferations (TP) on elepidote rhododendrons has been the subject of intense discussion at formal and informal meetings around the country and in nursery-related publications (Anonymous, 1992a; Anonymous, 1992b; Bayer, 1982; LaMondia et al, 1992; Rostan, 1992). Unfortunately, the information on the identity, significance, the mode of transmission, and cause of TP has been conflicting.

Experimental evidence is required to prove how damaging TP is to plant health. Observations in Ohio suggest the vascular system of stems with large TPs is disrupted, resulting in weak plants which cannot be sold. Plants with TPs on the upper trunk and branches are cosmetically unacceptable and may also be weakened. We will review some of the conflicting observations and speculate on possible causes of the TPs. References will also be made to reviews on topics covered here to provide those interested with a more comprehensive background.

Excellence in our Educational Environments

Author: Sam Stehling

PP: 535

Self reliance, initiative, creativity, and risk taking can justifiably be used to describe those who created the U.S. as well as other free societies that exist in our world today. I feel I personally owe a great deal to those who have gone before me to provide the opportunities that I enjoy today. One of these being our educational system. Our educational system in the U.S., as flawed as it is, still has the potential to provide each individual with many of the necessary tools they require to live a happy, successful life. However, as individuals we have become more reliant on others (government, business, etc ) to provide for individual needs such as transportation, health care, and education. Have we also begun to forget that our ultimate success/happiness is actually up to no one else but ourselves? The project this paper describes was designed to recapture the spirit of adventure in learning and most importantly develop the "I can" spirit in our children as well as some adults that
Coal Ash as a Propagation Medium

Author: Michael B. Gleeson

PP: 91


My nursery produces tube stock of various lines for sale in 2-in (5 cm) tubes. The cutting medium that I had settled on before trying ash consisted of 3 parts washed river sand, 2 parts peatmoss and 1 part perlite (SPP).

As propagators, we are always trying to find ways of improving our techniques so as to obtain better results. During conversations with various propagators I became aware of the use of coal ash as a striking medium. Some of the results that these people were quoting suggested to me that some trials might prove worthwhile.

I decided to try it out by putting a very small percentage of my normal production into coal ash medium. These initial trials proved promising so in the following season I increased the percentage of cuttings in coal ash. To ensure a workable comparison, I put my programmed cutting production into the two media on an approximately 50/50 basis. Production proceeded as it normally would. No changes were made to hormone use, bottom heating,

Commercial Application and Mass Rearing of Beneficial Insects for Integrated Pest Management

Author: Dan Papacek

PP: 95

Interest in alternative strategies for the management of insect and mite pests of commercial crops is growing rapidly. The use of mass-reared beneficial insects can be a valuable tool for the practical application of such strategies. This paper discusses some of the problems associated with the production and use of beneficial insects and offers some suggestions for the future.
Plant Protection—Management of Pest Control Techniques

Author: John Harden

PP: 99


What is Plant Protection? It is the management of pests of plants to maximize profit, pleasure, and leisure. Plant protection involves using detailed information about plants and pests to minimise the activities of pests so that they are not economically, aesthetically or environmentally important.

What are Pests? Pests are biological organisms capable of interfering with plant production. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, birds, and mammals. When managing the application of pest control techniques the term "pest" should be used to describe all the biological organisms capable of interfering with plant production.

What is Pest Control? The objective of pest control techniques has often been 100% (kill) of the pest or annihilation. This level of "control" may not be achievable and can be biologically undesirable. In the production of clean, pest-free nursery stock, it may be a requirement and this should be achieved using a combination of pest management

Prospects for IPM in Greenhouse Ornamentals in Australia

Author: N. Gough

PP: 103


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in glasshouse vegetables is now well accepted in Europe (van Lenteren and Woets, 1988; van Lenteren, 1990) but IPM in ornamentals is more experimental. However, it is clear that the trend away from purely chemical control of insects and mites in glasshouses is irreversible and that much research is now focused on non-insecticidal methods (including natural enemies) to control pests in protected ornamentals. The latter include those grown in glasshouses, greenhouses (defined here as any enclosed structure), and in plastic tunnels. This paper provides a brief overview. It has its origins in a more comprehensive report, the result of an overseas study tour by the author in 1991 (Gough, 1992).

Control of Two-Spotted Mite by Predatory Mites

Author: Richard Llewellyn

PP: 108


The Two-Spotted Mite (TSM)—Tetranychus urticae. Two-spotted mite belongs to a group of eight legged plant-eating mites. The young and older mites are pale green with two dark patches on their backs. The adults are about half a millimeter in length and are best viewed with a hand lens. Their eggs are round and pearly white. Two-spotted mites suck out the cells in the leaf, causing minute, yellowish, feeding marks which may join together causing leaves to shrivel and die. Once damage occurs, it will remain, as the leaf cannot repair itself.

Two-spotted mite is a major pest of a wide range of horticultural crops. Nurserymen can suffer serious losses due to the leaf scarring and stunted growth that these mites cause. Chemical controls have been the norm until the last few years. These are becoming less reliable as mites have developed high levels of resistance to some, and at least some resistance to most, chemicals. This process has been accelerated in recent years with

Stimulation of Seed Production in Eucalyptus by Paclobutrazol Application

Author: Sandra Hetherington, Keith M. Jones

PP: 39


In Tasmania more than six million eucalypts are established in plantations each year. The seed requirement for such a planting is quite large. Many eucalypts tend to be biennial in flowering but often flowering at much longer intervals. This causes seed production to be erratic and supply nonuniform.

The growth regulator paclobutrazol has been shown to enhance flowering and seed set in Eucalyptus (Hetherington et al., 1991). Application of paclobutrazol in late February to March can promote flower bud production (a reproductive effect) within the first year of application; whereas November application does not produce a reproductive effect until the second year after application. The aim of the current work was to examine timing effects and to broaden our knowledge of the reproductive effects of paclobutrazol application.

Deflasking Micropropagated Plantlets

Author: Anne Delaney

PP: 114


Micropropagation is the multiplication of plants under sterile conditions. Plant parts, including cell, bud, stem, and leaf, can be used as explant sources. The desired piece of tissue is placed on an appropriate culture medium and induced to produce shoots and roots under controlled laboratory conditions. Practical applications include the rapid multiplication of plants, the multiplication of otherwise difficult to propagate plants, and the propagation of rare and endangered species. In addition, plants in culture are easy to import and export as the small, lightweight containers are easy to handle, and contain no soil.

New Fire Blight and Scab Resistant Pyracanthas

Author: Alain Cadic

PP: 119

A Pyracantha breeding programme was started in 1982, to obtain resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) and scab (Spilocaea pyracanthae), and frost resistance. The ornamental criterion was a heavy long-lasting fruiting period. Cross pollination of different species and cultivars in INRA'S collection produced hybrids tested against scab and fire blight. Best hybrids were then cloned and tested again in a glasshouse. Observations were made on flowering and fruiting abilities. All hybrids have endured two hard winters with temperatures falling down to -15°C without snow protection. Two cultivars were selected and released to trade.
Cotoneaster dammeri: Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora) Resistant Cultivars in Germany

Author: Heinrich Lösing

PP: 123


The bacteria disease fire blight first appeared in 1971 in Schleswig - Holstein on Crataegus monogyna and Pyrus fruit trees. It spread south, reached Hamburg in 1974, Westfalia in 1975, and finally the southern parts of Germany in 1981 (Baumm, 1989). Initial attempts at control included strict eradication of C. monogyna from windbreaks, especially in nurseries and around infested locations. Commercial production of common hawthorn was banned. These restrictions could not stop Erwinia amylovora. Nowadays people have learned to live with the disease, which is mainly found in Germany on Chaenomeles, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cydonia, Pyrus, and Photinia.

The Assortment of Ornamental Tree and Shrub Nurseries in Poland

Author: Jacek Marcinkowski

PP: 125


There are five climatic regions in Poland: the western zone, the transitory zone, the eastern zone, the southern submontane zone, and the montane zone.

The western zone has a moderately warm climate under oceanic influence, with rather mild winters and a long growing period. On average there are less than 30 days with the temperature below 0°C. The growing period reaches over 210 days, up to 218 to 220 days on the coast. Such conditions favour the introduction of many ornamental trees and shrubs known for their sensitivity to winter frosts. They include: Abies pinsapo, A. procera, Pinus pungens, Pseudolarix amabilis, Sciadopitys verticillata, Aralia elata, Castanea sativa, Paulownia tomentosa, Quercus imbricata, and even such exotic plants as Diospyros lotus and Sinarundinaria nitida can be grown occasionally.

The transitory zone has harsher climate with up to 50 days seeing temperatures below 0°C. Precipitation is the lowest in Poland, often less than 500

New Cultivars of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs from Poland

Author: Szczepan Marczynski

PP: 128

Many valuable cultivars of ornamental trees and shrubs have been selected and propagated in Poland during last 100 years. Very few of them are mentioned in the international literature and known outside Poland. Many are valuable and worth popularising, especially because plants obtained from our climatic conditions can better withstand lower temperatures.

