Volume 41

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Propagation Media and Rooting Cuttings of Eucalyptis grandis

Author: Andrew Carter, Mike Slee

PP: 36

Cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis placed in four different propagation media, sand, peat, perlite or a mixture of sand, peat, perlite (l:l:l v/v/v), showed best rooting in the mixture. Examination of the physical characteristics of the four media suggested that relatively high moisture content may be more important that high air content for maximum root formation. Sterilizing the propagation medium did not improve rooting percentage but did increase the number of roots.
In Vitro Factors Affecting Plant-Out Performance of Micropropagated Plants

Author: Frank Benson

PP: 74


There is a direct relationship between plant-out success and the quality of the product coming out of the micropropagation laboratory. As with other forms of plant propagation (cuttings, grafts and seeds), success rate is dependent on the health and pre-treatment of the stock plants.

With any new technology, it takes a while to identify the factors affecting quality and then how to go about manipulating these variables to maximize quality. In this paper I will present what I consider some of these variables, and my personal observations over the eight years I have been in commercial plant micropropagation.

My observations will be confined to three topic areas: 1) growth rate, 2) light intensity, and 3) relative humidity.

The Effect of Organic Soil Amendments on the Growth and Development of Kalmia latifolia

Author: Richard E. Bir, Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 395


As recently as 20 years ago horticulturists generally agreed that the addition of organic soil amendments to the planting hole would improve both the survival and subsequent growth of shrubs and trees transplanted into the landscape. However, about fifteen years ago evidence started to accumulate that has prompted reevaluation

Research using peat and/or pine bark to amend backfill when planting woody plants as diverse as Rhododendron ‘English Roseum’ and R. ‘Hino-Degiri’, shore juniper, Ilex crenata ‘Helleri’, flowering dogwood, sweet gum and silver maple in mineral soils (Corley, 1984; Schulte and Whitcomb, 1975) indicated that not only were we wasting our time when recommending organic matter but also wasting our customer's money (Hummel and Johnson, 1985). However, all of this research was done with individual planting holes. Other research showed that some cultivars of roses and evergreen azaleas did benefit from the addition of organic matter to an entire planting bed

Organic Wastes as Growing Media

Author: Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, D.L. Rinker

PP: 399

The composting and reutilization of organic (biological) wastes have become a major part of the waste management cycle. In North America, this trend has accelerated in recent years as the cost of disposing of these waste by-products skyrocketed and suitable landfill sites became scarce.

The Ornamental Nursery Research Programme at the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario (HRIO) has been evaluating the use of various organic waste by-products as growing medium ingredients or as substitutes for traditional organic products such as peat and bark. This paper highlights some of our recent investigations in this area of nursery culture.

Comparison of IBA to KIBA

Author: Edward L. Carpenter

PP: 404

The rooting hormone KIBA (potassium salt of indolebutyric acid) deserves experimentation as a potential commercial rooting hormone. I will present a comparison of KIBA to IBA based upon observations and experimentation at Midwest GroundCovers.

To help understand the conclusions we have drawn, I will provide a brief explanation of our propagation systems at Midwest GroundCovers. Throughout a season lasting from March through October, we will propagate approximately 12 million cuttings. These cuttings range from groundcovers such as Euonymus fortunei ‘Colorata’ and Pachysandra terminalis cultivars to conifers such as Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii ‘Viridis’. All cuttings are field prepared by cutting crews and then stored in a cooler. Once the sticking site is prepared, the sticking crews take the cuttings from the cooler, dip them in hormone, and stick them at the site. We use 8 cutters and 7 tickers—so speed is essential for these 12 million cuttings.

Certain criteria must be met

Topophysis in Gymnosperms: An Architectural Approach to an Old Problem

Author: Peter Del Tredici

PP: 406

Topophysis is defined as the organizational status of a meristem which is determined by its position on the plant and which remains stable through vegetative propagation (Halle, et al , 1978; Molisch, 1938; Roulund, 1976) From a practical point of view, this means that if a lateral branch of a woody plant is rooted or grafted onto a seedling rootstock, the resulting propagule will continue growing in the same non-vertical orientation it maintained while it was still attached to its parent trunk. Try as one might to correct this orientation by tying the leader to a stake, the branch will continue its plagiotropic (horizontal) orientation once it reaches the top of the stake. From the propagator's perspective, the effects of topophysis are problematic because the propagules do not replicate the growth habit of the plant they were taken from.

In order to be properly understood, the phenomenon of topophysis must be examined within the conceptual framework of tree architecture, as

Understanding Foliar Variegation as it Relates to Propagation

Author: Michael Marcotrigiano

PP: 410

Variegation can be defined as "varied in appearance as in one item possessing more than one color". Animals and plants can be variegated. In plants, variegation is manifested as streaks, spots, stripes, and blotches and is most apparent when it occurs on leaves and petals In many cases, the ornamental appeal of a plant is entirely based on its variegation pattern. For example, coleus hybrids (Coleus × hybridus) and rex begonias (Begonia × rex-cultorum) would not be considered ornamental if their leaves were entirely green. Unfortunately, for many species the genetic and physiological control of variegation is poorly understood as most of our experience with variegation has come from casual observations of cultivated ornamental plants. Scientists do know, however, that the variegation is frequently caused by differences in the type or amount of pigments in cells. The most conspicuous leaf pigments are generally the green chlorophylls and the red or purple pigments (generally
Development and Dispersal of Some Woody Plant Seeds

Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 416

A major factor in the continuance of the plant species has been the remarkably effective procedures that have evolved for seed dispersal. Knowledge of these methods allows one involved in plant propagation to collect seeds when they are properly developed but before they are lost to the natural agencies of dispersal.

In autumn when the nesting season has passed and birds have reared their young, some species gather in multitudes and roam the countryside In nature's scheme of things, this timing coincides with the dispersal of many kinds of plant seeds Fleshy fruits containing seeds dependent on birds for dispersal ripen and change to a variety of highly attractive colors. Birds have no teeth, do not chew but gulp their food. Therefore, cleaned and undamaged seeds pass through the birds and are scattered about the countryside in their droppings.

Many other seeds that rely on wind for dispersal are contained in vertical capsules which when ripe open only at their tops. Therefore,

New Markets for Native Plants

Author: C. Dale Hendricks

PP: 419

A friend of mine was fond of quoting an ancient Chinese curse that went, "May you live in interesting times." I must admit that I never did understand what was supposed to be so bad about living in such a state of change and flux as we now find ourselves These are exciting times' In the nursery trade as well as the "real" world. What do native plants have to do with any of this? The current fashionable focus on this group of plants provides many marketing opportunities.

It is finally becoming noticed, certainly not yet common knowledge, that growing and maintaining plants is positive and lifegiving to the gardener as well as to the planetary ecology at large. The increasing interest in natives provides a chance for growers, gardeners, researchers and the whole green industry to be viewed in a better, more positive light. We can be seen as friends of nature, pointing out forgotten (newly discovered?) interconnectedness between the plant world and the rest of the web of life—the wind,

IPM: How it is Done at Studebaker Nurseries, Inc.

Author: Dan W. Studebaker

PP: 422

Nearly 40 years ago, as researchers noted building insect resistance to blanket pesticide cover sprays, an ecological approach to pest management began to develop that now is know as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM incorporates not only chemical, but also biological, physical, mechanical, and cultural controls into a pest management system that can be more economically efficient and environmentally sound (Davidson and Cornell, 1988). Using MULTIPLE pest control tactics, built upon a regular program of monitoring pest levels, the IPM user MANAGES insect populations in order to minimize both economic damage to crops and hazard to the environment and humans Linda Fisher, the Assistant Administrator of Pesticides and Toxic Substances of the EPA, stated recently about pesticide usage, "Horticultural practitioners, will have to be prepared to adapt new methods or materials in all aspects of your operations You will have to find ways to useless pesticides and lower risks" (Fisher, 1991).
Nutrient Runoff from Nurseries — Is it a Problem?

Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 428

Is nutrient runoff from nurseries a problem? If it is a problem, whose problem is it? How should we be involved in this issue? All of these are questions which growers are now asking. In this brief review of nutrient runoff, I hope to clear up some information and misinformation, and enable growers to make educated decisions for our future
NPURG - A Computer Program to Assess Risk of Pesticides to Ground and Surface Water

Author: Ronald F. Kujawski

PP: 432

A priority of society today is the protection of water resources including prevention of ground and surface water contamination by pesticides. Yet, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reported finding as many as 74 pesticides in ground water in 38 states with 46 of these linked to agricultural uses (Williams, 1988).

Frequent and prominent media attention to such studies has prompted public outcry to limit or ban the use of pesticides. This in turn has spurred an increasing number of state and federal regulations regarding what, where and how pesticides are used.

Consequently, agricultural producers are required to be more informed about the pesticides they apply and the potential risks those chemicals pose to ground and surface water supplies. Determining potential risks involves evaluation of pesticide and soil properties, site conditions and management practices.

Mechanisation of the Tubing Operation in a Commercial Propagation Nursery

Author: Denis Scott

PP: 80

Commercial tube production is a relatively labour intensive operation when compared to production in general nursery containers. This is due mainly to the fact that a very large number of units need to be produced to be economically viable. Although trays and pallets are used to convey tubes through the nursery en masse, there are several stages at which each unit needs to be handled individually—the cutting/dibbling stage, the tubing stage, and possibly grading for sale.

This paper details our efforts as a specialist tube nursery to mechanise the tubing stage, using a potting machine. We were aiming to achieve several objectives:

  1. To increase the production output per person.
  2. To decrease the time allocated to potting.
  3. Achieve these goals with unskilled labour.

There are several potting machines available, each slightly different in its operation. We looked at two machines, the Javo and the Tolley Plantmaster.

The Javo, as is the case with most potting machines, overfills the

Environment-Friendly Plant Production System: The Closed, Insulated Pallet

Author: Bruce A. Briggs, James A. Robbins, James L. Green

PP: 436

Editor's Note: This paper was also presented in the Southern Region and can be found on page 304.
Use of Spunbonded Fabric Grow Covers in Deciduous Seedling Production

Author: Richard E. Watson

PP: 437

During 15 years of deciduous seedling production my greatest obstacle to good germination and survivability has been our spring weather that is typified by prolonged cool wet spells followed by sunny days with many frosty nights. The frosts rarely killed outright, but rather seedlings appeared to get progressively weaker with each frost making them more susceptible to damping-off Surviving plants usually grew slowly until the warmer weather of June.

After many trials over several years with different covers and supports I settled on the following system. In early spring prior to germination we cover individual seedbeds with 10 ft wide freeze covers weighing 1.5 ounces per yard and later with grow covers of 0.6 ounces per yard. These tarps, manufactured by Kimberly Farms, are made of UV-stable, white-polypropylene, spunbonded fabric and are porous to water and self-ventilating.

The tarps are supported on &frac12 in. PVC pipe hoops fitted on 18 in. steel stakes which have been driven

Liner Shipping

Author: Dale G. Deppe

PP: 439

What a customer sees when opening the shipping container is what's important. The customer doesn't care how good a grower you are The customer doesn't care how good the plants looked when you packed them. The customer doesn't care about the shipper's problems or the kind of box you buy or the cost of the freight or the price of the plants or your reputation for making things right.

What the customer wants is "perfection". They may not say it that way but it's true The first impression when seeing your plant material is the one remembered. The better the plant material looks when it's received the better off the liner grower is going to be If there is a problem growing the plant material at a later date, customers will look inward at their own company, and what their employees may have done or what else may have happened during the growing cycle. If the plant material looks smashed or jumbled, has broken branches, dead leaves, isn't in the pots anymore, or what ever, you can bet everyone

Cornus kousa var. chinensis ‘Milky Way’and Name Recognition in the Nursery Industry

Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr.

PP: 441

During the past 25 years, the debilitating effects of the common dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula, on plants of Cornus florida and, more recently, the severe effects of "dogwood decline", have resulted in a reduced demand for plants of this species. At the same time, there has been a marked increase in the demand for the Asiatic dogwood, C. kousa, since plants of this species were known to be highly resistant to the dogwood borer and, in recent years, were found to be highly resistant to Discula, the incitant of dogwood anthracnose and a factor in "dogwood decline".

Foremost among the listings of C. kousa in many nursery catalogs has been C. kousa var. chinensis ‘Milky Way’, an introduction of Wayside Gardens in the 1960s. Apparently the demand for plants of ‘Milky Way’ outstripped the production capacity of growers as listings of "Seedlings of ‘Milky Way’" appeared in various nursery catalogs during the last decade. To this day, it is not uncommon to see such listings in nursery catalogs.


