Volume 40

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Author: Luigi Bazzani

PP: 38

I propose to explain in detail one type of graft—root grafting—a very old method but from the point of "propagation", very much neglected. It is simple and works well with all apple, cherry, plum, peach, nectarine, and pear cultivars. Many ornamentals may also be propagated by this method—rhododendrons, camellias, wisterias, and some difficult conifers not easily produced by cuttings. Figure 1 illustrates the various type of root grafts that I will describe.

This type of graft can be made using a whole root or pieces of roots. For a whole root graft, it is advantageous that both scion and root be of the same size.

Usually the whip and tongue method is used but also the wedge or saddle graft can be used. The length of the root should be not less than half the length of the scion. If both are the same length, even better. This will depend a lot on the internode length of each cultivar or species, availability of material, and the depth to which the graft is to be planted.

If scion


Author: Gail E. Barth

PP: 79


Controlled-release (CR) formulations of insecticides have been investigated in Australia since 1979 for control of soil insect pests such as sugar cane grub, or more recently, cockchafer beetle in turfgrass. Since some of the pesticides formulated in this fashion have been systemic chemicals, the potential exists for their use in containerised nursery stock to control sucking pests such as aphids or scale. In addition, there are several root-inhabiting pests (e.g., root mealy bug and weevil larvae) common in nursery stock that require fairly toxic, persistent chemicals for control. A product providing a safer formulation of such chemicals as well as the potential for once-only application, could have significant potential in the nursery industry.

In 1986–87, the Nursery Industry Association of South Australia (SA) and the Australian Special Rural Research Fund sponsored trialwork by our department to look at the potential application within the nursery industry of the


Author: John A. Wott

PP: 472

Simultaneous establishment of many formal urban horticulture programs has occurred within the last decade. One of the first to be established was the Center for Urban Horticulture at the University of Washington (7). Now in its tenth year, the Center has established the following program priorities: to build a national center for scientific research; to train leaders in research and professional practice; to build an interdisciplinary program; to build a system for distributing information; and to develop advocacy for trees in cities.

The following summary emphasizes several areas of research and public outreach currently in the Center's programs.


Author: T.E. Welsh

PP: 478

The calla lily (Zantedeschia) is not new to floriculture. Members of the genus have been cultivated in greenhouses or outdoors in Mediterranean climates for many years. The New Zealand hybrid calla with its diversity in colour and form is the focal point of a current revival in popularity amongst florists.

Papers on the topic of callas appear in recent volumes of the IPPS Proceedings. One of the most significant was a paper presented by Cohen in 1981 (2) detailing his work on micropropagation of callas. This work opened the doorway for commercialisation of a crop that was previously slow to clonally propagate in large numbers.

In 1983 Hatch (4) outlined procedures involved with breeding and selecting hybrid callas. This was followed in 1986 by a paper I authored entitled "A system for the evaluation of Zantedeschia (calla lily)" (7). In 1988 I joined with Plummer to co-author a paper entitled, "Preliminary evaluation of dwarf white calla lily as a potted plant" (10).

This paper will


Author: John Joe Costin

PP: 485

Garden festivals as a concept originated in Germany after World War II. They were conceived as a vehicle to attract attention to the urban renewal programme that was necessary as a consequence of war dereliction. It was considered that gardens and greenery were the best means to entice residents and investment to an area that had been devastated by the war. The colour and spectacle of a Garden Festival was seen as the ideal means to create a new image for an area.

The first garden festival was held in Dusseldorf in 1952. Since then, Germany has hosted many other garden festivals.

German festival sites are planned and planted over a 10 year period, so that all plants are very well established by the time the gates open to the public. After the Festival, these sites become new important high grade open spaces or parks for the host city.

The Garden Festival movement is controlled by the Bureau Internationale Exhibitions (BIE) in Paris. Various countries, around the world submit bids to


Author: Edward J. Bunker

PP: 489

When I was asked to prepare a paper for this conference I took no time at all to decide to speak on hygiene as an almost forgotten tool in many propagation houses one visits.

Chemical treatments have come in over the last few decades and in some ways have masked larger problems that lurk just behind this barrier. Dr. Ken Baker (1) in his book The U. C. System for Producing Healthy Container Grown Plants says, "Emphasis in control is placed on clean soil, clean stock and sanitary procedures to keep them that way. Once the pathogen has penetrated into a plant it is not economically possible to eradicate it. Chemical treatments generally are ineffective. For this reason prevention is emphasised in plant disease control rather than cure as in medical procedures. " Similarly, we can take an extract from James S. Wells book (2) Plant Propagation Practices — " A good grower is not dirty and untidy especially in his greenhouse area. Is a trim appearance enough? No it is not! We need to go far beyond


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 494

International President Smith, International Board members, Eastern Region President Orum, Eastern Region Board members, Society members and guests, and Charter members of the International Plant Propagators' Society.

It is a high honor to speak to you today celebrating our Society's 40th Anniversary. All of the words I will share with you today will not appear in the 40th Proceedings. Eastern Region Editor Heuser has a paper covering the salient points of my comments, but I plan to do a bit of digression during this discourse.

For the edification of those of you who do not know me, I have served as I.P. P.S. Historian since 197 1, and have had the high honor of sitting on the International Board since 1970. I have proudly attended all Board Meetings since that date.

I attended my first meeting, in this great city, in 1954 as a guest of my mentor, Hugh Steavenson, and in 1955 with quaking knees presented my first paper. I appear on Secretary John Wott's records as an Eastern Region member


Author: Robert H. Osborne

PP: 498


Our nursery is located in Hardiness Zone 4 in the province of New Brunswick, bordered on the south by the cool waters of the Bay of Fundy and by the relatively warmer waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the east. To the north and west, in a straight line to Alaska, 4000 miles of arctic highs. Our site has an average minimum winter temperature of -30° C with a record low near us of -50° C.

Growing roses commercially in such a place may seem a daunting prospect to those of you familiar with the vagaries and uncertainties of rose growing. Certainly if we were attempting a crop of hybrid teas we might well be carted off to the jails we call mental institutions. But the roses we grow are quite special. I like to think of them as masters of supercooling, that amazing talent possessed by hardy plants which enables them to transfer all water outside the cell walls except a thin pliable film of water which protects the cell's vital components until spring.

Our interest in roses


Author: J. Jacob Jost

PP: 503

Jost Greenhouses are located in a very-affluent, residential section of St. Louis County. Needless to say, the business is as welcome as a boil.

Our growing area consists of 22,000 sq ft of very old glass greenhouses plus about ¾ acre of cold frames. The basic business concerns itself with the wholesale production of perennials, herbs, and assorted ground covers.

The production of containerized herbs has been sort of like "Topsy" —it just grew year after year. Now, after seven years of production we are up to approximately 350,000 3&-in. pots, plus some few hundred quarts and gallons.

Our herb houses are all benched with a bio-therm type heating system. Some of the houses are also equipped with rolling benches, thus making greater use of existing area.

All of the herbs, whether culinary or aromatic, are sold with tags that supply minimal cultural information. Some tags have pictures. Stock pots are always tagged in that many of the rosemary's, as well as other plants, take on a different


Author: William E. Brumback

PP: 507

There is a growing interest today in nursery production of wetland plants. With some overlap in species, the trade in wetland plants is basically divided into two groups (for the purposes of this paper, true aquatics are not being included, although many of the same propagation techniques can be used):
  1. Species used for ornamental horticulture, i.e. water gardens, bog gardens, and landscaped areas associated with wetlands. The emphasis in this group is on plants that have ornamental qualities, yet can survive under wet conditions. Almost all species in this category are herbaceous.
  2. Species grown for restoration, wetland replication, or revegetation purposes. This group includes naturally occurring woody and herbaceous plants, and many species in this group would not be considered ornamental in the usual horticultural sense.

The relatively recent interest in revegetation has raised several issues that should be taken into account by nurseries growing plants for restoration. The


Author: William G. Woodruff

PP: 512

The apparent vigor, vitality, and increased growth rate of trees on their own roots when compared to trees produced by other methods, justifies looking further and harder at propagation procedures.

Our methods of trying to propagate trees by softwood cuttings utilizes double-layer, inflated polyhouses, 30 × 95 ft with a 2 ft hard sidewall insulated for cold protection. The overhead mist system we use has Eddie mist nozzles, water pressure of approximately 50 psi controlled by a variable timer. The procedure starts with 10 sec of water every four min, depending on the weather. We use well water, approximately 58°F, with a pH of 7.2.

The rooting containers used are 2 3/8 or 3 5/8 in. "Anderson" bottomless tree pots placed directly on plastic net floor covering, over well-drained sand. The rooting medium is a peat and perlite (1: 1, v/v) mixture. The peat is steam-sterilized, then mixed with the perlite.

The floor and the pots are treated with Physan before the pots are lined out to receive


Author: B. Veierskov

PP: 514

The interest for a possible role of carbohydrates in controlling rooting of cuttings originates from an observation, that tomato stem segments which had a high C/N ratio produced most adventitious roots (8). Although many experiments have been performed since then to test this hypothesis, its validity is still uncertain. One of the main obstacles is how to produce stock plants with different levels of carbohydrates.

Veierskov, et al. (9) found no apparent correlation between C/N ratio and root number in the cuttings, when using seedlings with different reserve nutrients and growing the plants under different light levels. However, altering the environment under which plants are grown, may also change important growth stimulants which makes it difficult to distinguish between the role of carbohydrates and the environmental impact. By use of pea plants with genetic lesions in their photosynthetic apparatus, it was possible to grow the plants under identical environment, and obtain plants


Author: Jen McComb, Ian Bennett, Michael Stukely, Colin Crane

PP: 86


Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Smith), a valuable hardwood restricted to Western Australia, provides two-thirds of the sawn timber from the State. Natural stands have been badly affected by dieback caused by the soil fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (5). It is suspected that a low, but significant number of jarrah plants may show resistance to the disease. If lines of jarrah known to be resistant were available, they could be used to replant "graveyard" areas where the disease has killed virtually all jarrah, and in reafforestation after bauxite mining.

Clones have been raised from mature trees which have survived in graveyard areas, using nodal explants from the crown of the trees. Some clonal lines showed a level of resistance to the disease (1), but the tissue culture process was very difficult. Branches from the crowns of the trees were hard to surface sterilize, shoot multiplication rate was low, shoots did not root until after a prolonged period (3)


Author: Brian K. Maynard, Nina L. Bassuk

PP: 517


The development of any novel or improved technology would be incomplete without extensive comparisons to pre-existing technology. For novel methods of propagating ornamental plants this comparison typically starts in the research phase with comparisons of rooting, establishment, and survival percentages. Yet, ultimately, the comparison ends on the accountant's desk, where the costs incurred in each propagation method are balanced with the revenue returned from each plant sold.

At Cornell University we have worked for the last eight years on improving and testing methods for increasing the success of softwood cutting propagation. We have focused on improved stem banding methods and stock plant etiolation schedules which extend the production season in northern climates by moving stock plants indoors early in the year. We have applied stock plant etiolation and stem banding with success to nearly 60 ornamental tree species and cultivars (12). These methods consistently


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 524

It has been said that with the advent of antibiotics the science of medicine emerged from the dark ages. It may also be said that plant propagation underwent similar advancement when root-inducing substances, polyethylene plastic film, mist, and fog systems, together with other new technology came into being.

In earlier years, those involved with plant propagation and other skilled horticultural occupations in the United States were mostly immigrants from Europe. In Europe, practical horticultural knowledge had evolved through the ages by trial and error and was handed down from one generation to the next. The skill and ability that propagators had was acquired through long apprenticeships which usually started when they were young boys. Craftsmanship which they had to offer was usually basic in aspect, highly work intensive, but productive.

Much of the great progress in plant propagation made during recent years can be credited directly to this great organization, The International


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 528

I mention first-off that I do not consider myself an expert or an authority regarding either Buxus or Hibiscus. This is not to detract from their worthiness nor my appreciation, just a matter of circumstance. We have propagated and grown Buxus at John Vermeulen & Son for well over 40 years primarily from stem cuttings and in the 1950s were doing Hibiscus syriacus cultivars by whole root grafts but none since due to changing our product lines with the times. I believe both should have wider and more serious attention. Perhaps this review will help encourage that.

Author: Susan M. Mulgrew

PP: 536

The Nursery IPM Program in Massachusetts has just completed its second season. During this time the goals of the program have been to: determine the key pests of Massachusetts nurseries; find the best methods for monitoring these pests; and find ways to better manage pests through the implementation of IPM techniques. The program includes scouting major crops at seven cooperating nurseries located throughout the Commonwealth.

As part of the IPM project, we also conduct experiments to provide additional information about the management of key pests.


