Volume 38

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Author: Roger Dutcher

PP: 36

The commercial opportunities available from the application of biotechnology to agriculture are large. Groups working with this technology are looking far beyond simply increasing yields. Those yield increases are certainly possible, and in many cases undoubtedly will occur, but the real benefits will come from improved quality resulting in better prices, reduced costs of producing a crop, and a greater reliability of harvest resulting from greater tolerances to a wide range of pest and stress phenomenon.

Author: Doug F. Hocking

PP: 77

To describe the Australian vegetable industry of 1988 in a short treatise is almost impossible. I consider there are four key elements that make up the industry. They are marketing, technology, the environment, and industry organization.

Marketing. There is no doubt the vegetable industry is consumer driven and the sooner that is fully realized, the better. Buyers are no longer prepared to take what growers or agents think they want. Vegetables are competing with a whole range of other foodstuffs and as difficult as it may be to change vegetable products, it must be done. The customer is always right.

The marketing of vegetables starts when a grower first decides what type of vegetable to grow and the cultivar and the production system he will use. These all influence the product he finally sells. In Australia many growers make these decisions on what they did last year or perhaps what their agents or neighbours tell them. In Sydney we have Flemington Markets, one of the largest


Author: Bill Daughtry

PP: 420

Lancaster Farms is a 100-acre container nursery operation that is located in southeastern Virginia where there is actually more water than land area. The paradox of water, water everywhere but not a drop to drink was never more true as far as our irrigation water is concerned. Our many rivers are brackish and wells are unsuitable for irrigation purposes. In order to have sufficient water, we recycle our irrigation water by draining every possible square foot of growing area and collecting this water in our ponds.

The worst part about recycling water is the buildup of pathogens and their subsequent distribution back into the nursery. Presently, chlorination is the best and least expensive way to control these organisms. It is just a matter of time before the collection and recycling of irrigation water will be forced on this industry in order to control environmental pollution by fertilizer and agricultural chemical runoff.

Chlorine gas is an extremely dangerous chemical. Therefore,


Author: Richard A. Young

PP: 423

In order to discuss how to treat high bicarbonate water, it is necessary first to define what constitutes high bicarbonate water or what is high bicarbonate water. First of all, a bicarbonate is a salt obtained by the neutralization of one hydrogen in carbonic acid. Carbonic acid (H2CO3), in turn, is a solution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water (H2O). There are two replaceable hydrogen ions in carbonic acid (H2CO3). The salts obtained by neutralizing only one hydrogen are called bicarbonates.
Examples:     CaHCO3—calcium bicarbonate;
                     NaHCO3—sodium bicarbonate

Carbonates can be converted into bicarbonates by adding excess carbon dioxide. Example:
                     Na2CO2 + CO2 + H2O = HCO3
     Sodium carbonate + CO2 + water = sodium bicarbonate

What problems does it cause? The most common problem associated with high levels of bicarbonate is that of unsightly deposits or precipitates on plant foliage. This problem lowers the visual quality of nursery stock, and thus can affect its salability.



Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Charles Elstrodt, Richard Benson

PP: 425

For years great emphasis has been placed on "proper pH" of container growing media, and dolomite (calcium and magnesium carbonate) has been used almost exclusively to raise the pH to the chosen level (1, 2). As nutrition in containers becomes more precise, calcium and magnesium nutrition must be modified. Many irrigation waters contain substantial quantities of dissolved calcium and magnesium. Whitcomb (4,5) studied this extensively in Oklahoma and found that with a water that contained 40 ppm calcium and 17 ppm magnesium, two pounds of dolomite was optimum for greenhouse and container nursery crops. Alternative sources of calcium and magnesium also exist. These may be especially useful in areas where the water supply contains considerable calcium but little magnesium, or vice versa.

In order to study the combinations of water quality, calcium, and magnesium nutrition, and various sources of both elements a study was conducted in two locations during 1987. Analysis of the irrigation water at the two locations was as follows, in parts per million:


Author: Bonnie Lee Appleton

PP: 430

Ask retail nurserymen what factors most influence their decisions when buying plants and they will generally say price, availability, and quality. Ask retailers what quality plants are and they will generally say plants that have a good appearance, that hold up well on a sales lot, and that will sell well.

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr

PP: 432

It has been difficult to correlate nutrition and carbohydrates to the rooting of cuttings. However, nutrition and carbohydrate status certainly do play an important role in the rooting process.

Carbohydrate pools. There are three carbohydrate pools or sources in the plant system (14). These three pools consist of: 1. free reducing sugars (soluble carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose), 2. storage carbohydrates (starches, insoluble carbohydrates), and 3. cell wall polysaccharides. Reducing sugars and storage carbohydrates are the most important for the rooting process.

Carbohydrates are used as building blocks for complex macromolecules in chemical pathways, and also serve as building blocks for structural elements. Keep in mind that in root initiation and development new cell walls are being formed from macromolecules largely composed of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are also energy sources. Primary requirements for rooting are: 1. parenchyma cells with the genetic


Author: Randy Davis

PP: 437

Greenleaf Nursery, located in Park Hill, Oklahoma, is a wholesale nursery specializing in production of "Predictable Quality" container-grown ornamentals. Besides ornamental shrubs and trees we also grow annual and perennial color crops for fall and spring.

At Greenleaf we produce about 10 million liners annually. Most are propagated by cuttings, but we also propagate by seeds, grafting, budding and division, Our liners are grown either in ground beds or in containers, depending on the type program we have for production of that crop.

In our production the most economical method of liner production is through the utilization of raised ground beds rather than containers. Cuttings are rooted in ground beds, grown in this method and planted bareroot into 1- and 2-gal. containers. Using ground beds and planting bareroot we can reduce the cost of our liners, compared to propagating in containers, by about 8 to 10 cents per plant. The following are some methods that we use to propagate and grow our liners.


Author: Chris C. Threadgill

PP: 439

Historically, tree seedlings have been grown in raised ground beds in the field. High production densities and low production costs are associated with these methods of production.

Over several years a new concept in seedling production has emerged that warrants consideration by the nursery industry. In this system tree seedlings are produced in bottomless containers or "milk cartons." I have been asked to present the advantages and disadvantages of both systems. Some of the differences are included below:


Author: Don Covan

PP: 441

Much research has been conducted in recent years in an effort to obtain accelerated growth from plants. Some of the work has centered upon the development of a better root system through the utilization of different hormone combinations. Other research has focused upon the development of containers that encourage well-branched root systems without spiraling.

From my experience in the production of trees using both cuttings and seeds, I believe that accelerated growth can best be obtained by giving special attention to the development of a well-branched fibrous root system and to the timely shifting up of the liner. At Simpson Nurseries we grow trees from bareroot liners, seed, softwood cuttings, hardwood cuttings, and from buds and grafts. However, the softwood production of trees compared to seedling production in bottomless containers is emphasized in the following information.


Author: Robert L. Byrnes

PP: 444

Our nursery is located in Keystone Heights, Florida about 45 miles southwest of Jacksonville, which puts us in the middle of Hardiness Zone 9. We grow a standard line of shade and flowering trees in containers. Over the years we have tried to collect and evaluate different trees for our area with emphasis on flowering trees. We presently have several trees that show good potential.

Introducing new plants to the trade is difficult for any nursery and for a small nursery with a limited marketing budget it is especially difficult. Many retail nurseries and landscapers are reluctant to try new plant materials citing lack of demand or unfamiliarity with the plants. Therefore, we feel the ability of a tree to flower at an early age is a major consideration when evaluating them for commercial potential. Most nurserymen will agree that a plant in flower has much more salability than one that is not, especially when the customer is not familiar with the plant. This approach may eliminate the


Author: John W. Day

PP: 447

Potted liners of Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ and Malus ‘Snowdrift’ grown from rooted microcuttings were planted January 21, 1988 in the greenhouse. The liners were transplanted to 10-gal. containers or to the field between June 5 and 10, 1988. They were grown with single stems, were drip irrigated and given one of seven fertilizer treatments. Container treatments were 150 ppm N, or 300 ppm N 20–10–20, applied 2×/week as a drip and 18–6–12 slow release as a topdressing at 160g/container. Field treatments were no fertilizer, 100 ppm N, 200 ppm N, and 400 ppm N 20–10–20 injected through drip irrigation at 1×/week. Data recorded in late August showed that container-grown plants had significantly taller stems and greater stem caliper than field-grown plants. Container-grown maple stem heights for 150 ppm N, 300 ppm N, and 18–6–12 slow release treatments were 68.3 in., 67.9 in , and 57 0 in, respectively. Crabapple stem heights for the same treatments were 40.5 in., 38.4 in. and 28.4 in. Stem heights of field-grown plants ranged from 48.2 in. to 35.9 in. for maples, and 21.3 in. to 20 6 in. for crabapples. Stem caliper (basal) was significantly greater for container-grown crabapples; some maple treatments were equal to field treatments. Survival was 100 percent for the 210 plants in the experiment and quality was good to excellent.

Author: Natalie Peate

PP: 82

At Plant Growers Australia (PGA) propagation was previously carried out using conventional misting in polythene houses and, as is usually experienced, both media and foliage were alternately too wet or too dry. The effects were particularly noticeable in summer when foliage became leached of nutrients and then prone to fungal attack. The possibility of creating high relative humidity using fog and consequently reducing leaf transpiration seemed a very suitable alternative to misting.

Two such systems were investigated:

  1. pressurized water fog,
  2. pressurized air/water fog.

The second system was selected for the following reasons:

  1. High pressure water lines used in the first system had been known to burst and could be dangerous in human terms. At that time, operating water pressures were quoted at around 900 psi (6200 kpa). In the air/water system, air pressures were quoted at around 60 psi (413 kpa) and water at about 5 psi (35 kpa), thus much safer. The lower pressures also

Author: Mike Bracken

PP: 451

We at Bracken Tree Growers are convinced that tissue culture will revolutionize the future of tree propagation. Admittedly this technology is still in its infancy with many liabilities yet to be resolved. Our experience with the procedure leads us to believe that the positives of improved product quality and speed of production will soon make tissue culture an industry standard.

Our experience is strictly from a grower's viewpoint. We buy our material at stage three from several tissue-culture laboratories and acclimate it ourselves. We have been producing tree liners from tissue culture for two years—patented red maples, three cultivars of birch, amelanchier, flowering cherry, and crab apples. Beginning production for our field-grown liner, we sell 20 percent of our tissue cultures as acclimated micropropagated liners.

While we still propagate from cuttings, our substantial commitment to tissue culture has given us a broad base for assessing the pros and cons of this technology. The


Author: David G. Ellis

PP: 453

Todd Gresham, the City Parks Director for Santa Cruz, California, hybridized Asian magnolia species and cultivars intensively during the 1960s. Some of the names Gresham gave earlier hybrids are ‘Rouge Alabaster’, ‘Leatherleaf’. ‘Raspberry Ice’, ‘Royal Crown’, ‘Crimson Stipple’ and ‘Royal Flush’. Specific information about these hybrids may be cited in Magnolias by Neil Treseder. Before his death Gresham dispersed 1600 of his seedlings, which had not yet bloomed, to the Gloster Arboretum located in Gloster, Mississippi. In the late 1970s these seedlings began to reach blooming age. Several enthusiasts began to select and number magnolias that had particular beauty. Ken Durio, owner of Louisiana Nursery in Opoleusas, Louisiana, named the following cultivars: ‘Tina Durio’, ‘Darrell Dean’ and ‘Mary Nelle’, named for the wife of the late Joe McDaniel. ‘Sweet Sixteen’ and ‘Elisa’ are two other early selections. Professor Joe McDaniel, Dr. John Giordano, and Dr. John Allen Smith made approximately 50 selections

Author: Gary Adams

PP: 456


The justification for this discussion is that liriopes and ophiopogons are used in huge numbers, that they are so easy to grow, that few people know the fine points of production, that there are cultivars of great merit which are virtually unknown. Evergreen Nursery has specialized in groundcover production, mainly ivy and liriopes, since the 1960s. At present we produce 24 cultivars of liriopes and ophiopogons.

What are the differences between liriopes and ophiopogons? The most useful point of identification is that the ophiopogon flowers hang down on their scape, while liriope flowers are held erect. Ophiopogons are slightly less hardy, are usually strongly rhizomatous, always bear the flowers down in the foliage and have a flower with a subinferior ovary. Liriope flowers bear a superior ovary. Cultural practices discussed apply equally to liriopes and ophiopogons unless otherwise indicated.

Differentiation between species and cultivars begins at the root system.


Author: T.E. Bilderback

PP: 462

A gravity feed, fluid delivery system for use with hand-held pruning shears has been advertised in nursery trade magazines and demonstrated at nursery trade shows. A paper introducing the KlipKleen™ Pruning Systems was presented at the 1987 SNA Research Conference (1). Initially the intended use of this device was for sterilizing the base of stem cuttings prior to placing them into a rooting medium. However, it may have considerable advantages as a means of collecting and treating cuttings with root-promoting compounds at the time of severance. For nurserymen this one-step procedure could eliminate time-consuming cutting preparation prior to sticking cuttings. Treating cuttings at the time of severance from stock plants might improve hormone movement into cuttings and increase the rooting response. In August, 1988, at the SNA Research Conference, results of two experiments completed at North Carolina State University using KlipKleen pruning shears as a propagation tool were

Author: Wayne K. Sawyer

PP: 465

As we began looking at ways to increase our productivity in mixing potting media we realized we had three problems to alleviate. Our potting production requirements had outgrown our existing mixing method. It required too many man-hours to provide enough mix to keep up with our present potting production, and we were unable to blend small amounts of micronutrients and other amendments using our old system.

In the old process we used a manure spreader1 which required many time-consuming steps. The following procedure required four persons:

  1. A front-end loader was used to premix a four to one ratio of pine bark and sand.
  2. The premix was loaded into the spreader.
  3. Fertilizer and lime were added at the recommended rates.
  4. The spreader had to be moved forward periodically as it unloaded.
  5. The loader then pushed the mix into a pile.
This process became too much of a burden as our level of production increased.

To provide the quantity and quality of mix to meet our current


Author: William H. Bodnaruk Jr

PP: 467

The growing medium is the foundation for high quality container-plant production. The mix must be uniform and consistent if one's goal is to produce plant material that keeps customers coming back for more. Many inputs go into producing a good plant, but few are more important than the growing medium. For this reason a mixer becomes an integral piece of equipment in the nursery.