Use of Paints and Preservatives in the Greenhouse

Author: Daniel Gilrein

PP: 443

Paints and wood preservatives, designed to maintain the appearance and integrity of the greenhouse, must he able to withstand and protect surfaces from sunlight and extremes of temperature and humidity They should he safe for use around plants and workers, resist mildew, and in the case of wood preservatives, protect against insect and fungal attack.

All surfaces should be clean and dry before application. Test for mildew with a 1:1 bleach:water spray If mildew is present it will turn a light grey color. Mildew can be scrubbed off 30 minutes after spraying with a mixture of 3 oz trisodium phosphate (Oakite, Soilax, Spic & Span), 1 qt household bleach, and 3 qt warm water.

Effect of Mixes on Seed Germination

Author: Ralph Freeman

PP: 445

Over the years many bedding plant growers have experienced difficulties immediately following the germination of the seed of numerous plants. Immediately following germination the emerging shoot appeared to be infected with Pythium or Rhizoctonia. Frequently, the shoots would be severed from the seeds, falling onto the mix, sometimes rooting, then continuing to grow. The problems were blamed on poor quality seed, non-viable seed, disease problems, etc.

Investigations were conducted in commercial grower operations and the following germination conditions were found: germination medium, Peat-lite mix; germinating environment, 70 to 75°F ambient; media temperatures, 70°F; relative humidity, 60 to 100%, light levels, 4000 to 6000 ft-c, and moisture of the mix was uniform and adequate.

Numerous investigations were conducted to determine the cause of these losses. It was found that the presence of surfactants and/or fungicides in mixes influenced these effects. Under controlled conditions in

Controlling Melon Aphid in Greenhouses

Author: Murdick McLeod, Scott Clark

PP: 446

Aphids are one of the insect pests frequently encountered in greenhouse crop production. Aphids damage plants by removing plant sap, excreting honeydew on the plant surfaces, transmitting disease organisms, and by reducing the aesthetic value of the plant. Although the most common aphid in the greenhouse is the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, is also a frequent greenhouse problem as well as on various crops in the field.

The melon aphid can be very difficult to control, partly due to insecticide resistance, and its even distribution throughout the plant makes pesticide penetration to the lower portion of the canopy very important.

Horticultural oils and insecticidal soap are gaining wide acceptance in pest management programs due to their environmental and plant safety along with their effectiveness in controlling a wide range of pests. Using them in combination with traditional pesticides has shown increased activity and the potential for

Effect of Quaternary Ammonium Compound Dips on Rooting of Rhododendron catawbiense ‘Boursault’

Author: M.L. Daughtrey, W.S. Clark, M.T. Macksel

PP: 448

Local nurserymen have expressed interest in using anti-microbial treatments on woody cuttings prior to mist propagation, in order to control pathogens inadvertently introduced to the propagation area on cuttings collected from outdoor-grown stock Few fungicides are registered for dip treatment, and those available often do not control a broad spectrum of pathogens. Before pursuing efficacy studies, we thought it important to determine whether anti-microbial substances used as dips were non-phytotoxic. A previous study examined the effect of different concentrations of Physan 20 (now Whitmire's PT 2000 Green-Shield), Phyton 27 and Banrot 40WP on the rooting of azalea and rhododendron (Clark and Daughtrey, 1990). In that study, we observed a tremendous amount of natural variation in root development among cuttings in a population. Therefore, in our 1991 study, we increased the number of replications, and were careful to block against variation in cutting diameter.

Cuttings of

Specimen Conifer Production

Author: W. David Thompson

PP: 450


Dwarf and unusual forms of conifers have been recognized since the 1800s. Ten dwarf forms were first listed in 1938, and by 1966 over 1000 forms were available. Now the cultivars available are abundant. In developing a market for these specimens, we need to consider today's economy and the time available to home owners for work in their landscape. Building lots are becoming increasingly smaller in size as real estate prices soar. Funds required for care of massive plantings has led to a serious look at the benefits of smaller, compact plantings in this day of economic stress. A new home owner must consider time and effort, as well as expense, when planting a harmonious landscape. Dwarf and unusual conifers in a landscape will provide years of beauty, balance and growing interest to the space limited gardener, as well as eliminating yearly garden chores that are a must for massive plantings. Limited space and great expectations support the need for various forms of

Seedling Production at Bailey Nurseries

Author: Robert R. Arntzen

PP: 453

Bailey Nurseries, Inc. is a large wholesale production nursery headquartered just south of St. Paul, Minnesota. Over 2500 acres, split between Minnesota and west coast growing areas, are dedicated to the production of nursery stock. In Minnesota, deciduous seedling production of almost 4 million plants is accomplished on approximately 25 acres of fine loamy soil located in the Mississippi River valley. We have a Zone 4A rating by the U.S.D.A. system. The propagation of trees and shrubs from seed has often been relegated second-class status in the nursery business. Indeed, it is a rather inexpensive and low-tech undertaking, but quite important because high quality seedlings are often not available on the market. Our goal is to produce an adequately sized, vigorous seedling in one year. To help actualize this goal, a comprehensive mix of soil building, collecting of hardy local seeds, pest control, watering and fertilization practices is imperative.

Currently we are growing about

Simple Methods of Micropropagation

Author: V.J. Hartney, J.G.P. Svensson

PP: 83

Many Australian tree species can be readily micropropagated using simple techniques and low-cost facilities. This enables the advantages of micropropagation to be integrated into propagation programs. Advantages may include very high multiplication rates, freedom from pests and pathogens, cheap and reliable transport across quarantine barriers, reliable inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms, and long-term storage of clones in vitro. The simple methods of micropropagation described in this paper are worth testing for other species. They can be readily integrated into most existing nursery operations.
Does IBA Inhibit Shoot Growth in Rooted Cuttings?

Author: Wen Quan Sun, Nina Bassuk

PP: 456

Single-node ‘Royalty’ rose cuttings were utilized to examine the relationship between adventitious root formation, bud break, and ethylene synthesis of cuttings following IBA treatment. IBA application increased rooting and inhibited the bud break of cuttings. IBA≥ 600 mg.liter-1 almost completely inhibited bud break of cuttings during four weeks of rooting. IBA treatment stimulated ethylene synthesis, which was inversely correlated with bud break of cuttings. Ethephon also significantly inhibited bud break. Bud break of rose cuttings was completely prevented by repeated ethephon sprays used to maintain high endogenous ethylene levels during the first 10 days. Treatment with STS, and ethylene action inhibitor, improved bud break.
Development of Double Flowering (Petaloid) Lepidote Rhododendrons

Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 462

Lepidote rhododendrons in the landscape are generally perceived by the casual observer as different from large leaf rhododendrons. Because their foliage and growth is normally only about half the size of the large leaf rhododendrons, lepidotes often appear to more closely resemble evergreen azaleas. This creates an intriguing situation. Evergreen azaleas thrive in non-stressful planting locations and are well suited for gardens where winters are moderate, but they generally perform inconsistently in northern landscapes. In USDA Zone 5 and colder, many of the so-called evergreen azaleas retain few leaves over the winter, and those that remain often suffer unsightly burning from sun and wind. Flower buds on many evergreen azalea cultivars are less able to tolerate sharply variable and low winter temperatures, often opening unpredictably in northern gardens.

Because of this winter hardiness deficiency there is a need for more reliability in evergreen-azalea-type plants in

Rooting Double White French Hybrid Lilacs—Power vs. Liquid IBA

Author: David Schmidt, Richard Haworth

PP: 465


Because of difficulty in rooting double white lilacs at the Royal Botanical Gardens (R.B.G.) using our conventional method of 8000 ppm IBA in talc, we decided to treat cuttings of seven double-white, French-hybrid cultivars with 5000 ppm IBA in alcohol and compare the results with our conventional method. The results showed there may be a minimal advantage towards using alcohol over the talcum powder and that Syringa vulgaris ‘Krasavitsa Muskovy’ was by far the best double white lilac to be rooted from softwood cuttings.

Lilac propagation has been a leading priority of R.B.G. for some time. A concern has been to make sure lilacs are on their own roots to help insure trueness to name and to help avoid incompatibility problems, hence the reason for rooting lilacs from softwood cuttings.

Propagation of New Japanese Maples Cultivars

Author: Richard P. Wolff

PP: 468

How do we come by the selection of new and distinctively different cultivars of Japanese maples? More importantly, how do we test these new cultivars to be absolutely certain that they are winter hardy, heat or drought resistant before we name and introduce to commercial propagators. Let us take a close look at some of these answers.

Author: Deborah McCown

PP: 472

DR. DEBORAH McCOWN: On behalf of the Research Committee and the members of the Eastern Region of the International Plant Propagators's;Society, I would like to present this years Research Grant Award.

This year's Research Grant has been awarded to Drs. Barry Goldfarb and Wesley Hackett form the University of Minnesota. Their proposal is titled: Rejuvination of Conifer Meristems in Relation to Clonal Propagation.

DR. PAUL L. SMEAL made the following Fellow Award an Qward of Merit presentations.


Author: Paul L. Smeal

PP: 472

The I.P.P.S.— Eastern Region names their second class of Fellow's at their 41st Annual Meeting. The new Fellow's are:

Mr. Al Fordham, who received the Award of Merit in 1971 and was named an Honorary Member in 1978.

Dr. John McGuire, retired professor from the University of Rhode Island, Eastern Region President in 1977&ndah;78 and recipient of the Award of Merit in 1982.

Mr. Tom Pinney, Jr. who was president in 1970&ndah;71 and received the Award of Merit in 1976.


Author: Paul L. Smeal

PP: 472

The recipient of this years Eastern Region Award of Merit came kicking and squalling into this world on next to the last of January 1971. After graduating from High School in 1934 in Perry, Ohio, he went on to earn his B.S. Degree in Agriculture from The Ohio State University in 1939.

Employment with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service and later as a Supervisor of grading and seeding, at the Ravenna Arsenal, was followed by volunteering for service in the U.S. Navy Seabees in 1942 where he achieved the rank of chief petty officer. He became a member of the Scouts and Raiders underwater demolition team, and supervised sanitation and insect control behind enemy lines in China. He was able to eradicate malarial disease in this area for the first time in history. He was awarded the Bronze Star in 1946.

Wars end in 1946 saw our recipient employed first, for three years, as Deputy Nursery Inspector for the State of Ohio. He moved on to Chataqua County, New York where as Cornell University

Taxol Update

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 474

For as long as man has inhabited the earth, his medicine has been derived from plant parts—roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. I do not propose to present an exhaustive list of plants, worldwide, and their remedy, but a few examples: hemlock (powdered), controls headlice; hemlock (chewed), stops bleeding; salmon-berry bark, numbs toothaches; thimbleberry leaves, strengthens blood; and Artemisia, anti-malarial. Obviously, the list of plants is endless and many of the world's museums have displays relative to this topic, such as seen in the marvelous museum in Sydney, Australia. Many scientists, including my good friend, Dr. Ed Croom, have spent time with various native people observing the time-honored practice of healing by the use of plant parts. Some of these studies included a monkey searching a specific plant to cure a particular malady. The scientist would then identify the genus/species with the assistance of a competent botanist.

On 17 April 1991 as a part of the I.P.P.S.

An Update on Trademarks and Cultivar Names

Author: Richard H. Munson

PP: 477

When I last spoke to this group in December 1988 my purpose was to bring to your attention a situation which was just beginning to become a problem (Munson, 1989). I wish that I was able to report to you that the problem had been solved or even lessened. However, the opposite appears to be the case. My goal in presenting this paper is to update you on the continuing problem and to inform you of some communication from the Office of Patents and Trademarks regarding the trademark issue and what it may mean to our industry.

The issuance of plant patents to clones with trademarked fancy names and nonsensical cultivar names continues without apparent abatement. During the past three years I have encountered numerous examples of this practice in our trade publications, nursery catalogs, and popular horticultural magazines. It is important to understand the basic rationale for assigning a nonsensical cultivar name to a patented clone while at the same time obtaining a "fancy"

New Breeders' Rights Legislation in Canada

Author: Peggy Walsh Craig

PP: 480

Canadian plant breeders, at long last, can enjoy what most industrialized nations have had for many years: Plant Breeders' Rights. Bill C-15, written into law in August of 1990, is designed to stimulate plant breeding in Canada and encourage foreign breeders to introduce protected plants into the Canadian market.

Similar, but not identical, to the protection a US plant patent offers, the new legislation grants Canadian breeders exclusive rights over their cultivars' reproductive material. lf growers wish to grow or sell the cultivars, they must obtain the breeders' permission and pay royalties.