Author: Carlos S. Glenister

PP: 543


The major commercial nematode is currently named Steinernema carpocapsae, first collected and described in both the United States and Czechoslovakia in 1954. It has also recently been called S. feltiae, and Neoaplectana carpocapsae. The name S. feltiae has now been assigned to what used to be known as S. bibionis, so the distinction is important.


Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 548

Composting of organic wastes for mixing with soils has been a fundamental principle of land use since farming began. Our nursery and many others have always applied manures or other decomposed organic materials to fields before planting new crops. Even though adding organics to soils has been long-practiced, it is only within the last couple of decades that the composting process has been defined, quantified, and documented in a manner every farmer can use.

More than 20 years ago, the decline of dairy farming in our region was becoming obvious. And because our business was expanding rapidly, we were forced to search for new sources of organic material to supplement the declining supplies of cow manure, our primary soil additive. Every B&B plant we harvested from our land took with it some of our topsoil; without the addition of new organic matter to each field before replanting, our already thin New England soils would soon consist largely of clay or gravel and consequently be of


Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 553

Bubble-pac has the potential of eliminating some, if not all of the problems associated with microfoam. To begin with, bubble-pac is ½ air and possesses many of the insulating benefits of microfoam. It has found some use in the glass greenhouse industry by being applied to the inside of the glass to provide insulation that is clear. Unlike microfoam, it does not tear easily and it has a proven long life expectancy. We have used the same pieces repetitively for 5 years, and it is still usable.

While an important part of the over-wintering process, bubble-pac is not an answer in and of itself. Effective overwintering of cuttings can only be accomplished by efforts having been started during the spring and summer. Several principles should be followed to insure effective overwintering of cuttings with a minimum of losses. At Moon Nurseries the methods used are as follows:

  1. Cuttings should be taken as early as possible with an emphasis placed on cold-sensitive plants such as Viburnum

Author: John C. Larsen

PP: 558

Do we always need to use a rooting hormone when rooting cuttings? I think the answer is no. Through trial and error over the last eight to ten years, we, at Bailey's, have cut our use of rooting hormones by 25 to 35%.

The main reason we experimented without dipping cuttings in a hormone was to reduce labor cost in the planting of cuttings. Without having to dip cuttings, we figured we would spend about 20 to 30% more time planting instead of dipping cuttings. There is also a cost savings in the amount of IBA that is used.

Our process to determine if a cutting gets dipped or not is fairly simple. Any new taxa, on which we do not have information are all dipped the first year. The second year, a small trial of undipped cuttings is tried. If that is successful, the third year we do a larger trial; up to 25 to 50%. After the third year, if we feel comfortable with our trial results, we do not dip that plant.

There are some other factors you might want to consider when dipping cuttings. If


Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 559

Decker Nursery is a company specializing in propagation. We root cuttings from both dormant hardwoods and summer softwoods. The majority of our propagation is in the Kadon plastic flat. A major concern in cutting propagation is insuring sufficient drainage to reduce decay. This problem is particularly acute in the summer as we use an automatic mist system to prevent desiccation. Often we have many different species/cultivars of cuttings in the same area, all of which receive the same amount of mist. This inevitably results in excessive water on plants with low mist requirements. Often we experienced either decayed or wilted cuttings as it was always a running battle of sufficient mist versus wet flats.

At this point I would like to explain a physical property of all liquids called surface tension. This is a property of liquids that tends to draw the surface molecules together, thereby forming droplets. Also surface tension holds droplets together to somewhat resist the forces of


Author: Ned D. Rader

PP: 560

Don't trash that poly—yet! You can still find many uses for it. In this time of harvesting poly prices it behooves us to make the best possible use of petroleum-derived materials. I am talking primarily about the poly used to overwinter plants.

We use ours for at least two things: 1) as a covering for our summer softwood cutting propagation beds and, 2) to provide extra overwintering protection for softwood cuttings and small potted plants in flats in polyhouses, without the use of heaters. Instead of just discarding the poly that comes off our overwintering houses, we save it. We cut it into two pieces which are 12 x 100 ft. by slicing it lengthwise down the center with a knife before the poly is removed from the houses. Then we remove each piece, fold, and tie it into small bundles, and store it out of the sun.

Later in June, July, and August when it is time to root cuttings, we pull out a sheet of poly and after the cuttings are stuck into sand beds we cover them with white poly and


Author: John Stanley

PP: 91

The motto of I.P.P.S. is to "Seek and Share" and the Society has done an excellent job in achieving this since its inaugural meeting in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S A. forty years ago. I, like other I.P.P.S. members, realise that in the next decade the major challenge we are going to face as a Society and industry is in attracting new propagators to our industry.

Our past International President, Mike Dunnett, recently spoke at a U.K. Conference on this very issue, whilst our present International President, Elton Smith, has identified this issue as one of the major challenges. I have had the opportunity of working in many countries with the nursery industry and the picture is the same in any country. We do not seem to be attracting the young propagators in the numbers we require and we are, in some areas, such as budding and grafting, losing the skills of propagation.

Firstly, we should ask ourselves why we are not attracting young people into propagation. The answer seems to be


Author: Robert P. Kuszmaul

PP: 561

Environmental inconsistencies during the overwintering process lead to perimeter growth suppression in nursery stock. Altering this process helps to sustain consistent conditions, allowing uniformity to be retained.

Our product at D&B Plants consists of 127 taxa of woody ornamental plants, vegetatively propagated by cuttings. These cuttings are rooted under intermittent mist in either sand beds or plug trays, and then transplanted into 2½ in. peat or 4 in. plastic pots. They are then overwintered for spring shipping.

Our overwintering practices encourage plants to acclimate naturally until late November in southeastern Michigan. Then the 14 × 96 ft hoop houses are covered with two layers of clear 4- mil plastic. We are emphatic about the use of clear plastic for most of our plant material. Extended periods of humid, cloudy weather raise havoc with plants susceptible to fungal problems under white poly. The accelerated growth achieved under clear plastic also seems to give our liners an


Author: Jamee A. Nirider

PP: 563

We had a problem. A problem rooting what the industry traditionally considers relatively easy. In 1988 we were attempting to root Cornus, Prunus, and Forsythia under an intermittent mist system. Most other softwood cuttings were rooting very easily and with acceptable levels of success, but for several reasons we did not like the results we were getting with these plants. Defoliation, very weak root systems and stem rot seemed the norm.

We do not have a pad and fan system for summer cooling and began to reason that our timing for cuttings (June through July) coupled with the heat at that time of year was directly linked to our rooting problems. Since heat, mist, soil mix, and rooting hormones were working with the other plants, we decided it was time to rethink the situation in regards to the mentioned plants and their cultivars.

What we decided to do was not revolutionary to our industry. In fact, it was very simple; we had overlooked the obvious. We had overlooked an established


Author: David C. Ruppert

PP: 565

The intent of this paper is to give an overview of a complete program of weed control. There is no intent to make statements of scientific fact, proven or otherwise.

One of the biggest pest control problems for the nurseries is weeds. Weed control must be properly addressed if quality plant material is going to be produced.

Post-plant weed control is then the primary concern. It should be noted that what is done to a field before the nursery crop is planted can pay big dividends after the crop is in.

I will discuss both pre-and post-plant weed control and how they work together for good weed control. Also, I hope to convey the need for means other than chemicals for a complete control program.

While post plant weed control is the major concern, what we do to the nursery fields, pre-plant is also very important. Good cultural practices on unplanted nursery fields will do much toward long term weed control. A program of cover cropping, along with the use of post emergence weed control


Author: Egidius M. Stroombeek

PP: 567

During the last 10 years, the Meserve holly (blue holly) cultivars have become well known and quite popular. Not only are they very attractive and rugged, but they are surprisingly free of diseases and pests that afflict other members of the genus Ilex. However, in the North there is one pesky problem that the commercial grower faces and that is occasional defoliation, both in the propagation stage and when container-grown hollies are coming out of winter storage.

Let me start with a brief review of defoliation in propagation and in the storage of rooted cuttings in heated houses. All of the genus Ilex, be it I. opaca, I. crenata, or I. × meservae, are sensitive to buildup of ethylene in closed structures, which is the actual culprit that causes the leaf drop. The problem usually shows up beginning in November through December when the heated houses receive only occasional ventilation. To prevent this problem we have moved the propagation of the Meserve hollies back from October to


Author: Mark P. Widrlechner

PP: 571

INTRODUCTION Commercial propagators routinely produce a diverse mix of seedlings, yet the volumes of the Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators'Society have remarkably little advice on seed storage. Most propagators plant freshly-collected seeds or store seeds only briefly before planting. But there may be advantages to storing seeds for future use. This report will consider some of those advantages, summarize pertinent reports on seed storage for landscape plants, and present some personal experiences with germination of stored seeds.

Author: Mary F. Pogany, R. Daniel Lineberger

PP: 576

A woody periclinal chimera, Rhododendron ‘President Roosevelt’, was micropropagated to study in vitro bud development Shoot tips were best for maintaining phenotypic stability, while leaf and floret explants gave segregated variant shoots A new chimera was captured with a reversed variegation pattern. Periclinal chimeras have good potential to serve as micropropagation models, aiding in refining techniques applied to other cultivars. Phenotypic stability during micropropagation was possible in these and other chimera cultures.

Author: Fouad Mohamed, Zheng Yongping, Harry Jan Swartz

PP: 581

The field performance of tissue culture-propagated strawberry plants can be manipulated by the addition of plant growth regulators in the culture medium. The addition of abscisic acid or paclobutrazol tended to produce more reproductive organs The addition of benzyladenine and gibberellins tended to produce more vegetatively vigorous plants. These results, along with data from endogenous abscisic acid determinations and light micrographs of treated meristems, further describe possible causes of in vitro-induced rejuvenation.

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 586

American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) is found naturally from as far north as Connecticut, southward into Florida and as far west as Texas. It can also be found in montane regions of Mexico and Central America. Due to the expansive and climatically diverse native range of this species, numerous ecotypes have been reported that exhibit greater frost tolerance, greater cold hardiness, differences in response to photoperiod, and differences in date of spring bud break and fall leaf retention (4, 8, 9). Great variation also exists in a number of ornamental characteristics, such as fall foliage color, fruitlessness, and form.

Sweetgum is commonly propagated by seed, but genetic variation and seed source variation make sexual propagation less than ideal in many instances. When asexual propagation must be used to propagate any of the numerous sweetgum cultivars, propagators usually have to employ grafting onto seedling rootstocks, since cutting propagation is rarely viable on a

A Dream, A Theme, A Team Supreme

Author: Peter Vermeulen

PP: 591

The scriptures declare that "to seek is to find".
Though it speaks of a sharing of a different kind it applies just as well, and
     is tried and true that to truly excel one must think and then do.
It was that kind of spirit in our founder, Jim, Wells who had a mind for the
     future that in all great men dwells, a mind that had vision, the kind that
     foretells of great things to happen, and all doubt dispels.
There's another great truth we should learn and keep
that as one sows, so
     shall one reap And yet another, for all to know and believe
that when
     one asks from the heart one shall surely receive
For forty years now our Society's dare to each of our members is to seek and
     to share. As we travel our lives, may our work and our dreams ever
     reflect that most worthy of themes.
From humble beginnings our I.P P.S. name has achieved the honor of world-
     wide acclaim because of a selfless desire to show to others the knowledge
     that God did bestow.
For all wisdom and knowledge come from above

Author: Deborah McCown

PP: 591

Dr. DEBORAH McCOWN: On behalf of the Research committee and the members of the Eastern Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society, I would like to present this years Research Grant Award. This year's grant is $2,000.

The committee received six excellent applications and had a difficult time selecting the single grant application to receive the award. If your grant was not the one selected, I encourage you to resubmit it this year. I would encourage all members to submit proposals they believe of interest to plant propagators. The application form is only one page and the value of the 1991 grant is $4,000.

This year's Research Grant has been awarded to Dr. Patricia S. Halloway, Associate Professor of Horticulture, University of Alaska at Fairbanks. Dr. Halloway's proposal is titled: Vegetables Propagation of the lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

I had an opportunity to meet Dr. Halloway in November at the American Society for Horticulture Science meeting in Tucson, Arizona. She was


Author: Henry Hilton

PP: 94


The two crops to be discussed in this paper are apple (Malus), and chestnut (Castanea). Both are deciduous and are grown in the cooler regions of Australia.

The public demand for the fruits of these crops has a direct effect on the nursery production of the trees. Should a particular cultivar of apple or chestnut become hard to sell in the market place then the grower will cease to produce the fruit and demand for the nursery-grown trees will diminish. It is important, therefore, that the growers and the nurseries communicate with one another for future requirements.

Both apples and chestnuts are introduced crops to Australia, and are basically of European origin. Since the introduction of apples there has been a number of chance seedling cultivars discovered throughout the production regions.