To do the job, a mixer must produce a medium that is uniform, with little particle breakdown, on a consistent basis and in the volume required. We, at Jon's Nursery, realized we outgrew the "old batch mixer" when our daily needs exceeded about 30 cu. yd. per day. Several continuous mixing systems are on the market and, after much study, the Gleason equipment was purchased on the strength of the tumble drum method of mixing.

Jon's Nursery mix consists of pine bark, Canadian peat, and sand at approximately 4:2:1 by volume, amended with Osmocote NPK fertilizer at 15 lbs./yd.3. Micromax micronutrients at 1.5 lbs./yd.3


Author: Wayne Whiddon

PP: 468

At Shelfer Nursery we propagate almost all of our own liners. In doing this we stick cuttings in everything from ground beds and metal trays to 2¼-in. and 3¼-in. Lerio pots. We had what we thought was a good mixture of propagation soil, but we were not getting a consistent overall mix by using the front-end loader. After some shopping around and considerable thought we decided to buy a soil mixer from Ellis Trailers of Semmes, Alabama. The mixer was an incline mixer that mixed 4 cu. yds. per batch. The mixer has met our requirement for a consistent total mix at a price we could afford. First, I will give an overall view of the mixer and how it works for us. Then I will describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of the mixer.

Shelfer Nursery is a small container nursery of approximately 26 acres. We have 3500 ft2 of greenhouse space, used for 3¼-in. pots for azaleas and 2000 ft2 of 2¼-in. pots used for juniper propagation. The balance of the acreage is used for growing 1-, 2- and 3-gal.


Author: Gary S. Cobb, Dean R. Mills

PP: 470

Pruning is a basic and essential practice in the production of quality nursery stock. Like most production factors, pruning should be approached as a means to an end and should be manipulated like a tool chosen to accomplish a specific, predetermined goal. Indiscriminate use of pruning is a mistake. With this in mind, I would like to review some basics on why we prune, what happens when we do prune, and how these responses should be considered as we plan our production schedules.

We may prune a plant for several reasons. Most frequently we prune to increase branching. Pruning a limb temporarily reduces the auxin concentration within it and induces axillary buds to develop, producing a more dense, compact, and visually appealing plant. We may also prune to shape a plant or to control its size. We may prune out damaged or unhealthy branches. We have traditionally pruned a plant at transplanting with the expectation of improving its survivability.

All of us here understand and make use


Author: Derek Burch

PP: 472

There is still a wide range of chemicals for pest control in nurseries and greenhouses, even though good sense and legal restrictions have reduced the number in recent years. The chemical companies have usually tested a product extensively before it is marketed. They want to sell as much as possible and be sure that satisfied users come back for more. This makes it a little surprising that there are so many reports of poor results in pest, disease, and weed control. It should suggest that users consider their own practices before being sure that the chemical is at fault.

This paper presents a checklist of some things that can go wrong in pesticide use. Proper pest control is not easy; it requires attention to detail before, during, and after the application both for effectiveness and, of course, for safety.


Author: Charles H. Gilliam

PP: 475

Weed control in field-grown production requires more extensive management than in container-grown nursery stock. Field-grown nursery stock requires several years to reach salable size, and during the first one to three years, ornamental plants provide little competition with the weed species. This paper outlines several practical approaches to improving weed control in the field.

Three guidelines are useful when planning a weed control program. First, no one herbicide will control all weeds. Second, in the southeastern United States, most herbicide applications will remain effective for only 10 to 14 weeks. Finally, proper timing of the preemergence herbicide to a weed-free area is essential for good weed control. For example, in Alabama, preemergence herbicides should be applied in middle to late February, just prior to weed seed germination, and a second application should be made early to middle July. Most field producers now combine a herbicide providing control for annual grasses


Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 84

Fog has a number of important applications in agriculture and horticulture:
(a) temperature reduction;     (c) frost protection;
(b) humidity control;              (d) application of pesticides.

The plant propagator is primarily concerned with the control of the humidity in the propagation environment. Temperature reduction through the evaporative cooling effect of fog droplets can be a secondary advantage of fog in propagation.

A clear distinction must be made between fog and mist in plant propagation. Intermittent mist is used to provide a film of moisture over the leaves of cuttings and other evaporating surfaces in the propagation house. Fog provides the means to directly increase the relative humidity of the greenhouse atmosphere with little or no free water application to the leaves of the cuttings. The absence of this free water from the leaves of the cuttings provides a number of advantages to the plant propagator:

  1. reduced leaching of nutrients from leaves;
  2. improved aeration of

Author: M. Thetford, C.H. Gilliam, W.J. Foster

PP: 479


Weed control has become increasingly important during propagation, with many growers direct sticking cuttings in outdoor beds or greenhouses. Limited work has been done in propagation research evaluating herbicidal activity on stock plants and subsequent root initiation (1,2). Recent research has shown that some herbicides suppress root growth on woody plants (3). Johnson (4) evaluated the effects of herbicides on rooting percentages and root quality of four ornamental species in New Jersey and reported a significant reduction in the root quality of Cotoneaster horizontalis in all herbicide treatments. Rooting percentages of C. horizontalis were reduced by Dual, Devrinol and Ronstar treatments, while rooting percentages of Rhododendron were reduced only in the Surflan treatment.

The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of selected preemergence applied herbicides on the rooting of certain ornamental species grown in the southern United States.


Author: Ted Goreau, Charlie Parkerson

PP: 482

TED BILDERBACK: I have been asked to go into more detail about the Klip-Kleen technique. The question was whether or not the shear could be used for more than simply sanitation. We wanted to see if it could be used to apply quick-dip hormone solutions. Could it overcome the possibility of xylem plugging? Cyrilla responded but with Ilex ‘Nellie Stevens’, and others, the quick-dip is about as good as you can do. The manufacturers have adjusted the flow rate from that on the original product. I think it is worth more study. I believe, whether or not it works, has something to do with large xylem tissues. The idea of getting into the xylem is simply that it is through this tissue that the solution moves up into the plant.

Author: Clayton W. Fuller, Penny L. Digioia

PP: 489

Cut-em stick-em root-em, we did it! We are now successful plant propagators. But wait a minute, why were we successful and what basic propagating principles did we practice? Many people in the world of plant propagation ask this question. We will present a very brief overview of our methods of achieving success. Planning ahead is our key to success.

Propagating facility. We no longer use solid benches with media. We prefer flats as they allow us to move the rooted cuttings to a hardening-off house as soon as they are rooted. Flats also allow for a more efficient use of our propagation structures.

Provisions for media heating, either hot water pipes under the bench or bio-therms on the bench, are necessary to maintain the 74°F medium temperature we use. We use hot water pipes.

Water quality should be checked. In addition to pH, chemicals added by the water supplier or naturally occurring chemicals in the water supply can cause failure.

The mist or fog system used must be reliable, so that


Author: Frederick L. Dabney Jr

PP: 493

As I begin I do not wish to offend the producers of many popular plants. What I am about to say is only a reflection of what this small and inexperienced producer sees as problems not only for himself but also for our industry as a whole.

The subject of this paper is the importance of producing disease and drought resistant plants. We constantly produce plant material because it is an old favorite our customers always buy, because it has a spectacular flower or fragrance, or maybe just because for a variety of personal and sentimental reasons, we just like it. I mention this last because I know I frequently fall prey to my own sentiments.

At Quansett Nurseries we produce several hundred Syringa vulgaris plants each year and never have trouble selling them and yet each year we consistently spend time and energy and sprays trying, usually unsuccessfully, to keep them free of powdery mildew. There is a magnificent block of deciduous azaleas at the Arnold Arboretum that, when in bloom,


Author: Richard W. Lighty

PP: 496

Since World War II we have had a resurgence of interest in new plants from faraway places rivaling that of the Golden Age of Plant Exploration (1840 through 1920). Both eras focused on faraway places—particularly the Orient, and ignored the places easily reached.

But during the 18th century, prior to the opening of the Far East, there had been a frenzy of exploration centered on the eastern coast of North America, involving men like John and William Bartram, Andre Michaux, John Mitchell, and Peter Kalm. These people had friends and patrons in Europe who were avid collectors of minerals, artifacts, animals and plants. The cabinets of curiosity which they assembled served as study collections for these wealthy savants and later as nuclei around which museums, arboretums and zoological gardens were formed. They served also as introduction gardens from which new and useful plants were distributed. Indeed, many of our most useful and widely grown ornamentals came into gardens via this


Author: D.L. Hensley, S.C. Wiest, C.E. Long, J.A. Robbins, J. Pair, F.D.

PP: 500

Evaluations of new, different, and superior plants are meaningful to nurserymen, arborists, landscape architects and designers, and to consumers. This project attempts to identify and evaluate worthy landscape plants for use in Kansas. Specific problems in plant selection for Kansas vary widely because of large differences in climate, soils, and urbanization. A special need for increased selections of shade trees for western Kansas has been expressed by the nursery industry. New, different, and superior cultivars or woody species also are needed in the more populous eastern and central regions.

Author: Richard H. Munson

PP: 504

The ability of our nursery industry to function smoothly and fairly is dependent upon, among others, the use of correct and consistent names to our plants. The rules of nomenclature for cultivated plants have for many years controlled, rather successfully, the proper use of cultivar names. This resulted in a system that assured relatively uniform names throughout the industry, avoided most improper cultivar names, and gave everyone an opportunity to sell cultivars under their correct names. The only exception to this situation concerned the sale of patented cultivars where royalty agreements protected patent owners against unauthorized propagation and sale of their plants. Trademarking, a relatively new practice, however, threatens the availability of horticultural cultivars beyond the constraints of the plant patent law.

In order to understand more fully how the practice of trademarking has affected our industry several examples are given below. It should be understood, however, that


Author: Kris R. Bachtell

PP: 509

Two commonly planted maples in the U.S. Midwestern landscape are the red maple, Acer rubrum, and the silver maple, A. saccharinum. Many selections have been made from each species (1). A large number of red maple selections exhibit consistent, attractive fall coloration and predictable growth form. Most silver maple selections feature a narrow growth form and deeply dissected leaves. Despite selection efforts, both maples encounter problems in certain Chicago landscape situations.

Red maple grows best in locations with good quality soil and adequate moisture. When transplanted into highly disturbed soils typical of new construction sites in the Chicago area, red maple usually performs poorly. These soils are alkaline, with pH levels often above 7.4, and they also possess a high bulk density because of their clay content. Planted in these conditions, red maple is slow to establish and often succumbs to stress-related problems. Plants which survive long enough to become established


Author: David Schmidt

PP: 514

Botanic gardens are cultural, scientific, and educational institutions based on the world of plants. Historically, old world botanic gardens were private or university associated places reserved for scholars and the cognoscente of the day. Fortunately, especially among North American botanic gardens and arboreta, this is no longer the case. Indeed, in most instances, it is quite the opposite. We encourage visitors and public membership through advertising and educational promotion—sometimes to the point where we must remind ourselves that while we maybe a "tourist attraction", this is not our primary role. Our plant collections are both living museums and research laboratories where we demonstrate and document the diversity of the plant kingdom. In doing this, we are constantly trialing and evaluating new plants to determine their potential. Unfortunately, many plants which prove to have merit fail to go beyond the boundaries of the botanic garden or arboretum. Most of us at some time or

Author: Howard W. Barnes

PP: 517

Cuttings of Malus ‘Snowdrift’, Prunus subhirtella ‘Pendula Plena Rosea’, and P. serrulata ‘Kwanzan’ were subjected to various concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) dissolved in propylene and ethylene glycols; IBA/NAA combinations obtained from Woods Rooting Compound and from Chloromone (indole-naphthylacetamide). Cuttings were rooted in a mist supplied greenhouse with bottom heat during the summer of 1988. Rooting percentage and rooting time indicated no significant differences between glycol preparations and Wood's Rooting Compound. In all cases, auxin-glycol solutions and Wood's Rooting Compound proved to be superior to Chloromone. It is clear that auxin preparations using glycols as solvents are acceptable as liquid quick-dips.

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 87

A definition of top-working can be expressed as a specialized method of grafting in which the scion, either as a stem with multiple buds or as a single bud, is normally worked onto the rootstock 0.3 to 1.8 m (1 to 6 ft.) above soil level. The genera and species for top-working are varied, ranging from evergreen and deciduous shrubs, conifers, roses, and trees to ground covers.

The scope of bench top-working can be appreciated by summarizing the reasons why propagators use this method:

  1. It is particularly useful for producing unusual and novel plant material. Examples of novel bench grafting combinations include Cotoneaster horizontalis on C. frigidus, Hedera helix ‘Pixie’ on × Fatshedera lizei, Euonymus fortunei ‘Emerald ‘n’ Gold’ on E. europaea, Juniperus chinensis var. procumbens ‘Nana’ on J. virginiana and Betula pendula ‘Trost's Dwarf’ on B. pendula.
  2. Novelties can also be described as "custom-built" trees—for example, using interstems of the attractive peeling bark of Prunus serrula. The

Author: Bonnie Lee Appleton

PP: 521

Starch-based polymers, commonly referred to as hydrogels (hydrophilic gels), water-absorbing polymers, transplant gels, or super-absorbents, are being used in a variety of ways in the production of numerous horticultural crops. These products, under such trade names as Terra-Sorb, Agrosoke, Water Grabber, Hydra-Soil, Viterra Gelscape, Aqua Lox, Stasorb, Liqua-Gel, StaWet, Moisture Mizer, and others, are purported to hold up to several hundred times their weight in water, and then to subsequently release water under drying conditions, thereby decreasing the need for irrigation. Gels are also reported to improve field soil and container media aeration, to reduce fertilizer leaching, and to promote ion exchange.

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 525

This paper is an update of the paper (1) presented at the IPPS Southern Region during their 1987 meeting in Tampa, Florida. The soil sterilant, Basamid, is labeled for use in the U.S.

Basamid-granular (active ingredient: Dazomet) is a product from BASF in the Federal Republic of Germany, and when incorporated into the soil has nematicidal, fungicidal, and herbicidal effects. It therefore is classed as a chemical soil sterilant.