Eugene Whelan, Minister of Agriculture for many years in the Trudeau cabinet, is reported to have said that he'd seen more rubbish written on plant breeders' rights than on any other subject. The Plant Breeders' Rights Act is one of the most publicized, persistent, and controversial pieces of legislation ever to be passed by Canada's Parliament. The debate leading to its enactment lasted for more

Mechanization of Open Ground Seedling Production

Author: Robert J. Appleton

PP: 92


Appletons' Tree Nursery grows a range of 350 species of deciduous trees and conifers. Production consists of two million, one-and two-year-old seedlings grown in open-ground raised seedbeds. Climatic conditions are very favourable for seedling growth with a long growing season and defined winter dormancy period. The soil is less ideal being a silt clay loam over compacted clay which results in poor drainage during heavy periods of rain.

We practice a fixed seed bed production system. Once a seed bed is established, all subsequent operations are carried out from the tractor alleyways and after a crop is lifted the seed bed is ripped and reformed. A fixed bed production system allows for improvement of the seed bed soil structure without the soil compacted by the tractor tyres being incorporated into the seed bed. This method of seed bed management has led to an improvement in soil structure over a 15 year period. Past practice was one of complete cultivation which


Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 483

Vinca minor ‘Ralph Shugert’

I volunteered to present this plant with a great deal of pleasure. The person for whom it is named is very special to me and through the years has been a pillar of knowledge and strength to many of us. Having a plant named for oneself is like being given a bit of immortality and I cannot think of a better person to have his name in perpetuity!!!!

A new and distinct cultivar of Vinca minor has been patented by Hortech of Spring Lake, Michigan and is being grown by Midwest Groundcovers, St. Charles, IL; Wayside Gardens of South Carolina; and Shadow Nursery of Tennessee.

This plant, V. minor ‘Ralph Shugert’ originated as a sport of V. minor ‘Bowles Variety’ and was first propagated by David Mackenzie using intermittent mist and root inducing substances during 1986. The plant is characterized by foliage which is the same shape and size as ‘Bowles Variety’. It has leaves that are colored deep glossy green, edged with a thin margin of white. Flowers are typical of


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 488

The Question Box Session was convened at 9:30 a.m. 10 December 1991 with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR BRIGGS: Question for Deb McCown. You have in tissue culture Cornus kousa 'Milky Way Select'. What is the source of this plant?

DEB MCCOWN: Origins of Milky Way Select. Original plant from old Lake County Nursery Exchange (L.C.N.E.), now Lake County Nursery, who were growing dogwood from seed of original 'Milky Way' plant. L.C.N.E. said seed was pretty "true" to original clonal plant. We brought in seedlings and selected one that was particularly nice. We could not call our microcuttings 'Milky Way' but wanted to indicate that our plants would be similar to original 'Milky Way' clone-hence 'Milky Way Select'. We have carefully explained this in our catalogue.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Elwin Orton. How about telling us about Cornus kousa 'Summer Stars'. Is it a clone?

ELWIN ORTON: To the best of my knowledge it is a clone

Effects of Water Quality and Water Management on the Growth of Container Nursery Stock1

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 492


This study was conducted in six central Florida nurseries beginning April. The test plants were Fashion azalea, Hetzi Japanese holly, and blue Pacific shore juniper. The fertilizer sources were an 18–6–13 experimental Osmocote, 24–4–0 High N,

Towards Improved Quality in Cut Boronia

Author: Chris J. Barnaby, John Clemens

PP: 95


The commercial cultivation of cut Boronia, which is largely confined in New Zealand to Boronia heterophylla (red boronia), is a relatively recent development in Australasia and Central America. Exports from New Zealand have been received favourably in several markets, particularly in Japan. However, production and postharvest information for cut stems is limited for B. heterophylla and practically nonexistent for other members of the genus.

The number of species readily available in New Zealand is not large but it does allow comparative evaluation of their suitability for cutting. The evaluation of these species was carried out according to modified standard criteria. (Salinger, 1985). These criteria were vase life, cutting season, form, growth rate, colour, physical character and pest/disease problems. The fragrance of Boronia, which can affect marketability and varies in strength and nature between species, was included as an evaluation criterion. Fragrance testing was

Watering Container Plants Five Different Ways

Author: John Clemens, C. Bruce Christie, Chris J. Barnaby

PP: 98


Irrigation affects the growth and quality of container plants in nurseries. Factors of importance may be the frequency and intensity of watering, and the quality of the water supply. Of fundamental significance, however, may be the very way in which the water is delivered to the plants (Welsh, 1989). Many nurseries rely heavily on overhead sprinkler systems; at the same time there has been enthusiastic advocacy of subirrigation systems, such as, those incorporating capillary and ebb-and-flood methods. A container plant growing-on area was established in the open at the Nursery Research Centre in which different irrigation regimes could be compared.

There were a number of objectives that could be wholly or partially fulfilled by the use of the facility Firstly, it was intended as a demonstration area; a place where people from the New Zealand nursery industry could gather ideas and get a feel for the effects different irrigation methods (and other factors interacting with

Propagation of Pittosporums by Cuttings

Author: Martin Cornall

PP: 103


The demand for pittosporums (Pittosporum spp.) in New Zealand has never waned, and with the introduction each year of exciting new hybrids, this trend is sure to continue. They are grown predominantly for their almost endless range of foliage colours. Couple this with their adaptability either as a hedge, a trimmed container plant, garden specimen, a floristry crop or contrast plant in the shrubbery, and it is not surprising that many New Zealand nurserymen consider these plants their "bread and butter" crop.

Propagation Notes for Some New and Novel Crops Introduced Into New Zealand

Author: John M. Follett

PP: 104


New Zealand's economy is largely based on its primary industries with this likely to continue into the foreseeable future In order to strengthen that base, many plants and animals not normally associated with New Zealand have and are being evaluated to determine their economic viability. Within the horticultural industry crops, such as, persimmons, nashi, autumn raspberries, chicory, babacos and pepinos have, with varying degrees of success, been grown for export.

One of the problems with the evaluation of new crops is that there is often little information available on propagation and production techniques because of language barriers and unfamiliar, traditional cropping practices also tending to confuse the issue.

This paper outlines some of the new and novel crops that have been evaluated at Ruakura along with the propagation techniques that we have found successful. These crops include florence fennel, ginseng, mitsuba, myoga, shungiku, stevia and wasabi.

Worsleya rayneri

Author: Terry C. Hatch

PP: 110

Worsleya rayneri was discovered in 1860 growing in the Organ Mountains of Brazil at an altitude of 1220 m. The huge leek-like bulbs with grey-green falcate leaves hang from acidic basalt cliffs, bathed in a constant mist from waterfalls. First described in 1863, it was many years before Arthington Worsley, following study of the plant in its natural habitat, succeeded in flowering Worsleya in his glasshouse in England. Also known as the blue amaryllis or empress of Brazil, Worsleya has remained rare in cultivation.

I purchased three of the D-shaped seeds of Worsleya 20 years ago for five pounds. Germination took place after only 4 weeks at 22°C. Having little information on the culture—except that they disliked lime—I used a peat and pumice mix for the three small plants They were repotted every summer using long-term controlled-release fertilizers and given occasional applications of dried blood.

The evergreen growth slows in the cooler months and very little moisture is needed. As

Effect of Container Size and Media Volume on the Growth of Plantlets in vitro

Author: D. John James, C. Bruce Christie

PP: 111

Ficus lyrata and a clone of an unnamed Zantedeschia were grown in four different sized plastic containers filled with 15, 30 or 60 ml of MS medium. Plant fresh weight accumulation was assessed at 2-week intervals for 14 weeks and the experiment terminated with dry weight determination. Maximum fresh weight of both species developed in the smallest containers with the largest volume of medium.
Aboriginal Food Plants, Their Propagation and Interest for Today's Nursery Trade

Author: Barrie Hadlow

PP: 40

It is my contention that we present day Australians are now beginning to place prehistoric Aboriginal culture in a unique and special place associated with the heritage values of this continent. I believe that the time is right for the nursery trade and therefore plant propagators to accept that there is public interest in those plants which were used by Aboriginal people. The developing interest in those plants used by the first Australians for perhaps longer than 50 thousand years can only grow as more knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Aboriginal culture increases.

Aboriginal people through experiment and expediency developed an extraordinary knowledge of the indigenous flora Besides the obvious use for food, plants were also needed for medicine, ceremony, art, weapons, poisons, snares, daily utensils, shelter, and transport.

It has been shown that Aboriginal technologies for obtaining food varied across regions of the continent. However, as food procurement strategists,

Field Trial Results of Acacia melanoxylon from Tissue Culture

Author: Cathy Jones, Dale Smith, Ham Gifford, Ian Nicholas

PP: 116


At the turn of the century, Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) was a very popular cabinet making timber, but supplies diminished and other timber took its place in the market Since the early 1980s, it has attracted interest in New Zealand as a special purpose plantation tree, an alternative to local native timbers which have become expensive and not widely available (Nicholas, 1982). Acacia melanoxylon grows on a wide variety of sites and it is possible to achieve the desired 6-m sawlog with a 30–40 year rotation.

Acacia melanoxylon often exhibits a poor form, usually as the result of insect damage to shoot tips causing loss of apical dominance. Within stands of A. melanoxylon good trees exhibiting rapid growth and improved form can be recognised. The Forest Research Institute (FRI) Acacia melanoxylon Programme includes silviculture, breeding and propagation research. Tissue culture was included in the propagation research as it had the potential to provide an

Polyanthus, Primula × polyantha, Breeding

Author: R.N. McMillan

PP: 120

My interest in polyanthus goes back to the heyday of the original Pacific Strain produced by the California firm of Vetterle & Reinelt (V & R). My brother and I grew these in the open ground and sold them wrapped. They were huge and took with them vast amounts of soil Our observation was that customers liked to select more than one colour and plants with unusual markings. As the viability of the seed we bought in was low on arrival and the cost high, we decided to separate a few of the more unusual selections and to start producing these ourselves.

After about five years our efforts were helped by the gift of a few packets of V & R seed from an old friend Alex Purdie of New Plymouth. Alex knew what we were trying to achieve and though it better that we had the "special seed to play around with".

Germination was patchy but we got a number of very unusual and, in some cases, strange plants. The best of these we selfed and repeated a second year. We matched colours and grouped them as V & R

Quality is the Key

Author: Neil Huxtable

PP: 124


In the 1950s there was more concentration on quantity than quality. From the 1960s consumer awareness led to increased inspection during the production process. The 1970s saw the oil crisis, and quality assurance came to the fore to conserve resources and reduce waste Quality through technical excellence was the key to Japanese pre-eminence in the 1980s and in the 1990s the combination of technical knowledge plus the effective use of people (the key to total quality management) is to the fore. In the future the issues at stake may well be quality of life and social cost quality.

A quality driven organization concentrates on breaking down the barriers typical in old hierarchical organizations. Instead we aim for a structure in which external customers provide feedback which is passed through all levels of the organization so that they can work in harmony to meet the customers needs. The organization also passes feedback to its external suppliers so that they can correctly

Stockplant Manipulation for Better Rooting and Growth From Cuttings

Author: Brian Howard

PP: 127


Attaining a plant of large saleable size as quickly as possible is the main objective of commercial nursery stock production, with due attention to shape in terms of branching and compactness, and the development of flower buds if appropriate for the variety. Batch uniformity should be high, and production methods must be cost-effective.

These objectives are undermined if a plant is difficult to propagate. Easy-to-root cuttings suffer least if the propagation environment is less than optimal, and well-rooted cuttings establish and harden with minimal difficulty, and grow-on to produce uniform batches of plants. On the other hand, cuttings of difficult-to-propagate plants may fail to survive, or may root only poorly. Subsequent weaning is difficult and the growth of those plants which reach the container will be variable, reflecting variation in root development. Initial propagation success is, therefore, an essential component of high quality

First Quality Plants - Can the Societies Play a Role?

Author: W. Anthony Lord

PP: 131


This survey aims to specify which societies are possible sources of new or reintroduced plants for the trade, then define quality, and finally discuss how societies can achieve quality in plants, other than those which are already widely available.

The Development of a Market-led Propagation System

Author: Graham Vallis

PP: 134


Propagation has more influence on the final quality of nursery stock than does any other stage of the production cycle. Both efficiency and effectiveness of production are controlled by the rate at which saleable plant size is achieved and this, too, depends to a large degree on the quality of the liner emerging from the propagation house.

