Volume 37

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Author: O.A. "Jolly" Batcheller

PP: 33

To take you step by step or year by year through the tremendous changes that have occurred during my 46 years in contact with the propagation and nursery business would be cumbersome and take too much time. New ideas and information propagates rapidly and mutates frequently, and the original idea, like the first sprout from the acorn, may be overshadowed by later branches. Other horticulturist might select other events, but for my part I believe the following four are the ones that have given the phenomenal success rates in propagation that we experience today.
  1. In 1934 Professor Knudsen grew orchid seedlings on a sterile nutrient augar. From this small beginning came the study of plant tissues, knowledge on the use of auxins and other hormones, tissue culture propagation, and now to the point where we are doing genetic engineering.
  2. In 1951 the International Plant Propagators' Society was formed with its motto, "To Seek and to Share." No longer were propagation houses

Author: George Schmitz

PP: 75

The subject to be presented today has been very effectively summarized in two recent publications: Wise Fertilizer Selection and Application Enhance Container Success (1) and the very recent book, Fertilizer Technology and Use (2).

Slow-release fertilizers can be placed in two categories: slowly degraded, and coated.

Some fertilizers that degrade slowly release nutrients gradually because the fertilizer formulation has low solubility; IBDU is an example. Others, such as urea-formaldehyde, degrade slowly because they require microbial activity to release the nutrients. Most fertilizers in the slowly degraded group are formulated to last effectively for 8 to 12 weeks and are usually surfaced-applied.

The other group of slow-release fertilizers, coated materials, contains soluble fertilizers encapsulated with either sulfur or resin. Typically, they are formulated to release nutrients for 3 to 12 months and vary in type, quality, longevity, and cost.

Sulfur-coated fertilizers contain


Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 441


South Jersey is in the center of the Bos-Wash megalopolis, and for the purpose of this discussion, includes approximately the southern 50 miles of New Jersey. The nursery industry is mostly located in a North-South strip in the center of the state. The production area is located in the center of the USDA Zone 7, which results in a climate similar to that of central to western North Carolina. On a calendar year basis, the season starts with propagation in January, and concludes in late December with the last digging of field stock.

Soils in the area are relatively light and well drained. The soil types in the area establish a critical need for irrigation in order to effectively produce nursery stock. Fortunately, the southern part of New Jersey sits upon the Cohansey aquifer. The aquifer water comes out of the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, which is a protected area, and results in one of the largest aquifers on the East Coast. Water in Cumberland County is generally found approximately 15


Author: John J. McQuire, WM. Johnson, C. Dawson

PP: 447

The leaf-bud and side-graft methods were compared as methods for propagating rhododendron cultivars on unrooted nurse rootstocks in outdoor mist-beds in summer. No significant differences in grafting percentage were found between the methods nor did either method show inhibitory effects of scions on rooting of nurse rootstocks. Both methods produced plants within 10 weeks.

Author: Paul E. Read, Carol A. Hartley, Jeanne Grout Sandahl, David K. W

PP: 450

‘Northblue’ half-high hybrid blueberries were propagated in vitro and plants were planted in three locations in extensive field plantations for comparison with cutting-propagated plants. Beginning in the second year following transplanting, yields were significantly higher for the in vitro propagated plants for the next three years. Yield increases were attributed to a greater number of basal branches, and a larger number of flower buds. There were no differences in fruit size or quality.

Author: Dennis P. Stimart

PP: 453

Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) fertilization and shoot growth of Acer palmatum ‘Bloodgood’ were studied to determine their effects on carbohydrates and endogenous ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3) levels. Generally, an inverse relationship existed between tissue NH4 and NO3 levels and soluble sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose). Exceedingly high NH4 and concomitantly low soluble sugar amounts were apparent, especially in plants lacking new shoot growth and given N after rooting. Increasing the N rate magnified these trends. Plants with new shoot growth and given N maintained higher soluble sugar levels and lower NH4 levels than plants without growth. These amounts remained relatively unchanged as N rate increased. Nitrogen had no effect on starch levels. These results suggest that plants without shoot growth have low tolerance to NH4NO3 fertilization, and are subject to NH4 toxicity brought about by a decrease in available carbohydrates. Plants with new shoot growth were able to assimilate large amount of NH4 without harmful effect, while at the same time increasing shoot growth.

Author: Stephen D. Verkade, George E. Fitzpatrick

PP: 460

The dune inhabiting halophyte, Mallotonia gnaphalodes (sea-lavender) is threatened with extinction, with less than ten colonies left in the continental southeastern United States and many more colonies on islands in the Bahamas and Caribbean. The major barrier to widespread use of this plant in coastal landscape applications, including dune stabilization programs, has been difficult propagation. The objective of this project was to develop successful vegetative propagation techniques for sea-lavender. Successful rooting of cuttings was accomplished using fog propagation, 8,000 ppm indolebutyric acid, and a well-aerated rooting medium.

Author: Mark P. Bridgen, John W. Bartok Jr

PP: 462

Tissue culture is rapidly becoming a commercial method for propagating new cultivars, rare species, and difficult-to-propagate plants. From a few research laboratories several years ago, a whole new industry is emerging. Currently, the demand for micropropagated plants is greater than the supply with some plants. Some growers specialize in only the micropropagation of plantlets, leaving the growing-on to others; many growers are integrating a tissue culture laboratory into their overall operation.