The first testing at Zelenka Nursery was conducted by our Research and Development Department in October, 1985, in the hope of finding a substitute for methyl bromide. The latter product had not given us satisfactory weed control and the per acre price, in western Michigan, had steadily increased each year. The Basamid R&D tests have proven satisfactory and this product is now an accepted production practice of Zelenka Nursery. One of our most serious weed problems, particularly in seed/transplant beds, is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) which escapes


Author: R.E. Byers

PP: 527

Pine and meadow voles (small rodents) cause serious economic losses in orchards each year. Large productive orchards that have taken many years and a sizeable investment to establish can be destroyed in a single season if effective control measures are not taken. Population carry-over from the previous year is probably the most important factor influencing the current season's vole population. Populations may be very high or very low among individual trees or sections of an orchard. Proper vole management requires close observation and monitoring of the populations regardless of control methods.

The optimum time for rodenticide treatment to reduce vole damage to trees is in late fall (October, November, December). Snow gives the animals a great deal of cover and may prevent the grower from treating during this period. Since reproduction rates are high in the late summer and early fall, the optimal time for vole control is after harvest and just prior to the damaging period. In


Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 531

In 1984 I reported on using root pieces of Quercus robur for grafting Q. robur ‘Fastigiata’. The results were better, more uniform plants, absence of suckering, and an excellent root system. One of the key factors was a relatively high temperature, both for the precallusing of the root pieces and to heal the grafts. In the years following 1984 further trials were conducted using Q. palustris ‘Sovereign’ grafted on Q. palustris root-pieces and a selected Q. rubra grafted on Q. rubra roots. The results of these trials were encouraging.

In regard to Q. palustris ‘Sovereign’, Dirr (1) reports that the originator, Coles Nursery, abandoned the growing of this plant due to graft incompatibility. I can not speak on this phenomenon, but would suggest that successful graft unions could be perpetuated by using piece roots of the original plant or from successful unions.

Today I would like to speak to you about a trial that involves the grafting of Q. robur root pieces and Q. macrocarpa, burr oak scions.


Author: Nancy S. Goodwin

PP: 533

I am concerned about the precarious position of cyclamen in the wild. I also find them fascinating plants to grow and study—each plant is different, even within a single species.

There are no cyclamen species indigenous to North America. They occur around the Mediterranean basin, throughout southern and central Europe, western Asia, and north Africa; however, they are easily naturalized in many parts of this country.

As I gradually began to build a collection of almost all of the 19 species of cyclamen, I was frustrated to find that most of them were not available in this country. I ordered tubers from every source I could locate and was extremely disappointed to discover that most of what I received were wild collected plants and fewer than half of them grew. I then discovered that they were on Appendix II of the Endangered Species List which means that they are considered plants in peril, and that a CITES permit is required for exporting or importing them. In 1976, 256,000 tubers


Author: Thomas R. Simpson

PP: 537


One thing I have learned in the nursery industry is that there is seldom only one correct way to perform a nursery task. As sure as you think you have perfected a method, someone else will come along with a new technique, an improved product, or a totally different way of thinking that produces equal or even better results.

When I returned in 1978 to the family homestead and business of which I had been a part for 10 years as a school boy, I soon attended my first series of nursery seminars and meetings. At one of them I was amazed to see a friendly but heated debate between two nationally respected propagators on the subject of rooting cuttings. One fought tooth-and-nail for the practice of "wounding the cutting within an inch of its' life"; and the other was equally adamant about not wounding. Both men were highly respected experts in the field. Each truly believed his method was the best, and each proved his points with excellent yet comparable results. The reason I mention this is because our methods of budding may be totally different from yours.


Author: Brian Bunge

PP: 542

Traditionally, crabapples have been commercially propagated by two methods: field budding in July or August, or bench grafting during the winter. Other methods of propagation used are seed, top working, and root grafting. All of these methods, except for seed, pose three common problems; understock suckering, graft incompatibility, and crooks in the trunk.

Producing crabapples on their own roots can eliminate these problems with some advantages over budding and grafting. Multistem crabapples can be easily grown from own-root crabapples. Other advantages of own-root are lower costs in the making of cuttings, and the production of a more fibrous and massive root system. With a better root system, transplanting of balled and burlapped stock will be more successful.

When propagating by cuttings, good vigorous stock plants are needed to promote softwood growth. Stock plants should be fertilized and pruned in late winter or early spring, and should be irrigated to increase the amount of


Author: Philip L. Carpenter, Michael N. Dana

PP: 544


The merits of propagation methods of a particular plant should be based not only on the ease with which a plant can be propagated by a particular method but also on how well that plant does in its eventual planting site. Crabapples historically have been propagated by T-budding on apple rootstock and, more recently, by chip budding on apple roots. Tom Simpson described these methods in detail in a paper preceding this one. In recent years some nurserymen have used rooted cuttings as a means of propagating crabapples. The two main reasons for shifting to cuttings are: 1) cuttings require less skill to take than budding, and 2) crabapples on their own roots should have less root suckers when the plants are grown on to maturity (1). It is fairly easy to train a person to take cuttings, but T-budding or chip budding requires a longer training period and the chances of a successful take, coupled with some degree of speed, is not too great for the novice propagator. Brian


Author: Dan W. Studebaker, D.M. Maronek, B.M. Oberly

PP: 550


Recently, the work of Gouveia (1) and McGuire (2) have shown that Taxus species can be rooted with bottom heat in early spring and planted in late spring or fall the same year. In addition, McGuire (2) found that the spring-rooted taxus were equal to or superior to taxus cuttings taken in the fall, rooted on bottom heat, and spring-planted. Cuttings propagated on bottom heat are ready to plant sooner (6) than those without bottom heat (4). In addition, the utilization of bottom heat has eliminated the need to strip needles from the basal end of the cuttings thus saving time and physical injury to propagators (5,3). However, for us—propagating taxus in the spring—does not fit in time-wise with other nursery operations during the busy spring season.


Author: Thomas J. Banko

PP: 554

Micropropagation and acclimatization of Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. (sourwood) is described. Explants were axillary shoots forced from dormant stems of a mature tree, or nodal stem sections obtained from spring growth of the same tree. Optimum shoot growth was obtained with WPM supplemented with 0.4 to 0.8 mg/l zeatin. Shoots could be divided and subcultured after 6 weeks. Microcuttings were rooted on WPM supplemented with 0.5 to 2 mg/l IBA, or in peat/vermiculite after treatment with 0.8% IBA in talc. Mist, plastic bags, and a wet fabric tent were compared for acclimatization and promotion of normal stomatal functioning. The wet tent appeared to promote the most rapid acclimatization.

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 97

The Plant Introduction Scheme of the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden (PISBG) was initiated in 1980 by the Garden's previous Director, Dr. Roy L. Taylor2, and nine plants have been released to date into the B.C. nursery trade for subsequent wholesale, retail, and landscape sales. Descriptions of the material released, propagation methods, and the procedures for evaluation and introduction of plants are documented in the references listed at the end of this paper. Plants released through the PISBG programme that are registered with the Canadian Ornamental Plant Foundation (COPF) are Anagallis monelli ‘Pacific Blue’, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ‘Vancouver Jade’, Genista pilosa ‘Vancouver Gold’, Ribes sanguineum ‘White Icicle’, Rubus calycinoides ‘Emerald Carpet’ and Viburnum plicatum ‘Summer Snowflake’. Recommended but non-registered plants are Diascia rigescens, Microbiota decussate and Teucrium scorodonia ‘Crispum’.

The role of this paper is to relate our experiences as a basis for


Author: Ken Roe, Philip Sommer

PP: 559

Gardeners have known the value of Buxus species (boxwood) for thousands of years as: specimens, foundation plants, hedges, edging for knot gardens, accent plants, topiary, bonsai, and many other applications limited only by the imagination.

Boxwoods are native to Europe and parts of Asia. Buxus sempervirens has been in cultivation since the time of ancient Rome. During the middle ages it was cultivated in castle gardens and monasteries. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it was in general use in Europe. It was during that time that colonists brought boxwood to America.

Along the coast in the states of Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas B. sempervirens cultivars did beautifully, but as the people moved westward, midwestern nurserymen learned of the limits of its range. Midwestern nurserymen have suffered many disappointments when trying to grow B. sempervirens cultivars in their fields. They have not been able to tolerate midwestern (Zones 4 and 5) winters characterized by temperatures of -10


Author: Dixon P. Hoogendoorn

PP: 563

Viburnum carlesii ‘Compactum’ was discovered several years ago in our nursery by my father, Case Hoogendoorn, in a block of V. carlesii. It is a slow grower with distinct dark green shiny leaves that develops into a very compact plant; it is ideal for use in foundation planting. It buds up heavily when mature. The size, color, and fragrance of the flowers are exactly like those of V. carlesii.

Viburnum dentatum is used as the understock. We have experimented with other types of understock, V. lantana for example, but we found V. dentatum to be far superior (1). When purchasing understock make sure that you find a reputable seedling grower that understands your needs. We use a one-year seedling approximately 3/16 in. caliper. We receive our understock in February before the busy spring season begins. The buds are removed from the lower third of the stem to help control suckering, a common problem in grafting this species. The roots are trimmed and the seedlings are potted into 2¼ in. clay


Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 566

At last year's IPPS meeting in Chicago I participated in a panel discussion focusing on industry sensibilities from the perspective of a new plant introducer. We considered the values of new introductions along with potential problems, especially in relation to tissue culture propagation. My part of the presentation also outlined my views of the propagator's particular obligations relative to new plant introductions.

During the past year I find that my situation as an introducer of new rhododendron cultivars has become affected by an alarming development. Micropropagation of many of the cultivars my nursery has introduced is apparently producing significant numbers of plants that have characteristics different from those of the parent plants.

Let me first note that the vast majority of micropropagated plants now in the market appear to be normal. It is not my intent to discredit responsible use of the micropropagation technique. However, I am very concerned that the problem of abnormal


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 571

The Question Box Session was convened at 4:20 p.m. with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: The first question is: does the Society have copies of the early publication, Propagator, prior to the bound Proceedings?

RALPH SHUGERT: I have a copy of the meeting held in Louisville, Kentucky in 1929. There are three other Proceedings that are in the Library of Congress. I will be glad to photocopy the copy that I have for the individual who asked the question.

RAY HESER: In the fall we plant winter rye, plow it in, then millet, buckwheat. or a similar crop for the summer, and then back to the winter rye. We use ammonium nitrate to help break down the organic matter.

RALPH SHUGERT: We have a 2 year program with sudan, rye, sudan and rye, for our low organic soils. We try to use an application of animal manure (turkey manure that is available to us) with every cover crop planting.

CLAYTON FULLER: The first step is a soil test to measure


Author: John McGuire

PP: 575

Our recipient has a varied and productive history. He was one of 12 children, so if he is somewhat rotund today perhaps he can attribute it in part to his need to get to the table fast and to appreciate food. He was a talented athlete as a boy and he played semipro baseball against the likes of Clem Labine. He was also a pool shark. I understand he earned his spending money at this craft while attending Providence College.

His parents hoped he would be a priest, but instead he chose to join his brothers in the nursery business in 1946. Once he chose this path he focused entirely on making his company successful. His accomplishments were many. He joined the International Plant Propagators' Society in 1954 and since that time he has served continuously on Society committees. Today he serves on the Nominating Committee. Our recipient was president of our Region; he has been president of his State Association and the New England Nurserymens' Association, and he represented his state as


Author: Daniel C. Milbocker

PP: 576

Ventilated high humidity propagation research began in 1974 as an effort to improve nursery propagation. Intermittent mist was the method of propagation commonly found in nurseries at that time and still remains in common usage. Losses of cuttings from poor management were common and indicated that improvement was needed. Excessive drenching of the cuttings and the resultant evaporative cooling were contributory, if not the cause of propagation failures. Vigilant care minimized these problems, but in practice, too many nurserymen were not that vigilant. They needed a method of propagation that would reliably produce better results with less care.

The concept of ventilated high humidity propagation was developed by 1978 and the Agritech humidifier was introduced to make it into a workable propagation system. Several other types of humidifying equipment were also introduced but none were based upon the ventilated high humidity concept. The poor performance of some of these installations


Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 580

Summer-rooted cuttings of Euonymus fortunei ‘Sarcoxie’, ‘Emerald Gaiety’, and ‘Gold Tip’ transferred from outdoors to a greenhouse between Dec. 15, 1987 and Feb. 15, 1988, grew vigorously under greenhouse conditions (23°/14°C day/night) indicating that 1128 chilling hours below 7.2°C was adequate. In contrast, rooted cuttings brought in between Sept. 15 and Nov. 15 remained dormant. There was no visible growth except for the occasional basal shoot sprouting intermittently throughout the forcing period, and uneven or suppressed bud burst and shoot growth towards spring. Vigorous growth was restored when these plants were later chilled at 4°C for 3 weeks (500 chilling hours) in a cooler.

Author: Jeffrey F. Derr

PP: 584

Weeds are a persistent problem in container nursery production. Hand-weeding is time-consuming and expensive. Herbicides offer an alternative to hand-weeding.

Author: Robert D. Wright

PP: 587

The use of controlled release fertilizers, water soluble and dry fertilizers, and fertilizers applied through the mist during propagation have been shown to promote root and shoot growth in various woody plant species (2,3,4,5,6,7). Booze-Daniels et al. (1) have also demonstrated that fertilization during propagation of Ilex crenata ‘Helleri’, before the appearance of roots is of little practical value. However, the longer after roots appear that fertilization is delayed the smaller the plants will be at a particular date in the future.

Nutrient absorption and subsequent plant growth are related to an adequate supply of nutrients in the medium solution (Figure 1). As the nutrient levels around the root increases up to a certain point, there will be a proportional increase in nutrient uptake and growth. The level of nutrients required for optimal growth is different for different species. However, it has been shown that the level of nutrients required for optimal growth of young seedling


Author: Joseph Dallon Jr

PP: 590

Physical and chemical characteristics of spent compost were studied to ascertain how it compares with commercial greenhouse growing preparations, and with top soil. Water holding capacity, drainage, aeration, and other characteristics of compost compare favorably with other mixes. Soluble salts, nitrate nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, and certain trace elements were significantly higher in spent compost. The pH of compost from most samples was above 7.5, and its ion exchange capacity was within desirable limits to facilitate satisfactory growth and development.