Using modern technology to improve traditional cuttings propagation systems can come close to ensuring that each plant produced is of premium grade But they still have the drawback of being production-led rather than market-led. They fail to deliver high quality, fresh plants throughout the season. Instead they lead to maximum availability of plants in the autumn at a time when demand is below peak.

Compost and Nutrition in Nursery Stock Production

Author: Neil C. Bragg

PP: 142


The last 20 years has seen the steady development of peat dominated mixes for use in container nursery stock. The quantity of peat used by the nursery stock industry has now reached at least 220,000 m3/annum, (Bragg, 1991).

The most notable developments in the use of peat based mixes have been:

  1. The understanding of the physical nature of the materials being used,
  2. Development of the use of controlled release fertilizers, (CRFs),
  3. Managing the interaction of 1 and 2 above with the water requirements of the plants and the drainage away from the container.

The following sections of this paper will look at the three points above before looking at the future of peat use and at possible alternatives for nursery stock use.

Developments in the Nursery Stock Industry of Eastern Europe

Author: Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh

PP: 146


There have been vast changes since the fall of the Iron Curtain in Europe in 1989 Change continues at a fast rate so any attempt to describe the situation in Eastern Europe will be out of date by the time it is published. This report is a result of information from numerous contacts and personal visits to nurseries in each of three former East Block countries and East Germany. Poland and Hungary were visited last in 1990 and Czechoslovakia in summer 1991. Eastern Germany was visited many times since 1989. Many Westerners do not realise that the situation in each of the former East Block countries was very different. For example more than 70% of Polish land was fully privately owned, whereas in Czechoslovakia nearly 100% of the land was owned by the State or was co-operatively worked—not so much as one private nursery survived collectivisation in that country. In East Germany a number of smaller private interprises survived 40 years in a communist state. The selling of trees

The Nursery Stock Industry in Greece

Author: Athanassios C. Rubos

PP: 150


The nursery industry in Greece has flourished since before the age of Homer because of the vast range of climatic conditions favouring the cultivation of species ranging from tropical to hardy and alpine types During the last 20 years, the nursery industry has achieved significant progress which has established the acceptance of the Greek nurseryman and his propagation skills in many other countries There are many possibilities for further development, for example, the localization of extended geothermal fields and the use of solar energy will add a new dimension to the nursery technology.

Quality and Environmental Issues of Nutrition, Pest and Disease Control.

Author: John Adlam

PP: 153


Quality on the nursery is like the red thread that runs through every inch of rope used by the Royal Navy. It should be addressed in every aspect of our work. With consumer environmental awareness increasing, nursery stock growers cannot afford to lower quality standards. The day of the pest-damaged plant being acceptable because it was in a biological control regime is over. In the Eric Gardener Memorial Lecture at BGLA (British Growers Look Ahead exhibition run by National Farmers Union) this year Jonathan Porritt (former director, Friends of the Earth) made the following statement: "Consumer demand for higher quality produce in terms of safety and the phenomenon of green consumerism with its emphasis on higher environmental quality are by no means the negative factors some growers see them as. The key to the future is to be found in adding value." The value added element is primarily a marketing tool but at the production level we must embrace the techniques available

Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouses

Author: C.J. Nazer

PP: 44


The greenhouse environment provides optimum conditions for plant growth; these conditions also favour many plant pests and diseases. Pesticides are frequently required to control these problems, but in Australia there is little published information on the safety requirements specific to their use.

The occupational health and safety legislation introduced throughout Australia in recent years highlights the health and safety concerns employers have for their staff. Pesticides when used in greenhouses can undoubtedly pose increased hazards to either the pesticide operator or other staff via exposure factors arising from the confined air space and contact with surfaces associated with greenhouse operations.

This paper outlines key principles of pest management in greenhouses. The main emphasis of these principles is upon occupational health and safety aspects, and the use of integrated pest management to minimise the hazards of pest control. A means is provided for reducing

Plant Health and the Single European Market

Author: James W. Goodford

PP: 157

In 1985 the European Community Governments agreed to establish a single market, which meant abolishing restrictions on trade between the member states. This went far beyond the removal of certain customs duties and non-tariff barriers to trade which resulted when the common market was first created. The idea was that in future there would be no greater restraint on trade between the UK and France than between Kent and Sussex (for example). The term normally used to describe this idea is free circulation.

The consequences of this decision, now on the way to implementation, are that by 31 December 1992 (the date set in the Single Market Act) there will be a slackening of frontier controls at any border between two member states. The Customs Entry form, a document which has always represented the focus of control and monitoring of goods entering the UK will disappear completely for imports—and this of course includes plants and plant propagating material—from other member states. However

Training—A Key to Quality

Author: B.E. Humphrey

PP: 159


The whole emphasis of producing, selling and distributing nursery stock today is on quality. Unfortunately, quality does not come cheap It normally implies more input, more attention to detail, more knowledge of what to do, more uniformity of materials and procedures, more organisation, more communication, more commitment, more participation—in short more skill and professionalism. The implication of all this is that more training is required, which in turn requires careful planning. The steps necessary are:

  1. Set quality goals.
  2. Identify and devise methods for meeting these goals and draw up a plan.
  3. Implement the methods.
  4. Monitor performance against the plan.
  1. Setting Quality Goals. Normally this takes the form of an appraisal of what you are currently doing and how it can be improved; often a reaction to customer criticisms, past problems and failures.
  2. A recent and highly significant development in setting quality standards is the British Standard B S 5750

The Next Generation—Stimulating an Interest

Author: Dermot E.M. Crummy

PP: 163

How many times have we all heard—where have all the good staff gone? Or, I can't get good people to work for me. This is a situation that we started to address in Blakedown Nurseries in the mid 1980's by upgrading our recruitment. One step was to increase our links with local schools through career talks to classes and hosting visits. Two years ago, after a visit from a local school's Rural Studies Class, a chance idea emerged in conversation with the teacher Since the students were so keen about growing plants, and as they grew a few at school already, why not grow some on a semi-commercial basis for Blakedown Nurseries? The teacher and the class all seemed to be very enthusiastic about the idea so we decided to give it a try.

The initial meeting between myself and the pupils was to decide which crops the pupils were going to grow and work out a rough format for prices, etc. At this planning stage a number of problems became apparent to the students, because they had no pots, no compost,

Quality Management—The Impact on Production

Author: Douglas K. Reade

PP: 166

Many businesses have been frightened by the concept of quality. This is totally unnecessary. There is nothing mystical, only the need for understanding, commitment and a common sense approach. The common sense and understanding comes from the acceptance that for quality management to be successful, every part of the company work together. It is especially important that sales/marketing and production work in harmony and with a commitment towards meeting the needs of the customer.

Far too many of the companies I encounter are production-led, thus finding it difficult to establish a sound basis in the current competitive market place Equally there are many companies who are approaching the future on the basis of sales-led promotions thinking that this is marketing. Such approaches create compartmentalized companies with a narrow-minded approach to quality management.

Quality Management is about

  1. Knowing what the customer wants
  2. Getting the best performance throughout the company.
Specialization—Is This the Future?

Author: Peter Catt

PP: 169

When I first started Liss Forest Nursery I thought that my future lay in specialization and I had to convince my business partner that I was right. My partner was the finance and I was the production. This was way back in 1970 and my chosen subject was rhododendrons. My intention was to grow species, hybrids and the dwarfs together with the Japanese azaleas Liss Forest Nursery had not long been in existence before I realized that my ideas were not right for me. There were two reasons for this. Firstly I like growing most plants and secondly came the problem of the economics of distribution. Had I not changed my mind, then a third reason would have been cash-flow. Therefore I changed my idea of specialization in rhododendrons to one of growing mainly ericacious plants. This gave me the opportunity to grow the forms of Erica and Calluna, Pernettya and Gaultheria etc., of which I was very fond. I soon widened the range still further when offered cuttings of Camellia, Eucryphia, Magnolia,
Plant Promotion—What is its Value and Role?

Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 171


When we talk about promotion, we are actually talking about promotion of the pastime of gardening, because it is within this pastime that our products (plants) are used So how do we go about this? We must support every aspect of gardening at all opportunities and on every occasion. We must offer encouragement and advice wherever possible. The following are some examples of how we as professionals can support and promote the pastime of gardening.

  1. Encourage good amenity planting. People who are exposed to plants in their public places start to expect them as a part of everyday life. Britain in Bloom is a good example of one of the reasons why bedding plants have become popular in the last decade.
  2. We must sponsor and provide information for the media whether this be local newspapers, national magazines or television. As we all know, television is incredible as a promotion medium. We are fortunate that there are so many programmes on the television,
Propagation at Monrovia Nursery

Author: Sean Sweeney

PP: 173


Monrovia has had an excellent history of producing the best quality containerized nursery stock in the United States and has an exciting future ahead of it. There are now three company locations.

The site in Azusa is 500 acres, of which 400 are used in production. This site is in a Zone 10 area on the U.S.D.A. hardiness map, so all of the tropical plants are grown here. The Oregon site was purchased in 1984 and is at present 510 acres. This site is used to grow the hardier plants. The nursery has recently purchased a third property in Visalia, in central California, which is approximately 1,500 acres in size. One thousand-two hundred of the acres have a slope of less than five percent which is usable for nursery stock. By 1995, all the production in Azusa will have been moved to Visalia, and in December 1995, a total of 900 acres is planned to have been developed. In 1995, the nursery plans to have 1,660 acres in production in comparison to 425 acres in 1984. This is an

Eucalyptus Trees in India

Author: Angella Evans

PP: 176

The genus Eucalyptus was introduced into Indian silvicultural systems in the 1960s via the "Fast Growing Species Scheme". It was first planted in Karnataka, Southern India on degraded lands and now covers a vast acreage throughout the country. The genus produces much biomass because of efficient use of water and nutrients. It has been the centre of world-wide debate as scientists claim the eucalypt can help solve the fuelwood crisis. On the other hand environmentalists claim that the eucalypt is causing environmental and socio-economic collapse among the rural poor communities.

The eucalypt is a member of the family Myrtaceae with a natural range extending from 7°N to 43°S in Australasia. The eucalypt owes it's dominance in Australia, in part, to its ability to colonise bare ground, and the growth of lignotubers, indefinite shoots, naked buds and epicormic shoots that enable rapid growth. When planted outside Australia in localities that do not have insects that defoliate them their

G.B&I. Region Seminar Series Propagation

Author: Maurice Barletta

PP: 179

Propagation and Quality

Discussion began with the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), and how the propagation unit of a nursery could fit in with this. The point was made that propagation was the starting point for quality production in all the subsequent stages on the nursery.

This was considered a difficult ideal to achieve if the nursery was not large enough to support a full time propagator On small nurseries, propagation itself is just one aspect of the propagator's job. Activities further down the production process, such as potting up liners for sale to generate cash flow, tend to push propagation down the priority list.

G.B&I. Region Seminar Series Training

Author: Spence Gunn

PP: 180

The group decided early on that training was a vital element of nursery management. Discussion focussed on the most appropriate types of training, and the amount of time and effort to put in.

Smaller nurseries in particular found that while they identified a need for training, it was difficult to allocate sufficient time. Training often conflicted with the demands of production and for this reason it was considered that, ideally, one person should be given responsibility for training, fulfilling the role of training or personnel officer—although it was recognised this person may have other duties too.

Induction training, when people first join a nursery, was seen as vital. To give sufficient attention to induction training, nurseries should avoid taking on new staff during busy periods. Working longer hours with existing staff was thought to be preferable. Recruitment should be planned so that new staff were taken on when there was sufficient time for induction training.

It is also

Twin Scale Propagation of Amaryllis Bulbs

Author: Andrew Guerin

PP: 50


Amaryllis is the common name applied to hybrids and cultivars derived from various species in the genus Hippeastrum. They are from the family Amaryllidaceae (included in Liliaceae), and were from the genus Amaryllis when the initial hybridization was begun at the turn of the 18th Century. Later, when the genus Amaryllis was divided and these species were shifted to Hippeastrum, amaryllis was retained as a rather confusing common name.

Understanding the Market

Author: Edward Back

PP: 182


Marketing is often viewed by horticulturalists as something apart from production and even further from propagation, but of course it isn't. In commercial horticulture, it is only marketing that makes production and propagation possible, without a market there would be no point in either.

Conversely of course there is no point in employing the most sophisticated marketing techniques to define a market, quantify the potential demand and specify the product needed to satisfy that demand if you don't have the ability to produce it profitably.

Marketing is not something practised by others, spending large sums of money in city offices, running massive businesses. Anywhere a demand meets a supply whether for money, for barter or for free, a market exists and we are all part of it.