About 60 cultivars were bred by F. Rozanski at Podzamcze nurseries between 1896 to 1914, and over 200 new cultivars were bred and selected by A. Wróblewski at the time of his activity in Kornik, between 1926 and 1944. Unfortunately most of their cultivars were lost from cultivation. Their work was continued by many others including many interesting and valuable cultivars of: Syringa vulgaris (M. Karpow-Lipski), Rosa (L.Grabczewski and S. Zyla), and Clematis (S. Franczak and W. Noll). Of these, it is only some of the clematis cultivars that are propagated on a commercial scale outside Poland. I have found the following cultivars to be

Predicting Graft Incompatibility in Woody Plants

Author: Frank S. Santamour Jr.

PP: 131

We have developed a theory to explain and predict graft compatibility and incompatibility in woody angiosperms. This theory is based on the similarity of major peroxidase enzymes in the cambial tissue of stock and scion. Peroxidases mediate the production of lignins and adjacent stock and scion cells must produce similar lignins, and have identical peroxidase enzyme patterns, to ensure the development of a functional vascular system across the graft union. In some species, all, or most, individual plants produce identical peroxidase patterns, and nurserymen seldom encounter problems of graft incompatibility. In species which have traditionally been problem grafters, we have generally found variability among individuals in peroxidase enzymes. Although detailed analyses of peroxidases in such species would be the ideal method for predicting graft incompatibility, there are some steps that the practical nurseryman can take to increase grafting success.
Careroot Cell-Grown Liners and Understocks From Seed

Author: Joost Van Iersel

PP: 135

Expertrees is the marketing and sales organisation for four production nurseries in the southwest of Holland. This marketing set up has been in operation since 1990. The range of products we produce includes one- and two-year seedlings, transplant whips, and indigenous trees Each production nursery has its own product speciality to help provide a comprehensive range of products. For decades we have been specialising in growing understocks and a wide choice of liners. "Small is beautiful" does not just apply to the plants but to the business units also In addition, we encourage smaller growers to produce plants for us on contract This helps us to remain competitive and contract growing is also the easiest way to keep quality levels high. Fellow growers from Holstein in northern Germany envy us for our quality, which makes Zundert special.

The production unit I will discuss in this paper is the one producing plug-grown plants. U.S A. and Canadian propagators have utilized this production

Progress in Controlling Disease in Hardy Nursery Stock

Author: Stephen J. Holmes

PP: 137


Modern nursery techniques combined with market requirements for quality in quantity have created growing conditions which favour development of epidemic disease. This has been exacerbated by restrictions in pesticide usage and an associated decline in the availability of effective fungicides. This paper outlines three new developments in alternative disease control and illustrates the radical changes in disease management which will be essential for growers in the 1990s

New Plants from Hungary Tolerating Urban Conditions

Author: Gábor Schmidt

PP: 140

Selection of woody ornamentals to tolerate environmental stress has been carried out in Hungary for over 30 years. This paper gives descriptions of some recently named clones and new cultivars.
Introducing and Promoting British Columbia's Native Plants for the Urban Landscape

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 142

British Columbia has a rich flora of native plants because of its varied climatic regions—the very high rainfall of the Queen Charlotte Islands, the drier climate of eastern Vancouver Island and the adjacent Gulf Islands, the cold alpine areas of the many mountain ranges, and the arid regions of the province's interior Okanagan Valley.

The University of British Columbia Botanical Garden Plant Introduction Scheme (PISBG) has now resulted in the public release of 14 new cultivars, with over 5 million plants having been produced through the programme. Four of these plants are native selections: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ‘Vancouver Jade’, Ribes sanguineum ‘White Icicle’, Potentilla fruticosa ‘Yellow Gem’, and Penstemon fruticosus ‘Purple Haze’ With the cooperation of the BC Nursery Trades Association and the BC Society of Landscape Architects, these plants have been well promoted and have now largely found their niche in the market Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ‘Vancouver Jade’ is now the most widely-grown

The Effects of Shoot Age on Root Formation of Cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

Author: A.S. Carter, M.U. Slee

PP: 43

Root formation on cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis is influenced by the age of the shoots on the donor plants. Cuttings taken from 8-week-old shoots rooted more frequently and with a larger number of roots per cutting than did cuttings from 16 week old shoots. The difference in rooting patterns is primarily attributed to rapid leaf senescence on the older shoots as shoots which lost more than 75% of the original leaves failed to root. Propagators should avoid using older shoots with leaves that will not remain functional during the first 2 weeks of root initiation. Roots were visible on the younger shoots within 2 weeks of their being set and the number of primary roots had reached a maximum within 4 weeks. Percentage rooting reached a maximum by the 8th week after setting. This time sequence has implications for management of cuttings production in nurseries. It indicates that there is an optimal time to change from a root initiation regime to a root development regime.
Breeding Woody Ornamentals in Sweden

Author: Rune Bengtsson, Eva Jansson, Kenneth Lorentzon

PP: 145

During the last 10 years, attempts have been made to improve the genetic quality of ornamental trees and shrubs cultivated in Swedish nurseries. Selections have been made in cultivated and wild collected plant material, as well as hybridisation work. The work has concentrated on finding hardy and healthy, narrow-crowned trees for the modern Swedish garden and low growing shrubs for parks and gardens as well as for ground covers. So far about 25 clones and 7 seed provenances have been introduced on the Swedish market and given a special quality symbol - E - which is printed on the plant labels.
A New Rockwool Based Growing Medium for Container Plant Production

Author: Maurice Barletta

PP: 149

Grodania A/S, in conjunction with progressive nursery stock growers in the UK, has developed a complete peat-free production system based on Grodan rockwool for container nursery stock. Grodan-media plants can be grown side by side with peat-media plants to similar quality standards. This means no modification of existing production systems.

Trials carried out under full commercial conditions have given comparable results to peat-based compost from propagation to liner pot and in the final 3 litre container. Indications are that fine tuning on the nursery will give improved results over peat Assessed visually by nurserymen all plants were considered to be of marketable quality. From data recordings, there were little or no significant differences between the treatments. All plants received the standard peat treatments

Breeding and Selection of Hardy Woody Plants in Bavaria

Author: Donnchadh Mac Cárthaigh

PP: 152


Weihenstephan, in Freising near Munich, is probably the biggest centre of agricultural education and research in Europe, and is known as the Green Centre of Weihenstephan Plant breeding and selection work is being carried out on most agricultural and horticultural crops and the Institute of Pomology at the Technical University is the leader in the area of woody plants. This paper is a short description of the most important introductions in recent years.

Successes and Failures of Marketing—The Blooms Experience

Author: Adrian Bloom

PP: 154


Marketing, as defined by the UK Institute of Marketing, is "the management function which organises and directs all those business activities involved in assessing and converting consumer purchasing power into effective demand for a specific product or service to the final consumer or user so as to achieve the profit, target, or other objectives set by the company."

Until recently, selling, not marketing, is what most of the nursery stock industry has done to maintain its income. However, times are rapidly changing and this paper gives some ideas about marketing based on the experience that Blooms of Bressingham has had in marketing new plants and groups of plants, then turns to the present and future.

The Commercial Exploitation of New Plants

Author: David Clark

PP: 157


Use this checklist to help decide whether a new plant deserves introduction: distinct from existing cultivars, attractive foliage, attractive fruits, evergreen, hardy, disease resistant, easy to grow in the garden, tolerates a wide range of soils, propagates easily, can be propagated all year round, easy to grow in nursery, flowers early in production cycle, looks well in spring, suitable for small and medium gardens, flowering over a long period, and retail price below £10. If you have a plant that meets all these criteria, you have a perfect plant and a sure winner.

Launching New Plants—A Liner Producer's Job?

Author: André Briant

PP: 161


It is part of a propagator's job to consider the launch of new plants. The liner producer is at the beginning of the nursery line and should offer the best range of varieties to really fit the needs of the plant market. And there is a demand for new plants.

A liner producer has many customers all over his own country and he also exports very often and sells large quantities, he is normally a good contact for the breeder of new plants.

Searching, selecting, and launching new plants is really a liner producer's job but it is not an easy one for him. He has no finished plants to show; he does not sell to a garden centre or to a landscape company but to a grower. So he is quite far from the final customer. When you want to sell a new plant you have to convince your customer, the customer of his customer, and the final consumer.

You can only do it if:

  1. You are very selective on the new plants you want to launch.
  2. You are very
Ways Municipalities Use New Plants: How We Work in Nantes

Author: Marc Mansuis

PP: 163

The city of Nantes owes its horticultural status to its maritime history. The new plants brought back by the navigators and ship owners of the city were planted in the Apothecary Garden, before it became part of the Royal Botanic Garden, which itself comes under the Paris Museum. Those seafarers were responsible for introducing numerous plants into Europe, such as Magnolia grandiflora, the Virginia tulip tree, Liquidamber, Sassafras, and so on Several Mayors of Nantes were also botanists, including Ferdinand Favre, who developed camellia culture at the turn of the century.