Author: Jean Du Moulin

PP: 104

We grow about ten kinds of Grevillea in our nursery, and they include ‘Robyn Gordon’, ‘Sandra Gordon’, × gaudichaudii, and ‘Royal Mantle’.

The methods used to grow these plants in our nursery have resulted from many trials focusing on different aspects of their propagation. These include stock plants, types of cuttings, hygiene, hormones, rooting media, potting up procedures, environmental conditions, and nutrition of the cuttings.

We are constantly looking to improve the growing conditions for the cuttings, and to fine tune the whole propagation process.

The propagation factors to be considered are:—

Stockplants. Stockplant gardens were established at the nursery to ensure good quality cutting material, free from disease and insects. These gardens supply about 80% of our cutting material, and the remaining 20% is gained from private gardens and nursery container stock. Cutting material can be taken from the stock garden throughout the year, although there is little growth during the winters


Author: M.T. McClelland, M.A.L. Smith

PP: 593

Direct, side by side, comparison of ex vitro and in vitro produced roots on woody plant microcuttings reveals several important differences likely to influence the qualities that control survival of micropropagated nursery stock. In preliminary observations, ex vitro root systems are well-branched with normal root hair development, whereas roots initiated in vitro lack secondary roots and have a comparatively sparse development of root hairs. The in vitro roots tend to have extremely enlarged cortical cells (a false secondary thickening) and poor vascular connections. Ex vitro produced roots are more slender and have greater tensile strength. This research project will follow the fate of roots initiated in or ex vitro through acclimation, greenhouse growth, and in field environments, to determine if the root differences established by either root initiation method early in production continue to influence the root morphology and growth of the ultimate landscape plant.

Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 600

DICK LIGHTY: Ilex verticillata ‘Maryland Beauty’, selected by Mr. David Jenkins of Maryland around 1932 for cut stem production, has branches tightly clothed with long-lasting berries of medium size to within an inch or two of the stem tips. It is a shrub to 5½ ft and therefore of wider usefulness than ‘Winter Red’. Simpson's Nursery has this plant and Mt. Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Plants will be distributing it in the future.

CHRIS ROGERS: Rhododendron ‘New Patriot’ is an open pollinated selection of a plant whose parentage is R. lsquo;P.J.M.’ crossed with an evergreen form of a pink R. mucronulatum. ‘New Patriot’ blooms in Hopkinton, MA one week before R. ‘P.J.M.’ in late April. It is very floriferous with nearly red flowers that tend to bloom two inches down the stems. It blooms over a week period. The flowerbuds seem to be hardy to Zone 5. It is a vigorous, wide-branched plant and, after 10 years, we can expect a plant that is 4 ft tall and 3 ft wide. It was registered (American


Author: Stephen D. Verkade, George E. Fitzpatrick

PP: 606


Nursery growers routinely rely on regulated chemicals during plant propagation and production. Fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer materials, and fuel are all resources that growers use to profitably produce high quality plant material.

Public concern for protecting the environment has resulted in the establishment of governmental authorities empowered to develop rules that regulate chemical storage and use. A primary concern is the contamination of ground water by hazardous materials including pesticides, fertilizers, and fuels. When introduced into the soil, these chemicals can move downward into the water table and eventually can be drawn toward wells supplying public drinking water.

The development of regulations on hazardous material storage and use is required by the federal government, but has been delegated to state and local governments. In some areas this responsibility has been assumed at the state level, such as the


Author: Barry Larkman

PP: 106

Training and experience show that there is greater root development around a node than there is along the stem so it is a general practice to propagate cuttings with a minimum of two nodes, one below, in the medium, the other above it.

This is a practice that research and long usage has proven effective. However, there are disadvantages with some species. These are:

  1. when the internodal length is exceptionally long, the cuttings are difficult to handle and become unwieldy when placed in a community tray.
  2. if the plant material is badly tangled (as often happens with climbers) it is difficult and time consuming to extract "two node" cutting material. There is also a risk of plant tissue damage.
  3. There are obvious arithmetical disadvantages if each cutting has to have two nodes should there be a shortage of plant material.

Whilst over time there must have been research into root production on single-node (leaf-bud) cuttings, a brief search of the literature revealed little information


Author: Angus Stewart

PP: 109

I would like to dedicate this paper to my late friend and mentor, Mervyn Turner, who during the last decade of his life dedicated himself almost entirely to breeding kangaroo paws (Anigozanthos spp.). His breeding program gave rise to the "Bush Gems" range of hybrid cultivars. Merv had a vision for breeding not just kangaroo paws, but also a whole range of other Australian native plants, such as Christmas bells (Blandfordia spp.), pimeleas (Pimelea spp.) and numerous others.

As a tribute to Merv Turner I would like to review the results to date of the "Bush Gems" breeding program. I hope that the experience gained with kangaroo paws will be of assistance to those interested in the genetic improvement of Australian plants.

The genus Anigozanthos contains species with a spectacular range of colours and flower forms and often within a species a range of colour forms exists. The large range of colours and colour combinations available to the breeder has only been partially exploited to date.


Author: Tony Cupitt

PP: 112

My experience as a production manager in a large container nursery showed me the need for an area to be put aside for stock plants to be managed efficiently for large scale cutting production.

The main reasons for having stock plants are to:

  1. Obtain an increased strike rate in less time.
  2. Obtain large quantities of favourable wood.
  3. Increase efficiency in the ease and speed of collecting cuttings.
  4. Improve convenience and cut down travelling time.
  5. Ensure the early introduction of new cultivars thus discarding inferior forms.
  6. Ensure accurate labelling of plants from which cuttings are taken—cuttings are always taken from accurately labelled plants.

If stock plants are regularly replaced with stock which have been hygienically grown and have good vigour and juvenility, high strike rates will follow.

Stock plants should be controlled and managed by the


Author: Peter Ollerenshaw

PP: 116

It is now 200 years since the first white settlement in Australia and in recent years we have been taking stock of our natural resources, and starting to wonder what will be left for the next two hundred years.

The Australian landscape has been radically altered over the years, and now in many regions there is very little surviving of the original vegetation. Some of the major events which have affected the environment include the establishment of the sheep industry, massive development in wheat farming, economic depressions, drought, and the introduction of the rabbit [1). More recent events include harvesting forests for wood chips, strip mining, and the destruction of rainforests.

Since the mid-1970's Botanic Gardens have become aware of the need to be involved in the conservation of species. The International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources was responsible for early initiatives in this area producing the red data books, which list rare, vulnerable, and endangered species.


Author: M.W. Barrett

PP: 40

This paper reviews current commercial developments in plant growth control of nursery plants in Australia, particularly in New South Wales.

Author: R.N. Spooner-Hart

PP: 119


Since the large scale production of synthetic pesticides following World War II, the most common approach to pest control in agriculture and horticulture has been prophylactic application of chemicals, based on potential insect and disease threats. Recent increased awareness of the limitations and side effects of pesticides is causing this attitude to be rethought. Problems associated with pesticide use include widespread resistance in insect and mite pests and pathogens, elevation of organisms to pest status through elimination of natural suppressive agents, major environmental damage from some pesticides, and human health and safety concerns (in particular mutagenic effects of pesticides). With a number of crop plants, phytotoxic injury from pesticides is a major problem, and there is evidence that regular pesticide use may suppress plant growth (15). In addition, while the presence of pests constitutes barriers to international trade, so do unacceptable levels of


Author: Wilbur C. Anderson, Patricia Miller

PP: 128

The rooting of pea cuttings has been the subject of intensive physiological research to determine the factors associated with successful rooting (1, 2). Rooting has also been a problem with tissue culture propagation of peas. Filippone (3) reported up to 82% in vitro rooting of peas derived from explanted shoot tips of 7-day-old seedlings. The successful medium consisted of the following constituents: Linsmaier Skoog (4) half-strength, 10% sucrose, 2 g/liter activated charcoal, and 220 mg/liter CaCl2. Both activated charcoal and CaCl2 were required for a high rooting percentage.

Research in our laboratory determined planting out of in vitro peas directly from multiplication medium was not practical because of nearly 100% mortality. Therefore, in vitro rooting was essential for a complete vegetative propagation system. In vitro rooting experiments were nonresponsive when testing varying rates of auxins, ancymidol, inorganic salts, and activated charcoal. Placing the cultures in darkness


Author: Gerald B. Straley

PP: 130

The alpine and subalpine zones of British Columbia offer not only some of the most spectacular scenery in the world, but a wide range of plants with garden potential. Many of these are known in cultivation only to the avid alpine plant enthusiasts and are not generally available commercially.

A wide range of growing conditions in these zones, depending on aspect, soil and rock types, exposure and elevation, create microhabitats for a variety of plant species. Many of these habitats can be successfully recreated at lower elevations in the Pacific Northwest, even on the wet coast. The potential for using native plants for the drier interior of the Pacific Northwest has not been realized.

The plants discussed in this paper include those true alpines as well as some from lower elevations in montane meadows. Although British Columbia's flora will be stressed, a number of plants from the Pacific Northwest or Western North America are also included. Some of the more familiar alpine plants, at


Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm

PP: 135

An estimated 3,000 native herbaceous perennial species grow in the Pacific Northwest, from Oregon into British Columbia. They grow from sea level to alpine peaks. Among them is a great diversity of form, size, color, habitat, and adaptability.

This presentation will not include plants growing at higher elevations, nor the grasses (Poaceae or Graminae), sedges (Cyperaceae), rushes (Juncaceae), the many families of water plants, nor some of the lower plant families, such as club-mosses (Lycopodiaceae), and selaginella (Selaginellaceae). But even without them, the number of Northwest native herbaceous perennials is enormous, and the potential for their use is substantial.

Relatively little use is currently made of these plants. Competition of plants from other parts of the world, especially from Eastern North America, Europe, China, and Japan, and traditional use habits are among reasons for the tardy recognition of Northwest natives. Limited interest has delayed much needed selection,


Author: Linda B. Aberbom

PP: 138


California is the third largest state in area in the United States, covering over 150,000 square miles. The state's topography is diverse, ranging from 276 ft. below sea level in Death Valley to 14,494 ft. above sea level at the peak of Mt. Whitney—the lowest and highest elevations in the contiguous United States.

The Sierra Nevada mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west form the natural boundaries which isolate the native flora. Plants cut off from the relatives of their family or genus evolve and adapt to different environmental conditions. The genetic make-up changes when free pollination among the taxa of the continent does not take place to homogenize the species.

California is a Mediterranean climate zone of winter rainfall, summer drought. This weather pattern creates xeriphytic plants; that is, plants that live in moist conditions while, at the same time, have physiological mechanisms to protect themselves from stress during long, dry periods, an


Author: Susan Schaff

PP: 141

Seed processing is a vital part of making available high quality seed. A good seed processing job can assure growers of maximum germination and true-to-type seed, plus the seed will store better. The quality of seed is improved during processing by removal of contaminants such as seeds of other crops, weed seed, inert material, etc. and by upgrading or eliminating poor quality seed.

Seed processing is aided by proper collection of material in the field. There are many methods of collecting seed but all generally produce either dry or wet material to process. The seed processor will evaluate the crop to determine the best method or methods of separating the seed from the contaminants.

An important prerequisite for efficient and effective seed cleaning of dry seed is that the seed is completely threshed and as free flowing as possible. This may require removal of awns or beards or breaking up of pods, seed heads, or seed clusters. To minimize losses of good seed, these clusters, heads, or


Author: Rick Wells

PP: 146

Ensete ventricosum, or the Abyssinian banana, is a palm-like plant which is actually an evergreen herbaceous perennial—one of the largest. The genus consists of about seven species. The apparent trunk is actually a stalk or pseudostem made up of leaf bases. The true stem begins as an underground "corm" which grows up through the center of the stalk, eventually producing the terminal inflorescence which bears the fruit. The flowers are unisexual with the flower parts of one sex in each bloom being non-functional. The female flowers are located at the base of the inflorescence.

Ensete is a member of the Musaceae family, which also includes Strelitza, Ravonala, Heliconia, and Musa (the edible banana). Abyssinian bananas were usually listed with Musa until about 30 years ago. They differ from Musa in that they do not have rhizomes (produce no natural offsets), have much larger seed (up to 1 in. in diameter), and have some technical differences in their pollen. The fruits of Ensete are usually


Author: Bruce McTavish

PP: 148

The use of native plants in western Canada has increased dramatically over the last five years. Not only has the number of plants being demanded increased but the species that are being asked for has broadened. The increase in the number of species being sought has caused a reassessment of the cultural conditions under which these plants are grown.

We are presently growing in excess of 100 species of native plants. These plants include alpine perennials, xerophytic plants from the dry lands, and species from West Coast rain forests. The variety of plants demands close assessment and control of the cultural conditions under which they are managed in the nursery.


Author: John H. Russell

PP: 151

Rooted cuttings are being increasingly used in tree improvement and reforestation programs in British Columbia. Present uses include: 1) an alternative to grafting for cloning selected parent trees for seed orchards and clone banks; 2) a research tool for nursery and field trials to control genetic variability; 3) an alternative to seedlings for reforestation; 4) a means for bulking-up genetically improved seed; and 5) clonal forestry (testing, selection, and deployment of clones). Projects aimed at developing and using these techniques are established in British Columbia.

Cloning parent tree selections. Rooted cuttings have been used in the establishment of British Columbia's seed orchards and clone banks as an alternative to grafting. Cloning of first generation parent tree selections, which were mostly over 60 years old, was usually done by grafting. However, rooted cuttings were used where grafting techniques had not yet been developed.

Graft incompatibility is a serious problem


Author: Campbell G. Davidson

PP: 156

The shrubby potentilla or cinquefoil is a common dwarf shrub that is widely planted in the Northern Hemisphere. There are in excess of 60 cultivars that have been named and released; however, few have remained popular (11).

The basis of any breeding program requires sound knowledge of the taxonomy of the particular plant. When we established the breeding program in Potentilla I found that the taxonomy of the species was very confused. It was, therefore, necessary to become involved in a taxonomic study of the plant to help define the complex and identify problem areas. There are up to 10 different species reported in the shrubby group (1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9). However, there is no overall concensus on which is the best taxonomic approach.

One of the approaches utilized to study the taxonomic status was to establish breeding relationships among the groups. This was accomplished by crossing between the major types reported in the literature. The concept of gene exchange and limits to gene


Author: Noel P. Arrold

PP: 45

The major world producers of mushrooms are France, U.S.A., China, Holland, United Kingdom, Taiwan, Italy, and South Korea. The world annual production of cultivated Agaricus bisporus exceeds one million tonnes.