Today and throughout the 90's the introduction of new cultivars, particularly in apples, is going to be of great importance to the nursery industry. Breeding programmes are carried


Author: Steven Still

PP: 592

During early 1990 the Executive Committee of the IPPS Eastern Region finalized plans for the Eastern Region Fellow Awards. This prestigious award was created to honor Eastern Region members for contributions to the Region and to plant propagation.

Fellows of the Region are to be recognized for outstanding contributions to plant propagation in one or more areas. These include leadership in plant propagation in industry or in the areas of teaching, research, or extension activities related to plant propagation. Contributions to Region functions are also considered.

Recipients of the Fellow Award must be active members of the Eastern Region with at least 10 years of membership. Any Eastern Region member may make one or more nominations of an individual(s) for the award.

Tonight it is my pleasure to present the first class of Fellows of the Eastern Region—International Plant Propagators' Society.

Our first award recipient is Dr. Len Stoltz. In the academic area Len has taught plant


Author: Phil Carpenter

PP: 594

Wayne Lovelace received the Award of Merit at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Region-International Plant Propagators' Society. Wayne is currently Vice-President and General Manager of Forrest Keeling Nursery, Inc. in Elsberry, Missouri. Wayne joined IPPS in 1963 and has served the Eastern Region in many capacities including President during 1979–80. He has been local site committee chairman for the annual meeting and currently is co-chair for the International Plant Propagators' Society Board of Directors. Wayne has presented many papers at the annual meetings and continues to be a very active supporter of IPPS.

Wayne was born in Missouri on January 13, 1936, and obtained his education in the "show me" state. He received his BS degree, majoring in horticulture, from the University of Missouri in June, 1958. Since being a student at the University of Missouri, Wayne has continued to support education at the college level. He has been the University coordinator for the Missouri


Author: Tom Kimmel

PP: 595

Although many vine species and cultivars; have been in and out of our production we will concentrate on a select group of eight genera which are hardy at least to Zone 5: Clematis, Hydrangea, Actinidia, Ampelopsis, Campsis, Lonicera, Parthenocissus, and Polygonum. These comprise approximately 7% of our total nursery output. Many more vines which are primarily considered groundcovers, such as Euonymus fortunei and Hedera helix cultivars, will not be considered here.

At Twixwood Nursery we prefer vegetative cutting techniques as a method of maintaining cultivars or superior strains. This gives us control over inventory and allows us to increase numbers quickly either by maintaining adequate stock plantings or by late winter forcing of containerized material for cuttings.

In order to obtain a high quality product we strive to take our cuttings from pest and disease free stock. We also strive to provide a clean work area as well as treat our propagation houses with Green Shield™


Author: Brian K. Maynard, Wen Quan Sun, Nina L. Bassuk

PP: 597

Studies were conducted with several tree species to characterize the effects of stock plant etiolation, stem banding, and post-propagation GA4/7, BAP, and STS sprays on the establishment and growth of rooted softwood stem cuttings. Stem banding promoted bud break and shoot growth while etiolation reduced bud break in Carpinus and Malus ‘Spring Snow’. GA4/7, but not BAP, was effective in promoting both bud break and shoot growth BAP reduced the GA4/7 effect. STS promoted bud break and shoot growth of Carpinus at 1 and 5 mM, and bud break of Syringa at 5 mM. These methods should permit the wider use of stem cuttings for the production of those species which exhibit post-propagation shoot dormancy.

Author: Laura K. Judd, Anna J. Knuttel

PP: 603

Characteristics of plant juvenility as described in the literature include ease of rooting, vigorous growth, and heavy basal branching (1). Micropropagated rhododendron, in our experience, provide an excellent example of juvenile growth in a clonal propagule. In contrast, our traditional cuttings or macrocuttings are often difficult-to-root, slow-growing and demonstrate little basal branching resulting in the need for extensive pruning. Since we are a commercial nursery, our experience is largely with named cultivars, consequently no parallel could be drawn with seedling populations. Considering our hypothesis that the growth pattern of micropropagated plants is an expression of juvenility, we designed an experiment to compare micropropagated rhododendron with seedlings, the most juvenile, and macrocuttings, presumably the most mature. Because we needed seed for this comparison, we were limited to rhododendron species and these species had to be available as micropropagules. Thus, we

Author: Daniel K. Struve

PP: 608

The Ohio Production System (OPS), a method for rapidly producing container-grown whips, was first described in these Proceedings (1). The evolution and development of OPS is fully described in the August 15th, 1990 issue of the American Nurserymen, "Turning Copper Into Gold" (2). This article briefly describes the system, why it works, and it lists some benefits. Also, results from a 1990 species trial are presented and some OPS production challenges are discussed.

Author: T. Murray Alward

PP: 613

Approximately 10 years ago, we decided to propagate Juniperus scopolorum ‘Wichita Blue’, from cuttings at Riverbend Farms. Our research pointed out that J. scopolorum cultivars were fairly difficult to root from cuttings and generally grafted. With all the outside information gleaned plus our own ideas, a recipe evolved that works for us. We presently produce this plant exclusively from cuttings. These cuttings are stuck in the same benches in our propagating polyhouse along with all our other evergreen cuttings.

‘Wichita Blue’ is a consistently good performer, disease and drought resistant, full in form, and exceptional in colour. This plant is always in demand, a classic blue upright juniper. We like to field-grow this plant to perfection.

Following is our procedure for the propagation of J. scopolorum ‘Wichita Blue’.

Timing and selection. On November 20th, select 8 to 12 in. shoots from vigorous 2-year field-grown plants, containing new hard juvenile growth always dark at the base for 3 to


Author: Filiberto Loreti, R. Muleo, S. Morini

PP: 615

It has been widely shown that in vitro microenvironmental culture conditions such as light, temperature, and moisture, may alter tissue response. A literature search showed several studies on light intensity and photoperiod but light quality has not attracted much research attention.

Photomorphogenetic effects of certain light spectral bands are mediated by pigments such as phytochrome, blue, and near UV photoreceptors. The physiological processes that underlie in vitro photomorphogenetic effect expression may be various but strictly connected to the degree of tissue differentiation. When microcuttings, shoot apexes, and leaves are concerned these processes involve mainly apical dominance physiology, dormancy induction, and/or bud opening and root induction and formation. With undifferentiated tissue such as callus, cells, or protoplasts we may obtain induction and formation of organs such as roots and shoots and somatic embryos.

Because of different protocols and methodologies among


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 624

The Question Box Session was convened at 9:50 a.m. December 14, 1990 with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: How do you root Picea glauca "Conica"?

DAVE BAKKER: I presented a paper on that in a earlier meeting. [EDITOR'S NOTE: See volume 33:415-417 for details].

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Has anyone had much success rooting beech cuttings?

BRIAN MAYNARD: We have successfully rooted beech using our etiolation technique. [EDITOR'S NOTE: See volume 36:599-604 for details].

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Proplyene glycol, recreational-vehicle water system antifreeze, has been recommended as a carrier for IBA in the previous 2 years' meetings. I found that one brand, "Easy Going RV Antifreeze". is 75% water (even though the list of ingredients doesn't list it). It also has potassium hydrogen phosphate and a pink dye. I am sure that other brands are also full of unwanted materials. Before using RV antifreeze I recommend that it be cleaned up by distillation


Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 628

PETER VERMEULEN: Rhododendron (azalea) ‘Whitestone’ was selected and later named by the late Paul Vossberg when Horticultural Research Director for the Westbury Rose Co , Westbury, NY Paul selected it sometime in the 1940s, I believe at a hobbyist garden in Whitestone, Long Island, NY. He frequently extolled its virtues but did not find an opportunity to introduce it. Cuttings given to Peter Vermeulen in the late 1970's were propagated and then inadvertently neglected and left growing in flats set in open beds with no cover. They stayed there two winters along with other less important surplus liners. In the spring of 1980 I believe ‘Whitestone’ was the only survivor after a rigorous winter. We decided it worthy of further attention and introduction.

We believe ‘Whitestone’ to be hardy in Zone 5b and 5a with protection. The plant is a strong grower with a medium to tall bushy habit. Leaves are large, medium green. Flowers are full hose-in-hose pure white with light greenish throat


Author: Frances, Tony Biggs

PP: 97

Crop producers worldwide are constantly searching for cultivars with resistance or tolerance to pests and diseases. Plant breeding has always been the most common method of producing such cultivars with techniques ranging from simple hybridisation to the more complex genetic engineering processes of today. All these methods are relatively slow and pests and diseases often mutate and develop different strains faster than plant breeders can produce resistant or tolerant cultivars.

Chemical control of pests and diseases is being questioned increasingly as people pay more attention to their health and the environment. Previously accepted chemicals for the control of particular problems are now being questioned, re-tested, and withdrawn from usage in many instances.

Consequently there is a growing need to find—or return to— alternative methods of protecting plants against pests and diseases.

Grafting scion cultivars onto rootstocks has been a common practice in fruit and ornamental


Author: Natalie F. Peate

PP: 102

We have been involved in plant breeding for almost 12 months, concentrating on the Australian Asteraceae and, in particular, on the genera Brachyscome and Helipterum.

The project evolved after trips to Europe and the U.S.A. revealed a strong interest in Australian daisies for use as "indoor potted colour" and "balcony plants," as well as for landscape use.

Traditionally, daisies such as chrysanthemum and gerbera have been amongst the top four sellers in both the pot-plant and the cut-flower markets throughout the world. Australian daisies are quite different from these and their unique nature, beauty, and suitability for pot culture have particularly excited overseas growers. For example, Prof. W.U. von Hentig of the Geisenheim Institute in West Germany has developed a form of Brachyscome multifida for the European market and this plant now commands sales of about 6,000,000 units per annum in that market place.

Plant breeders in Holland, Germany, and the U.S A. are


Author: George Lulfitz

PP: 105

When plants are being selected from the wild we can select various characteristics for different purposes. These may include suitability for pot culture, cut flowers, compactness for gardens, long straight stems for export flowers, and for different flower colours.

It is generally regarded that any species of a Western Australian wildflower will only flower for a short time but, within a single species, there may be many hundreds of variations of flowering times. Flower colour, foliage, and the size of the plant will also vary. In most books reference is made to a species flowering at a certain time, but a knowledgeable plant person would know that by selecting from a wide area on which a species grows the variations can be great. To a nurseryman, landscape architect, botanist, horticulturist, or cut flower grower, a more accurate flowering time is important.

Many species have plants in the wild that flower at different times, and if one makes many visits into the field and observes


Author: David Woodroffe

PP: 108

The bulk of nursery trees in Australia are grown in containers that range from tubes to 300mm pots. There are specialist nurseries that provide more advanced trees. There are two methods used for the production of advanced trees, either (one) above the ground in containers, or (two) in the ground.

Both of these methods have disadvantages. Plants grown in containers have problems. Because of the higher aeration levels at the outside of the container, 80% of the roots occur in a sheath near the container wall, with the remainder of the soil acting as ballast.

The size of a container limits growth, the stock must either be sold, be re-potted, or be thrown away when roots become too limited. The third option is rarely taken due to the high cost of production of advanced trees.

The other method of growing advanced trees is in the ground, and this method has been used since man first grew trees.

Even though this method results in a tree with good vigour and root growth, there are several


Author: Keith R. Oliver

PP: 113


Kangaroo paws occur naturally only in the southwest part of Western Australia. They are fairly new to cultivation, only having become widely grown since the 1970's, but they are now grown in many countries and are now well established in the international cut flower trade. They are also being sold as container plants and used in landscaping and amenity horticulture.

Kangaroo paws have bizarre, colourful, uniquely beautiful bird-pollinated flowers that are covered in a velvety "fur" which, together with the strange, but attractive shape of the inflorescence, makes them a widely appreciated and highly desirable plant to grow. Growing kangaroo paws has not always been easy, many species are difficult to grow from seed and many species are short-lived and are also subject to attack by debilitating fungal diseases that usually prove to be fatal in susceptible species. Long-lived hybrids have been developed that have good resistance to the fungal diseases and


Author: A. Tom Keane

PP: 119

Carnations are dichogamous, i.e. the male and female flower parts are present in the same flower, but they mature at different times, thus preventing self-pollination.

When the anthers ripen first it is known as protandry, and when the stigma is receptive first, it is known as protogyny. The carnation is protandrous as the pollen is mature when the flower opens.

When breeding anything, whether it is plant or animal it is generally accepted that the final result will be as in nature, that is the strongest will be more dominant and eventually the most successful. So the first lesson comes from nature.

Selection for breeding. When selecting carnations for breeding, pick strong and vigorous plants. Usually the pollen-bearing male plants contribute more to the physical make up than the female plants, but they both contribute to the progeny.