Nantes also has a mild, coastal, Gulf Stream climate, and soil with a low limestone content, which suited many of the new plants being brought back from overseas.

Thus the current Department of Green Spaces and the Environment is continuing a tradition of enthusiasm for new plants. At Nantes these are cultivated for two reasons: as botanical collections in their own right and for utilitarian uses. The collections are

New Plants for Amateur Gardeners— a Retailers View

Author: Mr. Wuhrlin

PP: 164

Jardiland (French garden centre group) is a chain of 70 franchised garden centres which had a turnover of 1.1 billion French Francs—one third of the French garden centre market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the marketing of Jardiland, and how Jardiland markets new plants.

For a long while, marketing attention focused only on the product. We were in an equipment-based market which tended to react to demand, rather than make offers to stimulate it. Today, customers are increasingly selective. Our thoughts are increasingly about the customer, rather than the product, and we are increasingly doing what we call "marketing of the demand." We no longer content ourselves simply with meeting existing demand, we want to use marketing to actively develop it.

To do this we must get to know the customers, and to realise that they, too, change. Today our customers are more and more aware of ecology, but they know less and less about the techniques of gardening. They do, however, want an activity

New Plant Introductions—The European Scene

Author: Harry J. van de Laar

PP: 166

My contribution is a slide presentation of new and novel woody and perennial plants. Some of these novelties are grown in large quantities, especially in nursery areas. Others are new and only obtainable in very limited quantities, often directly from the raiser. Most of the novelties which I will show are extremely hardy under Dutch climactical conditions. On the other hand a number of plants have been shown which Dutch growers have in their nurseries, often in large quantities, for export to countries with a milder climate. A good number of the plants have received awards such as an Award of Recommendation, an Award of Merit, a First Class Certificate, and/or awarded a Gold or Silver Medal at several exhibitions, for example "Flora Nova" at Boskoop. These awards have been given by the Judging Committee of the Royal Boskoop Horticultural Society. The Judging Committee will celebrate its centenary in 1994.

Since 1964 all the awarded plants have been published with more or less extensive

Production and Marketing of Roses in the U.S.A.

Author: Robert Sinclair

PP: 169


In California, roses are field-grown on a massive scale in the central San Joaquin Valley, an area renowned for fruit production, viticulture, and nuts. The valley floor is a vast, level area of fertile soil, with a system of pipes and canals bringing water from the surrounding mountains. It is virtually frost free, and summer temperatures are consistently high. Mexican immigrant labour is freely available. Jackson and Perkins, at Wasco, currently has an annual production of 14 million roses. Other large growers such as J and M Roses and Weeks also produce several million roses per year. Possibly 70% of America's roses are produced in California and shipped bareroot to wholesalers and processors in the populated areas of the South and the Northeast.

There is an "accepted" Californian way of producing roses, which is used with only slight modifications by all the major growers. It is very different from the European system, but has been developed for an area where

Propagation of Rainforest Plants

Author: Nan Nicholson

PP: 48


As rainforests diminish, Public interest in growing them increases. This interest falls into three categories:

  • Small-scale, usually urban, garden culture
  • Landscaping
  • Regeneration of forests

Vegetative propagation is used extensively for certain commonly grown species, such as some of the lillypillies, and the procedures used in such cases do not differ markedly from those used in producing more familiar plants (many of which are rainforest plants in their countries of origin). Many of the nursery techniques used to grow-on rainforest plants are familiar to most growers.

However, propagation of rainforest plants by seed is a relatively unknown field. Most rainforest plants in specialist nurseries are currently grown from seed, for a number of reasons:

  • Where seed is readily available, large numbers can be grown economically.
  • Many species are not easily propagated from cuttings, or little cutting material is available on stock plants.
  • Root systems are stronger on many
The Influence of Juvenility on Plant Propagation

Author: Lars Sommer

PP: 175

Vegetative propagation of woody tree species is often difficult, mainly because of poor rooting. For example, the effects of age, clone, and nutrient level on the rooting of Picea abies is shown in Table 1.
Why We Are Using Micropropagated Plants

Author: Finn Helge

PP: 177


Back in 1986 we wanted an alternative way to produce Clematis. With help from consultants from the Danish Nursery Association, we decided to use micropropagated plants. We had a commercial laboratory carry out the propagation and deliver the plantlets to our nursery where we would grow them into saleable plants. We built a growth room where the plants were transferred from the test tubes to soil. Our decision to use micropropagated plants was based on the following reasons:

  • To have healthier plant material.
  • To obtain plants better suited for production, i e. with more lateral bud breaks.
  • To have available a continuous production of difficult-to-root plants.
  • To have a method where we easily could mass produce new cultivars, or plants free from known diseases such as viruses.

We new this would be a large task, and began a collaboration with a commercial laboratory in Århus who would develop the protocol for micropropagation of Clematis. At the same time, we were working with plant

Possibilities and Disadvantages of Genetic Variation

Author: Kirsten Brandt

PP: 178


Plants grow by division of cells in the meristems. Normally the new cells are exact copies of the original cell, so every shoot on a plant has the same (genetic) characteristics. This also holds if the shoot is used as a cutting or in micropropagation because the vegetatively propagated plants are genetically part of the same plant.

However, mistakes may occur during cell division and so cells with new genetic characteristics appear. This is called mutation and is the basis of occurrence of off-types with characteristics other than those of the original plant.

Micropropagation and Plant Health

Author: Arne Thomsen

PP: 180


When plants are asexually propagated, there is always a risk of diseases being transferred. This is especially a problem when the disease is caused by a virus. In the past the only way to avoid this problem was to select stock plants that were not infected. Since the beginning of the 1950s, research has shown that it is possible to inactivate viruses in plants with heat.

Artificial Seeds in Micropropagation

Author: Jens Viktor Nørgaard

PP: 182


In the broadest possible sense, artificial seeds are a way of transferring somatic embryos or shoots from sterile tissue culture to nonsterile conditions, with or without an artificial seed endosperm. In a strict sense it is a somatic embryo with an artificial endosperm or seed coat. Thus, artificial seeds have no direct relation to the propagation method.

Redenbaugh et al. (1991) define the following four types of artificial seed:

  • Uncoated, desiccated synthetic seeds
  • Coated, desiccated synthetic seeds
  • Coated, hydrated synthetic seeds
  • Uncoated, hydrated synthetic seeds

The major research effort has been conducted with coated, hydrated synthetic seeds.

Encapsulation has several advantages over traditional acclimatization and soil establishment of somatic embryos.

  1. Micropropagated plants can be delivered directly to the nursery/greenhouse without acclimatization. Acclimatization and several handling steps are saved.
  2. The artificial endosperm and
Challenges and Opportunities for Plant Propagation in a Changing World

Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 187

The environment in which we do our research or propagate plants has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. It is critical that we appreciate the nature of those changes and how they are influencing our research agenda and our businesses.

At one point in our history we were pretty much left alone to pursue scientific inquiry or conduct our business as we wished. But now many people and groups have an interest in setting our agenda. Let me give some examples based on the 2½ years I spent in Washington, D C as Assistant Secretary for Science and Education. As we establish the challenges, I will suggest plans of action, so we can anticipate and plan ahead.

The U.S. agricultural system is viewed by the world as one of the outstanding products of American ingenuity. In 1950, one American farmer produced food and fiber for 27 people, in 1990, the production was for 128 people. This increased efficiency has been passed on to the consumer in the form of lower food costs. In 1950, the average

Propagation by Root Cuttings

Author: Nicholas D. Dunn

PP: 194

In the age of high technology it is sometimes refreshing to remind ourselves that old propagation techniques may still have commercial if not experimental application to today's nursery production. It was with this in mind that we decided to try root cuttings for the more difficult to propagate rootstocks and cultivars we grow on our nursery. We produce fruit and ornamental trees and clonal rootstocks by traditional field production. The various subjects chosen were: M.9 apple rootstock, pixy plum rootstock, and own-root apple cultivars.
Cutting Propagation of Chamelaucium Cultivars

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 196


The genus Chamelaucium is endemic to Western Australia and consists of 12 species of small-to medium-sized shrubs. The foliage of most species is xerophytically adapted to a needle shape and it forms a soft green backdrop to the flowers. The genus is principally cultivated for its flowers which are 1 to 2 cm long, five-petalled, and waxy in texture. The main flowering period is winter and early spring. The waxy nature of the flowers has given rise to the common name "waxflowers" for this genus. This genus has a requirement for very sandy, well-drained soils in an open, sunny position.