In Australia, mushroom cultivation began about 1930 when Dr. Noble, then Chief Biologist of the N.S.W. Department of Agriculture, was able to establish mushroom growing in outdoor ridge beds in the County of Cumberland. Production became established in disused railway tunnels at Wynyard, Helensburgh, Lithgow, Bowral, and Glenbrook. Nowadays mushrooms are grown in specially insulated buildings where temperature, humidity, and CO2 are carefully controlled. The Australian industry at the present time has about 80 growers producing 15 thousand tonnes of mushrooms per annum with a gross value of A$50 million.

Mushroom Spawn. "Spawn" is the name given to the mycelium of the mushroom. Spores are produced from special structures called basidia on the gills of the mushroom. These


Author: Robert L. Ticknor

PP: 161

Plant breeding was one of the projects to be conducted at the newly established North Willamette Experiment Station of Oregon State University when I was hired in 1959. Pieris was chosen as there were several species and a number of named cultivars of P. japonica, none of which were known to be the result of hybridization. Among the objectives were development of plants with growth habits different than the narrow, upright habit of P. japonica, fade resistant pink flowers, and bright red growth.

Thirty different plants were acquired in 1959 and 1960 from local and eastern nurseries including one or more of the following species: Pieris floribunda, P. formosa and its variety forrestii, P. japonica, P. nana, P. phillyreifolia, and P. taiwanensis. Also obtained was a plant of P. ‘Forest Flame’, which is reported to be a natural hybrid between P. formosa var. forrestii and P. japonica. Results of attempts at interspecific hybridization in Pieris by Dr. Richard Jaynes and I have been


Author: John G. Lofthouse

PP: 164

The breeding, development, and introduction of new plant cultivars can be compared to manufacturers introducing new products and models. To be competitive nurseries should feature these new introductions. Most customers like to try something different. The advertising and promotion of new cultivars increases nursery traffic, elevates profits, and indicates a progressive operation.

In my opinion, it is wrong to produce new cultivars for "new cultivars sake". I have been trying during the past few years to create rhododendrons with new "appearances"; flowers having longer corollas, flamboyant calyxes, also ruffles and frills. Some of these exciting new cultivars have recently been coming into bloom. The best will be selected and propagated for the retail trade. One might wonder about how to obtain them. Distribution by propagating nurseries, such as "Clays", "Briggs", and others, have made some of these cultivars available, world-wide. Others, and the newer introductions, can be obtained as


Author: Kathleen S. Freeland

PP: 167

Lagerstroemia, or crapemyrtle, has been cultivated within the United States for over 100 years and is known as the "Lilac of the South’, in much the same manner as the common lilac, Syringa vulgaris, is symbolic of colonial homesteads. The name "crapemyrtle" is derived from the crepe-like, crinkled and ruffled petals and the resemblance of the leaves to those of true myrtle. First illustrated and described by a Dutch physician and named by Carolus Linnaeus in 1759 for his close friend, Magnus Lagerstroem, crapemyrtle is a member of the loosestrife family.

More than 50 species of trees and shrubs of this genus are distributed in southeast Asia and Australia, the majority of which are tropical and amenable to cultivation only within warmer areas of the U.S. such as Florida and California. These plants (some of which have proven root hardy if mulched) flower on new wood and will produce vegetative growth that flowers the following summer. However, the flowers cannot equal those of plants


Author: Dennis Connor

PP: 169

Presented by Dennis Connor, Western Region President, at the Western Region Annual Banquet, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Our awardee for 1988 has served as President and Treasurer for the California Association of Nurserymen and has been involved with many other organizations—The Cal-Aggie Foundation at the University of California, Davis, the U.C. Foundation Plant Materials Service for clean seed and nursery stock, California's Governor George Deukmejian's Advisory Staff, the Sacramento Tree Foundation, the U.S. National Arboretum, Board member of Sacramento's Sumitomo Bank, and 54 other business, charitable, political, and educational committees.

He is a charter member of the Western Region and served as its President in 1973–74. He was IPPS International President in 1977.

He was born March 9, 1927, and has three children, Loren, George Samuel, and JoAnn, plus six grandchildren.

I am proud to announce his name, Mr. George Oki, Oki Nursery Company, Sacramento, California.


Author: Fraser M. Hancock

PP: 170

The method of propagation which I will present is one that has previously been described (1) by my grandfather, the late Leslie Hancock, in 1953 at the Third Plant Propagators' Society meeting. My intention is to outline the technique as it is being used now, including developments which have enhanced the system over the last 35 years and, moreover, to bring to the surface again a viable system of softwood cutting production.

Leslie Hancock, a recipient of the IPPS Eastern Region Award of Merit in 1968, developed the Burlap Cloud method of propagation as a result of experimentation in adapting a system of propagation he had witnessed in Nanking, China. The system he had observed there consisted of beds of soil which had raised lips of formed soil. These beds were flooded like miniature rice paddies and cuttings of suitable shrubs were plunged into the slurry of water and soil. Immediately following this process the beds were covered with dense reed mats which shaded the cuttings from


Author: Paul Reimer

PP: 177

One of the most beautiful trees that can trace its "roots" to British Columbia is the ‘Eddie's White Wonder’ dogwood. The tree was bred and introduced by Mr. Henry M. Eddie, a pioneering nurseryman in British Columbia. Mr. Eddie grew mostly fruit trees and roses, subsequently supplying most of the fruit trees for the Okanagan orchards of B.C. in the late 20's and 30's.

During his life in Canada, one of his major interests was the breeding of dogwoods. His goal was to combine the best qualities of two dogwoods: Cornus nuttalli (Pacific flowering dogwood) and Cornus florida (Eastern flowering dogwood). He hoped to produce a plant having the fine flowering size of C. nuttalii and the autumn color of C. florida. A number of promising crosses were developed, some of which had weeping habits. In 1948, the Fraser and Vedder rivers overflowed wiping out most of his potential hybrids. Fortunately, one cross between C. florida and C. nuttallii was so promising that it was cloned and lined out at this


Author: Donald E., James A. Ekstrom

PP: 180


A group of small to intermediate sized trees that is not widely known or used, but sought after, is the genus Stewartia. Comprised of about six different types, all are somewhat similar, differing mainly in flower size and tree size or shape.

Stewartia pseudocamellia is probably the best known with closely related S. koreana being very similar. We have worked with S. ovata, S. sinensis, and S. monadelpha, also with limited success in each species. At Ekstrom Nursery we have had the most success with S. pseudocamellia, S. monadelpha: S. pseudocamellia as rooted cuttings and S. monadelpha as seedlings. Because there is little written on this genus most of our knowledge has come from trial and error experiences.

As I said, we use seed propagation and softwood summer cuttings. The seed is held in five-valved pods which we try to collect, generally, just prior to pod opening, usually in October. As they dry they will open but the seed is not easy to remove. Once the seeds


Author: Charles E. Tubesing

PP: 184

Because grafting involves living organisms, it is not too surprising that there are as many exceptions regarding compatible stock/scion combinations as there are rules. For instance, in most cases a cultivar of a particular species will flourish when grafted onto a seedling of the same species, but there are examples, such as Acer rubrum cultivars and Quercus palustris ‘Sovereign’, where grafting onto the species can result in eventual failure of the union resulting from delayed incompatibility. There are many documented cases of graft compatibility between species in the same genus, and a smaller number of successful grafts recorded between members of different genera within the same family. The success of these less closely related combinations offers sufficient encouragement for propagators to continue trying to use more common, readily available species as rootstocks when confronted with unfamiliar species or cultivars to be propagated. In my career, I have encountered several

Author: R.P. Regan, W.M. Probesting

PP: 187

Coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) var. menziesii is the major Christmas tree species in the Pacific Northwest. An estimated 3.7 million trees were harvested in Oregon in 1987, most of which were genetically unimproved planting stock. As a result, there is considerable variation in such important characteristics as vigor, form, needle color, and budbreak, which profoundly affects tree quality, length of rotation, and culture. Genetic improvement of seed parents has been explored by Oregon State University and the Northwest Christmas Tree Association. Because of the long commitment required for seed orchard development, however, this approach has seen only limited application.

Asexual propagation of selected, superior trees is being studied as a more rapid method to realize genetic and economic gains. Development of superior Douglas-fir clones for the Christmas tree industry has been underway in the Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University for about 15


Author: Anton B. Thomsen

PP: 192

This summer it is 38 years ago since I worked at Bonnell Nursery in Renton, Washington, and at Malmo Nursery in Seattle. At that time I thought that this area must be one of the most beautiful places in the world, and I still think so. It is certainly perfect for most plants.

The first part of my talk is about "Conifer Propagation in Denmark". As we are the largest grower of conifers propagated by cuttings in Scandinavia and, as most of the other nurseries do as we do, it will be our way you will be hearing about. First a few words about the climate and wages because these two factors have great influence on explaining how and why we do things as we do.

Denmark is located approximately as far north as Sitka, Alaska, so we have short days during the winter and long summer days. The winter weather varies a lot from year to year. A few years ago we had temperatures down to -30°C (-22°F), but usually it is between +5° to -20°C, (41° to -4°F), changing between frost and rainy weather several times


Author: Kevin Handreck

PP: 49

Until now there have not been any regulations for either the quality or quantity of potting mixes sold in retail packs. That situation should change in Australia before the end of 1988 by the setting of a Standard through the Standards Association of Australia. The need for such a Standard was highlighted by Handreck (2), who found an incredibly wide range of properties amongst mixes sold in retail packs in Australia.

A draft of the Standard is about to be released (June 1, 1988) for a 3-month period of public comment. That comment will then be considered by the committee which has the task of developing the Standard, so some of the details given here are likely to have been modified before the Standard is finalized.


Author: Bev Greenwell

PP: 198

Happy Hollow Nursery is located in the central Fraser Valley, 45 min. inland from Vancouver, B.C. We are on Sumas Mountain, 600 ft. above the flat farmland. Situated in a valley on the mountain we are protected from cold northeast winds which causes desiccation of plants down below, but are subject to being a "frost pocket" caused by air drainage off the mountain, and cold air settling in the valley.

Early fall frosts are to our advantage by putting the plants into dormancy slightly earlier than other places. Late spring frosts can be a problem after plants have started growing.

Our winter protection is based on encouraging acclimation, using the plants own abilities to withstand cold. We do everything we can to encourage cold acclimation in the fall, and everything we can to keep them dormant all winter, until danger of frost is over in spring.

Eighty percent of our business is in the production of lining-out stock, mostly deciduous and broadleaf evergreen shrubs. All cuttings are


Author: John Byland

PP: 201

Byland's Nurseries is a wholesale nursery operation located in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Although we grow fruit trees and have a retail garden centre the main thrust of our business is the production of woody ornamentals for colder climates. The plants we produce are either sold as container-grown plants or bareroot. We grow these plants in a semi-desert, zone 5, climate. Summer temperatures routinely exceed 95°F and winter temperatures occasionally go down to -25°F.

A few years ago when our old temporary wooden propagation structures were beginning to show their age we decided to build more modern propagation structures.

As a part of this modernization we investigated the possibility of using a fog system for the following reasons.

  1. To speed up rooting time by using higher greenhouse temperatures so as to turn material in the propagation structure over more frequently.
  2. To reduce the occurrence of overwatering the rooting media, causing the cuttings to decay.
  3. To reduce the amount

Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 204

The Monrovia Nursery Company has always taken great pride in helping to introduce new plants or reintroduce old garden favorites into the nursery trade. Many times these plants come from around the world, or from such places as other nurseries, botanical gardens or arboretums, and even from home gardeners' backyards. At Monrovia Nursery, we are constantly scouting the fields of our containerized stock looking for sports of plants that have growing and marketing potential. Often times, these plants warrant a trademark or plant patent. Listed below are a few new and old cultivars of worthy note:

Actinidia arguta ‘Ananasnaja’. This is commonly known as the Siberian gooseberry. It is a deciduous vine much like Actinidia deliciosa, except that the foliage is narrower and devoid of hairs. This cultivar was selected for the large size of its fruit (¾ in. to 1½ in. in diameter) which has lime-green flesh and a smooth skin; the fruit can be eaten like a grape—skin and all. The fruit ripens in September


Author: Steve Lazarz

PP: 206

Included in the genus Calathea, are some of the most attractive species of interior foliage plants. In their native habitat, they exist as understory plants in the tropical forests of south and central America, and some of the associated Caribbean islands. As a group, they are very desirable due to their very colorful and exotic foliage, and their ability to flourish under interior light levels as low as 50 foot candles. Until recently, most of the cultivars I will describe have been available in the trade only in very limited quantities, and at a premium price. Calatheas are very difficult to grow from seed, and are commonly propagated by the slow and painstaking method of division of the underground rhizomes. Tissue culture micropropagation techniques are presently making many of these cultivars available to the trade in significant numbers at a reasonable price.

Calatheas are a bit more exacting in their cultural requirements than many other types of interior foliage plants. They


Author: Arie Altman, Tuvia Rothem

PP: 207

The advantages of soilless and detached media for propagation and cultivation of many horticultural crops are self-evident. All these systems, including many types of hydroponic units, rely on the use of a solid medium to support the roots. Aeroponics is a unique method of propagating and growing plants with their root systems enclosed within a mist chamber.

Recently, we developed a new, improved, aeroponics system, based on ultrasonic-generated fine fog. The system consists of 4 modules, each made of a lower opaque plastic compartment which contains the roots, and an upper transparent hood for the shoots. The modules are fed from underneath by a central ultrasonic fog generator, which releases a fine, 1 to 5 micron droplet, fog. The fog is equally distributed into the lower and upper compartments of the 4 modules, or can be applied to each one of them separately. The system is modular, electronically controlled, and the fog can be applied intermittently, at any pre-set cycle. Water


Author: Cherng-Hsi Ling, Leslie K.C. Clay

PP: 209

Since 1980 Canadian Forest Products Ltd. has been Working with Clay's Nurseries to develop a practical and cost effective tissue culture method for mass propagating conifer trees. The immediate and long range goal of the research project is to be able to utilize the in vitro cloning technique to rapidly mass produce species that are slow to propagate by traditional methods, and to clone genetically superior trees obtained through selection, breeding, or genetic engineering in the future.