The things to look at in carnation parent stock are:

  1. resistance to disease, particularly rust.
  2. a strong and lengthy stem.
  3. a flower to look you

Author: M.G. Webb

PP: 41


The flora of Western Australia is diverse and unusual, ranging from the spectacular to the seemingly mundane. Sandplain and forest areas north and south of Perth, respectively, support over 8000 plant species, with perhaps another 1000 yet to be described.

Commercial plantings of Australian native plants in a row crop situation began in the early 1980's mainly in response to increasing export demand for species not widely distributed in the bush. In Western Australia, the area of native plants under cultivation has increased from 20 ha in 1980 to approximately 1080 ha in 1988 (9).

The area of South African proteas planted in Western Australia has also increased substantially, from virtually nil in 1983 to over 200 ha in 1988 (9).

Weed control in cultivated native plants and proteas is essential for optimum plant growth and flower yield. Weed control in native plants was not required when the flowers and foliage were being harvested from the bush. However, successful


Author: Donald F. Dillon Sr

PP: 122

The great attendance we always have at the annual meetings of the Western Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society is glowing testimony to the high regard with which we hold it.

Today we are going to take a look at its origins… who conceived it, who gave it life, energy, direction, and character.

At that first organizational meeting at Asilomar on October 14, 1960, the discussion was lively and sometimes even a bit heated. Fred Real and I remember it well even though we were mere boys at the time.

To better understand the seriousness of the discussions it is necessary to take a look at the origins of the Plant Propagators Society itself. The forward to Volume I of the Proceedings of the first meeting in 1951 reveals the following: that an earlier propagators' society went out of existence back in 1934. The depression and the lack of experienced propagators who were willing to share information caused it to fail. But this need still existed and the thought of reviving the


Author: George S. Oki, Sr

PP: 132

I feel very fortunate to have been born in an era of drastic changes in the nursery industry, during an era that transcends from the "dark ages" to a period of practical tissue culture, gene splicing, and computers to sophisticated seedling and cutting propagation. I also feel most fortunate to have been born into a nursery family, a family that has been actively involved in plant production from just prior to the turn of the 20th century, (the year 1897 to be exact).

The California horticulture industry, which includes general ornamentals: shade, fruit, nuts and vines, potted plants, cut flowers, bedding plants, and others, is a billion dollar farm gate value industry. It ranks number 4 or 5 following livestock, dairy, and hay. It is difficult to assess its ranking at the retail level as there are no means of accumulating this data.

Though the industry enjoys its share of "corporate giants" the nursery industry is primarily sole ownership although there are many


Author: Elizabeth McClintock

PP: 140

I wish to emphasize the changing fashions in ornamental plants. Perhaps this is because we now have a choice of so many garden plants and we like to have new ones from time to time. But this desire creates the fashions, making some plants more popular while others are neglected, thereby causing nurseries to discard those not asked for. Then there is a trend in the nursery industry for the larger wholesale nurseries to mass-produce, using their efficient methods for production of those plants most saleable. This results in the neglect or elimination of many useful garden plants. Fortunately, we have a number of smaller nurseries that propagate those plants that have gone out of fashion. In addition, botanical gardens, through volunteer propagators and plant sales, make available plants not to be found commercially. Both of these sources should be encouraged.

The British, who have had a similar problem, have begun to solve it through the formation in 1979 of the National Council for the


Author: Kathleen S. Freeland

PP: 145

No paper concerning one's own early work experiences is possible without talking about mentors, and being able to thank them personally for all the help that was received is often just not possible. Before relating some of my own experiences as an apprentice propagator, I should like to pay a tribute to those who were so valuable as mentors to me as a beginner.

Alfred Fordham, former propagator at the Arnold Arboretum near Boston is Mr. Plant Propagator and will always be known by that title, I am sure. During all the years that he was with the Arnold Arboretum, Alfred shared his knowledge with any and all who asked for his help and was on the other end of the telephone when anyone called for his assistance. (Just think what we could have done with a Fax machine and Alfred!!) He is among those who have presented many papers to the International Plant Propagator's Society, and, though he has been retired for some time, is still willing to talk with new members as well as old friends on


Author: Walter Wisura

PP: 148

While serving my apprenticeship in a tree and shrub nursery during the aftermath of the war-ravaged Germany of the early 1950s, we did not have any fancy machinery or any sophisticated equipment. We did not have a single greenhouse. We did all of our propagation in cold frames outdoors, without foggers or misters. Considering Germany's temperate climate with frequent cool and rainy summers and moderately cold winters, careful preparation of the cold frames was a necessary step to ensure success.

The cold frames were 150 cm wide. At the lower end they were 20 cm high and at the upper end 30 cm. high. They were covered by glass windows 100 cm in width. The length of the frames could be variable. Every 100 cm a wooden lath was nailed like a cross beam to the frames, to give them stability and to support the windows. At that time all our frames were made of wood.

In the bottom of the cold frames first came a layer of horse manure (to provide the heating), which was covered with sifted


Author: Thomas D. Landis

PP: 151


As Western Nursery Specialist for the United States Department of Agriculture—Forest Service, one of my primary responsibilities is to provide technology transfer to forest nurseries in the western United States. "Technology transfer" is one of those terms that is widely-used, but can be most practically defined as the sharing of information. The motto of the International Plant Propagators' Society—"To Seek and to Share"—is an excellent example of technology transfer in action.

Technology can be transferred in a variety of different ways ranging from individual personal contacts, such as telephone inquiries and nursery visits, to group approaches, which include workshops and publications (Table 1). All of these technology transfer methods can be effective, but I have found that they are not equally efficient in terms of specialist-to-user time. Nursery visits are one of the best ways to provide technology transfer because they


Author: Timothy D. Paine, Paula M. Leddy

PP: 155

There are two different ways to approach the question of potential insect problems. The first is probably the most obvious: introduction of new insect pests into the areas where plants are either produced or used. The second is less obvious, but potentially more complicated to approach. That is, the shift in public attitudes and the regulatory environment may limit the tools available for insect pest management, and consequently, insects that are now of minor importance because they can easily be controlled may become serious management concerns in the future. Solutions to these potential problems will require creativity, consumer education, and flexibility on the part of the industry.

Author: Robert D. Raabe

PP: 160

A title such as the one above might be misleading in that it could suggest that disease organisms frequently are being brought into the state. This probably is true due to the huge amount of plant materials imported to supply the ornamental plant industry. However, many of the organisms are not new and have been found and reported as occurring in the state. Control measures frequently have been worked out for such organisms. Occasionally, organisms new to California are brought in or, sometimes, organisms already here are found to be infecting new hosts. Perhaps some of the hosts have had the problem for some time before it is detected.

Although none of the new diseases reported here are as potentially threatening overall as a problem such as the ash white fly, to individual growers they can be a serious problem.

Anigozanthos spp. are interesting Australian plants grown for cut-flowers and recently as a potted plant. Following its introduction into California for cut-flower production,


Author: Gregory Lloyd

PP: 163

Plant propagation through tissue culture is continuing to expand as commercially sound laboratory production systems are developed. While commercially successful tissue culture propagation has occurred in the landscape, cut flower, small fruit, flowering pot and seed parent areas, the greatest impact of tissue culture in the U.S. continues to be in the interior foliage market where over forty million tissue culture propagules are used annually. The interior foliage industry has benefited from one of the most recent commercial successes with the advent of large-scale production of tissue-cultured Ficus spp. propagules.

Ficus species are tropical woody shrubs and trees that play a significant role as interior foliage plants. It is estimated that some 20,000,000 Ficus plants are produced annually in the U.S. for interior use. Size ranges from large-scale trees to small containers with either single or multiple stems. The bulk of U.S. production is currently being done in south Florida


Author: Richard Vollebregt

PP: 166


Curtain systems have been used for environmental control in greenhouses for over 10 years. When they were originally installed, their main function was either:

     —to reduce heat loss at night
     —for photoperiod control (blackout) of chrysanthemums
     —daytime shading of crops

Over the last 10 years, there has been a dramatic improvement in the level of environmental control that can now be achieved in a greenhouse with environmental control curtain systems. This is due mostly to improvements in:

  1. the curtain system fabric, which provides better cooling and greater heat savings at night.
  2. more dependable curtain system mechanics; i.e. systems that can be automatically controlled so that an operator does not need to be present to monitor the movement of the system.
  3. more sophisticated controls for the curtain systems, i.e. computers.
  4. growers now having a better understanding of how to use the curtain systems to maximize environmental control and consequently their crop

Author: Thomas D. Deering

PP: 45

There has been a renewed interest in the use of etiolation as a technique for aiding propagation of difficult to root plants. Etiolation occurs when plants or shoots are grown in the absence of light and was reported in the 19th century to be of assistance in propagation (9). Reid (8) studied etiolation in relation to propagation of camphor cuttings and an anatomical study suggested, among other things, that etiolated shoots were less lignified and had decreased cell wall thickness. Many people over the years have investigated etiolation (1, 5) but the mechanism whereby etiolation promotes rooting is still poorly understood. Delargy and Wright (1) have shown the benefit of etiolation on the apples, ‘Bramley's Seedling’ and ‘Malling Merton III’.

Severe pruning and proximity to roots are known to influence the rooting potential of shoots (5) and stool beds have been used to provide a source of apple shoots that result from both very severe pruning and a close proximity to roots (7).



Author: Richard W. Wilson

PP: 177

This presentation is on equipment. What has been used in the past, what is being used presently, and a peek into the future. Colorama is a color grower and therefore this presentation will be slighted toward such but, nevertheless, will give you food for thought when and if you decide to mechanize/automate.

Author: Don L. Durling

PP: 182

Several important factors must be considered before growing citrus nursery stock in the world. Climate and available useable irrigation water are critical. Most citrus is grown between 20° and 45° latitude N, and 20° and 40° latitude S. To propagate and grow citrus, two of the most significant challenges have been Phytophthora diseases and citrus viruses. The threat of Phytophthora can be reduced by using tolerant rootstocks when possible, and practicing preventative sanitation.

Phytophthora diseases of citrus (gummosis, root rot) attack the root system and/or the trunk. Depending on soil, moisture conditions, and treatment, the affected tree may die quickly, or make periodic attempts at regrowth. Contaminated citrus seed can be a source of Phytophthora infection. The extracted seed needs to be heat-treated in agitated water at 52° C (127° F) for 10 min. The seed is then dusted with a protective fungicide and stored in poly bags at 30° to 7° C (35° to 45° F).

Growing media used in the


Author: Thomas Arthur Spellman

PP: 188


Carica pentagona belongs to the same group of plants as the papaya. It has a thick, fleshy trunk. Its leaves and fruit alike are held on stalks from the trunk. The plant itself looks very tropical with its heavy green trunk and palm-like foliage. It grows as a single trunk unless pinched or nipped by a heavy frost. It then becomes multiple, having as many as four or five trunks. Although it seems very tropical, when grown properly, Carica pentagona seldom dies from a winter freeze in Southern California. More than likely problems will be related to heavy soil or excessive moisture in the winter months.

Unlike most tropical papayas, Carica pentagona does not need male and female plants and requires no cross pollination. The small fruits are already set as the flower opens. Ripe fruit can reach a weight of up to six or seven pounds. It can be left on the plant to ripen, or picked when the fruit just begins to turn yellow and ripened indoors. Another attribute is that the


Author: Ray Maleike

PP: 191

Within the past 60 years, there has been tremendous advances made in the field of plant propagation. During this time, we have seen the isolation and utilization of auxin (IAA and others), the development, with all of its modifications, of the intermittent mist system, the use of polyethylene plastic, growing plants in containers, and many physiological/biochemical research findings in plant growth and development. Because of this, today we root many of our species, cultivars, and clones by cuttings, which years ago were unrootable.

Plants are rooted from cuttings to preserve the genetic (clonal) characteristics, is a fast method of increase, is relatively cheap, and is relatively simple (6). Many plants today are grown from cuttings. Factors affecting the rooting of cuttings fall into three very broad categories; one is the anatomical relationships of where the new (adventitious) roots emerge; another is the physiological or biochemical aspects of the internal workings of the


Author: Joseph Solomone

PP: 195

The recipient of the 1990 Curtis J. Alley Award of Merit was born in 1927 in Seward, Nebraska. He was raised on a farm, graduated from Seward High School in 1943, then attended University of Nebraska, College of Agriculture, Graduating in 1947. His first work after college was as County Extension Agent from 1947 to 1951. He left to serve in the United States Air Force for four years, returning to the Extension Service in 1954. He owned and operated a farm supply for two years before relocating to Oregon in 1957 and taking a position as Marion County Extension Agent in Urban Horticulture for Oregon State University. His job scope changed to include Land Use Development and County-wide zoning programs, in addition to horticulture.