The best known member of the genus is C. uncinatum, the Geraldton waxflower from the Geraldton district of Western Australia. It is popular as a shrub for cut flower use. It is widely used as a flowering garden shrub, but it is very short-lived if soil type and drainage are unsuitable. In addition, it is also popular as a flowering specimen for growing in tubs on patios, etc.


Towards 2000—Development and Propagation of New Plant Material

Author: Richard Ware

PP: 200

We need plants in our gardens and cities for food, beauty, and health. It's a green revolution and our I.P.P.S. Society is vital to that revolution, without plant propagators it can't happen.

To this end, keen plants people all around the world are becoming hungry for new plant material as well as reintroducing the old. New plants are developed by: research, breeding, mutation and sports, radiation, and gene splicing. Old plants are reintroduced by: reintroduction in a new mode, using chemical retardants, using chemical enhancers, elimination of viruses, and clonal selections.

As a grower you may be blessed with a once in a lifetime find. But if you live long enough and are super sharp, you may be lucky enough to find more in a lifetime. My nursery has introduced a number of sports and I will outline the development and propagation of three of our best introductions.

Cupressus arizonica ‘Blue Ice’. I found this cultivar as a chance seedling among a line of shelter trees growing in our

Site of Action of Auxin in Adventitious Root Initiation

Author: Charles W. Heuser Jr, Francis H. Witham

PP: 202


It has been shown many times under controlled conditions that auxins are the applied phytohormones which consistently enhance adventitious root production. Indeed, research has shown that division of the root initial cells is dependent upon either applied or endogenous auxin (Hartmann et al., 1990.) However, knowledge of the mechanism of auxin action in adventitious rooting remains an enigma although auxin was identified as a root-forming substance as early as 1934 by Thimann and Went. This paper deals with experiments performed in our laboratory on the regulation of adventitious root initiation in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.)R. Wilcz.]

Grafting Techniques

Author: Gregory R. McPhee

PP: 51


Propagators have been grafting for thousands of years.

When I first wanted to learn to graft I obtained Hartmann and Kester's book on plant propagation and studied the pictures. This book and Garner's Handbook of Grafting are invaluable texts on the theory and styles of grafting. However after reading these books I was still not able to correctly complete a successful graft. What I needed was a detailed description of how to physically graft. That is the carpentry of grafting, as well as the reasons why. I then sought out any local propagators who would show in detail how they grafted. There were few who were willing to divulge their methods. After much trial and effort I developed a method that allowed me to make an income from contract grafting. I believe that the practical techniques used in grafting should be documented as well as the theory.

Plant Variety Protection

Author: Vincent G. Gioia

PP: 206

There are three available forms of plant variety protection in the United States; plant patents, utility patents, and certificates of protection. Each form of protection grants different rights to its owner. This paper describes the procedures for obtaining plant patents, utility patents and PVPA Certificates of Protection in the United States for new plant varieties and the rights obtained by these protection grants. Applications for plant and utility patents are similar but there are different requirements for applications for Certificates of Protection. In all applications for protection, it is important to describe the new variety as completely as possible. Plant patents protect varieties that are asexually reproducible and Certificates of Protection apply to sexually reproducible varieties. Utility patents may be obtained for both asexually and sexually reproducible plant varieties. The cost of obtaining protection is also different. Government fees are lower for plant patents (filing fee $480, issue fee $590, both reducible by 50% for "small entities"), and highest for Certificates of Protection (total fees are about $2600, no reduction for "small entities"). Utilities patents are in between (filing fee $710, issue fee $1170, both reducible by 50% for "small entities"), but maintenance fees are required for utility patents before the end of the fourth, eighth, and twelfth years of the utility patent term in order to maintain the patent in effect. No maintenance fees are required for plant patents.
Propagating Some Native California Perennials

Author: M. Nevin Smith

PP: 210

Over the past 20 years or so, I have had the pleasure of working with several hundred of California's native perennials. A number of them have recently entered the horticultural mainstream, and their nursery propagation and culture have become matters of considerable interest. I would like to share a little of my own practical experience with these plants.
New and Interesting Native Cultivars and Their Propagation

Author: Bart O'Brien

PP: 214

With all of the interest in native plants in recent years, there has been a definite resurgence of activity in the selection of new forms and rediscovery of nearly forgotten gems. This paper will briefly describe some of the best of these plants and their propagation.

Aesculus californica ‘Canyon Pink’. To date this is the only named selection of our native buckeye. This selection has the normal attributes of the species: silver-grey bark, bright apple-green new growth that turns a pleasing mid-green as it matures, and the large brown round seeds in the fall. The distinctive feature of this cultivar is the large conch-shell pink inflorescence, and a free-flowering disposition. This tree may be grown as either a standard or a multi-trunked specimen. Established trees are drought tolerant in all but the hottest climates, but will go dormant when they are drought stressed. Specimens that are watered regularly will go deciduous in the early fall months. This outstanding selection was made by the

Treeshelter Use in Producing Container-Grown and Landscape-Grown Trees

Author: David W. Burger, Pavel Šrihra, Richard W. Harris

PP: 221


Treeshelters are now used in the establishment of trees in the landscape (Evans and Potter, 1985; Frearson and Weiss, 1987; Potter, 1988). These treeshelters are cylindrical or square, translucent, polypropylene tubes of varying height (usually 60 to 150 cm) which are placed around seedlings or transplants at planting time. Trials in England have shown that placing these shelters over transplanted or naturally sprouted seedlings of various species improved the seedling survival rate. Treeshelters protected seedlings from herbicidal drift and animal browsing, but their most attractive characteristic was the 60% to 600% increase in plant height (Frearson and Weiss, 1987; Potter, 1988, 1991). Growth rate increases have been attributed to the enhanced growing environment around the plant achieved with the use of the treeshelter. Increases in ambient temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration have all been suggested as probable causes for increased growth

Physiological Testing of Plants as a Management Tool

Author: Richard W. Tinus

PP: 225

Practical techniques have been developed for measuring root growth potential, cold hardiness, and other physiological attributes that are important to successful nursery practice and reestablishment of woody nursery stock. The techniques are described and their use in management illustrated. Woody plants are routinely grown in nurseries, shipped to a remote location, and then reestablished where they will remain for the rest of their life. Lifting, storage, shipping, and outplanting are traumatic events in the life of trees or shrubs; they must be in good physiological condition to withstand these treatments if they are to become reestablished and grow.
Two Practices to Help Ensure Nursery Tree Quality

Author: Richard W. Harris

PP: 231

Root pruning and care during the first transplantings of tree seedlings, as well as maintaining a central leader, are essential to ensure quality trees with strong branch structure. An open-ended polyester liner holds promise to minimize root problems and to enhance seedling growth.
Critical Wind Blowdown Studies for Container Crops Using Cal Tech Wind Tunnel Facilities

Author: Conrad A. Skimina

PP: 235

Critical wind blowdown studies were conducted in the Cal Tech wind tunnel with woody ornamental stock in various container sizes and with different plant spacing configurations. The study was conducted to assist in evaluating properties for relocation of a nursery and to determine how plant form, size and plant spacing influence the ability of wind to knock plants down and the wind velocity necessary to do this. Critical wind blowdown velocities ranged from 8.2 mph (3.9 m s-1 for 1 gal (2800 cc) Lagerstroemia indica shrubs of 42 in. (106.7 cm) in height to 38 mph (118.1 m s-1 for 5 gal (15,600 cc) Ilex vomitoria ‘Stoke's Dwarf’ bush forms.
Effect of Slow-Release Fertilizers on Propagation Medium and on Rooting and Growth of Cuttings

Author: Mukhtar Ahmad, P.B. Lombard, R.L. Ticknor

PP: 238

Two 17N–3.1P–8.1K (17–7–10) 12–14 month-release fertilizer formulations were surface applied at a rate of 0.5 lbs N/cu.yd. (22.58 g/1763 sq cm) to a rooting medium of peat and perlite (1 : 7, v/v) in comparison to peat and perlite (1 : 7, v/v) without fertilizer, and to composted sewage sludge and perlite (1 : 7, v/v). Cuttings of Ilex ‘September Gem’ showed a significant difference in the number of shoots produced per cutting between the two formulations. Cuttings in the fertilizer treatments were taller than the control. Composted sewage sludge in the medium did not produce better results than perlite alone. The number of roots and shoots per cutting and height of Forsythia × intermedia ‘Spring Glory’ cuttings was increased by the 3–4, 8–9, and 12–14 month-release Osmocote formulations as compared to the control. The largest cuttings occurred with the 12–14 month formulation.
An Overview of Integrated Pest Management for Plant Propagation

Author: Michael P. Parrella

PP: 242


The following conditions and considerations should be considered when implementing an IPM program in a propagation facility:

  • When plants are in close proximity; pest damage can be extensive
  • Pest infestations are seeded as plants are put into production
  • Pest infestations are sent with the plants to other producers
  • Generally fewer pests and smaller greenhouse and nursery areas are involved
  • Wet conditions (misting) presents unique problems

Arthropod Pests of Plants in Propagation. Mother block, tissue culture, and rooting areas are subject to attack from the following arthropod pests:

Making the Change to Integrated Pest Management

Author: Ellen McEnroe Zagory, Robin Rosetta

PP: 246


Little information has been written about the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in ornamental nursery production systems. Nursery professionals wishing to establish an IPM program must adapt methods used on greenhouse crops or urban landscapes to their production methods. Nursery IPM is complicated by the fact that the plants do not remain stationary; they move from propagation to liners to gallons and eventually to retailers and the landscape. Mobile host plants make it complicated to track pests and difficult to restrict their spread. It is also harder to establish a balanced system of predators and parasites as is done in greenhouses, orchards, or urban landscapes.