Marketing—Planning for Profit

Author: D.P. Elliott

PP: 186

In a free competitive market-place responsibility for marketing must ultimately lie within the individual firm As many of the constraints on production disappear the need to maintain profitability is more dependent on marketing. Successful firms will increasingly be those for whom marketing takes the lead.

Marketing is most concisely defined as getting the right product in the right place at the right time. This leaves too many loose ends for me and I prefer its definition as the process of balancing the company's need for profit against the benefit required by consumers, so as to maximise long term earnings per share (or return on capital). It is this need to maintain long term profitability, and thus the survival and development of a business, that places the emphasis on strategy and planning to develop the marketing ethos.

There is a conflict between the consumers' need for benefits and the firm's need for efficiency and profitability. There are marginally profitable plants or groups

Curtis J. Alley Award of Merit


PP: 190

Bruce Macdonald, Director, University of British Columbia Botanical Garden was 14th recipient of Western Region's Curtis J. Alley Award of Merit. The presentation was made at the Region's annual meeting banquet at Beaverton, Oregon, September 5, 1992.

A position at the UBC Botanic Garden lured Macdonald from his native England to British Columbia in 1980. He became involved in Western Region activities soon after transferring from Region of Great Britain and Ireland that same year.

He has initiated a number of Western Region innovations. The Region's first area meeting was organized by Macdonald in 1988. He was instrumental in developing the Region's publicity and promotion program. He authored the Region's first information brochure, and also its recent revision. His idea of a travel scholarship is just now being initiated. The Region Executive Committee has just approved his suggestion to sponsor the I.P.P.S. Membership of a Chinese horticulturist.

Macdonald was Western Region President in

How to be Market-Driven

Author: Jheri Ketcham

PP: 191

Marketing is in the news. We read about it, hear about it—everywhere we turn we're told about the virtues of marketing: How marketing can be the key to our business' success; that the nursery industry will continue to thrive if we all get down to the business of marketing; That without marketing there would be no market; And a product without a market is like an airplane without wings—it won't fly.

I don't disagree, the logic is sound, but what we fail to hear or understand, is how? What does marketing consist of? Where do you begin? How can you practically implement marketing without spending a fortune. What can you, as nursery owners and managers, do to assure a market is ready and willing when you're ready to sell.

You do this by becoming market-driven. By letting the market be your guide, your road map to your business decisions. By setting your antenna on your market and letting them shape your business. This does not mean printing a bigger and better catalog or hiring another sales

The Target Seedling Concept: Potential Marketing Tool

Author: Robin Rose

PP: 196

Speak with any grower of plants who is in the wholesale or retail business and it isn't very likely you will run into one who says they sell poor quality stock More than likely you will hear about past problems that have been overcome I know of no one in the propagation business who hasn't had some problem some time and who isn't currently working on this year's crop of problems. If growing plants were easy, there would be no need for all of the societies founded around plant propagation, soils, fertilizers, and genetics.

This paper is about the Target Seedling Concept (Rose et al., 1990) and its use as a marketing tool First, what is the definition of the target seedling concept? In a forestry context it means to target specific physiological and morphological seedling characteristics that can be quantitatively linked with reforestation success. The idea is that for whatever purpose the plants are intended, it is important that they are physiologically and morphologically prepared to

Unique Methods for Marketing New Plants

Author: Robert L. Fincham

PP: 200

Mitsch Nursery is a wholesale liner propagation nursery. Our product gives us both a responsibility and an advantage concerning new plant introductions.

It is our responsibility to introduce new plants in such away as to create a market for these new introductions and to have sufficient stock to supply this created market.

We have an advantage that allows us to make many more introductions than most nurseries. When we find a plant with definite merit for the home owner and the grower, we can have that plant in our catalog in just a few years. If we discover a new plant, we can first produce it in small quantities for evaluation purposes, thus saving considerable capital investment, and still shift into heavy production for immediate release in only one additional year.

Let me first mention a few facts about why we are able to introduce many new plants before I explain how we introduce and market them.

One particular plant that we recently introduced through Mitsch Nursery was Pinus

Using the Computer for Customer Service

Author: Michael Poynter

PP: 204

The I.P.P S organization is involved with sharing information primarily about specific techniques in plant propagation. It is, however, important to take a close look at the other aspects of commercial plant propagation as they relate to propagation as a business Record keeping has always been an important job of the propagator and when the number of plants and orders involved in the organization increases we now have the computer as an affordable and readily available tool to the business.

Up until about 8 years ago computers for use in business were pretty well confined to larger multi-user mini or main frame machines that were exceedingly expensive. With the advent of personal computers even the horticulture industry saw several companies offer software to growers that they would help them run their businesses. Although the dealers claimed that they would do quite a wide variety of things they were best used for handling accounting functions.

With the advent of the spreadsheet programs,

Grass Seed Production in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

Author: Gale A. Gingrich

PP: 208

Oregon is the national leader in the production of cool-season grass seed crops and is known as the "Grass Seed Capitol of the World." In 1990 Oregon harvested 500 million pounds of seed from about 400,000 acres of grass The harvest provided a farm gate value of $195 million. Grass seed is the fifth most valuable agricultural crop produced in Oregon Over 90% of grass production is in the Willamette Valley. Cool season grasses grown in the state include:
     Agrostis sp, bentgrass
     Dactylis glomerata, orchardgrass
     Festuca rubra, fine fescue
     Festuca arundinacea, tall fescue
     Lolium sp., ryegrass
     Poa sp., bluegrass

The state produces both forage and turf cultivars Oregon's rise to world-wide prominence in grass seed production did not happen over night. Growing began nearly 100 years ago.

Producing Virus-Indexed Liner Plants for Small Fruit Production

Author: John W. Weeks

PP: 211

The production of liners for small fruit production has reached a state of sophistication beyond what anyone could have thought of at the beginning of this century. Modern propagation is a meld of ancient horticultural techniques developed over the centuries and the very latest in horticultural science and technology. The modern plant propagator is an artist at applying all these elements in the successful propagation of small fruit liners.

One could probably state without rebuke that the strawberry plant has been a key factor in the evolution of modern horticultural science and technology. Genetic "fingerprinting" to maintain the identity of cultivars was pioneered mostly using strawberry plants; it is also an aid to plant patent holders (Smith) A lot of what we know about tissue culture today was pioneered using the strawberry. Strawberry plants have always been popular in plant research because of their growth habit and small size. Much of the very best and valuable nutrient deficiency

Propagation of Filberts by Stem Cuttings

Author: William M. Proebsting, Michael A. Reihs

PP: 214


Presently, the filbert (hazel nut) (Corylus avellana) is propagated primarily by layerage, because of difficulties inherent in other methods of propagation (Bergougnoux et al., 1976) Either of two factors may limit propagation of filbert by stem cuttings: poor root initiation (Bergougnoux et al., 1976; Falaschi and Loreti, 1969), or abscission of the vegetative buds on otherwise well-rooted cuttings (Lagerstedt, 1970; Lagerstedt, 1982). Bud abscission is the major problem we encounter Rooting of terminal stem cuttings varies by cultivar but is generally excellent. Unfortunately, the percentage of these cuttings that retain buds is generally low, so the propagation rate (the percentage of cuttings with both roots and one or more vegetative buds) is low as well. Bud retention of 0 to 10% is typical of terminal cuttings of filbert cultivars.

There is interest in propagation by stem cuttings for at least three reasons: 1) With identification of Eastern filbert blight in the

The Rooting of Daphne odora Thunb. Cuttings in a Hydroponic Propagation System

Author: P.G. Boland, B.C. Hanger

PP: 53


Rooting hormones (auxins) promote root initiation on cuttings Dip applications of the auxin indolebutyric acid (IBA) at concentrations up to 6000 ppm are commonly used. In aeroponic systems (systems which use regular misting of the root zone with nutrient solution) it has been shown that cuttings will root equally well when continuously exposed to low auxin concentrations in the solution misting the cutting bases (Nir, 1980).

Oxygen is essential for root formation to take place (Zimmerman, 1930). The propagation medium used for cuttings must therefore have the correct balance between available water and oxygen. Failure to achieve this balance can result in stress either in the form of dehydration or anaerobic conditions. Such stress in the rooting zone can result in collapse and death of the cutting. The aerial part of the cutting is protected from dehydration, usually by misting or fogging.

The Ein Gedi Aero-hydroponic System developed by Soffer (1989) has been adapted

Mechanization in Bareroot Shade and Fruit Tree Production

Author: F. Allan Elliott

PP: 219

There are numerous methods of improving production efficiency in a nursery operation. Some areas for consideration are job training, employee motivation, quality control, production scheduling, improved working conditions, and mechanization of labor intensive activities. At Carlton Plants, mechanization has been an important factor in keeping up with the demands of a rapidly expanding production schedule.

Motivation for a program of mechanization comes in the form of savings through: 1) a reduction in the labor required to do an activity, 2) reduced exposure of employees to potential injury, 3) better utilization of existing equipment, 4) fuel conservation, and 5) lower payroll costs. Even with these incentives, mechanization must become a priority to the nursery person in order for the program to be successful. This is to say that one must be conscious of the opportunity for improving by changing methods through mechanization.

The process starts by challenging activities and asking:

Propagation: Necessity is the Mother of Invention

Author: Terri L. Bell

PP: 221

I was recently asked, "What is your nursery?" I stumbled in my thinking and then said the normal answer; "We propagate and grow many types of broadleaf evergreens, deciduous shrubs and conifers". I can remember walking away from this answer with a question in my mind as to what kind of nursery my husband and I had and how did it get to where it is today.

The necessity in the beginning, 13 years ago, was money. Lots of children bound for college, two jobs that wouldn't provide that kind of income, and a two-acre home in the country.

We were going to raise berries but Jack Bigeji, a nurseryman friend, suggested that we go into the nursery business. Not knowing anything about the nursery business, we felt it was necessary to educate ourselves. We selected a propagation night course at our local community college and away we went in the fall.

Four weeks into the course we rooted a plant. It seemed easy and I could see dollar signs all over the place. Just cut a stem from a plant, put some

Ideas for Efficient Production of Container-Grown Plants

Author: Mark Buchholz

PP: 224

The last 10 years have brought with them a wealth of new technologies, production practices, and types of equipment to enable us to grow our varied crops more efficiently with higher quality. As we begin using these new "high tech" methods of plant production, we may overlook those other techniques that we can develop within ourselves that are vitally important to success in our business. I am speaking of our skills as managers of people, working to meet production schedules, producing a quality product at a competitive cost, resulting in a reasonable profit for our companies.

There are many costs associated with operating a nursery business. Tractors, greenhouses, canning machines, computers, and other production equipment all cost money to operate and maintain. Better efficiencies in these areas will certainly result in a stronger bottom line. There is one major area in our businesses that if properly managed will yield the most at year end. That area is labor.

At Monrovia Nursery

Crop Water Requirements of Container-Grown Plants

Author: Richard P. Regan

PP: 229

Irrigation is a necessary practice for producing container-grown woody landscape plants. Overhead sprinkler irrigation is the most common and practical system used. With overhead irrigation large quantities of water are required to compensate for low water-application efficiency (Beeson and Knox, 1991). Water-application efficiency is the amount of water stored in the root zone compared to the total amount of water used for irrigation (Israelsen, 1962).

When to irrigate and how much water to apply is best determined by the crop water requirements, the capacity of the root-zone medium to store water, the water application uniformity, the leaching requirements, and the availability of irrigation water. The most common methods used to determine when to irrigate container plants are the visual crop appearance and the relative weight loss judged by lifting the container. Plants with similar crop water requirements should be grouped together, and irrigation scheduled accordingly.

Crop water


Author: Sharon Leopold

PP: 232

The term micro-sprinklers is a general one including misters, mini- and low-volume sprinklers Low-volume sprinklers have been in use at our nursery for approximately five years. The following discussion is limited to low-volume sprinklers which are generally also low-angle design and operate on low pressure.

Originally, the problem of irrigation of containers in shadehouses with covers at or below 10 ft led us to the low angle design of the NAAN Turbo Hammer model (Figure 1). At a separate propagation facility the problem of elevation changes of 80 ft in 600 ft of line distance and limited water availability demanded some unusual solutions. To compound the problem, growing space on a small hilly acreage looks more like grandma's crazy quilt than an efficient, high tech nursery facility. Level space for container beds and shade houses does not come in regular shapes and sizes Small sprinkler patterns were needed to avoid waste. The NAAN 7102 has been most useful in production of 2- and

Wheel Line Irrigation Systems

Author: F. Allan Elliott

PP: 235

In 1985 Carlton expanded its tree production and also planted shrubs as a part of the production schedule. This increased the acreage that needed to be irrigated and maintained. We needed a more efficient method of irrigating in order to cope with the new demands. At this time we pressed into service two "Wade Rain" wheel lines and movers we had received with the purchase of some property.