Micropropagation: Advantages and Disadvantages. The tremendous potential benefits of vegetative clonal propagation in the genetic improvement and mass production of forest trees have been fully recognized and critically discussed in recent years (1,2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12,13,14,15). The most significant of these is the capture of all the genetic gains obtained through breeding and selection. Micropropagation and rooted cuttings are the two most important vegetative propagation methods that can be employed in


Author: Eva I. Hecht-Poinar, F.W. Cobb Jr, R.D. Raabe, J.B. Franklin

PP: 215

Since about 1981, a branch dieback of oaks caused by Diplodia quercina has become rather widespread in California. This disease is most severe during dry years. More recently, twigblights caused by at least two fungi: Cryptocline cinerescens and Discula quercina, have also become a serious problem in California. These fungi cause most damage during wet years. The diseases occur in landscaped as well as non-landscaped areas of California and can be serious on Quercus agrifolia, Q. lobata, Q. kellogii, Q. chrysolepis and Q. wislizenii. They have also been recorded on Q. douglasii, Q. robur and Q. suber.

Sixteen native oak species are recognized in California. These belong to three subgenera: the intermediate oaks, the black oaks, and the white oaks. However, extensive hybridization within each subgenus has been well documented, resulting in highly variable intermediate types. Noticeable differences in disease susceptibility and levels of insect attacks of individual trees have been


Author: Bruce Briggs, Steve McCulloch

PP: 218

Our first experience with tissue culture was in the late 1960's with Dr. Wilbur Anderson of the Western Washington Research Station in Mt. Vernon. Dr. Anderson (2,3), an early student of Dr. Murashige (23) of the University of California at Riverside, was anxious to do tissue culture research with woody plants. We were very excited to have him in our area and spent many hours moonlighting with him and two other nurserymen to get a breakthrough on growing woody plants using tissue culture.

My eldest son, who at that time was in junior high school, also joined us as he was very interested in research, and we put him to work making media. Along with fellow nurserymen, Les Clay and Bob Hart, we worked first on trying to get plants established in aseptic culture.

Among the problems in those early days was a lack of materials, such as the cytokinin, 2iP. Actually, it is amazing how little we were off compared to research that was being done with herbaceous plants. It was really a matter of


Author: David C. Hannaby

PP: 224


Notcutts' interest in micropropagation began in the late 1970's when the company realised the potential for the technique on a modern nursery. What was less clear was what specific role would develop for micropropagation in the nursery stock industry and what production levels for the technique would be appropriate.

Initially micropropagated plants were brought in from commercial laboratories and closer links were formed with one of the UK laboratories. However, it soon became apparent that an on-site laboratory was necessary and in 1980 a laboratory was constructed within the propagation unit at Woodbridge.

The laboratory now produces approximately 120 subjects and represents perhaps 10 to 15 percent of Notcutts' production.


Author: Margaret M. Dean

PP: 229

The Vital Link between laboratory and nursery is a matter of life and death for the plant. A dramatic situation—so where are the heroes and where are the villains? It is always easier to identify villains than to recognize heroes so let's start with them.

One villain is the white coat worn by the laboratory worker. People in white coats seem threatening but the white coat has its place. A lot of bleach is used for sterilisation and white is the only practical colour to wear. It also shows up any grubbiness and this helps to maintain high standards. So the white coat is just a useful tool.

The second villain is the "Keep Out" sign on the laboratory door. This is even more destructive. The funny person in the white coat kept behind closed doors must be up to something sinister. Again there are good reasons for "Keep Out" signs. A laboratory where muddy boots are frequently tramping through will be impossible to maintain to the required standard of hygiene and too many curious visitors can use


Author: Shih-Foong Chin

PP: 53

I have chosen to speak on tea, coffee, oil palm, black pepper, and cocoa. Plantek has commercial tissue culture experience in all these crops. The economic importance of these plants to Asia and the Pacific region can be seen in Table 1 which shows that three quarters or more of world production of oil palm, tea, and black pepper come from this region.

Author: Peter C. Harper

PP: 232

Cost disadvantage is the main reason for the relatively slow expansion of the micropropagation industry in relation to the industry which it serves—commercial ornamental horticulture.

The starter plant producer suffers from disadvantages shared by all component industries. They are at the base of a long production chain (Table 1). Very little of the cash which funds the chain gets back to base. In the example chosen the retail margin is four times the starter plant selling price.

This is less significant than the vulnerability of the producer to competition from more conventional propagules which have a price advantage over most of the market and buyers are familiar with the technique of handling them. Most of all the supplier has no real control over the market nor any means to influence it.

Until recently the micropropagation techniques were found to be so intriguing that the industry seemed to be driven by technology with the market a secondary force. At that time it seemed that


Author: Jonathan Crowe

PP: 237

Tissue culture, as a propagation technology, will only develop if it can deliver plants which provide clear economic benefits over those propagated by conventional means. In developing the market we are seeking those species and cultivars where the technology can deliver the benefits.

Twyford Plant Laboratories is principally active in the ornamental plant sector and it is here that tissue culture is growing fastest as a propagation technique. Over the last 10 years, the market for tissue-cultured plants in Europe in the ornamental sector has grown from under 10 million to approximately 100 million in 1987/88.

There are seven major factors which account for this outstanding growth.

This paper will take each of these attributes in turn and examine how one company, Twyford Plant Laboratories has used each of them to develop a market.

  1. High health plants.
  2. In this area we have looked for plants which have significant disease problems arising from repeated conventional vegetative

Author: Allan C. Cassells

PP: 240

Micropropagation has established a market niche largely in the higher value sector and value-added areas of introduction of new cultivars and virus-free stock. High production costs have limited its market share but the latter is likely to increase with the introduction of automation (18).

The aim of this article is to attempt a state-of-the-art appraisal of micropropagation strategies so that the purchaser of microplants can be reasonably assured that they are likely to be fit for the purpose intended.

Micropropagation pathway analysis. The micropropagation procedure involves critical decision and monitoring steps as outlined in Figure 1. The nursery operator should appreciate the significance of these decisions and make sure that the micropropagator has adopted the appropriate strategy for any given cultivar. These steps are discussed below.

Genetic selection. Genetic selection, allied to the cloning pathway chosen is of critical importance to the production of true-to-type progeny. Many


Author: Brian Howard, Tim Marks

PP: 247


When shoot culture in vitro was first recognized as a method for vegetative propagation there was a tendency to view it as a "stand alone" technique, not as one to integrate into general propagation.

There are various reasons for this. Tissue culture is a novel and highly technical process, requiring special and costly facilities more akin to a hospital than a nursery. It provided a wide range of research opportunities extending beyond plant propagation to plant improvement and was taken-up by specialist groups, often based in universities, some without contact with commercial horticulture. Initially, micropropagation was seen to have special opportunities, enabling the creation, maintenance, and exchange of healthy plant material for example.

The tendency to develop as a technology separate from the rest of propagation is only being eroded slowly. Of the 20 or so commercial tissue culture laboratories in England in 1986 concerned with vegetative propagation (as opposed to


Author: David Pennell

PP: 251


There is no doubt that amazing advances have been made since plant tissues were first cultured in vitro in the 1930's. Orchid propagation by both seed and meristem culture (mericloning) was an early use of these techniques. Florist crops and pot plants probably still account for the largest number of plants propagated in culture. Increasing use of micropropagation techniques is being made in hardy ornamental nursery stock and plantation crops with considerable effect being expended in investigations in micropropagation of forest species.

Currently at least 205 laboratories are in operation worldwide (3), but it is difficult to distinguish between production and research laboratories, making any realistic output estimate impossible. There are a number of units in operation or planned with a production capacity of 5 to 20 million plantlets. The theoretical capacity of a facility and what is actually produced are often widely different and the logistics of the very large


Author: S.A. Hunter

PP: 255


Plant cell and tissue culture technology has in recent years advanced so dramatically that today, not only does it serve as a research tool for plant scientists, but also has found a powerful niche in ornamental plant propagation. This technology had its origin in 1902 when Haberlandt postulated that if plant cells and tissues were excised and cultured on a nutrient medium under controlled environmental conditions, the phenomenon of cell totipotency should occur.

A number of major discoveries trace the development of plant tissue culture since then. It received a major stimulus when Morel (13) commercialized tissue culture of orchids. This encouraged scientists to explore its applicability for the propagation of diverse ornamental crops.

As a measure of its importance and significance in the nursery stock industry, the rate at which it is being adopted is indeed, remarkable. Reviewing the literature, one finds evidence of more than 50 plant genera presently being


Author: Adrian Bloom

PP: 262

Micropropagation is hardly new but is only now being accepted by the majority of the trade as a useful and standard method of propagation. Twenty years ago, it was barely talked about in the hardy nursery stock industry nor considered a viable alternative or replacement to more traditional methods. We looked upon it with a mixture of excitement and dread. On the one hand it had a potential benefit for producing hitherto difficult to propagate plants, apart from new or unusual forms—but on the other it seemed to open the way to very real dangers of overproduction.

Questions were asked like: Would it revolutionize propagation methods? Would it put the skilled propagator out of business? Would it make the rare plant common, bring down prices and flood the market?

At that time there was no way those questions could be answered. As a company we had to ask the question, "What was in it for Blooms?" Whether or not you like to face change and new technology, if you don't you will soon find


Author: Andy Kelly

PP: 266

Micropropagation is a tool with many uses. As propagators we are most interested in its use for rapid multiplication of subjects that are difficult to root by other methods. Plants coming from micropropagation yield cuttings which, in many cases, root more easily than the original source of micropropagated material. This result may be compared with traditional methods of inducing juvenility in stock plants, such as hedging. It may be that cytokinins could be used on traditional stockbeds to induce juvenility.

In 1977, the staff at Rochfords Nurseries' Technical Department were examining methods of increasing the numbers of shoots on Dracaena marginata for propagation purposes. Various methods of introducing cytokinins into the plants were investigated but none resulted in substantial increases in shoot numbers. One method tried was injection of injection of cytokinin solutions into the stem at various points. The same treatment on Schefflera arboricola [syn. Heptaplurum arboricola]


Author: S.A. Hunter, N. O'Donnell

PP: 268

An outline system for the propagation of Sequoia sempervirens is described. Propagules were excised from juvenile tissue forced from epicormic buds, disinfected using a calcium hypochlorite and tincture of iodine solution and cultured on half-strength Shenk and Hildebrandt medium. Explant growth and development was stimulated by the inclusion of benzyl amino purine and kinetin in the medium. Shoot elongation occurred in their absence. In vitro rooting was inferior to that obtained in vivo.

Author: James Mattock

PP: 272

In early 1988 Wyevale Nurseries entered the field of plant micropropagation by setting up a small self-contained laboratory next to its existing propagation facilities. This unit consists of a Portacabin with internal fittings supplied to our own specifications. It is divided into three areas:
  1. The main work area comprised of a laminar air flow unit, media preparation area, and sink,
  2. Growth room
  3. Changing room that doubles as an airlock avoiding direct introduction of air, dust, and people from the outside.

We decided to go for a purpose-built unit because we believe this will reduce the chances of cross contamination and help us run a small lab efficiently. This will leave us more time to consider plant growth problems and thus reduce the lag time between start up and full production which many labs have encountered.

At present Wyevale Nurseries produce 20 acres of field-grown stock and 1.7 million container plants. The lab was set up not so much to dramatically increase these figures, but


Author: John Jenkins

PP: 58

This paper will discuss briefly, the following topics: first, the evaluation, purchase, and use of computers for nursery management; second, the need for financial and production budgets and how they can be facilitated by the use of spreadsheets; third, some of the types of systems currently being used by an increasing number of nurseries; and finally the need for the use of modern technology in the efficient operation of many businesses.

Author: Raymond J. Evison

PP: 274

Clematis viticella was the first clematis species to be introduced to the UK in the mid-1500's. Since then, many fine, small-flowered cultivars have been raised from C. viticella, giving a good range of colours. One of the latest is a fine, deep purple blue form, which has yet to be named. It seems very free flowering and has an unusual, deep red centre.

C. cirrhosa, a species from southern Europe, was another early introduction to England. This quite variable species has given us several deep couloured forms, including a new one to be called C. cirrhosa ‘Freckles’.

In my collection there are not only new clematis of recent introduction, both small and large-flowered, but also old, large-flowered cultivars and species almost lost to commercial cultivation in Europe, as a result of changing fashions and trends.

Following is described a small selection from my collection, which numbers over 300 species and cultivars.

Clematis ‘Empress of India’ is a large-flowered cultivar brought back from the


Author: Robert Reid

PP: 277

The State of Tasmania lies in the equivalent latitudes of northern Portugal and northwest Spain. The climate of the lowland areas, by British standards, is in fact very mild and pleasant with few extremes of temperature.

Tasmania is a small island of slightly more than 64,000 square kilometres (roughly the size of Ireland), lying in the path of moisture laden westerly winds. On reaching the west coast these are forced up by the mountains (1200 to 1600m), thus depositing much of their moisture. There is a marked rainfall gradient from over 4000mm in the mountains of the west to 560mm on the east coast. Much of the landscape is dominated by rugged mountains and even today many areas have not been fully explored.

Altitude has a great influence on temperatures, with some coastal regions experiencing only light frosts. However above 1000m frost can be experienced at any time of the year and snow lies for long periods in the winter months. The vegetation of these high and cold regions is


Author: Kenneth N.E. Cox

PP: 280

Rhododendron hybridising started in Britain about 1800 when some of the European and North American species were first crossed. Important breakthroughs occurred with the introduction of red flowers from R. arboreum and the first group of what is known as the hardy hybrids were raised by the great Victorian nursery firms such as Waterers at Bagshot and Knaphill, and at Cunninghams nursery in Edinburgh.

Among the best known hybrids of this period, are ‘Cunningham's White’, ‘Gomer Waterer’, ‘Christmas Cheer’, ‘Purple Splendour’, and ‘Cynthia’. The next phase was marked by the introduction of more Himalayan species such as the enormous flowered R. griffithianum and later, the yellow species R. campylocarpum and R. wardii. In German and Dutch nurseries, breeding was being carried out from 1890 until World War II, with the Dutch hybrids such as ‘Britannia’, ‘Betty Wormald’ and ‘Kluis Sensation’ becoming popular wherever rhododendrons were grown.