In 1963 he took a sabbatical leave to obtain his Master's Degree in Agricultural Extension at Purdue University, then returned to Oregon to continue his career and spend more time on nursery and greenhouse programs.

He became Staff Chairman of Marion County


Author: Joseph Solomone

PP: 196

One of the highest honors an IPPS Region can give is to award one of its members a "Lifetime Honorary Membership". This evening I have the pleasure of making this presentation.

This "Honorary Membership" category is for those individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the field of plant propagation, and who have made equally outstanding contributions to our Society for at least 10 years.

Our Awardee has become a worldwide leader in tissue culture production of woody plants. His research to develop a tissue culture laboratory has set the groundwork for further experimentation and innovation in plant production systems.

Innovation exemplifies his commitment to the future of the nursery industry. He is an excellent reminder that the learning process is not confined within university walls. He has spent a lifetime being inquisitive. If he needed an expert, he found one. He has surrounded himself with strong young minds full of new ideas.

Development of the


Author: O.A. "Jolly" Batcheller

PP: 198

August and September, 1989, my wife and I served as volunteers in Western Samoa. The Peace Corps had requested a practical horticulturist to assist them with two botanic gardens in this country. Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (VOCA) contacted me to go there in what they call the "Farmer to Farmer" program.

Western Samoa is an independent Republic about the size of Rhode Island. It is located half way between Hawaii and New Zealand 300 miles south of the equator. There are two major islands; it has a population of 163,000, imports are $38 million and exports are 17 million in U.S. dollars. The per capita income is $616 US and there is a literacy rate of 99 %. It is a truly tropical island with a rainfall of over 100 in., most of which comes between October and June.

With the stream bed dry and no piped water in the 11 acre Botanic Garden when we arrived, I turned to my second objective—that of training workers. Even though the Samoans depend on their agriculture,


Author: David S. Verity

PP: 202

Diplacus is a genus of about one dozen species or botanical varieties of small shrubs that are native to California and adjacent Baja California and Oregon. As members of the family Scrophulariaceae, they are close to Mimulus, but differ chiefly in their woody character. Known as "bush monkey-flower", they often attract attention by their abundant flowering on roadcuts or in recently burnt areas. With one exception the species are freely interfertile so that hybrids, both wild and from plants in cultivation, have long attracted the attention of horticulturists. Past workers have included Van Rensselaer (Santa Barbara Botanic Garden), McMinn (Mills College), Sexton (U. C. Davis) and Lenz (Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden). My work began in about 1965 and continued to 1980, with a great burst of activity during the final four years, being supported by a grant from the Elvenia J. Slosson University of California Endowment Fund for Ornamental Horticulture.

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 206

A new phase of the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden Plant Introduction Scheme (PISBG) has now commenced and will concentrate on selecting and introducing relatively unknown, as well as superior forms, of native species into commercial production for use in the urban landscape. With over 2000 species in the province, there is a rich and varied flora from which to select. The current commercial success of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ‘Vancouver Jade’, with over one million a year being propagated, has shown the value of selecting improved forms of native plants. Also, there is an increasing interest in using native plants in the landscape as replacements for some non-native species and cultivars.

With support from the B.C. Nursery Trades Association, the Botanical Garden was fortunate in receiving funding of $136,000 (Can.) for a three year project, commencing in 1988, to systematically collect plants showing potential from various areas in the Province. This funding came from


Author: James D. Macdonald

PP: 213

The production of healthy, pathogen-free plant materials is a key objective in propagation operations, but one that is not easily achieved. There are many avenues through which pathogens can infect nursery crops, with one of the most insidious being through the plant material itself. There are numerous examples of viral, fungal, and bacterial pathogens being carried on or in apparently healthy plant tissues. Sensitive methods for detecting pathogens in seed or vegetative propagating materials are necessary to insure high standards of plant quality.

While there have been many advances in virus detection over the years, the methods for detecting bacterial and fungal pathogens are much the same today as they were 100 years ago. Detection usually involves some form of culture-indexing, which can be slow, and may require both specialized laboratory facilities and personnel skilled in taxonomic identifications. These constraints have limited the effort and success of screening programs for


Author: Margaret Collins

PP: 49


Western Australia has over 350 species of native orchids (1) and all are terrestrial with the exception of two epiphytic species, found only in the Kimberly area. The majority of these 350 species are found in the southwest corner of the state. The flowers of terrestrial orchids are usually smaller and more delicate than those of the more commonly cultivated exotic epiphytes, but have a wide variety of form and colour. Many, such as the Thelymitra, Diuris and Caladenia, would make attractive horticultural subjects. Unlike the epiphytic orchids, which are an important part of the floriculture industry, terrestrial orchids have not been commercially exploited to any significant degree. Potential growers have probably been discouraged by both the lack of efficient propagation methods and the long dormancy period.

In order to survive hot, dry summers terrestrial orchids have evolved a deciduous growth cycles (Figure 1) and spend 4 to 6 months of the driest part of the year as


Author: Carolyn Napoli

PP: 217


Since the latter part of the 1970s, scientists have proposed that genetic engineering, based on the new recombinant DNA technology, would have a profound impact on plant breeding. Indeed, even more today than a decade ago, technological advances in the field of plant molecular biology make it possible to consider seriously the role molecular genetic techniques will play in commercial breeding programs. This paper presents a brief review of plant breeding strategies and discusses the feasibility of incorporating recombinant DNA technology into conventional plant breeding programs.


Author: T.V. St. John, J.M. Evans

PP: 222


The majority of the work reported here took place at Tree of Life Nursery, which produces about 300 species of California native plants for both horticultural and revegetation purposes.

With the revegetation plants, especially, we are concerned that they leave the nursery in a condition that will allow them to survive the rigorous conditions of a land restoration job. Those conditions include no irrigation except natural rainfall, little or no fertilization, and minimal help against weeds and herbivorous animals. For that reason we have established a program of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi.


Author: Serge Zimberoff

PP: 233

There are, still, many unrealistic expectations that growers bring to tissue culture labs almost every week.

I hope to cover three areas: what we expected of tissue culture, what we thought we were getting, and what we really got.

The 1960's saw a dramatic conquest of the major problems confronting orchid propagation. The orchids were slow to propagate vegetatively and were almost universally infected with viruses that caused a dramatic shortening of the shelf life of the flowers. Morel (6) described the methods for producing virus-free Cymbidium orchids and how to use tissue culture for clonal propagation of orchids. Scully (10) described clonal propagation of Phalaenopsis. Sagawa and Shoji (9) described clonal propagation of Dendrobiums. Scully (10) wrote about meristem culture of Cattleya orchids.

So here, after decades of steady but slow improvement in vegetative orchid propagation, tissue culture burst on the scene successfully. Where did this put our expectations? Why, we were


Author: Henry Donselman

PP: 236

Palms are playing an ever increasing role in the overall sales of retail and wholesale nurseries. In warmer climates these plants provide a tropical feel to the landscape. As interior plants many palms are unsurpassed for their durability and low light requirements. Many of the more common landscape palms are being recognized for their drought tolerance—a factor that is becoming more important in urban areas with water shortages.

Palms are arborescent or shrubby monocots. Related plants in this monocot group are plant families such as the bamboos and grasses, bananas, strelitzeas, aroids, and lilies. In addition to their ornamental value, palms are very important economically in the world. Coconut and African oil palms are widely grown for their tropical oils and other food products. Date palms are grown for their production of the edible date fruit. Many new palm plantations have recently been established in tropical areas for the production of hearts of palms, a gourmet delicacy.


Author: F.J. Cullum, S.J. Bradley, Margaret E. Williams

PP: 244

Autumn-harvested achenes of Rosa corymbifera ‘Laxa’ can be successfully germinated in the following spring if pretreated with a proprietary compost activator and stored under controlled conditions. The pretreatment used is 10g moist achenes, 25g moist vermiculite, 0.5g * "Garotta" compost activator, before storing at 20° C for 12 weeks and then at 4° C for 12 weeks. A series of experiments is described which shows that the time of harvest, rate of compost activator, proportion of vermiculite and storage temperatures can all be varied within given limits.

Author: Gilbert De Mesmaeker

PP: 251


The creation of the Research Centre for Ornamental Plants marked a new era in the history of cultivation of ornamental plants in Belgium. This Centre is an amalgamation of three experimental gardens: for Floriculture, Nursery Stock, and Cut Flowers. The Experimental Horticultural Station B.V.O., established at Wetteren (Ghent) in 1954, now also forms part of the Centre. The Research Centre for Ornamental Plants is situated in Destelbergen (Ghent), right at the heart of the ornamental plant-growing region. Both the amalgamation and the location of the Centre have enhanced its function as a research and information agency, improving the two-way flow if ideas.

On 1 October 1988, one year after building work began, the buildings and facilities of the Ornamental Plant Research Centre were ready for occupation. On 16 September 1989, the Research Centre was officially opened. The Ministry of Agriculture, the Flemish executive, and the Growers Association itself have all made


Author: Neal A. Wright

PP: 255

The technique of micropropagation is now proven for many types of nursery stock—especially roses of all types. Micropropagated roses are easy to prune; have no wild suckers; more flowers and, for the grower, make container production easy. These attributes have ensured the adoption of the technique for roses.

Two difficult stages in the production of micropropagated roses are weaning and growing-on. This paper will discuss how we at Micropropagation Services carry out the weaning and some of the recommendations we make following trials on the growing on of young plants. I will also discuss some of the problems of weaning and growing-on and how to overcome them.


Author: David Rowell

PP: 260

Many pests and diseases can affect roses but relatively few have serious consequences for the commercial grower.

Author: Roger A. Bentley

PP: 264

A range of residual herbicides and a straw mulch were applied to newly planted Rosa dumetorum ‘Laxa’ rootstocks Visible damage in the form of leaf scorch was seen following applications of oxadiazon (Ronstar liquid) and a transient chlorotic leaf blotching was seen after applications of difluferucan plus isoproturon (Javelin). The best weed control was given by oxadiazon (Ronstar) plus simazine (Simazine 50 FL). Good weed control was also given by straw mulch, atrazine plus terbuthylazine (Gardoprim A 500 FW) plus metazachlor (Butisan S), simazine plus metazachlor, metazachlor plus isoxaben (Flexidor) plus propyzamide (Kerb 50W), and oxadiazon (Ronstar) plus diflufenican plus isoproturon (Javelin).

Author: Ernest G. Parsons

PP: 269

In looking at this topic it must be understood that methods in areas covered will vary. I am in no way suggesting that the points raised here are the only means that rose tree production may be mechanised.

Soil Structure. Before starting to produce a crop of roses the first thing to note is the possible soil structure that a field can offer. I like to take a sample of soil from an uncultivated area, which can usually be found in a corner of a field, and compare it with that found well out into the field. Usually there is a noticeable difference. For instance, on many clay-based soils the particles are much more compacted in the middle of the field compared with the edge. Soil structure is a very important factor and can influence the cultivation, as well as the quality of crop.

Cultivation. The primary operation has to be sub-soiling followed by ploughing. As an alternative a digging machine can be used. These machines are non-rotary in action. Their digging action completely


Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 56

Seeds of 61 native Australian species of the genera Acacia, Banksia, Grevillea, and Hakea were germinated and grown-on in a pine bark based medium which had been amended with two levels of Fe, added as ferrous sulfate, and five levels of P, added as single superphosphate. The species were ranked in groups according to the severity of foliar symptoms.

In a second experiment, Banksia ericifolia seedlings were grown in a pine bark/peat mix amended with seven levels of Fe, added as ferrous sulfate, and seven levels of P, added as single superphosphate Shoots at 12 weeks ranged in colour from dark green at the highest levels of Fe combined with the lowest levels of P, to yellow and/or dead at the lowest levels of Fe combined with the highest levels of P.

Guidelines for interpretation of analytical data for potting media to be used for growing "P-sensitive" plants are given.


Author: Paul Masters

PP: 274


The name "County Series" has been given to a group of repeat flowering cultivars of ground cover roses. As a result of their repeat flowering nature they are much less vigorous than existing cultivars, such as ‘Max Graf’ and ‘Pheasant’. This makes the "County Series" roses much more suitable for small gardens and container growing for garden centre sales. Each British county has its own distinct character as does each of the "County Series" roses.

Flowering from June to October on their own roots, sucker-free, pest and disease resistant and hardy, "County Series" roses have characteristics and a colour range that were not available in existing ground cover cultivars.

Planting distances depend upon the cultivar, but range between 45 cm centres for R. ‘Rutland’ and 75 cm centres for R. ‘Surrey’. Petals drop cleanly so dead heading is not necessary. A light trim during the autumn and winter can be carried out to keep the plants tidy.