The advantage of this system is that the pipe does not have to be disconnected, moved by hand, and reconnected. One person can irrigate many acres by just starting up the power unit and rolling the lines to the next position. It is fast, easy and safe. The system we utilize has 64 in. diameter wheels, 4 in × 40 ft pipe sections and Rainbird 30 sprinklers.

Cost for 1200 ft of wheel line and one power mover runs between $6,500 and $7,250. This is about four to five times the cost of a regular hand line. However, costs are recovered through labor savings, as one person can irrigate several hundred acres

Drip Irrigation In Containers

Author: Mike Scott

PP: 235

Traditionally high dollar crops such as grafted Japanese maples, Stewartia, and Parrotia are difficult to propagate and slow to grow. Their growth response in polyhouses under uniform conditions, however, is the opposite. Fairway Nursery, in looking for an efficient, uniform delivery system for water and fertilizer, opted for a drip irrigation system.

The system is very simple and consists of a polyethylene feeder pipe into which a multi-outlet dripper is plumbed. Each dripper feeds eight regulating sticks that are placed in the pots. The drippers operate under low pressure, 35 psi and deliver 0.25 gph per stick at a 97% uniformity. The most important component of any drip system is filtration. A 140-mesh, 2-in. Arkal disc filter along with Netafim's design of a turbulent flow path in the regulating sticks prevent clogging from particulate matter in the water.

We are able to irrigate 1800, 5-gal containers on 2700 sq ft. Water usage is approximately 900 gal per day as opposed to 1780 gal

Rainguns as an Irrigation Option

Author: Lowen Pankey

PP: 236

The raingun is a large capacity impact sprinkler, mounted on a sled, recoiled by a mechanically driven drum.
Drip Irrigation on Slopes

Author: Lucile Whitman

PP: 238

At Whitman Farms we grow unusual trees in root-control bags, tree seedlings, and cuttings of Ribes and other species Each enterprise demands it's own irrigation system, but by far the most difficult to manage is the root-control bag. Root-control bags have always been a challenge to the irrigator, so some guidelines have been developed The most important is that the bag should be filled with the soil removed from the hole in which the bag is placed If an amended soil, or heaven-forbid, potting medium is used in the bag, the much finer clay particles of the natural soil outside the bag will draw the moisture from the bag. I know this is true because I use potting medium in my bags I also use 10 in. root-control bags in which I can grow a tree up to 2 in. caliper The final result is a healthy, excellently rooted plant that I can lift easily.

However, it has taken ten years to develop a suitable irrigation system. Since we have very limited water, drip was the only option, but there are


Author: Bob Schilpzand

PP: 239

The availability of water and conservation of water is and will be a very important topic for the 1990s.

McGill Nursery does not have an abundance of water available. We don't have any wells and our only water supply comes from a small spring-fed pond. If we start pumping out of that pond for big overhead sprinkler lines, it will not take long to empty. So, McGill Nursery was forced to conserve water years ago.

Our solution came in the form of a DRIP-TAPE system. DRIP-TAPE is manufactured by T-Tape Systems, San Diego, California The water is pumped from the pond to the "DRIPHUT". In the driphut are the filters and regulators. From there, the water flows into a network of plastic pipes. In the plastic pipes are hook-up tubes every 44 in. (44 in. is our row spacing). When we start planting, we hook the drip-tape to the hook-up tubes and we are ready to go.

After the initial investment of pump, filters and regulators, the system is relatively inexpensive. Our drip-tape comes in 7500 ft

How to Commercially Graft Grevilleas for Profit or Preservation

Author: Des Boorman

PP: 57

The genus Grevillea contains 251 described species, 247 of which occur throughout most of Australia; two of these species overlap into Papua New Guinea and a further five overlap into nearby islands Within Australia, the only areas without grevilleas are central western N.S W., part of Tasmania and the near Great Australian Bight between Adelaide and east of Esperance (Wrigley and Fagg, 1989).

Certain Grevillea species are at risk due to a restricted distribution. This may have occurred naturally due to soil type or through habitat destruction by livestock and development, or the spread of non-endemic diseases such as Phytophthora cinnamomi.

The disease problem can be circumvented through use of Grevillea robusta as a rootstock. Grafting allows large-scale production of rare species.

Integrated Pest Management in Forest Nurseries of the USDA Forest Service

Author: Sally J. Campbell

PP: 240

There are twelve USDA Forest Service nurseries in the United States; all grow tree seedlings for reforestation or revegetation/rehabilitation projects. Many have been in existence since the early 1900s, the Wind River Nursery on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington State was set up in 1909 to grow seedlings to reforest the Yacolt burn, a huge area in southwest Washington destroyed by forest fire. The youngest nursery is the J. Herbert Stone Nursery in southwest Oregon, which produced its first seedling in 1978.
IPM Monitoring Systems for Nursery Production

Author: James G. Todd

PP: 245

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an approach to pest control developed during the past 30 years. It can be defined as use of all available techniques to maintain pest populations below economic injury levels (Pfadt, 1978) Pest control has shifted toward IPM because pesticides failed to provide permanent suppression of pests and because of concerns for the environmental and safety risks of pesticides. Adoption of IPM has been credited with reducing insecticide use in agriculture during the 1980s (Zilberman et al., 1991). IPM can provide these benefits to nurseries without sacrificing productivity or quality, if it is applied properly.

The three elements of an IPM program are. economic thresholds, control methods, and monitoring techniques. Monitoring binds thresholds and controls together into a workable IPM program It measures pest populations against the economic threshold to ensure that controls are timed correctly and are used only when necessary. Intensive monitoring systems

Entomopathogenic Nematode use in Nurseries and Greenhouses

Author: Kirk A. Smith

PP: 249

Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis and their associated bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp.) have shown great potential as biological control agents for a variety of insect pests including several curculionid species, or so-called "root weevils" and sciarid flies, such as fungus gnats. The nematodes are able to kill hosts rapidly, are easy to apply, and are exempted from federal and state registration requirements in most countries because of their safety to mammals and plants. Difficulties in production, storage, formulation, quality control, and application technology had limited their success for market introductions in the past. Recent public pressure to limit environmental contamination associated with chemical insecticide use has resulted in a dramatic increase in research conducted by scientists in government, universities, and industry to overcome some of these technological difficulties. Industry has now seen the development of three major
Diagnosis of Phytophthora Using ELISA Test Kits

Author: Jay W. Pscheidt

PP: 251

New ELISA test kits specific to the genus Phytophthora were evaluated in the Plant Disease Clinic at Oregon State University. All pure cultures of Phytophthora spp. tested produced a positive kit result. However, some Pythium sp. and Peronospora sp. also produced a positive kit result. Other common root-rotting fungi such as Rhizoctonia sp., Armillaria sp. and Cylindrocladium sp. resulted in negative kit reactions. The type and location of tissue sampled was critical for correct kit results and interpretation. Approximately 50% of the samples sent to the Plant Disease Clinic tested positive for Phytophthora and were diagnosed as having a Phytophthora-related disease.
Use of Pheromones in Pest Management1

Author: Helmut Riedl

PP: 255

Insects have a highly developed chemical communication system. They use chemical signals more than any other animal group to communicate among themselves and with the outside world All messenger substances which regulate behavior between individuals of the same species are called pheromones. The pheromone communication system is most advanced in social insects. Pheromones can have many different functions. For example, sex pheromones help bring males and females together for mating and reproduction. Alarm pheromones are commonly found in ants, bees, and wasps to alert the colony about imminent danger from an intruder. Ants can also produce a trail pheromone which guides members of the colony to a recently discovered food source. Aggregation pheromones are used by bark beetles (Scolytidae) during mass attacks to attract mates and increase the number of beetles attacking a tree. Of all the behavioral chemicals which are involved in within-species communication, sex pheromones have found
Propagation of Oregon's Rare and Endangered Plants

Author: Linda C. McMahan

PP: 261

The Need to Conserve Native Species. Of the estimated 250,000 different kinds of plants on earth—species, subspecies, and varieties—over one in every ten is threatened with extinction in their wild habitats. Approximately 25,000 of these rare and endangered plants are in the continental United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The Pacific Northwest has 250 to 300 of them.

In 1984, a national organization called the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) was formed to use the resources of botanical gardens and arboreta to help conserve rare and endangered native plant species. The Berry Botanic Garden was one of the charter participating institutions for the CPC, and is responsible for the plants of our region, including Oregon, Washington, and northern California. We are joined by 19 other botanic gardens, including the Missouri Botanical Garden, New York Botanical Garden, the University of California at Berkeley Botanical Garden, and the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in Claremont,

Implications of Propagation Techniques on Landscape Performance

Author: Keith Warren

PP: 266

According to its Constitution, the I.P P.S. is made up of people "actively engaged in plant propagation". Many of us could be called plant producers as well as plant propagators But few, if any of us are landscape architects, landscape contractors, or urban foresters. We are concerned with propagating and producing plants, and not with using and maintaining them. Plant propagation, not plant performance, is our interest But the way we propagate a plant can have a long term effect on its ultimate performance in the landscape.

The fact that understock choice affects landscape performance in trees has long been known. Budding Acer rubrum cultivars onto A. rubrum seedling understock produces trees which exhibit a 30 to 40% frequency of delayed incompatibility. These incompatible trees snap off cleanly at the bud point, but often not until they reach 3- or 4- inch stem diameter. This problem has been almost eliminated from the nursery trade by propagating A. rubrum cultivars on their own roots

Comparison of Propagation Methods on Red Maple

Author: Bob Schilpzand

PP: 270

When we talk about propagation objectives of red maples, we always have in mind the numbers we want to plant in the field and the quality of seedlings, softwood cuttings, or tissue-culture liners.

We at McGill's;s Nursery try to start with the best possible plant, so we can dig the best possible product 1 or 2 years down the road.

Besides this, our goal is to have a live tree in every hole Just to give you a little information, we went through our records of many years and came up with the following percentages in comparing budding, softwood cuttings, and tissue-culture plants:

Understocks for Rare Acer Species

Author: J.D. Vertrees

PP: 272

This short summation of the trials of interspecific grafting represents only about 25% of the almost 200 species of Acer (maple). New species are still being identified, especially out of China. These tests were made over a twenty-year period to determine the compatible and acceptable understock for the desired species and/or cultivars of some of the common and rare maples.

Grafting on proper understock is necessary because:

  1. Cultivars generally do not come true from seed, cannot be named for the parent, and must be propagated only asexually.
  2. Seed from most desirable species is extremely rare, unobtainable, or the germination often may be entirely undependable. Also, many species are quite easily hybridized in open pollination situations found in collections or arboreta.
  3. While it is possible to put roots on almost any species or cultivar, these rooted plants often lack vigor and will fail in a period of one to eight or more years. There are exceptions to this within certain
Harvesting of Bareroot Nursery Plants

Author: Don Richards

PP: 276

Carlton Plants is currently producing over 500 cultivars of deciduous trees and shrubs. All items are harvested, handled, and delivered as bareroot plants. This creates some unique challenges when it comes to harvesting, storage, and finally, transplanting of our products.

There are many factors that influence the harvesting dates of deciduous trees and shrubs. As an Oregon nursery, we employ several methods for determining the proper digging date to meet both production and sales objectives.

The major factors that influence our decision are: (not necessarily in this order.)

  1. General health and condition of the plants.
  2. Carbohydrate reserves in the root system.
  3. Visual defoliation status of the plants.
  4. Field conditions and weather.
  5. Requested delivery dates from our customers.
  6. Past history of the plants regarding specific digging dates.

In Oregon, we are always anxious to begin harvesting before the fall rains begin. However, we must be patient when it comes to

Phase Change Materials for Solar Heating of Greenhouses

Author: Keith V. Garzoli

PP: 59


Greenhouse heating frequently represents an important cost in nursery operations. Many greenhouses currently in use are of a European design and do not perform well under Australian conditions, particularly in terms of their energy requirements and ventilation performance Currently, methods of extracting and storing heat generated in the greenhouse itself, for later use for greenhouse heating, are being investigated. This is the basis of solar greenhouse technology.