At the University Arboretum the plants produced in our small nursery (approximately an acre) have two general destinations: the campus landscape collections (including the Arboretum) and our annual fund-raising plant sale. Plants destined for distribution to the public are treated much as they would

Collection and Evaluation of Australian Plants

Author: David Hockings

PP: 54


New Plants for Horticulture. Many countries, including Australia, have beautiful native plants that have never been brought into cultivation. Australia has a particularly large range including flowering trees; shrubs—both large and small; ground cover plants; climbers; bulbs; herbaceous perennials and annuals; and potential indoor foliage and flowering pot plants, and cut flower crops. Only a relatively small, although increasing number, of these have as yet received the hobbyists' attention, much less that of nurserymen.

Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials. Our rich range of annuals and herbaceous perennials is even less known and collected than are the woody plants. These plants respond remarkably to cultivation. In nature, the size and persistence of many of these plants is governed by the availability of moisture. The better the season the larger and more persistent the plants. However, plants rapidly hay off and disappear when moisture runs out. In cultivation on the

Resources for Establishing an IPM Program for Ornamental Plants

Author: Mary Louise Flint

PP: 251


Integrated pest management (IPM) is an ecological pest management strategy that focuses on longterm prevention or suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on human health, the environment, and nontarget organisms. Principal components include pest identification; methods for detecting, monitoring, and predicting pest outbreaks; a knowledge of the biology of the pest and its ecological interactions with hosts, natural enemies, and competitors; and compatible methods of preventing and managing pest populations. Preferred techniques include encouraging naturally occurring biological control, using alternate plant species or cultivars that resist pests or stock that is certified pest-free, selecting pesticides with lower toxicity to humans and nontarget organisms; adoption of cultivation, pruning, fertilizing, or irrigation practices that reduce pest problems; or changing the habitat to make it incompatible with pest development. Broad spectrum pesticides are used as

Recycling Green Nursery Waste

Author: Conrad A. Skimina

PP: 256

Because landfills are filling at a rapid pace, many states have enacted regulations prohibiting or restricting the disposal of yard waste in landfills. Container nurseries generate about 60 yd3 (46 m3) of organic waste per acre per year (113 m3 ha-1). By grinding and composting these wastes a nursery can save in two ways: (1) it does not need to pay to dump the waste, and (2) it does not have to purchase organic matter for growing media. The return on investment can be as high as 171% within 3 years in California. Nursery waste has better C:N ratios than most organic matters and recycling these wastes also recycles the nutrients.
Water Conserving Irrigation Systems

Author: David W. Burger

PP: 260

Many factors (sprinkler spacing, sprinkler performance, water pressure, wind, and others) combine to determine how efficiently and uniformly water is applied to plants growing in the greenhouse, nursery, or landscape. The myriad factors can be organized into the following categories: Pre-Design Considerations, Design Considerations, Irrigation System Modifiers, and Irrigation System Control. General guidelines have been used in the past to analyze irrigation systems and optimize the distribution of water. However, as energy and water conservation issues begin to play larger roles in the production and maintenance of ornamental plants, irrigation system analyses must become more precise to improve the uniformity of water application and increase the efficient use of available water.
Plant Variety Rights and Plant Production—Help or Hindrance?

Author: Chris J. Barnaby

PP: 269


A plant variety right (PVR) is an intellectual property right It is available to the breeder of a new plant variety and gives such a breeder the following rights or powers.

  • The exclusive right to sell reproductive material or whole plants of the variety and collect royalties on the sales.
  • The exclusive right to propagate the variety for sale This enables the breeder to control the quality of the reproductive material or plants and assists in the orderly marketing of the variety.
  • The exclusive right to propagate the variety for the purpose of the commercial production of fruit or flowers. This means that orchardists and cut-flower growers who wish to propagate new plants of a protected variety themselves, can only do so with the permission of the variety owner. In most cases permission will be given provided royalties are paid.

Where breeders of protected varieties have these exclusive rights they can, if they choose, licence others to do various things. The

Indexing for Dasheen Mosaic Virus in Zantedeschia Species

Author: Daniel Cohen

PP: 273


Over the past few years we have become increasingly aware of virus infection in summer flowering Zantedeschia hybrids in New Zealand. The only virus that has been positively identified in commercial crops is dasheen mosaic virus (DMV), a potyvirus that is widespread in aroids around the world. Although it has been possible to eliminate this virus from selected clonal material using meristem-tip culture (Cohen, unpublished data), indexing for the presence of DMV has been difficult because of low virus titre and uneven distribution in the plant.

This paper will describe some of the characters used to classify and name plant viruses, outline some of the methods used to detect (index) and identify viruses, review the literature on viruses reported to infect Zantedeschia species, and conclude with some comments on the production and maintenance of Zantedeschia cultivars free of DMV.

A Critical Analysis of the Status of Rose Wilt Virus

Author: Phil Gardner

PP: 278


Since Grieve (1931) published his paper on "Rose Wilt" and "Dieback" there has been an increasing range of symptoms attributed to rose wilt virus (RWV) based on no other evidence than supposed visual similarities. Reports of occurrence have been based on observation of one or more of these various attributed symptoms. There has not been any definitive work done either on the characterisation of a viral pathogen or on whether the symptoms subsequently attributed to the disease bear any relationship to those described by Grieve. There is currently no adequate characterisation of either a virus causing a wilt of roses or of the symptoms initiated by such a causal agent. This paper surveys the literature and research on RWV and examines the hypothesis that no such virus exists.

The New Zealand Citrus Budwood Scheme

Author: Pauline Mooney, Andrew Harty, Carolyn Jagiello

PP: 283

A scheme to supply New Zealand citrus propagators with superior, virus indexed budwood is being established. Superior clones of major citrus cultivars are being selected in orchards and will be indexed for citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and citrus viroids. These trees will provide budwood for the next 5 to 6 years. Budwood supply blocks have been planted with indexed cultivars, and will supply all budwood when mature. Imported CTV free cultivars are now maintained in an aphid-proof glasshouse until suitable mild strains of CTV can be found for preimmunization.
Micropropagation of Nerium oleander

Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 288

Nerium oleander ‘Petite Salmon’ was successfully established in vitro from shoot tips taken from spring growth. Multiplication was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 3 mg/l BAP. A prerooting treatment was used with MS medium and either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l BAP. Rooting occurred on half-strength MS medium with 1 mg/l IBA. Plantlets flowered 7 months after deflasking.
Propagation of cherimoya (Annona cherimola)

Author: Annette C. Richardson, Peter A. Anderson

PP: 290

Satisfactory production of export quality cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is dependent on trees with a strong canopy framework and a well established root system. A trial was established to examine the effect of cultivar and seed orientation (sowing seed horizontally or vertically to its main axis) on the germination and seedling characteristics of cherimoya. Over 90% of all seeds germinated but approximately 35% of seedlings had bench roots. However, only 20% of ‘Bronceada’ seedlings had bench roots, which was significantly lower than ‘Burtons’, ‘Burtons Favourite’, ‘Bays’, ‘Smoothey’, and ‘Reretai’ where approximately 40% of seedlings were affected. The cultivars ‘Burtons’, ‘White’, and ‘Jeté’ produced the most vigorous seedlings, although ‘White’ seedlings had less lateral root development and a higher shoot/root ratio than the other two cultivars. The smallest seedlings were produced from self and cross pollinated ‘Reretai’ seed. Seed sown horizontally produced more vigorous seedlings with a lower incidence if bench roots that those planted vertically. Although these rootstocks have not been tested in the field, nurserymen should choose cultivars with a low incidence of bench roots, moderate vigour, and a balance between root and shoot growth for seedlings rootstocks. Of the cultivars tested in this study ‘Bronceada’ and ‘Jete’ best met these criteria.
The Development of Cutting Propagation of Camellia reticulata Hybrids

Author: Jim Rumbal

PP: 295

A dramatic introduction of Yunnan reticulata camellias into Western gardens occurred in 1948 when the Kunming cultivars from China were imported into the United States. This heralded a new era of interest and progress in the cultivation of the genus Camellia which has since gained further impetus with the development of new interspecific hybrids, scented cultivars, and the introduction of the yellow-flowered C. chrysantha.