There are


Author: G.P. Ilsink

PP: 278

The history of humanity goes hand in hand with the history of the rose. There is no period in time when the rose did not play a role. It has been painted a thousandfold; numerous poems and songs have been devoted to it and in literature it figures more than any other flower. Its image is reproduced on coins, postage stamps, vases, and on primitive wall paintings.

My interest in roses dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. It was by chance that I came in contact with the families, Dickson and McGredy. The work in rose breeding of these two families held a very particular fascination for me and, in all fairness, I must admit it was they who inspired me to take up rose breeding. They taught me a great deal during our many discussions and they quite often made it clear that the breeding of roses was not just a simple matter of putting pollen on stigmas, but rather, involved the building of a line toward a specific goal. In addition, I was assured that the breeding of roses would be an


Author: Terry Kenwright

PP: 283


The British Association of Rose Breeders (B.A.R.B.) is a non-profit association whose aim is:

  1. To license growers to propagate protected rose cultivars for sale and administer and monitor the numbers being grown.
  2. To collect royalties on behalf of rose breeders and/or their agents.
  3. To represent members' interests in all matters appertaining to Plant Breeders' Rights.
  4. To promote "New Roses".

After Plant Breeders' Rights were introduced in 1964 individual rose breeders licensed certain rose growers to propagate their new roses but this was found to be inefficient and expensive for both breeders and growers alike. It also had the disadvantage of different systems being operated by different breeders and, more particularly, did not promote the growing of the newer roses.

In the winter of 1972 a number of breeders joined together. The group included those well known names, Jack Harkness, Pat Dickson, and the late Alec Cocker and, after a great deal of


Author: Martin Gardner

PP: 287

Historically the main source of good garden plants has been from Western China. However, British gardens have also benefited a great deal from introductions hailing from southern South America. Although numerically these plants cannot attempt to compete with the vast quantities introduced from Western China, temperate South America can boast some of the most stunning and unusual plants cultivated in British gardens today.

The only countries of the South American continent having a climate comparable with that of Britain and Ireland are Argentina and Chile. Garden-worthy plants from these two countries have found their way into British gardens through the implacable efforts of intrepid botanists and horticulturists, such as the Victorian plant collector, William Lobb, who pioneered the introduction of some of the most noteworthy plants from temperate South America. Latterly, Harold Comber, who made several extended visits during the 1930s, not only reintroduced many of William Lobb's


Author: Maurice Barletta

PP: 292

The Grodan Single Block System (SBS) is a new cutting propagation procedure which incorporates rockwool blocks ready filled in a modular tray for immediate use on the nursery. Practical aspects of its use and commercial growers' experiences are discussed.

The Material. Rockwool is a uniform growing material made from melted volcanic rock spun into fibres. It is inert and free from pests and diseases. In the same way as peats vary in their water:air holding characteristics so do different rockwools. Only Grodan rockwool is discussed here. This material has been used as a medium for the production of cut roses and salad crops for over 15 years.

Grodan SBS offers the potential for improved rooting percentages, faster rooting, and easier potting along with easier management. Because Grodan SBS is propagation block and carrying tray in one, this cuts out the labour input, machinery costs, and management time involved in organising the mixing of media and filling of trays with loose fill


Author: Nigel R. Willis

PP: 296

Successful heather production begins with the stock plants. The younger, cleaner, and more vigorous they are, the better the crop of cuttings will prove to be. Highland Heathers maintains approximately 80 stock plants of each cultivar it sells.

Each year 20 plants of each cultivar are taken out of the saleable stock and potted up into 2 litre pots. The other stock plants are then potted up a size, that is, 2 litre into 4 litre; 4 litre into 6 litre; 6 litre into 7.5 litre; 7.5 litre into 10 litre. This ensures a steady turnover of stockplants and generates good, young vigorous cuttings. These stockplants are housed in a ventilated polytunnel on a capillary bed. This keeps the foliage dry which prevents Botrytis infection and prevents watersplash and the transfer of Rhizoctonia.

The plants are sprayed fortnightly with fungicide; alternately with Rovral and Elvaron. Stockplants are regularly trimmed to prevent their producing too many flowers. Too much flowering tends to mean harder


Author: Philip R. Swindells

PP: 299


This presentation does not claim to solve the problems of in vitro reproduction of waterlilies (Nymphaea spp.), but I hope that it will provide an insight into the need to develop such a technique and give some indication of progress so far. The work that I and my colleagues have undertaken only refers to the Nymphaea subgenus, Chamaenymphaea — the hardy waterlilies.

The production of aquatic plants is one of the fastest growing areas in decorative horticulture in Europe, Australasia, and North America. It is estimated that 1.5 million households in the UK have garden ponds (3) and that the UK market in waterlilies is approximately 500,000 plants each year. Home production accounts for about 50%, the remainder being imported from continental Europe and Japan Waterlilies require specialised production and are high value plants retailing between £4.25 and £60.00 each, the average selling price being about £12 00.

Crown rot disease has devastated many UK stocks in recent


Author: Maurice Foster

PP: 303

There are some 80 species of Magnolia with a natural distribution confined to two main areas: East and Southeast Asia and the Himalayas, and North and Central America.

The genus is divided into two subgenera: Magnolia, comprising mainly American species and the later-flowering species from Japan and China, and Yulania, comprising all the precocious flowering species that make such a brilliant contribution to spring gardens in Britain. All the species of the Yulania subgenus are worthwhile from a horticultural viewpoint and will provide the main focus for this paper.

The Yulania subgenus is divided into sections as follows:


Author: C.R. Sanders

PP: 308

When I first began to study Hamamelis, or witch hazels as they are commonly known, in the early 1960s, there were far fewer species and cultivars available than there are today. Apart from the well known Hamamelis mollis and some of its cultivars, such as ‘Pallida’ and ‘Brevipetala’, as well as cultivars of H. japonica such as ‘Arborea’, ‘Sulphurea’, ‘Flavopurpurescens’, and ‘Zuccariniana’, and H. × intermedia ‘Ruby Glow’, there was virtually nothing else to be obtained from nurseries of the day. Since then about 20 new cultivars have been named and introduced.

Nearly all these are cultivars of H. × intermedia, the hybrid between H. mollis (Chinese witch hazel) and H. japonica (Japanese witch hazel). Several have originated in the Kalmthout Arboretum in Belgium, but others have been raised in England, Germany, Denmark, USA, and Japan.

A number of selections of the North American species, H. vernalis, (Ozark witch hazel) have also appeared during recent years. With, perhaps, one or two exceptions,



PP: 314

Three concurrent discussion groups considered the topics of: (1) Betula Propagation, (2) Magnolia Production, and (3) Plant Breeders's Rights. These seminars aimed to pool current knowledge on the topic. For the sessions on plant production the aim was to evaluate the various methods used by members. The aim of the session, Plant Breeders' Rights, was to brief members on the current situation and to assess the likely impact of forthcoming European legislation on Plant Breeders' Rights. Various methods of protecting cultivars would be discussed.

The significant conclusions developed by these groups are given in the papers that follow.


Author: Kingsley Dixon, Kathy Meney, I.R. Dixon

PP: 60


Australian Cyperaceae (sedges) and Restionaceae (rushes) are important components of the Western Australian cutflower industry. They are used fresh, dry, and dyed as greens or as fillers in dry floral arrangements. One species, Ecdeiocolea monostachya (Ecdeiocoleaceae) is also being examined for fibre extraction. Most plant product is collected from the wild or from semi-managed wild stands usually on private land. The total Western Australian production of these plants for local consumption and export is 3 to 4 million stems annually and is set to increase.

Twenty species (representing 2% of the 391 species of rushes and sedges native to Western Australia) have been utilised with 12 species used intensively. The main eastern Australian species used are: Caustis blakeii and Restio tetraphyllus, and important Western Australian taxa are Caustis dioica (and morphs), Leptocarpus scariosus, Evandra spp., Mesomelaena spp. and Restio ustulatus. A number of other taxa show


Author: Robin Currie

PP: 315


Collection. For the indigenous species, Betula pendula and B. pubescens, it was noted that collection from sources with a similar latitude to the final planting site was best because their growth pattern depends closely on the day length of their provenance. Seed collection allows for the introduction of Asiatic and North American species from known provenances in the wild permitting botanic gardens to build up a better picture of their variability and distribution. It is important not to collection seed from the various exotic species growing in parks, arboreta, etc. As a wind-pollinated genus, hybridization between species regularly occurs.

Seed treatments. Birch seed does not store well and rapidly loses viability, but as collection is easily accomplished each year, this is not a problem.

Germination percentages are much improved with a two or three week cold, moist stratification at 0 to 1 ° C. Naked stratification leads to problems with aeration, so it is


Author: Lila Dick

PP: 318


Seed propagation is used for wild-collected seed, for the production of understocks, for some species where the likelihood of cross pollination is not great, and for intended hybridization programmes.

Gathering seed is a problem with large plants so long arm pruners, or even shotguns are used. The time of ripening needs to be known so that seed can be collected before it has dispersed.

Seed must be extracted from the fruiting cones and the fleshy outer covering must also be removed. This is easily done by fermentation in a plastic bag and then extracted by maceration and flotation. Once extracted, the seed must be prevented from drying out by mixing with a moist medium.

The seed needs a cold period of two to three months at 0 to 1 ° C to overcome dormancy conditions so that germination can be obtained.

Because of their value, the seeds are best sown after pretreatment either into trays and pricked out later, or directly into liner-sized containers.


Author: John Joe Costin

PP: 321

Plant Breeders' Rights are different from Plant Patents. During the period the Rights are in force, they give the holder — the breeder or creator of a new variety — the exclusive right to:
  1. Sell, offer or expose for sale, reproductive material of the protected variety.
  2. Produce reproductive material of the protected variety for sale.
  3. Exercise any further rights specified in the scheme.

At present, Plant Breeders' Rights are only exercised in individual countries. Protection must be taken out separately in each country where it is needed. International rights are controlled by a Convention that meets in Geneva. There are proposals that, by 1992, all countries in the European Community will operate to a common law. This will greatly simplify registration and increase property protection for breeders.


Author: W. Brascamp

PP: 326

The positive effect of a five min immersion in an IBA-containing solution on the number of roots formed on Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf cuttings was greatly enhanced by paclobutrazol (PP333). Little was gained from the addition of IAA to an immersion solution containing both PP333 and IBA PP333 alone did not significantly promote root formation, but caused a decrease in mean root length and an increase in root diameter.

Author: Alice M. de Nys, Gillian L. Rapson

PP: 332

Brachyglottis compacta is one of a large number of endemic, New Zealand plant species. An endemic species is one that is native to and restricted to a particular localised geographical area. Endemism in New Zealand is estimated to be about 81% (4).

The plant was first recorded by Kirk in 1880 (2), and was then known as Senecio compactus. It is a member of the Asteraceae, the daisy family, one of the largest plant families in the world, with about 25,000 species. There are about 260 species of Asteraceae found in New Zealand (1). Many are woody or semi-woody species. This is unusual as most members of the Asteraceae, elsewhere, are herbaceous. Brachyglottis compacta is a shrub with a soft corky bark less than 2m high, semi-spherical in growth, with grey leaves, which are very hairy underneath. The inflorescences have yellow ray and disc florets.


Author: Mike Geenty

PP: 336

For discussion purposes herbaceous plants will be separated from woody plants, with herbaceous plant material treated first. These plants are used for planting on traffic islands, median strips, road verges, etc. and are produced in large quantities. The propagation and production methods have been developed over a period of years with the objective of producing a large quantity of plants in the shortest possible time at minimum costs.

Seed of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis [syn. A. orientalis] is collected in April (autumn) as soon as the pods start opening. After some drying the seed is roughly cleaned by rubbing and sieving, then sown as soon as possible into trays in a normal seed raising medium. The sown trays are stacked on top of each other, about 15 trays high, with an empty tray on top, on the floor of a house heated to 20° ± 2° C. After 15 days the stack is reversed and any moisture loss corrected. The stack is inspected every second day thereafter with germination


Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 340

During the late 1970s I became involved with the New Zealand Wildlife Service as a volunteer on Little Barrier Island in the cat eradication campaign. After the cats were finally exterminated from the island there was a period of rare native bird liberation on this and other safe islands around New Zealand's shores. Being involved in these expeditions over many years I had the chance to study the flora and fauna of a number of our northern islands. One of the areas, the Mercury Island group, was of special interest to me. I was part of a study of the saddleback, (a native bird), along with doing seed identification in faeces. All the Mercury island group have been extensively modified by human occupation and the introduction of feral (wild or untamed) animals. The plant life of these "cultivated" places is highly modified due to species being destroyed by fire, or unable to regenerate owing to the predation of seeds and seedlings by rabbits and rats. Often there will be only

Author: Vance Hooper

PP: 343


In ornamental horticulture clonal understocks have been used more for convenience than for standardising growth of plants produced, but clonal understocks have long been an integral part of commercial orchard operations. Fruit yield and tree performance can be controlled by understock selection, i.e. apple cultivars can have dwarf, semi-dwarf, or vigorous understocks. It is often more convenient to grow understocks from seed than by vegetative methods. This report discusses the selection of clonal. understocks for Magnolia spp., but the principles can be applied to other genera.