The Edwardian and Georgian eras in Britain saw the hybridising


Author: John Addison

PP: 288


The genus Hebe belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae, and was once part of the genus Veronica which still contains the deciduous plants. The difference is that seed capsules of veronica split vertically and those of hebe horizontally. Hebes also have a larger number of chromosomes than veronicas. Parahebe, the other closely allied genus, is semi-woody in character. Most hebes come from New Zealand, although members of the genus also come from Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, South America, and the Falkland Islands.

There are about a 100 species but they are a promiscuous lot and hybridise readily so there are as many as 200 cultivars.

As shrubs they are of great garden merit being outstanding flowering plants, most of which produce axilliary or terminal racemes of either white, pink, red, violet or blue flowers. The main flowering periods are May, June, July to September.

There is great diversity of foliage—many produce deep glossy green elliptical leaves, others produce


Author: Christopher Lloyd

PP: 292

Obviously, no nurseryman wants to be caught raising a large stock of some esoteric plant of which he will eventually sell only two or three. I should like to point out, however, that communications between grower and customer have been greatly improved since Chris Philip and Tony Lord, under the aegis of the Hardy Plant Society, have produced The Plant Finder, a mine of information on how to locate a whole range of hardy stock.

In general, there are plenty of businessmen around in the nursery trade with a sensitive nose for ratings, but plantsmen are few and far between or, if present, uninfluential. A plantsman is always supposed to have his head in the air and to be blissfully unaware of market forces. Peter Catt, whom we met on his nursery during the conference tour, is exceptional in being a combined plantsman, propagator, and businessman. The result of having so few plantspeople either at the propagating end or the selling end of the production line is a dismal uniformity. The


Author: Norman S. Standbrook

PP: 295

These days people are constantly asking nurseries for something out of the ordinary. This paper contains a few suggestions that may be of interest to the discerning gardener.

The Moroccan broom, or Cytisus battandieri, with its pineapple scented flowers, is usually grown from seed, but this method is not really satisfactory as the plants do not flower until quite mature. Micropropagated plantlets are sometimes available, but there are still problems with successfully establishing the plantlets.

The best results are from cuttings which, although not easy, are a good source of supply. The wood must be semi-ripe and taken rather late in the year, October or November. Our greatest success has been from plants kept in a poly-tunnel and the growing shoots taken when about 10cm long and quite whippy to the feel. They are then dipped in Synergol rooting hormone, at the rate of one part to six of water and inserted into individual pots of Cornish grit/peat, 3:1.

The pots are then placed in a


Author: Peter J. Crosland

PP: 300

Papavers are worthy plants with bright bold colours for the herbaceous border. They do best in a sunny position in a deep dry soil. Papaver orientale hybrids, which are common in cultivation today, were raised by Amos Perry of Enfield, Middlesex in the early 1900's. With a few exceptions these cultivars must be propagated by division or root cuttings.

To obtain suitable propagation material papavers should be field-grown, not container-grown, as the restriction of root growth causes a more fibrous root system to be produced.

The stock plants are planted in May or June and left undisturbed, apart from keeping them weeded, until November or December. At this point they are carefully lifted from the ground using a normal garden fork so that the roots are not damaged. As the cuttings will not be inserted until February or March the roots must be stored, there are two ways this can be done:

  1. the complete plant is plunged in peat
  2. the roots needed are removed, laid in boxes and covered

Author: R.A.W. Lowe, G.A. Pattison

PP: 301

The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens was formed some 10 years ago, following a conference organised by the then Director of Wisley, Mr. C. D. Brickell, now Director General of the Royal Horticultural Society, because of his concern at the rapidly decreasing number of garden plants available to the gardener and horticulturist. The NCCPG, by which initials I shall now refer to us, is as much of a mouth-full as the full name. We are, in fact, an independent charity with offices within the Royal Horticultural Society Gardens at Wisley.

Work on the wild endangered flora of many countries is well underway, co-ordinated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), but little or no work has been done on the garden plants of British Gardens. Some work has been done by Dr. E. C. Nelson on Irish garden plants and, in particular, cultivated plants.

The main aims of our organization are:

  1. to encourage the conservation of

Author: Neal Wright

PP: 304

A personal view of various aspects of micropropagation. The costs of developing a commercial production process for a new subject. How can these costs be financed? The Heath Robinson approach. The need for follow-up development beyond the laboratory.

Author: Keith Loach

PP: 308

The aftercare of newly micropropagated plant material and the rooting of conventional cuttings share similar environmental requirements. Specifically, these are:
  1. The need to conserve water in the plant tissues, since cuttings, whether from in vitro or conventional sources, readily suffer water deficits because they have no roots. In microplants already rooted in vitro, the roots often function poorly; their leaves, having developed in high humidities, have thin cuticles (1), little surface wax deposition (4), and relatively few stomata (5) with imperfect stomatal control (3).
  2. It is nevertheless important to avoid excessive wetting of the plant material. In the case of micropropagated plants, the weight of water droplets can be physically damaging. In conventional cuttings there is need to avoid waterlogging of the basal stem tissues, which occurs especially in winter conditions and results in rotting.
  3. Irradiance conditions must allow for the gradual redevelopment of

Author: D.O. Cliffe

PP: 63

The concept of cell-raised transplants was first conceived in the United States. Mr. George Todd, in conjunction with personnel of Cornell University, using expanded polystyrene (EPS) as their medium, designed and manufactured what we now know as the Speedling® seedling flat.

This flat made its debut in 1978 and consisted of 200 cells of an inverted pyramid shape approximately 75 mm deep with a 25 mm opening.

Since that original concept, the name Speedling® has become synonomous with vegetable seedling raising in most of the developed countries of the world.

Whilst the nursery industry and, in particular, the conservative farming community, were slow to accept the principle of cell-raised plants it is now apparent, particularly in the U.S.A., that the system is well entrenched. Adaptations of the principle continue to be presented to the market in myriad form.

As what now seems to be a logical progression from the original concept of cell-grown vegetable transplants, there has been a


Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 315

While there was initial enthusiasm from nurserymen to wean micropropagated propagules received directly from the laboratory, their success rate was variable. As a result most laboratories now have their own specialised weaning units to produce the rooted plantlet/liners for sale to growers, which can be handled in a similar manner to conventionally propagated material.

A specialist ADAS micropropagation unit at Brogdale Experimental Horticulture Station in Kent is, in collaboration with Efford EHS, investigating factors involved in successful weaning-off and growing-on of micropropagated material.

Work so far has concentrated on relatively high value crops, particularly those in the Ericaceae group, most of which are suited to growing under protection thus capitalising on the potential for growth from micropropagated material, e.g. Rhododendron, deciduous Azalea, Pieris, Camellia, Kalmia, and Magnolia.

This paper reviews the larger scale weaning and growing-on work in progress at


Author: Terry C. Hatch

PP: 320

Many a young nursery worker dreams of setting up his (her) own nursery; most have very little capital to buy land, often ending up with a position that is not the best, to say the least! Our site is on the cold side of a steep hill; the largest flat area faces south and is windy. Also we do not have an overabundant supply of water, but the view is very pleasant.

Selecting plants that would be saleable in our general area has been a highly personal choice with the tendency towards perennials, bulbs, and smaller shrubs, with the prerequisite of drought and wind tolerance. Many of these plants have quite a long nursery life before they are ready for sale; also quite a number have been fairly difficult to propagate in any quantity, i.e. Alstroemeria ‘Walter Fleming’, but growing them is a challenge and is rewarding, even if not over remunerative. Data on these plants, many of which are now rare, is not over-abundant and then often suitable only for United Kingdom conditions. Some of these


Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 321

A micropropagation method for Xeronema callistemon, a rare liliaceous plant endemic to New Zealand, is described. The explant material, consisting of the meristem sheathed in several leaves, was excised and sterilised. The trials were conducted with various media, supplemented with a range of cytokinins and auxins. The culture conditions were: light intensity, 2000 lux; photoperiod, 16 hr; and temperature, 25°C.

After preliminary stimulation on a medium containing full strength Murashige and Skoog minerals with 3 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l indoleacetic acid (IAA), shoot growth was best maintained on a medium containing 2 mg/l kinetin.

Shoot growth was dissected for further multiplication or transferred to a rooting medium containing half strength Murashige and Skoog minerals with 3 mg/l indolebutyric acid (IBA). The rooted plantlets were deflasked and gradually acclimatised to the greenhouse environment with a 98% success rate.


Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 324

The in vitro cultivation of Todea barbara, a fern endangered in New Zealand, is described. Spores were collected from the wild, disinfested, and grown in sterile water on half strength modified Murashige and Skoog medium with Linsmaier and Skoog vitamins without growth hormones. Culture conditions were: light intensity, 2000 lux; photoperiod, 16 hours; and temperature, 23°C. After six months sporophytes began to appear and were pricked out and replated on the above medium. Alternatively, this tissue was macerated, the dissected pieces of gametophyte tissue regenerating to increase the number of sporophytes available. When frond and root growth was sufficient the ferns were deflasked and hardened off under glasshouse conditions. After one year spore formation had occurred on the fronds of the ferns still held in culture. The cultivation of T. barbara from spore to sporophyte was repeated entirely under in vitro conditions. This process has been repeated annually over the last four years.

Author: Keith Hammett

PP: 326

As a plant breeder I find the late 1980s an exciting time. Right now we are on the threshold of a major technological breakthrough which will be comparable in impact to the development of air transport, television, and computers.

As this breakthrough is very much in our area of activity it is essential that everyone involved in horticulture appreciates what is happening and understands the implications it has for New Zealand. I am referring to what is commonly termed "Biotechnology" or "Genetic Engineering".

The development of "improved&rquot; plants and animals has traditionally been severely restricted by a whole range of biological barriers, Even in cases where it has been possible to bypass a barrier the methods have usually taken a long time. Dr Legro's development of the red delphinium is a good example. This has taken the whole of his working lifetime.

In essence, biotechnology embraces a number of related disciplines that have reached a stage of development, and have come together, so that


Author: Mike Sheerin

PP: 329

I have had some direct experience over the last 5 or 6 years in both the preparation of material for export and the marketing of that product. I would like to relate some of those experiences to you now, tell you some of what is involved, and give you some opinions of the export scene as I see it.

My first comment relates to New Zealand's woody nursery production in relation to the rest of the world. I work for a large company and we grow a diverse range of woody plant material. Our domestic market is very small and our climatic advantages considerable. The countries into which we sell, mainly North America and Europe, conversely have large markets, producers grow a narrower range of material, and there are many different climatic zones within those areas. Many are efficient producers of large volumes. Growing a limited range they do not need large overheads to keep their production on the rails. My company is perhaps the largest of its type in the Southern Hemisphere, yet I have been


Author: John Joe Costin

PP: 335

Capillary watering of plants was first developed as a research tool to eliminate uneven watering as a factor in experimental work. The National Institute of Agricultural Engineering (1) in England published in 1964, a paper on the results of that work showing how a bench system could be used for the watering of house plants. In Ireland in 1975 Lamb, Kelly and Bowbrick (2) described how capillary beds could be used for the production of outdoor nursery stocks. Margaret Scott at Efford in England was making similar modifications for outdoor use. This paper describes the further modifications and adaptations of the system in a commercial nursery.

The principle of the system is that water flows upwards from the water level into small soil spaces or pores by capillary attraction. The rise in water obtained increases as the size of pore decreases. There are a range of pore sizes in compost. The capillary rise will vary with these. The smaller spaces will be filled with water while air will


Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 338


Monrovia Nursery Company was founded in 1926 by Henry E. Rosedale on a ten acre site in Monrovia, California. In 1952 the nursery moved to Azusa to allow for expansion.

Today Monrovia Nursery produces 55 to 60 million plants annually on two 500 acre nurseries in Azusa, California and Dayton, Oregon. Both nursery sites have been selected because of their microclimate and the readily available source of high quality water. At each nursery fertiliser is put into the growing medium and this is supplemented by nutrients in the irrigation water, which is recycled. The water treatment plant adds fertilisers and herbicide to the water before it is reused. The health of plants is regularly monitored by the Research and Development Department.

The two different growing locations enables the Company to produce over 1200 plant cultivars and introduce over 150 new plant cultivars.

The majority of the production is outdoors but some five acres of greenhouses are used for tender plants such as


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 340

Costing plant propagation by the use of reasonable expectancy (R/E), is an area of consideration of plant propagators world-wide. The Index of our Society lists 17 papers under the title of "Cost Accounting" and 30 papers under the title of "Costs" from 1950 through 1980. I vividly recall a paper presented in 1966 by James S. Wells (1) which created much discussion.

Jim used a formula as follows: If labor costs of the total personnel payroll are 50% of operating costs, the true cost of the operation is the sum spent in direct labor multiplied by four. As discussed at that meeting, and again in 1967, the formula rests on the premise of 50% labor costs in operating costs.

Zelenka Nursery Inc., located in Grand Haven, Michigan, USA uses a costing system based on man-hours. This system allows a production control process which enables them to record labor distribution by activity and simultaneously monitors efficiency. Flow charts to show costing at two departments, the greenhouse, and the


Author: Milton Schaefer

PP: 345

We propagate in ground beds, 4 by 48 ft, bordered by crossties or treated 6 in. wooden poles. The rooting medium is a fine sandy loam soil which has been amended over the years with sand and organic matter. The clay colloidal material improves the cation exchange capacity and contains nutrients not available in artificial soils. We fumigate with methyl bromide at a rate of 1 to 1½ lbs. per 100 sq. ft.

We use 6 guage, 6 in. concrete reinforcing wire, 6 ft wide, which is nailed to the wooden poles or crossties, to cover the beds and support the polyethylene. We use either a 2 ml clear polyethylene, which we cover with a 48% shade cloth, or a 2 ml white polyethylene, which has been manufactured to our specification so as to transmit approximately 50% light. We have constant water pressure to a solenoid valve, which is connected to a wiring system controlled by time clocks. We use ¾ in. 100 psi black poly-pipe with spaghetti tubes leading to nozzles. These lines are easy to work and afford


Author: Greg Lamont

PP: 67

The beauty and horticultural value of the Australian flora was first recognized by Joseph Banks (1743–1820), the botanist who accompanied Lieutenant James Cook on his voyage of circumnavigation of the world in 1768–1771. Banks and his assistants shipped large collections of seeds, living plants in tubs, and dried specimens to England. Many, of course, failed to survive but a surprising number did.