These early Kunming reticulatas were traditionally propagated by grafting Scions were worked onto pot-grown C. reticulata or C. sasanqua seedlings. Robust, well-established, 3-year-old seedlings, 1 to 2 cm in diameter, were decapitated and either cleft, or, less-commonly rind grafted, to unite scion to rootstock. This was a costly time-consuming, labour-intensive method of propagation. However, it was most successful in producing excellent plants at a time when labour costs were not as high as they are today.

In the early 1970s, increasing costs prompted investigation into

Phosphorus and the Proteaceae

Author: Ian Vimpany, Tim Trochoulias

PP: 58

Macadamia seedlings were grown at several phosphorus (P) levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg l-1 in a constant liquid feed) at the pHs (4.7, 5.6 and 6.4) in a soilless potting media. The seedlings responded strongly to P at the lowest pH. Increasing pH reduced growth and response to P. Possible reasons for the growth reductions are discussed.
The Influence of Watering, Shading, and Nitrogen Levels on the Growth of Container-Grown Schlumbergera × buckleyi

Author: Mervyn I. Spurway, Michael B. Thomas

PP: 297

Container-grown Schlumbergera × buckleyi grown in 6 peat : 4 sand (v/v) medium grew more strongly at 60% or 80% container capacity watering levels than at 40%. Flowering was also greater at the two higher watering levels. In a second experiment, 40% and 75% shading reduced growth over the autumn and winter growing period; however, unshaded plants were not as green as those under shade covers. Nitrogen (N) fertilisation above 300 g N·m3 or equivalent to 40 g N·m3 month, depressed growth. It was recommended to maintain media at 60% container capacity, to use a low level of shading to improve plant quality especially over summer, and to use low N rates equivalent to around 35 g N·m3·month.
Mass Propagation of Smilax oldhami Miq. by Tissue Culture

Author: T. Yamamoto, H. Oda

PP: 304

A donor plant was produced aseptically by culturing a nodal segment of an in vivo Smilax oldhami Miq. plant. From the donor plant, segments of nodes, internodes, and roots were taken and cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. Hormonal effects on shoot formation and rooting were investigated. The rate of propagation from the internodal segment was higher than that from the other two types of explants. It could be concluded from the data in the present culture system that more than 75 plantlets were obtained from one nodal segment of an in vivo plant.
Development of a Prototype Automated Cutting and Placing System for Tissue Culture Multiplication

Author: P.A. Cooper, J.E. Grant, L. Kerr, G. English

PP: 309

A prototype cutting and placing device has been developed at the New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research Ltd and the Agricultural Engineering Institute. It is not intended to be a complete tissue culture system but it may be able to be integrated into existing laboratory procedures. The workstation comprises a vision system, a robotic arm incorporating the cutting device, and computer control hardware. It is mobile and can be situated adjacent to a laminar flow cabinet enabling the robotic arm to move into the cabinet to operate. The robotic hand has been designed for the compact multi-meristematic form of plantlet growth in conjunction with a range of conventional plastic tissue culture containers. Preliminary tests have shown good growth of explants subsequent to cutting and placing with the robot, and 0.9% contamination compared with 1.7% when cut and placed manually.
The Role of the Plant Propagator in the Conservation of New Zealand Plants

Author: C. Bruce Christie

PP: 314

In many countries nurseries have developed from small businesses run by plantsmen into organisations where the primary interest is in the production of a healthy bottom line on the bank statement. The need for plants has to a greater or lesser extent become a secondary consideration in a production-driven operation directed by people with relatively little plant knowledge.

The importance of plants and productivity has long been recognized. However, the nursery industry is in danger of being market-led to the extent that people neglect to conserve plants for use by future generations. This is evident from the trade lists that now have fewer of the more difficult to propagate and grow on plants than has been available in the past.

Throughout the world plants once considered common place are now becoming endangered. If we as propagators do not make a concerted effort to propagate and protect these plants, they will become increasingly threatened by extinction and be lost forever as a

Is Horticulture in New Zealand Environmentally Friendly?

Author: Donald McPherson

PP: 318

My occupation has taken me to many countries and allowed me to evaluate excellence in horticulture. I am the guy next door with a family to raise and support and, like you, have suffered the confusion brought about by the missionary zeal of earth guardians.

New Zealand horticulture is not as environmentally friendly as it should be but it could become a world leader in conservation and restoration.

Most New Zealand horticulturists are responsible and concerned but we still need a watch-dog. It may not be sufficient to rely solely on the conscience of fellow growers, as our undoing may come from ignorance, complacency, and greed before irresponsibility.

This industry requires a fully integrated plan for the conservation and restoration of our environment The sooner we assume responsibility for the stewardship of remaining world resources and acknowledge the follies of the past, the better.

Several past I.P.P.S. papers dealt with related issues such as reusing poly-tunnel covers to

Agathis australis: A New Era for Kauri Propagation

Author: Jenny Aitken-Christie, Graeme C. Platt

PP: 321


Less than 200 years ago there were 1.2 million ha of kauri forests in New Zealand, but today there are only about 4,000 ha left Kauri forests were extensively clearfelled and cutovers burned by the early settlers until the 1950s Since then they were selectively logged for approximately 20 years. Today all the larger remaining kauri forests are protected as reserves (Halkett, 1991).

Kauri timber is a superb textbook-grade softwood, highly esteemed by all craftsmen who have ever converted this fine wood into boats, buildings, furniture, musical instruments, etc Kauri has also been the subject of research and observation since 1885 and there have been over 600 articles written (Ecroyd, 1991 unpublished bibliography). The efforts of the New Zealand Forest Service, the indigenous forestry group at the Forest Research Institute, the Department of Conservation, various New Zealand Universities, and the general public are acknowledged.

A cursory review of past efforts to propagate

Cryopreservation of Pinus radiata Embryogenic Tissue

Author: Cathy Hargreaves, Dale R. Smith

PP: 327

Five Pinus radiata embryogenic cell lines were successfully recovered following storage in liquid nitrogen for periods of up to nine weeks. Sorbitol and DMSO were used as the cryoprotectants, and a simple protocol using a -30°C freezer as an intermediate step was used. Nurse cultures using established embryogenic cell lines facilitated rapid post-thaw recovery. Cryopreservation of P. radiata offers a new tree-improvement tool, as clones from superior families may be maintained in a vigorous juvenile phase while clonal field trials are carried out.
Is Green Good Enough?

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 337

The accepted standard for evaluating plants has been color. If a plant had "good green color," it was assumed to be healthy and as good as one could expect. Basic nursery practices reflect this assumption. Unless some yellowing or lightening of the green color occurred, little, if any attention was given to refinements in nutrition. As one nurseryman said, "My goal is to keep the plants green".

Research over the years has convinced me we can do much more to enhance plant health. Following is a compilation of some of these experiments and my comments on what they mean for the future.

In 1975 I compared several rates of each of several micronutrient fertilizers with supplements of specific elements. Midway through the growing season a heavy grasshopper population developed I considered spraying for the grasshoppers; however, we had no appropriate insecticide on hand, and by the time the pesticide arrived, I noticed an interesting trend. The grasshoppers were not feeding on the Burford

Container Tree Production at Trail Ridge Nursery

Author: Bob Byrnes

PP: 340

Trail Ridge Nursery is in northeast Florida about 45 miles southwest of Jacksonville. We grow trees in 1- to 30-gal containers. We had originally intended to grow only up to the 15-gal size, but many municipalities are now requiring a minimum caliper of 2 to 2½ in, and we are not able to grow a tree of that size in a 15-gal container.

We have 4½ acres of bed space under overhead irrigation and 5 acres under low-volume irrigation. Our sales are primarily to other nurseries who intend to grow the tree to a larger size and to landscapers.

The "Benlate Syndrome" and What To Look For

Author: Hugh M. Gramling

PP: 343

There is an epidemic in the ornamental horticulture industry just as real as any health crisis. It's just as real as the AIDS epidemic.

For the past three years, plants have been exhibiting a variety of abnormalities that have been described by researchers and Florida's Division of Plants Industry as the "Benlate Syndrome ". The cause of the problem is elusive and baffling. The number of explanations is as varied as the people expressing views. Countless hours are being spent trying to find the cause and to develop mitigation techniques, so far without any real success. All concerned agree that there are plant abnormalities and that the impact is widespread.

The symptoms of the syndrome are lack of plant growth; failure to flower or if they do flower, failure of fruit or seeds to mature properly, distortion of foliage shape and color, chlorosis; cabbage-head growth; lack of sturdiness of plant stems; club-like growth of root tips; dead areas in roots behind healthy tips, excessive

Fruit Tree Propagation

Author: Peter J. Young

PP: 61


Nurserymen growing fruit trees generally need to become masters of a wide range of propagation methods and cloning techniques. The larger the range of plant types grown, the greater the number of propagation methods needed. Proficiency must be achieved in the following plant propagation methods used throughout the nursery industry: seedling, cuttings, marcotting (aerial layering), grafting, budding and to a lesser extent micropropagation (tissue culture).