Author: R.E. Hunt

PP: 347


I recall my university days on the subject of "Management" and the process of "Decision Making": Observe, Analyse, Decide, Action. At that time it seemed rather abstract, but now that I am running my own business it is much more real. It made quite an impact on me at that impressionable age. Since then observation has always been an important part of my life. As a plant propagator and retailer, I keep a very large working diary.

The commitment to becoming organic arrived through this observation process about ten years ago when I was foreman on a large orchard. I started thinking about the massive amounts of poisonous sprays that went onto the fruits and into the environment, and the consequences of that. I concluded that we must work towards enhancing and sustaining our world, taking out only what is put back at a renewable pace. If we are not prepared to confront the environmental problems of today they will be visited upon our children.


Author: Cathy Jones

PP: 350


Somatic embryogenesis has been reported in many plant species, with the earliest in carrot cell cultures over 30 years ago (3). There has been significant progress and many reviews in recent years (5). Woody species often require more complex cultural manipulations than herbaceous species. Reported successes include conifers (e.g. 1, 2,4). Somatic embryogenesis has considerable potential as a basic technique for propagation of conifers. The ability to regenerate large quantities of plantlets or even artificial seeds from somatic embryos from superior trees with desirable traits, such as faster growth, better quality wood, and disease resistance would improve existing reafforestation programmes, and be a major asset to the forest industry.

Somatic embryogenesis is the formation of embryos similar to zygotic (sexual) embryos formed in nature, but initiated from somatic cells rather than zygotic cells. Somatic cells are from the plant body, zygotic cells are from the


Author: Leisa J. Armstrong

PP: 64


Nuytsia floribunda (Labill.) R. Br. is a tree to 15m high or, rarely, a prostrate shrub in coastal areas. (6, 12) Nuytsia is a monotypic genus, and is one of only three root parasites in the mistletoe family Loranthaceae (9). This species is the largest known parasitic flowering plant (10). The distribution of Nuytsia is limited to an area from the Murchison River at the northern tip of the southwest land division of Western Australia, to Israelite Bay in the southeast (9). Nuytsia is renowned for its spectacular displays of orange flowers (14) during the Christmas period, hence the tree's common name of "Christmas Tree". These attributes, together with the fact that the species is virtually unavailable commercially, give the tree great horticultural potential.

Propagation by cuttings is the standard nursery practice for producing large numbers of plants from a species which is difficult or impossible to establish from seed. Although Nuytsia seed is not difficult


Author: Raymond B. Lawson

PP: 354

The climbing rose, Rosa ‘Mermaid’, a hybrid with R. bracteata parentage, was raised by William Paul in 1917. It has fragrant primrose yellow single blooms and is perpetual flowering until the first frosts. Its habit is very vigorous with thorny branches that are evergreen in mild, and semi-deciduous in cooler climates.

Author: Andrew D. Maloy

PP: 356

Integrated pest management (IPM) has been defined as… "the combining of biological controls and cultural manipulations to minimise dependency on pesticides."

Despite the widely publicized advantages of IPM, and the pressure to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides around the globe, many growers still have not accepted that IPM can work for them. Many lack confidence in IPM programmes and quite often they are satisfied with their present chemical control methods. My own experience with IPM has been in controlling two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae), or TSM for short

In the winter of 1982 we leased a greenhouse that had several large specimen plants permanently planted in it. There were cultivars of Ficus, Schefflera, Codiaeum, and some palms. Within a few weeks we realised that we had inherited a healthy collection of assorted pests, namely, mealy bug, aphids, and TSM.

A routine spray programme soon had the situation under control through spring and early summer, or so I thought


Author: Jennifer Oliphant

PP: 358

Paclobutrazol, a plant growth retardant, may be used in the rooting medium of micropropagated plants to prepare the plants for transfer to soil without acclimatisation The following plants have been subjected to varying strengths of paclobutrazol in the rooting medium, Metrosideros spp , Eucalyptus ficifolia, Mandevilla ‘Alice du Pont’, Rhododendron ‘Anna Rose Whitney’ and Morus nigra. The results show an individualistic response with respect to root growth but all plants that were transferred to soil without acclimatisation grew successfully.

Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 361

It is often said that "money is the root of all evil". From my observations in growing plants and in horticulture, the person who first wrote that had not heard of fertiliser.

I am regularly asked to comment and advise on why people's plants are not growing well, and what we use in the nursery to get our plants to grow. We even sell our blend of fertiliser to the general public in an effort to assist. Modern high-quality, blended, slow release fertilisers have taken much of the skill away from the art of plant nutrition. If a plant does not grow well with a handful of Osmocote, Nutricote, Magamp, or whatever, then it is declared impossible to grow, which is indeed unfortunate.

The correct use of fertiliser in plant nutrition is the difference between complete success and total crop failure. I am convinced the average nursery could double its output with correct plant nutrition. Nearly all fungal and bacterial diseases are a result of poor nutrition. The first sign that all is


Author: Franz E. Ripphausen

PP: 366

Selection of propagating material is one factor that influences the success of subsequent propagating techniques. Theoretically, the larger the cutting the sooner the plant will reach a saleable size, provided that the basic character of the future plant is not lost. Ease of root initiation is quite possibly influenced by the size of the cutting. The objective of this trial was to investigate the potential for using larger than normal cutting material.

Four test plants were selected that varied in growth habit and ultimate use. Boronia heterophylla and Leucodendron were selected as cut flower crops and Abelia grandiflora and Metrosideros excelsa were used to represent hedging plants.

Tip cuttings were harvested in mid-autumn when the wood was mature. The cuttings were prepared, dipped in "Seradix" containing 0.1% indolebutyric acid (IBA), then placed in peat:pumice (1:1, v/v), on bottom heat at 21°C under fog. Cuttings of five sizes were used (2,8,14,18 and 27 cm),


Author: Clinton J. Smythe, Krista D. Smythe

PP: 368


There has been little work done on the influence of the time of year cuttings are taken on the rooting of cuttings of New Zealand native plants. Work of Butcher and Wood (1) on the rooting of cuttings of Sophora microphylla ‘Earlygold’, ‘Goldie's Mantle’, and ‘Goldilocks’ showed that certain times of the year were better for propagation purposes than others. After taking cuttings at three to four week intervals for a complete year they showed that approximately 100% rooting could be achieved with these three cultivars by taking semi-hardwood cuttings in June, July, or August (winter). This paper reports our studies on the effect of the time of year on the rooting of cuttings of four other common New Zealand native ornamental plants.


Author: M.B. Thomas, H.S. Ngu

PP: 370

Begonza × tuberhybrida was grown in a peat sand sawdust (1 1 1,v/v) potting medium using a four factor central composite incomplete block design to measure the response to N,P,K fertilisation and liming, each at five levels This plant responded strongly to N and P. Nitrogen was singularly the most important nutrient element and its effects were enhanced by P fertilisation and liming.

Author: Denny R. Blew

PP: 378

More often than not growers rate the virtue of a soil mix based on the low price of its components. Sometimes we use compounds reminiscent of toxic waste just because they are cheap. Soon it will be time to consider our soil mix for next season. Shouldn't we choose a soil mix because it's the only one that really works, it's the life of the system, it's the carrier of minerals and nutrients and oxygen, and represents everything that will make that little plant grow to be something exceptional? If we want to develop a regional market it is imperative that we "forget about the cheap and look for the leap." The point is, we should go for what launches us ahead and begin to enjoy the benefits of a great soil mix or anything else in those situations where we go for the best.

Author: James B. Berry

PP: 383

  1. Abelia × grandiflora, variegated prostrate form. This beautiful, creamy, variegated, ground-cover abelia is a sport of the cultivar, ‘Sherwoodu’. White blooms in the summer and a prominence of pink-tinted foliage and stems in the winter means this plant is bound for greatness The new growth terminals are also pink Winter hardiness, drought tolerance, and old-time toughness are a few characteristics that are retained in this new cultivar of an old garden heritage This plant will be properly named and patented by Flowerwood Nursery.
  2. Ilex crenata ‘Beehive’. This plant was developed by Rutgers University ‘Beehive’ is a small-leaved holly that can be pruned easily to a beehive or pyramidal shape The foliage color is gray-green. Winter was extremely cold last year and this proved to be the most tolerant Ilex crenata that we grow. It is a more attractive specimen than ‘Highlander’ and smaller in nature than ‘Steeds’ holly.
  3. Ilex crenata ‘Soft Touch’. ‘Soft Touch’ was found among an assortment of

Author: James B. Berry

PP: 386

Our American society has evolved into one that wants the latest styles. It is willing to try the latest diet plans, tennis shoes, trucks, and automobiles. It is subject to styles, crazes, and fads. I think that the plant-consuming public is infected with this same societal characteristic of demanding new styles accompanied by willingness to pay for them. For instance, Monrovia Nursery Company has been a very successful wholesale grower for many years. Monrovia offers a wide variety and is constantly introducing new plant types, usually at a premium price.

The landscaping sector of our industry is not greatly affected by new cultivars as it seems to be less imaginative, less likely to innovate and try different plants than are retail consumers. Throughout the South, cultivars that were used en masse 20, ten, and five years ago are basically the same cultivars, that are used today. Kurume azaleas, variegated liriope, dwarf Burford holly, ‘Helleri’ Japanese holly, ‘Compacta’ Japanese holly,


Author: Tom Crossen

PP: 69


The technique of grafting Australian plants has been used with success where otherwise there have been losses due to:

  • disease
  • failure of more traditional propagating methods
  • a lack of suitable propagating material
  • failure due to climatic or soil conditions.
This paper outlines one specific grafting technique—the approach graft—whereby Grevillea is grafted onto Grevillea to produce a weeping standard.

Author: Bill Daughtry

PP: 390

Pulse watering is a concept that was developed by Jan and Peter Groot who operate El Modeno Gardens in Orange County, California. The Groots developed this concept in response to environmental problems created by their excessive nitrate runoff. Water is applied for multiple short cycles that are spaced about an hour apart instead of in one long cycle. The hour pause between cycles gives the water time to soak into the medium before more water is added.

Irrigation at Lancaster Farms is totally automated, which made it very easy for us to try this new concept. We water early in the morning so that we can be finished before crews start their workday. In our old method of irrigation, a four-station program was designed to water each station for 60 min. beginning at 3:00 a.m. At 7:00 a.m. the irrigation was completed for the day. Now we program each of the four stations for 15 min. beginning at 3:30 a.m. They cycle is repeated at 4:45 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. Our daily watering is still completed


Author: Randall M. Jacobs, Jim Berry, Pat Duck

PP: 394

At Flowerwood Nursery Inc., Loxley Division, we propagate all liners for Loxley's production. We also propagate all liners for three other Flowerwood divisions. Some of these are for liner sales. We produced a total of just under 5 million units in 1989.

Author: Chin Chin Lee, T.E. Bilderback

PP: 397

Softwood and semi-hardwood two node cuttings of Heptacodium miconioides from basal and middlestem sections rooted better than terminal sections. Basal and middle softwood cuttings exhibited greater rooting (65 and 55%, respectively), than terminal cuttings (42 %). Basal softwood cuttings produced more roots (7 0) than terminal cuttings (3 8). Root length and rootball diameter were not different among the three cutting positions. Semi-hardwood basal cuttings produced an average of 53.5 roots while middle and terminal cuttings produced 25.8 and 19 7, respectively Cuttings treated with the potassium salt formulation of indolebutyric acid (K-IBA) exhibited increased rooting, greater root number and length, and greater rootball diameter in softwood cuttings. Semi-hardwood cuttings treated with K-IBA rooted in higher percentages and produced more roots than untreated cuttings.

Author: Helen Matthews

PP: 402

We have been growing lining-out stock for eight years at Rennerwood Nursery. We grow about 60 cultivars and/or species of shade and ornamental trees in containers—no bareroot material. Less than half of these plants are Texas natives. Our liners range in size from a plug with a root mass 6 in. deep to I- and 2-gal. containers. About 90% of our production is from seed and only 10% from cuttings.

Author: Charles Meister

PP: 406

Before a pesticide can be labeled for use on an ornamental species, it must be registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Normally, the manufacturer or registrant will develop necessary data to secure a new label. But, since the pesticide market for ornamentals is limited, many possible registrants estimate that potential profits do not justify costs and decide not to become involved in developing low-use labels.