Recent research has led to the development of accurate methods of determining the rate of heat accumulation in greenhouses exposed to solar radiation (Garzoli, 1984). Air inside the greenhouse is heated by convective transfer from the floor, plants and other surfaces that absorb solar radiation. In conventional greenhouses, excess heat generated during the day is vented to waste; that is, once the greenhouse air is heated to above its required setpoint temperature, ventilators are opened to exhaust hot air

Effect of Slow-Release Fertilizer Rate on Root and Shoot Growth of Container-Grown Kalmia latifolia ‘Elf’, ‘Freckles’, and ‘Goodrich’

Author: Rita L. Hummel, Diane W. Privett

PP: 278

Kalmia latifolia ‘Elf’, ‘Freckles’ and ‘Goodrich’ were transplanted from 1 gal (#1) containers into 3 gal (#3) containers in a fir bark/sphagnum peat medium (4:1, v/v) amended with Micromax at 1.75 lb/yd3. Osmocote 18–6–12 was topdressed in a split application at the following rates: 0.5 lb N/yd3, 1.0 lb N/yd3, and 2.0 lb N/yd3. Results indicated that growth response to fertilizer rate was cultivar-dependent. ‘Elf’ shoot and root growth increased with increasing fertility while shoot growth of ‘Goodrich’ was not increased at the high rate and its root growth decreased as fertility increased. Foliage color of all three cultivars was improved by increasing fertility; however, the flower-bud set decreased as the fertilizer rate increased.
Germination of Madrona Seed

Author: Ray Maleike, Rita L. Hummel

PP: 283


Nursery plants are propagated by seeds for many reasons (Hartmann and Kester, 1983). One important objective of seedling production is to have uniform germination, emergence, and growth of the seedlings Seed from many commonly grown north and south temperate zone plants often exhibit one or more types of dormancy which may require an after-ripening period in nature, or an artificial chemical/ physical manipulation for germination Physiological dormancy is a common dormancy encountered. It is usually broken in nature by a chill period (Dirr and Heuser, 1987; Hartmann and Kester, 1983). Artificially this may sometimes be done with the application of gibberellic acid (Bretzloff and Pellett, 1979) Artificial removal of these various dormancies usually leads to increased and more uniform germination and ultimately results in more uniform plants at sales time. This research was designed to more accurately determine the germination requirements of a native Pacific Northwest

Germination of Cornus canadensis Seed

Author: Ray Maleike, Rita L. Hummel

PP: 286


Cornus canadensis (bunchberry or dwarf cornel) is a Pacific Northwest native perennial that attains a height of 7 to 20+ cm (3 to 9+ in ) and spreads by subsurface stems Bunchberry ranges from Greenland across northern Canada to Alaska and as far south as Maryland, South Dakota, New Mexico and California (Dirr 1990; Schopmeyer, 1974). This low-growing, herbaceous plant generally grows best in moist, shady areas but tolerates drier shady areas also. It has few pest problems.

Bunchberry flowers are small, greenish-white terminal clusters, subtended by four showy white bracts borne in a fashion similar to Cornus florida and C. kousa. The fruits are ¼ in. scarlet clusters of drupes, ripening in August and continuing to be effective into the winter. Autumn color is light red to crimson.

Propagation has been by digging mats of the material, seed, and more recently, by tissue culture (Dirr and Heuser, 1987; McMillan-Browse, 1979; Bruce Briggs, Briggs Nursery, Olympia,

Correlation of Phenolics with Etiolated and Light-Grown Shoots Of Carpinus betulus Stock Plants4

Author: John M. Englert, Brian K. Maynard, Nina L. Bassuk

PP: 290

Phenolic compounds are believed to play an important role in adventitious root formation, though the mechanism by which phenolics act is still largely unknown. In this study, changes in methanol-extractable phenolic compounds were characterized during the early growth of light-grown shoots and etiolated shoots of Carpinus betulus L. ‘Fastigiata’. Two dimensional thin-layer chromatography of stem extracts produced twenty-eight fluorescent spots, many of which were tentatively identified as specific phenolics or belonging to a particular class of phenolic compounds. Changes in phenolic compounds were followed for 7 weeks in light-grown shoots or 4 weeks in previously etiolated and then light-grown shoots. Etiolated shoots initially had fewer phenolic compounds, but by the second week of exposure to light had a phenolic composition similar to light grown shoots at week 0. Some of the phenolic compounds in light-grown shoots disappeared after 7 weeks.
Fertigation and Nitrogen Movement in Field Nurseries

Author: Richard E. Bir, G.D. Hoyt

PP: 298


Water use efficiency and nutrient movement are among the most important factors facing nurserymen. Soil loss due to erosion can be reduced by 92% (Cripps and Bates, 1987) and plant growth increased (Skroch, et al , 1986) by planting ground covers instead of keeping aisles bare.

Nitrogen (N) is the fertilizer element used in greatest quantity by nurseries EPA has set a limit of 10 ppm nitrate-N as the maximum level tolerated in drinking water All North Carolina water has been designated as "highest use - drinking water"; that is, all fresh water for nursery use can legally be claimed for drinking water and must meet the 10 ppm nitrate-N limit. North Carolina nurseries need to (1) use the most efficient means for irrigating crops, (2) use the least N fertilizer resulting in profitable growth, (3) know whether 10 ppm nitrate-N or more leave the nursery and, (4) adopt practices that limit the runoff potential for nitrate-N.

Recycling Runoff Water for Irrigation

Author: Tim Brubaker

PP: 302

Container nurseries are facing one of the biggest challenges of their time. Pressures are increasing to utilize resources more effectively and to work in an environmentally sound manner. Water use and containment of fertilizer and pesticide runoff are two of the most critical concerns. Recycling nursery runoff for irrigation provides an effective means for reusing water resources and minimizing runoff of fertilizer or other amendments into the environment.
Environment-Friendly Plant Production System: The Closed, Insulated Pallet1

Author: Bruce A. Briggs, James L. Green

PP: 304

The Closed, Insulated Pallet System (CIPS) conserves resources. Plastic mulch, rigid plastic containers, poly for overwintering, fumigation covers and herbicides can be eliminated; fertilizer and water inputs can be reduced by 80% to 90% by conversion to CIPS. Benefits of CIPS include: environmental effects of production are reduced or eliminated, productivity is increased, differential costs of production are comparable or less than in conventional systems, marginal or non-productive land can be used, and labor conditions and labor efficiency are enhanced.
Polyethylene Recycling

Author: Don Bailey

PP: 308

The above topic could fill volumes This presentation is not that large, and the following may serve as an outline:
  1. We have a problem that will not go away.
  2. We have tried several ideas.
  3. We have new ideas.
  4. We have some ideas for results.
Innovations In Container Production

Author: Ken Tilt, Bill Goff, John Olive

PP: 313

Nursery container plant producers have been struggling with a number of chronic problems since containers were first introduced. A few of these include keeping water available throughout the day and the season, reducing labor requirements, minimizing water runoff, moderating temperature extremes in the root zone of exposed containers and reducing spread of water-borne pathogens. During the past few years several ideas have been tried as possible solutions to these problems.

In-ground containers were discussed at this meeting last year. Since that time a number of nursery producers and researchers throughout the Southeast have tried this idea and are pleased with the early results.

Other innovations have been subirrigation, Environmental Friendly containers, Soil Sock and the Poly-Jacket/Water Saver. Also, growers now seem more interested in automated potting machines.

Over the past two years I have worked with some innovative nursery producers who have developed special containers.

Breaking The Language Barrier

Author: R. Denny Blew

PP: 316

Our company is called "a miniature United Nations". In our 16 years we at Centerton Nursery have achieved phenomenal growth. The credit must go to our employees, who have represented 11 nations This has enabled us to gain some insight to human barriers.

"What do you see when you look at an immigrant?" Those who consider hiring immigrants see barriers. "What do you see when you look at an immigrant?" The answer to that lies in what you see .. .. in yourself.

Our international corps developed in an effort to repay a debt, I was once an immigrant. My dad took a job in Ecuador, South America I know what it's like to be thrown into a culture where you don't speak the language—to be the outsider.

There were other Americans in Ecuador I watched them "hermitize", erecting micro-Americas of card clubs and coffee klatches from which they never emerged.

But I was encouraged by my new-found Ecuadorian friends to immerse myself in their society. This I did and received compassion and understanding in return

Walnut Propagation Using Bench Grafting

Author: Thomas D. Deering

PP: 64


The deciduous tree Juglans regia (English walnut) is of worldwide importance both for its edible nuts and valuable timber. Australia annually imports the majority of its walnut requirements from the USA and China.

Nurseries attempting to vegetatively propagate walnuts typically experience difficulties. Propagation from cuttings is generally not used because the results are too variable (Lagerstedt, 1981). Grafting and budding are more successful (Harrison, 1978, Graves, 1965), but in Australia, even these methods are often associated with low percentage take and inconsistent results Similar problems have been reported in other countries (Avanzato and Tamponi, 1988).

This research aimed to develop a successful walnut grafting technique which would enable nurserymen to rapidly supply the local industry with superior cultivars Work was performed over a period of two years (1988–89) using bench grafting in conjunction with a hot callusing device (HCD) (Lagerstedt, 1981). This

The Center for Urban Ecology's Dogwood Anthracnose Research Program

Author: James L. Sherald, Tammy M. Hunter

PP: 319

Periodically, new forest diseases suddenly arise which can have significant and lasting effects on the environment Chestnut blight, which was introduced into the United States at the turn of the century, and Dutch elm disease, which appeared in the early 1930s, are the most noted examples. Recently, two of our native dogwood, the flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L, and the western flowering dogwood, C. nuttallii Audub., have been threatened by a new disease (Byther and Davidson, 1979; Hibben and Daughtry, 1988; Salogga and Ammirati, 1983) Dogwood anthracnose, caused by a coelomycetous fungus in the genus Discula, was first reported affecting C. florida in the northeast in the mid 1970s (Hibben and Daughtry, 1988). Interestingly, the disease was also found affecting C. nuttallii in the Pacific Northwest at about the same time and now occurs in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and British Columbia (Byther and Davidson, 1979).

In about 15 years dogwood anthracnose has moved south along the

Propagation Under the Pines

Author: Tom Saunders

PP: 322

For the past ten years, we have done most of our summer propagation under a loblolly pine overstory. Initially we did this due to the lack of a better area. However, our success through years of refinement has kept us from looking for a better system.

We use Lerio 18- × 18-in. flats, which hold 64/flat of the #425 peat pots—a round, 2 ¼-in diameter, 3-in. deep pot. I like the Lerio flat because an employee is 62% more efficient when he moves it than he is when he moves a 10- × 20-in flat

Old flats are not sterilized, and we project a minimum of four years of use out of new ones. With this in mind, the high cost of the flat is easier to digest. Disregarding the time value of money, it's less than ½ ¢ per unit per year.

The propagation medium we use is four parts pine bark, two parts horticultural-grade perlite, one part peatmoss. The pine bark is not screened and is the same as is used in container production Because of the high fertility levels maintained in the containers, we do not

The Effects of Selected Herbicides on Propagation of Chestnut Oaks in Containers.

Author: J.A. Reeder, C.H. Gilliam, G.R. Wehtje, D.B. South

PP: 325

Chestnut oak, Quercus prinus, is a medium-sized tree native to poor, dry, upland, and rocky soils from southern Maine to South Carolina and Alabama. The acorns are sweet and highly prized for wildlife food, while the bark is rich in tannin (Dirr, 1983). With the introduction of deep containers for tree production the trend has shifted to seed propagation in containers. Propagation in containers allows year-round production and reduces transplanting shock when transplanting to the field.

Because of increasing hand labor cost, many people are using herbicides to control weeds in seed beds. South (1984) reported nurseries in the past have relied upon fumigation with methyl bromide for weed control. Herbicides are an alternative to soil fumigation.

Graunke and Gouin (1983) tested several herbicides with mixed results on northern red oak, black walnut, loblolly pine, dogwood, and tulip poplar. Devinrol and Modown applied in combination reduced population and growth of dogwood and tulip

Gibberellic Acid, Scarification, and Stratification Treatments for Quicker Germination of Fringetree Seed

Author: Phillip C. Flanagan, Willard T. Witte

PP: 330

White fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus is a native plant of exceptional ornamental value for its fleecy white bloom in midspring. Unfortunately, it is not well known by the average homeowner nor is it readily available in landscape nurseries or garden centers. Nurseries propagate fringetree by seed. Seeds require two years to germinate and remain in the seed bed an additional two years before transplanting to the field. Seedlings are grown in the field for three to four years to produce a salable size plant 3 to 4 ft. Six– to 7-ft fringetrees are in demand, but they require a total of 10 or more years to produce from seed (Hiscock, 1990).