For any fruit tree nursery to maintain commercial viability in today's competitive market place, an estimated 70% propagation success rate is required to break even, with the additional 30% providing the profit. In fact, success rates over 90% must be consistently achieved for long-term profitability and survival.

Seedling production is generally limited to rootstock production for future grafting although some Carica and Passiflora species are field planted as seedlings. Polyembryonic Mangifera and Garcinia species

Container Nursery Nitrate Nitrogen Runoff: A Six-State Summary

Author: Tom Yeager, Robert Wright, Donna Fare, Charles Gilliam, Jim John

PP: 345


The environmental awareness of society necessitates that nursery operators understand and justify the nutrient management strategies used in production of container-grown plants. Due to the large amount of fertilizer used in container-plant production, nutrient runoff is a potential source of surface and groundwater pollution Wright and Yeager (1980) have demonstrated that NO3-N leaches from a pine bark medium fertilized with ammonium nitrate and Yeager et al. (1980) determined that ‘Helleri’ holly grown in a pine bark medium and fertilized once a week with 300 ppm nitrogen (N) in the irrigation water utilized 19% of the N applied. In further studies by Yeager (unpublished) 31% of N, surface-applied as Osmocote (18–6–12), was used by dwarf yaupon holly (plant plus medium) grown in a greenhouse for 26 weeks. Hershey and Paul (1982) evaluated N loss from chrysanthemum containers fertilized with a surface application of Osmocote (14–14–14) and found that 15% to 29% of the N

Hiring and Keeping Good Employees

Author: James B. Berry

PP: 348

Labor cost is the largest single expense in growing and selling plants. Consistently, nurserymen tell me that 20 to 60% of the operating cost is labor. Many of the associated costs such as fertilizer, pesticides, plant tags, and electricity are insignificant in comparison. Consequently, lowering labor cost is one of the most effective ways for a manager to increase year-end profit.

The people in your organization will determine your company's ability to grow and expand Quality personnel will not only improve efficiency and reduce labor costs but also free owners and operators to do much-needed travel. I am often asked how our company locates and keeps quality personnel. I consider quality people one of our major strengths.

"New" Plants/"Old" Plants

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 352

Great plants are few and far between. Each year at hundreds of nursery and propagation conferences across the country, audiences are bombarded with a plethora of "new" plants. They have great promise, yet only a few attain commercial success. The following appear to offer more than simply promise and are already in production.

Abelia × grandiflora ‘Confetti’ Abelia × grandiflora ‘Sherwoodii’ provided a cream-margined branch sport that was named ‘Confetti’ by Jim Berry, Flowerwood Nursery, Mobile, Alabama. It is compact and mounding with foliage that will brighten shady areas of the garden. Cold weather induces a pinkish to rose tinge to the creamy variegated areas. Ideally, it should be used in mass for maximum effect. I estimate it at 2 to 2½ ft high and 3 to 4 ft wide at maturity.

Acer buergerianum The trident maple is a plant I have mentioned many times for use in hot, dry, stress-laden environments. The lustrous dark green foliage, gray-orange-brown bark, and restrained, 20- to 30-ft growth habit are

Budding and Grafting of Fruit and Nut Trees at Stark Bro's

Author: Bob Patrick

PP: 354

As a propagation foreman for Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co. of Louisiana, Missouri, I would like to give you an overview of my company's general propagation technique and some specific information on a machine bench-graft technique we have recently perfected.

Stark Bro's Nurseries and Orchards Co. is 176 years old and currently produces and markets 1.5 million fruit trees annually. We market many more small fruit, ornamental, and hardgood items through our mail order, wholesale, and commercial-orchard sales operations, but the production and sale of fruit and nut trees is the backbone of our business.

With home offices at Louisiana, Missouri, the company maintains nearly 1,200 acres of field production operations in Missouri, Illinois, and California. We are most noted for the development of the red and golden delicious apple cultivars that together account for 60% of the world's current apple production.

Stark Bro's current product offering includes 207 cultivars of deciduous fruits

Propagation of Southern Perennials

Author: Michael H. Bridges

PP: 357


At Southern Perennials and Herbs in southwest Mississippi, we propagate all of our perennials. Herbaceous perennials maybe propagated year-round in the Deep South. Cuttings may be propagated during the growing season. Divisions and root cuttings are usually made during the dormant season. Seeds may be germinated all year.

An Inexpensive Propagation Structure

Author: Thomas R. Loder III

PP: 360

At Byers Nursery we currently stick about 900,000 softwood cuttings each season. Our plant mix consists of crapemyrtle, birch, maple, viburnum, holly, dogwood, and other shrubs and trees.

In 1988 we had twelve 24- × 95-ft quonset houses that would hold about 600,000 cuttings. We wanted to expand our production area with the minimum monetary expense. In considering ideas from local propagators Don Shadow, Freddy Alonso, Carl Bauer, and Milton Schaefer, and those seen on I.P P S tours at Turkey Creek and Simpson Nursery, a small 4- × 95-ft quonset bed seemed to be the most cost-effective.

Some of these bed designs have used landscape timbers or concrete for sideboards and metal conduit pipe or concrete reinforcement wire for the arches to support the plastic. The price of these products varies greatly, but usual costs are: landscape timbers, $48/bed; concrete reinforcement wire, $40/bed; ½-in metal conduit, $35/bed. Concrete varies with just how much is used.

We took this concept and simplified it

Update On Root-Promoting Chemicals and Formulations

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 361


In my 20 years as a member of this society, I have read more papers and heard more questions about root-promoting chemicals than any other subject. Members have eagerly tested chemicals and formulations, but none has been as effective as indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (Dirr, 1981, Dirr and Heuser, 1987).

A major hurdle to the development of new root-promoting chemicals, particularly in the United States, is the EPA registration process. The chemical must undergo screening for toxicity to a wide range of organisms. Since the root-promoting chemicals are categorized as minor-use compounds, companies are not enthusiastic about spending the necessary money to bring them to market. A recent estimate placed the cost between 4 and 10 million dollars for the introduction of a new non-food chemical like IBA.

IBA and NAA are legally registered for use in plant propagation. Theoretically, plant propagators cannot buy and use the actual chemicals. They must

Fog Propagation of Rhododendron Using Bottom Heat

Author: Douglas I. Torn

PP: 366

Buds & Blooms is starting its 10th anniversary of growing and specializing in ericaceous plants. We also grow crapemyrtles, roses, pansies, and mums. We produce more than 300,000 plants annually on approximately 20 acres. About 80,000 of these are rhododendrons. We have used forced-air bottom heat for rooting rhododendrons from the start of the nursery. We chose this method because it was by far the cheapest method I knew of supplying bottom heat, and it is effective. We began using fog and fog in combination with mist for propagation in 1988 and feel it has improved our rooting percentage.

Our propagation houses are 14- × 96-ft double-poly quonset houses. They are vented with 24-in. exhaust fans and have 37- × 63-in intake shutters that are thermostatically controlled. The houses are heated with 130,000 BTU Modine fan or blower-type gas-fired heaters. Two of our propagation houses have benches with bottom heat that can be used for propagation of rhododendrons.

Our benches are made of treated

Dwarf Yaupon, Weeping Yaupon, and Azalea Propagation at Flowerwood Nursery, Inc.

Author: Tim Gwaltney

PP: 369


We begin taking our cuttings in spring, after the first flush of new growth has hardened off to where a stem snaps when bent. This is usually in mid-May We start with the more difficult cultivars. The earlier we can start with a good cutting the better. Our rooting percentage is best if we can get roots before extreme summer heat.

In addition to all native azaleas, some azalea cultivars I like to start with are: Snow, Christmas Cheer, Hinodegiri, Delaware Valley White, Hino, Crimson, and Mother's Day.

We take spring cuttings of all hardy cultivars of Kurumes, Glendales, Girards, Satsuki and similar azaleas, and less hardy but slower-growing cultivars like Red Ruffles. We also take spring cuttings of indica-like cultivars such as Kate Arendall, Jennifer, and Amy that tend not to grow well with the indicas.

We take 3– to 4–in cuttings from healthy plants with good nutrition levels. Avoid cuttings that are too fat or too thin, as the fatter ones tend not to root as fast and the

Propagation of Japanese Maples by Softwood Cutting and Grafting

Author: Stanley Foster

PP: 373


At Greenleaf Nursery in Park Hill, Oklahoma, we use two main methods of propagating Japanese maples (Acer palmatum), softwood cuttings and grafting. Although we are constantly experimenting with new techniques, the basic ideas remain the same.