The serious lack of pesticides registered for use on ornamentals was brought to light in several surveys carried out in 1976–1977 by the American Association of Nurserymen. The surveys disclosed that there were very few pesticide labels available for control of diseases, insects, and weeds in commercially grown ornamental crops, including floral and foliage plants grown in the greenhouse and out-of-doors; woody nursery stock, both container and field grown; shade and flowering trees; and turf and interior landscape plantings.

The National IR-4 Project is a USDA


Author: Paul Miller

PP: 410

Timberline Nursery is a 75-acre, wholesale nursery specializing in providing bare-root juniper and arborvitae liners to nurseries throughout the United States. All of our propagation is done outside in topsoil beds. Each bed is 4 ft wide and 400 ft in length. The cuttings are taken from our nursery stock grown in containers.

For fumigation and sterilization of the topsoil beds we use Basamid—a safe, easy-to-use, granular soil fumigant. Basamid controls nematodes, weed seeds, and diseases such as root rot, Phytophthora, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. The active ingredient in Basamid is dazomet.

Many appealing factors make Basamid our preferred fumigant. No special equipment is necessary such as soil injectors and plastic coverings. You can use equipment you presently have at your nursery. Basamid can be applied at your convenience since Basamid releases and forms a gas only after moisture is applied. This makes it a safe product to use at the time of application.


Author: James N. Moore

PP: 412

Recently there has been a nationwide resurgence of interest and activity in home production of fruits and vegetables. Several factors have contributed to this interest in home gardening, including wide publicity of the health-giving value of fruits and vegetables in the human diet and consumer concerns about the safety of purchased foods. This increasing interest in home gardening is providing new opportunities for nurserymen to expand propagation and marketing of nursery stock of fruit species.

Opportunities exist for the marketing of many fruit species, but I will limit my discussion here to only small fruits and grapes. This is appropriate since interest among home gardeners is especially high for this group of fruit crops.

Some of the characteristics of small fruits that appeal to home gardeners are: 1) high production in small amounts of space; 2) consistently productive perennials; 3) less pest problems on most than for tree fruits and vegetables; 4) difficult to purchase high


Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 417

Growing high-quality container plants at a profit is the primary goal of Lancaster Farms. For many years we tried to grow large—10-gal and up—plant material utilizing our accepted production practices but with very little success. The market was asking for larger container plants, and we were unable to deliver a quality product profitably. Six years ago we started on a diversification plan to add a field-grow division to the nursery. In our first effort we used field-grow fabric containers and trickle irrigation. We experienced difficulties during planting, and the harvested product did not meet our expectations. Late in 1988 we decided a change was needed.

To meet our requirements for a profitable field division a new system must provide the following:

  1. Trickle irrigation. Our concern for water runoff, groundwater pollution, and water conservation dictated that any expansion of the nursery utilize the advantages of trickle irrigation.
  2. Wind blowover control. We detest performing

Author: Craig J. Regelbrugge

PP: 420

As nurserymen, plant propagators, researchers, and horticulturists, I would like each of you to ponder a few questions. What would your business be like without rooting compounds such as indolebutyric acid (IBA)? Which plants would you have difficulty propagating? How would this affect your customers and, ultimately, the diversity of plants in our homes and landscapes?

What about the spread of destructive exotic pests, such as the imported fire ant, and the resulting quarantines on movement of nursery stock? Would the absence of safe, effective quarantine controls for the fire ant prevent you from shipping your products to many regional or national markets? Or would good-intentioned but poorly thought out safety or environmental protection measures render your business unprofitable?

Following is a summary of the current status of IBA registration and the imported fire ant quarantine, two major issues confronting southern nursery growers, and some suggestions on how we as an industry


Author: John M. Ruter, Dewayne L. Ingram

PP: 423

Seeds of Sophora secundiflora (Ort) Lag ex DC. (mescal bean) were scarified with hot water and concentrated sulfuric acid to determine an optimal pretreatment for successful germination. One-year-old seeds were successfully stored and germinated approximately two days before seed from the current year when both were given an acid pretreatment. Germination rate increased as acid pretreatment time increased from 30 to 120 min Soaking seeds in water at room temperature and in hot water (initially 93 ° C) for 24 hr. had no effect on germination.

Author: Paul G. Van Der Moezel, David T. Bell, Ian J. Bennett, Melanie S

PP: 73


More than one billion hectares, or 7.6% of the world's land, consists of salt affected soils (1). Much of this area is naturally occurring saltland, such as mangrove forests, internally draining basins, and floodplains. However, an increasing proportion of land is becoming saline as the result of agricultural practices. In Western Australia about 12 million hectares of land has been classified as salt-affected, of which about 650,000 ha (5 4 %) is induced salinity as a result of artificially high watertables, or as scalds caused by wind and water erosion (4).

Saltland forestry is one of the many strategies proposed for making productive use of salt affected soils. Planting trees is an attractive option because of the primary benefits of salinity control and land reclamation and the secondary benefits of wood products, livestock shelter, windbreaks, and ecological habitat construction. In many developing countries, planting trees on saltland or using saline groundwater to


Author: Douglas Schmidt

PP: 427

The Bushnell, Florida division of Flowerwood Nurseries, Inc. was established in January, 1985. Bushnell is located 50 miles north of Tampa and 50 miles west of Orlando. This location is in zone 9a of the new USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. The nursery presently covers 65 acres with 40 acres in plant production, and it employs 35 to 40 people.

In the beginning, labor and management needs could be handled by relatively few people. However, as the nursery grew, the need for middle level managers and supervisors arose. Because of the quality of employees already on the nursery, we felt our need could be met through promotion and training from within rather than by hiring outside our employee pool. When considering possible choices, a candidate's job performance, honesty, and level of interest in the nursery in general are of primary importance. Basic plant and nursery skills can be taught later, while the desire to learn and willingness to perform cannot. The ability to complete assigned


Author: Andrea Sessions, Marty Zenni

PP: 429

Native perennials or wildflowers have become very popular with the gardening public in the past several years. Until recently, the source for wildflowers has been wild collection. The great increase in the demand for these plants, coupled with ever-increasing habitat destruction from development, has jeopardized the continued survival of many populations and species. Environmentally aware gardeners are rejecting wild-collected plants and are seeking a wide variety of high-quality, nursery-propagated wildflowers. Sunlight Gardens has been developing and refining wildflower propagation and production techniques for the past six years. In the following article, we will share some of our knowledge with you.

Author: Janis Teas

PP: 434

The business of herbs is becoming an important part of horticulture. Americans are becoming more health conscious and, in order to enjoy fresh seasonings, many people are growing herbs along with vegetables in their landscapes and gardens.

Herbs, loosely defined, include plants used in medicine, used for flavorings or seasonings, and for fragrances. Some also include plants used for dried flowers, dyes, or fibers. We feel if we were to look closely enough, most plants would have some type of herbal use. Herbs can be annual, perennial, woody, or herbaceous.

Following are descriptions of some perennial herbs that might be used in the landscape.

Santolina chamaecyparissus — lavender cotton A low-growing shrub that makes an attractive border — it may reach a height of 2 ft. Its silver color makes it a nice contrast plant It grows best in a dry, sunny location and does not do well in humid areas The branches of santolina can be hung in closets to repel moths There are also green-foliaged


Author: John A. Watkins, Willard T. Witte

PP: 437

Landscape architects and nurserymen are constantly looking for new plants that may serve as an accent or focal point of urban landscape design. Before these new plants can be produced by the nurseryman in a profitable manner, successful means for propagation and nursery production must be developed.

A specimen plant with good potential for the southeastern United States is the blue chinafir (Cunninghamia lanceolata ‘Glauca’). This selection of chinafir has a lustrous, glaucous blue foliage and is an excellent accent plant. It has slightly pendulous branches bearing large flat needles that give it an exotic appearance. A tree growing on the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, grounds has survived all adverse weather conditions for the past 20 years, including temperatures as low as -24° F, and has had no insect or disease problems. The blue chinafir is probably a more suitable blue-foliage conifer for the Southeast than either blue spruce or concolor fir, even though it has a somewhat


Author: Donald P. Whiddon

PP: 442

This paper will discuss the propagation of some of the native species of deciduous rhododendrons, more commonly known as native azaleas.

I believe the North American species of deciduous azaleas are some of the most beautiful of our native plants. Colors can range from white to yellow, orange, red, and pink, with almost any combination in between. Natural and deliberate hybridization have resulted in the availability of many superior forms in terms of bloom size, color, and adaptability.

Propagation is commonly by seed or cuttings. Seed propagation is simple, reliable, and economical, but the resulting offspring will usually be extremely variable. While this is an advantage for the hybridizer looking for new cultivars, it is a disadvantage to a commercial nursery trying to produce a predictable representative of a species.

Seed capsules are collected in the fall as they change from green to brown. They can be dried at room temperature by placing in a paper bag or an open container.


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 444

Water is the largest single ingredient involved in plant growth, yet it has generally been taken for granted, used inefficiently, and discharged uncaringly. After all, it's only … water! But times are changing; the population is growing; environmental concerns are increasing; and the quantity of available, good quality water is decreasing.

Water recycling is a relatively new factor that can have major implications on plant growth. At a few nurseries this has been a voluntary action (5), at others it has been mandated. Governmental agencies have essentially taken the position that whatever a nursery does to the water they use, they must live with in the future, via collection and recycling.

Four major changes in water occur as a result of collection and recycling. Pathogen populations build up, water chemistry changes, herbicides and weed seeds accumulate.

Pathogens. The pathogens are mostly the water molds Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and others. Because earth is an excellent


Author: Dan Milbocker

PP: 449

Ethylene was shown to induce root initiation by 1933 (13), yet its use remains controversial and has not been accepted commercially (9). Juvenile cuttings root easily but the reason is not well understood. The purpose of this report is to propose a relationship between ethylene and juvenility to explain easy rooting of juvenile cuttings.

Juvenile physiological development. Juvenile growth of plants is physiologically controlled by two principal growth regulator systems. Gibberellins and cytokinins promote cell division and cell elongation while auxins and cytokinins further control growth through apical dominance (8). Other growth-regulating systems exist, but these two should be given prime consideration when explaining root initiation.

Ethylene is known to be an ever-present growth regulator with multiple functions (8). It has an important role in healing, where it is known as wound ethylene (1). In my research, ethylene was released from poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.,


Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 455

It is a tremendous pleasure to be back in Cleveland, and to see many friends, including several charter members. What I'd like to do this morning is to take us back through the first 40 years and trace some of the major developments that took place in the area of plant propagation and then finish up with a glimpse of the future.

The big challenge for propagators—in particular, propagation by cuttings—is to control moisture loss from the cuttings during the period of rooting. One of the early approaches to controlling water loss from cuttings was the bell jar. Although it works very well, you have conflicting demands of trying to keep the moisture contained, but at the same time not trapping too much heat from sunlight. As a result, you have to work with shading to keep the temperature under control, but the reduction of light reaching the cuttings reduces photosynthesis, which is essential for the production of carbohydrates and other substances used in root initiation and growth. This


Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 464

One of the major components of the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden is the David C. Lam Asian Garden which is set in native coastal forest. This fortunate setting has enabled us to grow a number of choice and unusual climbing plants into and up many of the native trees, which include Abies grandis, Tsuga heterophylla, and Thuja plicata. The natural effect of growing vines in this way has stimulated others to use them in a similar fashion in the Vancouver landscape. This paper briefly describes a number of these choice vines, their culture and propagation.

An outstanding member of the Hydrangeaceae family is Schizophragma hydrangeoides. It climbs to 12 m (40 ft) on the bark of trees and bears a mass of creamy-white flowers in July. The reddish new shoots are particularly attractive. Provenances from Japan have shown some interesting variations in foliage color, particularly in the more glaucous-blue colorations. It is effectively propagated from seed following a 10 to 12


Author: Fred T. Davies, Jr

PP: 467

Texas is the second largest U.S. producer of field rose bushes, having a 20 million dollar industry. New techniques are needed to reduce the 2-year production cycle and increase the yield of Texas field rose bushes. There are advantages in simultaneously bench chip budding and rooting. Chip budding was successful using both manual techniques and a Liliput grafting tool, while parafilm strips were the most effective graft wrapping material. To establish the optimum time for rose propagation, leafless hardwood cuttings were harvested from field-grown stock plants and propagated in raised field soil beds at intervals of 2 to 4 weeks from November to February. Cutting position had no effect on percent rooting, however basal cuttings had the lowest root number. Starch content was positively correlated and nitrogen negatively correlated to rooting. Maximum rooting of cuttings for field propagation was from 15 November to 15 December, which also corresponded to a low N and higher starch content in propagules harvested from stock plants.