Banks, on his return to England became Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and continued his efforts to introduce Australian plants, particularly with the assistance of collectors. A greenhouse known as the Botany Bay House was built to accommodate the living collections. Collectors such as Caley, the superintendent of the new Botanic Gardens at Parramatta gathered plants from the western parts of the Cumberland Plain and the Blue Mountains. Other notable collectors included Brown, Cunningham, and von Mueller in the east of Australia and Baxter, Drummond, and Molloy in the west.


Author: Kathleen Freeland

PP: 347


A number of nurseries in 1940 formed a group called the Ornamental Growers of Northern Illinois. The main market for these producers is landscape contractors, landscape architects, and other nurseries. This group has a high profile at public meetings and Trade Shows. The group is promoted through a newsletter and "The Plant Locator"—a list of plants and grades with nurseries able to supply.

There are 20 member nurseries growing trees, shrubs, and perennials on more than 4100 acres. Many of the nurseries in the group have been in the business for more than one generation but each nursery retains its own identity. Some members have introduced their own plants, while the group is working together with the Morton Arboretum and the Chicago Botanic Garden on a Plant Introduction Scheme modeled on the British Columbian Plant Introduction Scheme.


Author: Julie Martyn, Murray Hopping

PP: 347


Pollination is a vital factor in the successful production of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.)) C. F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson var. deliciosa. Pollen must be transferred from the anthers of the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. This event is of particular importance to kiwifruit production because:

  1. The plant is dioecious, i.e., male and female flowers occur on separate vines.
  2. Fruit weight at harvest depends largely upon the number of seeds set (4), and seed number is influenced by the amount of pollen transferred.

At the Ruakura Agricultural Centre we have developed a method of optimising pollen transfer using spray pollination (6). As part of that project we have also identified certain male selections which have improved seed setting ability (7).

In this paper we follow the course of these males from initial selection through to commercialisation. We also look at the identification and propagation of these nominated selections.


Author: Michael Crooks

PP: 351

Standards governing the use and sale of chemical pesticides in New Zealand are based on international guidelines. A Pesticides board administers Government regulations intended to safeguard end users, the public, and the environment. Representatives from grower groups, manufacturers and resellers, and Government departments make up a Board of twelve. Its their task, with guidance from independent counsultants and referees, to make judgements and set parameters by which pesticides may be purchased and applied. These decisions are invariably made on "hard facts&rquot; presented as documented evidence by the intending marketer of the product.

History has demonstrated that while this process of regulating pesticide availability to the market place has mostly met the aims of the legislators, exceptions have and will likely always occur. Knowledge is not finite and documented evidence will not necessarily always present all of the hard facts on which such judgements can be made. It is the purpose


Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 355

In the revision of the textbook by Hartmann and Kester, Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, for the 5th edition, we have been searching the horticulture literature for new significant developments in plant propagation that justify being covered in a plant propagation book. We have considered a number of important emerging situations that will be discussed in this paper.

In the first place, we have added a new co-author to our book, Dr. Fred T. Davies, Jr. of Texas A & M University. Dr. Davies was president of the IPPS Southern Region in 1986.


Author: Michael Poynter

PP: 361


Skagit Gardens is a supplier of finished annuals and herbaceous perennials to retailers and smaller grades to other growers to grow and market. To offset the peak spring seasonal labour requirements other crops such as poinsettias and other propagated material are grown during the quieter times for sale in winter. This creates year round cash flow and reduces staff turnover. Producing quality plants and the ability to deliver when required are seen as important business objectives. Sales are achieved through buyers calling at the nursery and through brokers.

Mechanization is occurring in all aspects of the nursery as it becomes affordable and justified. Production scheduling is now done by computer using specially designed software; bedding plant seeds are sown mechanically and germinated in growing rooms, which saves 3 to 4 weeks production time. Different environments are used for germination, growing, and holding plants before shipping. By only offering propagated


Author: Peter E. Smale

PP: 362


Several attempts have been made at establishing a tea industry in New Zealand, the most definite of these having been in the north of the South Island. As far back as the 1920s Motueka farmers, in a bid to find new crops for the area, investigated tobacco and tea production. The last remaining tea bushes I believe were at Marahau on the coastal strip in the 1950s, while during that period tobacco production was approaching its peak of around 2000 hectares.

During the 1960s another attempt was made to establish tea production, this time on the west coast of the South Island, and trials were carried out on several sites. This attempt was based on seedling production and the remnants of that indicate the excessive variability of types that resulted. Failure was, I believe, as much due to apathy of the local farmers as anything else. There was support and encouragement from the local Public Relations Officer and help from some existing farmers who were mainly involved in


Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 366

The need for effective chemical weed control in container-grown nursery stock is obvious. Equally, or perhaps more important, is the need for pesticides that are as safe as possible to society with minimum chance to contaminate the air, soil, or ground water.

Weed competition has been estimated to cause an annual loss of over 3.5 billion dollars in yield and quantity of crops in the U.S. alone (1). In nursery research studies it has been reported that 624 man-hours are required to remove weeds from an acre of one gal. (3.78 liter) containers (approximately 30,000/A) (4). At a labor rate of 5.00/hr the cost to weed an acre could exceed $3,000.

Hebicides, indeed, can reduce these costs significantly. The herbicides, however, must be effective, non-phytotoxic, and environmentally safe.

To assist in this effort slow-release herbicides have been the focus of research at Ohio State University. Original research by Varma and Smith in Georgia (9) and subsequently Ohio (1,3,5,6,7,8) have


Author: Phil Gardner

PP: 369

The term "high health", as used here, means "free of known virus and virus-like diseases (FKV)". Where the term "virus" is subsequently used in a general sense, it includes virus-like diseases.

Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 373

"Trust not authority, pay no heed to books, but go to the plants themselves". This quotation by Mr. R. Brown to Dr. Leonard Cochane, who prefaced his great work, "New Zealand Plants and Their Story&rquot; (1910) with it, should be permanently enshrined into the minds of all plantsmen. Furthermore, through experience I have established that it is not advisable to rely too much even on your own conclusions when it comes to dealing with plants and nature.

The inherent genetic diversity of every species makes it impossible to be precise. For example, to conclude that Pittosporum crassifolium seed germinates in three months is basically a sound assumption, because in most cases that is correct. However, we have had a couple of batches of seed that took 15 months. To state that you could obtain 6011/6 strike rate in Metrosideros excelsus cuttings by carrying out certain propagating procedures is only correct if you are referring to a specific cultivar or clone. I have discovered, to my cost, that


Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 377

Why propagate? An obvious question, but apart from the obvious answer, to reproduce plants, why do we take cuttings, make grafts, and sow seeds. Well, if you are an amateur, you do it most probably for interest. If you are a professional do you do it for interest? It may be an interesting craft but it is not just interest that engages hundreds of people in a full time occupation from which they earn their livelihood. The reason, of course, is that plants are propagated commercially which when grown into larger plants are sold to the general public. These people buy plants because they either don't have the time or skill or the interest to grow plants from a seed or a cutting and yet for various social and economic reasons they wish to have plants around them.

How long we have been reproducing plants? Man has been propagating plants which have fed him for many thousands of years. At first these were from seeds but as civilization became more sophisticated then propagation by vegative


Author: Robert Bolch

PP: 71

Workers on stock plant etiolation at Cornell University in the United States have had outstanding success in improving rooting of many traditionally difficult-to-strike species. However, the practice of withholding light to improve propagation is an ancient one. Some of the most common cloning methods; layering, stooling and cuttings, involve keeping light from that part of the plant that propagators hope will form roots.

However ancient the practice, recent refinements are indicating that the technique will have realistic commercial viability. Etiolation is simply the growing of plants in the partial or total absence of light. Stock plant etiolation as a pretreatment to cutting propagation, generally refers to the initiation of new stock plant growth in the dark. These shoots are pale and succulent and they produce roots much more easily than do their counterparts grown in the light.

Banding is a pretreatment adjunct to etiolation, which excludes light from a zone of the cutting base.


Author: Sandra Van Der Mast

PP: 381

Where the copse wood is the greenest,
Where the fountain glistens sheenest,
Where the morning dew lies longest,
There the lady fern grows strongest.
                         Sir Walter Scott.
New Zealand ferns and their history. New Zealand is a country of ferns. We have acres and acres of ferns, lofty, graceful tree ferns, hanging ferns, climbing ferns, pellucent filmy ferns, and terrestrial ferns carpeting forest floors, and miles and miles of roadsides lined with Blechnum. There were no browsing animals in New Zealand before the arrival of man and our climate is conducive to the growth of ferns.

Ferns such as Marattia salicina (king fern) were cultivated in plots by the Maoris and their starchy rhizomes were used to provide food, while some ferns were collected and used for medicinal purposes; the unfurling croziers of Cyathea medullaris were used to sustain warriors and hunters alike. Everywhere cut fronds have been used for decoration and ferns have been immortalised in carvings.

Some reasons why more of our


Author: T.E. Welsh, J.A. Plummer, A.M. Armitage

PP: 384

The introduction of new floricultural crops has been the lifeblood of floricultural industries throughout the world. As an exporting country New Zealand is gaining a reputation for new crops such as, improved selections of endemic plants, unusual bulbous crops, and new fruit cultivars. New crops are attractive to marketers and may yield a higher profit margin than existing crops. However, the lack of production experience and absence of background research, mean that risks are greater with new crops.

New crops are currently under investigation at the New Zealand Nursery Research Centre at Massey University, Palmerston North. Crops selected for evaluation fall into three main categories: i) new cultivars from existing crops, ii) new uses for common species, and iii) plants taken from obscurity.

A systems approach to potplant evaluations in the new crops programme has been adopted to test various aspects of plant performance (1). The system acts to eliminate selections with obvious


Author: Cathy Jones, Dale Smith

PP: 389

Mature Acacia melanoxylon nodal stem pieces of one clone showed improved in vitro axillary bud development after a single treatment of 4.44 µM benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone, or in combination with 2.68 µM naphthylacetic acid (NAA), when compared to segments placed upon a medium without plant growth regulators. Control and NAA treatments alone produced shoots with fewer leaves and had fewer leaves exhibiting juvenile form. BAP treatments increased the formation of juvenile and mature leaves. Shoots did not maintain leaf number with serial transfer in vitro and did not root in vivo following 16 weeks in vitro.

Author: C.B. Christie, W. Brascamp

PP: 394

Experiments were aimed to improve in vivo rooting and survival of Daphne odora ‘Leucanthe’ and Daphne odora ‘Rubra’ shoots produced in vitro. The results indicated that daphne microcuttings were competent to form roots regardless of their size and weight. The quick-dip method of treatment with IBA or NAA did not promote root formation. Soaking the cutting bases for 2 or 5 days prior to transplanting, in a solution containing 5ppm IBA, 5ppm NAA, and 50ppm hydroxyquinoline citrate (HQC) resulted in 74.9% rooting.

Author: John A. Wott

PP: 399

Changes in horticulture often appear simultaneously around the world, although significant leadership develops in specific locations. With the new science of urban horticulture, the University of Washington's creation of the Center for Urban Horticulture is already recognized for its leadership in this field.

Author: Edwin S. Kubo

PP: 404

Oki Nursery was started in Sacramento by Mr. Magoichi Oki. At that time, the nursery was both a producer of fruit trees and a retail nursery.

The Oki Nursery that we know today began in 1947 after Mr. Magoichi Oki and his two sons, Richard and George, returned from the Relocation Camp after World War II. As some of you may have heard, many Japanese families in the U.S. were interned in Relocation Camps during the war.

Being without adequate funding, it was very critical for the family to start a retail nursery immediately for quick cash flow and rely on the father's ability to produce fruit trees for a long term crop.

Shortly after, the sons found a nitch for re-wholesaling bedding plants bought in Southern California and resold in Sacramento. Before long, production of general ornamentals in containers began.

In 1956, the retail nursery was sold and all effort was placed on production for the needs of the wholesale customers.

With emphasis on specialization of general ornamentals


Author: Paul E. Read, Guochen Yang

PP: 406

Stems of deciduous trees and shrubs were effectively forced into growth by immersing the basal ends of cut stems in a solution of 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and 2% sucrose. The new growth is an excellent source of explant material for micropropagation. Growth regulating chemicals placed in the forcing solution both influenced the forcing rate and the in vitro performance of explants produced in this fashion. In addition, a pre-forcing NaOCl soak accelerated bud break and size and number of shoots available for propagation.

Author: Sidney Meadows

PP: 410

Simply put, if you can sell it at a profit, root it. If not, then forget it. Put another way, just be sure your marketing program is equal to your production.

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 413


The University of British Columbia's Botanical Garden Plant Introduction Scheme (P.I.S.B.G.) issued its first three public releases in 1985. These were Genista pilosa ‘Vancouver Gold’, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ‘Vancouver Jade’, and Microbiota decussata (UBC Clone #12701). Each of these plants has made a major contribution in stimulating plant production in the Province's wholesale production, as well as in retail and landscape sales. A further six releases have been introduced since 1985: Anagallis monelli ‘Pacific Blue’, Diascia rigescens, Ribes sanguineum ‘White Icicle’, Rubus calycinoides ‘Emerald Carpet’, Teucrium scorodonia ‘Crispum’ and Viburnum plicatum ‘Summer Snowflake’. To date, over two million plants in total have been produced of these nine introductions.

The objectives, formulation, and management of this introduction program have been described previously in the IPPS Proceedings (1, 2, 3).


Author: Robert D. Wright

PP: 417

While visiting a container nursery recently, I jokingly stated that I was there to check on the presence of potential groundwater pollutants in the runoff water from the nursery. The nurseryman, immediately and without hesitation, informed me that he had no runoff water problems. Well, during the course of the visit, I collected a water sample from a drain that was leaving the nursery and found the water to contain levels of nitrate nitrogen well above EPA standards. Since that time, a more detailed study of nutrient levels in runoff water from container nurseries by this author and others in the eastern United States has revealed that the finding in the above nursery was no exception. Another study has indicated runoff water from nurseries also contains pesticides. The concern over findings such as these is that surface runoff water containing nutrients and pesticides may enter streams and lakes and eventually contaminate the groundwater.

The issue of groundwater pollution raises a