We grow four main cultivars ‘Bloodgood’, ‘Oshio-beni’, ‘Ever Red’, and ‘Viridis’. Only two of these, ‘Bloodgood’ and ‘Oshio-beni’, produce a good enough root system to suit our needs when they are grown on their own roots. The other two cultivars are grafted because they root poorly and develop weak root systems when they do root.

Treatment of Plants with Hypochlorite Solutions

Author: R.A. de Fossard

PP: 65

Hypochlorite solutions are one of the cheapest and most effective disinfectants available to the nursery industry and one of the least harmful to treated plants. However, there seems be some confusion about concentrations, duration of treatment, and conditions for effective treatment. Part of this confusion might be due to differences in objectives by different users of hypochlorite treatments. The objectives in a micropropagation laboratory, for example, are quite different from those in nurseries using other propagation methods.
Propagation of Nandina domestica Cultivars at Tawakoni Plant Farm

Author: Dirk Clinesmith

PP: 375

All cultivars of Nandina domestica are propagated by semihardwood cuttings, except the purchased tissue-culture ‘Harbor Dwarf’ cultivar. The low yield of cuttings of ‘Harbor Dwarf’ makes cutting propagation impractical.

Nandina propagation is not very difficult; however, as in any propagation procedure attention to detail can make the difference between success and failure. Prior to propagation the beds and walks are sprayed with a 16 to 1 solution of water and bleach. The mist nozzles are cleaned and checked for coverage. Further prevention of pathogens is provided by a chlorine gas injection system at the propagation pumphouse.

Nandina cuttings are collected from container plants and field-grown stock plants in October. The cuttings are then submerged in a captan solution and cut to a length of 2½ to 3 in with terminal shoots removed The wood should be reddish, and from current season's growth. We remove lower leaves, leaving the two terminal leaflets. On some of the larger-leaved nandinas it

Use of Composts in Nursery Potting Substrates

Author: T.E. Bilderback

PP: 376

Cultural practices in container nurseries in the Southeastern United States have evolved to frequent irrigation, porous substrates, and slow-release fertilizers. This combination results in rapid plant growth with few problems. However, water quality, solid waste, and fire ants may soon bring changes in irrigation and potting-substrate practices. Substrates such as pine bark and sand have low anion and cation exchange capacities, and nutrients available for plant absorption are primarily held in solution between particles. Overhead irrigation pushes water and nutrients in solution out of the pot, therefore, irrigation can affect water quality in the environment.

Solid waste management of urban yard wastes and agricultural animal wastes have become environmental concerns in the United States, and composted wastes are being targeted for use in the nursery industry as potting components. The usefulness of these composts to the nursery industry needs to be evaluated.

Most recently the amount

New Herbicides for Ornamentals

Author: Charles H. Gilliam

PP: 381

During the past few years several new herbicide products have been registered for use with landscape species. Changes have been made in the labeling of some of the older products. This manuscript includes an update of several of these changes.

Pendulum WDG (pendimethalin) is a recent registration from American Cyanamid Company Pendulum WDG herbicide is recommended for preemergence control of annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaved weeds, including henbit, Florida pusley, prostrate spurge, and yellow woodsorrel. The area to be treated should be weed free at the time of treatment. Normal use rate is 2 to 4 lb ai/A, and weed control is most effective when application is followed with one-half inch of rainfall, or its equivalent, in sprinkler irrigation. This product is toxic to fish, and caution should be used in areas around water. Southern Weed Grass Control (pendimethalin) is a similar product in the granular formulation.

Pennant 5G (metolachlor) has undergone extensive expansion of

Chemicals Used During Propagation at Cottage Hill Nursery

Author: Grady A. Holt

PP: 384

The liner division of Cottage Hill Nursery propagates woody ornamental species as well as a variety of annual and perennial crops.

The key to vegetative propagation is the propagator. Specific recommendations of rooting hormones are not enough to produce uniform stands of plants. The selection of cutting wood, handling technique, hormone rate, hormone application method, as well as propagation environment are the tools of the propagator. Success depends on how the cutting responds to the process of propagation.

Selection of hormone material and strength at Cottage Hill Nursery is carefully reviewed for every crop each time we begin its propagation.

We propagate over six million plants a year. The various market demands necessitate that some propagation houses have more than one cultivar and even more than one species, further complicating the propagation procedure.

The rooting characteristics of hollies vary widely. Mixing a house of hollies under intermittent mist demands the correct

Use of Insecticidal Oils and Soaps for Pest Control

Author: Russell F. Mizell III

PP: 385

Petroleum oils and soaps can be used on a variety of plants during all seasons of the year and are excellent alternatives to conventional pesticides for control of many soft-bodied arthropod pests. Such products are safer to workers and the environment, are not phytotoxic to most plant species, and do not induce resistance in the pest. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of using oils and soaps.
Safety Programs to Satisfy the Right-to-Know Laws

Author: Agnes Hubbard

PP: 388

The title of this paper may be misleading, as it implies that you just need to complete some sort of check list to comply with regulation. Unfortunately it is not that easy; safety awareness must first be introduced to your nursery. It starts at the top of your organization and is followed through by your supervisors and foremen. Without this approach, whatever programs you write on paper will be frustratingly difficult to enforce.

The Hazardous Communications Laws or Right-to-Know laws were written to reduce the possibility of chemically caused illnesses and injuries and to give physicians the information they need to diagnose and treat pesticide poisonings. By committing to follow the guidelines of the Hazcom Laws, your nursery is making a commitment to your employee health and welfare through education and continued safety awareness.

Where you live will dictate whether or not you are required to follow additional regulations in your state Hazcom Law, if it has one. All nurseries must

The Texas Rose Industry

Author: H. Brent Pemberton

PP: 391

The Texas rose-plant producing industry had its beginnings in the mid-1800s in the northeast Texas area near Tyler. The first recorded sale of rose plants was in 1879, while the first train carload was shipped in 1917. By the late 1950s, over 20 million plants were being harvested yearly by almost 300 growers. Since that time, rose production has stabilized at around 8 to 10 million plants per year grown by fewer than 50 growers on approximately 800 to 1,000 acres within a 30-mile radius of Tyler. Texas produces 16% to 20% of the U S. total. Arizona and California also have large centers for rose production.

The rose processing industry began to grow rapidly during the late 1940s and 1950s when growers started using cold storage facilities and plastic bags for packaging. In addition, the process of wrapping rose plant roots in paper and inserting them into plastic wrappers with the label was mechanized in the 1960s. Today, approximately 16 million plants are processed locally for mass

Planting a Positive Future—An Overview of Three National Tree Planting Programs

Author: Joel D. Albizo

PP: 394


Of all the many national tree planting programs, the American Association of Nurserymen (AAN) believes that three have great potential to benefit nurserymen, plant propagators, researchers, and horticulturists. I'll briefly describe what each of these programs is trying to accomplish and how each one works. I'll also tell you whom to contact for more information and give you an idea of what these programs can mean to you.

In Vitro Propagation of Modern Roses

Author: Hao-Ching Wang, Nancy A. Reichert

PP: 398

Modern roses (Rosa spp.) comprise the major share of rose propagation for cutflower sales and landscape use (Wolf, 1983). With a steady to increasing market demand (Federal-State News, 1989), more efficient propagation strategies would be economically advantageous. Modern roses are primarily propagated by T-budding, partly due to difficulties encountered in attempting to root cuttings. T-budding propagation takes approximately 16 months (Davies, 1980; Khosh-Khui,1982). In vitro propagation of modern roses may be a viable alternative for commercial rose production in the future (Queralt, 1991a; Shirvin, 1990). Goals could include, disease elimination and cultivar improvement as well as faster production.

In vitro regeneration of modern roses from explants other than preformed meristematic buds has been difficult. Successful shoot multiplication in vitro has been achieved on a few modern rose cultivars using shoot tips and axillary buds (Bressan, 1982; Douglas, 1989; Hasegawa, 1980).

Container Size During Propagation and Transplant Date Influence Growth of Two Ilex Species

Author: Patricia R. Knight, D. Joseph Eakes, Kenneth M. Tilt, Charles H.

PP: 403

Stem cuttings of Ilex cornuta ‘Dwarf Burford’ and Ilex ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ were direct stuck into four different container sizes and transplanted 10 and 20 weeks later into trade-gallon containers. Shoot growth and root distribution were influenced by container size and time of transplanting. Plants propagated in small container sizes (cell packs and rose pots) when transplanted at 10 weeks had similar root growth outside a quart-container volume compared to plants propagated in large size containers (quarts and trade gallons). Plants propagated in cell packs and rose pots and transplanted into trade gallons 20 weeks after sticking had lower shoot numbers and dry weights compared to plants propagated in quart containers and transplanted at either 10 or 20 weeks. Plants propagated in quart pots were similar in size regardless of transplant date and were the largest plants in the study.