Up to 1987, propagation of white fringetree by cuttings had not been successful (Dirr, 1990; Dirr and Heuser, 1987). At the Southern Region Plant Propagators' Society meeting in October 1990, a grower reported successful development of a population of rootable juvenile plants. The grower successfully rooted cuttings from 4% of a large seedling

Outdoor Mist Propagation

Author: Victor M. Priapi

PP: 335


Over the last 35 years Angelica Nurseries has grown to its present size of approximately 2,000 acres. Along with the increase in acreage and production has come a need for large quantities of high quality rooted cuttings.

In our propagation department we produce nearly 90% of our own plant material by cuttings, seed, and grafting. Our annual rooted-cutting production is nearly 750,000 of which 500,000 are rooted in outdoor mist beds.

Our system of propagation is exceptionally well suited to our production needs. It is a low-cost, highly efficient method of producing large numbers of high quality, uniformly rooted cuttings.

Back to the Basics in Propagation

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr

PP: 338


Powder (talc) formulations of auxins are still used to stimulate rooting of cuttings. A problem with talcs is that they may not be uniformly applied at the base of cuttings and they are easily removed when cuttings are inserted into the propagation medium. Spray or quick-dip applications of 1 to 5 sec are the preferred methods to apply auxins since a more uniform response and potentially better penetration of auxins occurs. Indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) are the two most common forms of auxin used singly or in combination in commercial propagation.

Container Tree and Shrub Propagation and Production in Oklahoma

Author: Nick Hand

PP: 343

Container tree and shrub propagation in Oklahoma is a broad topic, so I will describe several techniques we use that might be of interest, plus some general topics such as spacing and potting media.
Cleft Grafting of Magnolia grandiflora

Author: Jim Berry

PP: 345

Magnolia grandiflora produced from seeds are highly irregular in form, leaf texture, density, cold hardiness, and bloom characteristics. Seeds from uniform trees produce offspring of diverse phenotypes. Opportunities exist for asexual propagation of many very fine selections. Some cultivars that we produce are ‘Little Gem’, ‘Glen St Mary’, ‘Samuel Sommer’, and ‘Russet’. ‘Edith Bogue’, ‘Claudia Wannamaker’, ‘D D Blancher’ and ‘Bracken's Brown Beauty’ are other cultivars with market potential. I think ‘Little Gem’ and ‘D.D. Blancher’ are the best cultivars.

Over the years we have made numerous attempts to root several cultivars ‘Samuel Sommer’ roots fairly well; the other cultivars year after year have been almost total failures. Two years ago a friend, Mitchell McGee of Poplarville, Mississippi, called to tell me of his success with cleft grafting magnolias. I made a special trip to visit, and the following procedure is one that he worked out. In January 1991 I followed his procedure and was pleased with the

Germplasm Program at the USNA

Author: Edward Garvey

PP: 347

The United States National Arboretum has established a germplasm repository for woody landscape plants It is part of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and shares its goals and objectives of collecting, establishing, maintaining, distributing, evaluating, and preserving high levels of genetic diversity inherent in its target species.

Advisory Groups. This repository is unlike the other NPGS sites in that it's responsible for 175 genera of woody plants versus one to 40 for most collections. Because of this, we must conduct many of our activities differently; we rely heavily on cooperators.

Advisory groups are the first major cooperative effort common to all NPGS crops. These groups advise the NPGS on how to carry out its objectives with a particular crop. The Crop Advisory Committee for Woody Landscape Plants is a very strong group composed of representatives from the nursery industry, the botanic community, the universities, Forest Service and American Association of

Straight Line Sticking

Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 350


Quality is the characteristic that makes a nursery profitable. If we have quality people producing a quality product and provide quality service, our business is assured of success. The start of quality in the nursery is the propagation department. The purpose of this paper is to share with you the simple method we use to begin our quest for quality.

Optimizing Root Initiation by Controlling Exposure to Auxin

Author: Roderick A. Drew

PP: 68

The time of exposure to medium containing 10 µM IBA to achieve maximum rooting (96%) of papaya (Carica papaya) shoots in vitro was 3 days. One hundred percent root initiation was obtained with neem (Azadirachta indica) shoots after exposure to 10 µM IBA for 4 days. For coffee (Coffea arabica) shoots rooted in vivo, 15 h exposure to 100 mgl-1 IBA was optimal in terms of rooting percentage. In lieu of transfer to hormone-free media after 3 days (papaw) or 4 days (neem), good root initiation was achieved by 3 or 4 days dark incubation with medium containing 10 µM IBA and 10 µM riboflavin before transfer to the light, or overlaying of medium containing 10 µM IBA with 100 µM riboflavin after 3 or 4 days light incubation.
The Acclimation of Tissue Cultured Plants

Author: Mike Bracken

PP: 352


Success in acclimating tissue cultured plants balances on the fulcrum of carefulness. Tissue cultured plants are similar to a newborn baby in an incubator. The work is critical and each stage demands close attention. Trained professionals assure that the process can be done successfully.

I have developed seven Ps that direct us through each stage of the process:

Propagating vs. Selling Liners: Can You Sell What You Propagate?

Author: Wayne Sawyer

PP: 354

When deciding whether or not to grow and sell rooted liners, first consider the requirements for marketing your product. Often more time is spent gathering information on growing and caring for plants than on selling them. Because most nurseries are owner operated, the owner must not only know how to produce the plants but also know how to sell them.

I have developed six major categories which you as a professional should carefully plan and execute to establish a successful liner business.

Marketing. Marketing your product is number one Without a marketing plan to sell what you produce you will soon be out of business You must determine what cultivars or varieties of liners will sell best You must also determine the quantities that should be grown to meet the anticipated demand without overproducing, and what size the liners should be to meet the market you are targeting. Timeliness is also a key factor. The liners must be ready when the market is ready.

Be prepared to advertise

A Look at Propagation at a Diversified Nursery

Author: David Threatt

PP: 356

Mr. Amon Baucom started Baucom's Nursery in 1956. Mr. Baucom is still active in the business. His two sons Chip and Gary are now also involved. Mr Baucom had the foresight to convert a grading, landscape business to a container nursery and also started seven retail stores in Charlotte.

The goal of our company is to offer a full product line, with salable plants every day of the year.

In June 1988 ground was broken in Mt. Dora, Florida for a second nursery. Its purpose was to have a facility in a warmer climate to produce foliage and germinate seed.

Baucom's Nursery totals 300 acres in use including both the Florida and North Carolina operations Two and one-half million square feet are under greenhouse plastic, of which 360,000 square feet are under mist.

I am attempting today to show very briefly the diversity of the propagation at our nursery. Each nursery present today has its own methods based on its own variables. I would like to share some ideas we have gained through trial and

Germination of Doubly Dormant Woody Ornamental Seeds

Author: Steven E. Newman

PP: 359


Many temperate zone plants have developed highly specialized organs for protection from would-be foragers, drought, and temperature extremes. For example, Opuntia spines protect it from animals; barley awns help dissipate heat; corms, bulbs and tubers serve as reservoirs of food and water; winter bud scales protect shoot apices form cold winter winds; and seed serve to transmit genetic information accumulated in response to the environment to new generations (Janick, 1986).

Probably the most important adaptation and the most intriguing mechanism temperate plants have developed is the ability to survive the long winter months in a state of rest Herbaceous perennials survive by underground storage structures, woody plants by winter buds and massive root systems, and annual plants by seeds (Khan, et al. 1977, Oosting, 1956).

Seeds are the primary means of surviving and increasing the population. Seeds rest through conditions unfavorable for growth by mechanisms best

Fire Ants: Research Activities and New Regulations

Author: Timothy C. Lockley

PP: 365


Imported fire ants are unique pests causing a wide variety of problems ranging from medical, to agricultural, to structural, to ecological. The imported fire ant has been in the United States only a short time, as the first specimens of the black imported fire ant (BIFA), Solenopsis richteri, were collected in Mobile in 1928. They were introduced into the port of Mobile around 1918, possibly from discarded ballast or packing from cargo ships. Until 1912 and the passage of the Plant Quarantine Act, it was common practice to discard packing from ships once they were unloaded. Soleopsis richteri spread very slowly after its introduction into the United States. By 1931, BIFA was found in only three counties, Mobile and Fairhope in Alabama and Baldwin County, Florida. Sometime within the next 10 years, another species of imported fire ant arrived on our shores, again in Mobile. This new invader, the red imported fire ant (RIFA), S. invicta, proved to be much more adaptable

Hardy Geranium and Perennial Propagation

Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 373


In the 1980s the gardening public's demand for greater variety combined with nostalgia for long established favorites helped fuel the resurgence of some old time perennials. These perennials were made new to the public by the introduction of many improved cultivars.

In response to this demand our nursery, like many others, found itself not only growing perennial in ever increasing numbers, but soon establishing a perennial program as an extension of our regular operations. At present we propagate mostly by cuttings and divisions and grow 490 cultivars in containers ranging in size from liners to a 1-gal container.

Seed Priming for Improved Germination in Herbaceous Perennial Plants

Author: Robert L. Geneve, Nining Wartidiningsih, Sharon T. Kester

PP: 376

Seed germination is an important component for the efficient production of annual and many herbaceous perennial plants. The high cost of greenhouse production, coupled with the increasing expense of seed, make techniques for increased germination efficiency an important consideration for the greenhouse manager. There is a trend for increased seedling plug production for herbaceous perennials which demands high seed germination. A demand which can sometimes be difficult to achieve considering that many herbaceous perennials have not been subjected to the same breeding selection and seed quality considerations as annual plants (i.e. petunia).

Seed priming is a seed pre-treatment which can significantly enhance germination efficiency in a diverse group of seed-grown plants including agronomic, vegetable and flower crops (Bradford, 1986; Finch-Savage, 1991). In some cases, germination percentage can be improved by seed priming. This is particularly evident for poor quality seed lots or

Micropropagation of Alstroemeria Hybrids

Author: Mark P. Bridgen, Joseph J. King, Charlotte Pedersen, Mark A. Smi

PP: 380

Alstroemeria hybrids are grown for their cut flowers and, more recently, as potted and garden plants. Their beautiful, large inflorescences with colors of purple, lavender, red, pink, yellow, orange, white and bicolors have made them the tenth most popular cut flower at the Dutch flower auction. At the auction, their U.S. dollar value in 1990 was approximately $35,263,000 In addition to having beautiful colors, the flowers have long postharvest vase lives of 2–3 weeks. The plants prefer cool temperatures for growth, and once flowering has been initiated, an everblooming habit produces a high yield of flowers until flowering has ceased.

Alstroemeria is traditionally propagated asexually by the division of their rhizomes. The triploid nature of most commercial cut flower cultivars makes asexual propagation essential. However, this procedure is too slow and tedious for large, commercial propagators. Consequently, the dissemination of new cultivars is delayed and the cost of propagules is

Propagating Herbaceous Perennials: More Than Meets the Eye

Author: David J. Beattie

PP: 385


Herbaceous perennials are one of the fastest growing segments of ornamental horticulture. Like woody perennials, they live from year to year. However, in most instances they are grown primarily for their floral display The plantsmen propagating and raising herbaceous perennials are neither traditional floriculturists nor nurserymen, but something in between, and use many of the cultural methods common to both groups.

Herbaceous perennials grow above ground during the growing season, but with the onset of short days and freezing weather, the tops die and the plant retreats to an underground storage organ. These storage organs assume many sizes, shapes and names. They may be fibrous roots, bulbs, tuberous roots, tubers, rhizomes, stolons, crowns, or pips. These storage organs all share the same function, acting as a reservoir of growth regulators, water, and nutrients which propel the plant into growth the following season. They also share many propagation similarities

Propagation and Production of Three Members of the Ericaceae Family—Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens and Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus

Author: Christopher S. Rogers

PP: 392

In the past few years native plants have become increasingly popular. Pressures put on propagators to meet this demand are overwhelming, and it is too easy to collect or purchase collected material of many native species. I believe that it is important to propagate these plants whenever possible and not destroy their native populations.

Epigaea repens has been grown horticulturally for over 200 years; it was introduced in 1736. It is commonly known as the trailing arbutus, May-flower, or ground laurel. Epigaea is uncommon in gardens because of its tendency to fade away after transplanting from the wild. It grows best in a woodland setting on an acidic sandy loam. Once established, one can look forward to its extremely fragrant white to pink flowers that appear in March through May. The glossy evergreen foliage lies flat on the ground and plants can attain a size of 2 ft in diameter. Epigaea repens is the state flower of Massachusetts.

As soon as the fruits form, I cut them in half to