In designing any laboratory, big or small, certain elements are essential for a successful operation. The correct design of a laboratory will not help maintain asepsis, but it will also achieve a high standard of work.


Author: Robert G. Nicholson

PP: 468

The native flora of eastern North America has a number of rare woody plants that are under-represented in botanical gardens and may also have commercial potential for the nursery trade. I would like to share some of what I have learned about ten of these, and where possible, supply propagation material to anyone interested.

This work reflects research done by the Arnold Arboretum and sponsored by the Center for Plant Conservation. I would like to thank intern Laurie Sullivan for her assistance in these trials.

The rarest conifer in North America is probably the stinking cedar, Torreya taxifolia. A member of the yew family, it is found in only four counties of the Florida panhandle and possibly southwestern Georgia. Trees of 40 ft were reported previously but now, due to a blight, adult trees are dying in native stands and extinction is a real possibility. Determining the effective propagation of this species might be a matter of some importance if the species is to survive at all.


Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller

PP: 474

SUSAN NOLDE: Juniperus conferta ‘Silver Mist’ has been in the Japanese nursery trade for years. It was named and registered by Brookside Gardens in 1983 after no valid cultivar name was found in the Japanese literature. We purchased this plant from a large exporter in the Angyo Nsy area of Japan.

‘Silver Mist’ is similar to J. conferta ‘Blue Pacific’, however, it has distinctly grayer foliage. Additionally the needles are shorter which gives the plant a thicker and denser appearance. It is more compact than the species. This clone has been around for quite a while. The U.S. National Arboretum has it in the Gotelli collection and some nurserymen may have this plant under another name.

Monrovia Nursery has shown a great deal of interest in this plant. We have distributed it to them and it should be showing up in the trade under this name soon. It is also being tested by Weyerhauser Research Program so Hines Nursery may be carrying it soon as well. Additionally we have also distributed it to


Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 482


The size and climatic diversity of Australia are frequently misunderstood. A comparison of size shows that Australia has a land mass of 2.9 million square miles and the continental United States has 3 million square miles. The two countries are comparable in size.

A study of the latitudes of the major cities of Australia will help to understand the climatic diversity. A comparison with northern hemisphere cities on similar latitudes is given in Table 1.


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 489

Classical greenhouse design consisted of vertical sides and sloping roof much like frame homes and other utility buildings, only covered with glass. Glass provided good light transmission but had many air leaks. With the development of fiberglass, many glass greenhouses were converted following hail or wind damage, but greenhouse design changed very little. In the 1960s double polyethylene film plastics with air blown between the layers provided the emphasis for change. The natural curvature of a quonset structure allowed the polyfilms to be used with a minimum of corners or edges where tearing could easily occur.

Both the classical and the quonset designs had a maximum exposure of the glass or plastic covering to the elements. As a result of the very low insulating values, heat loss was tremendous. Conventional design generally had the advantage of roof and side vents to provide natural convection cooling. On the other hand, double polyfilm quonset-style greenhouses could be very tight


Author: Bruce C. Lane

PP: 77

Solutions of IBA (0,1000, 5000 and 9000 ppm), NAA (0,1000 and 2000 ppm) and all possible IBA + NAA combinations were tested for effectiveness in rooting cuttings taken from the upper and lower portions of semi-hardened shoots of Rhaphiolepis indica ‘Jack Evans.’ Combinations produced rooting which was greater than that produced using IBA or NAA alone. With minimal compound use, 5000 + 2000 and 9000 + 1000 (IBA ppm + NAA ppm) yielded the greatest percentages of transplantable cuttings (67 to 68%). Cuttings prepared from the upper and lower portions of shoots responded similarly to the range of solutions tested, with cuttings from lower portions rooting only slightly better than those from upper portions.

Author: Douglas A. Holmberg

PP: 494

The development of a natural vent greenhouse is one in a series of developments aimed at more efficient plant propagation in my particular set of circumstances. Development of the concept of this house began in 1977.

Up until then, my nursery's efforts were almost exclusively to produce citrus in several sizes for dooryard sales through retail outlets. Planned expansion of woody ornamental production on 25 acres mandated the development of efficient buildings and production tools for the specific purpose of propagation. At this time (1977) most woody ornamental propagation in Florida was done in open sun under mist using a peat bed or rose pots with a peat:perlite medium.

As recently as 1970, there was opposition to including a propagation unit inside greenhouses at Florida vocational schools as county commissioners felt putting a propagation unit inside a greenhouse was a huge waste. However, seeing production problems throughout the state convinced me that efficient climate control


Author: James H. Aichele

PP: 497

In these days and times of intermittent mist, high humidity greenhouses, and tissue culture, you may wonder why anyone would consider cold-frame propagation. When the ornamental nursery industry was getting started in this country 100 or more years ago, cold frames undoubtedly were the means used for most propagation of hardwood cuttings. The two best reasons for taking a second look at this method are economy and simplicity.

The increasing interest being shown by growers in the direct rooting of cuttings in pots makes the sweat box worth thinking about. One of the main drawbacks to direct rooting is the increased propagation area required to handle all these pots. If this area has to be placed under a mist system or in greenhouses, costs begin to increase proportionately.

With the sweat box there are no greenhouses, mist heads, or any other mechanical parts required. Basically, the system involves enclosing a ground bed or liner bed in an airtight environment, thereby creating a


Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 499


Before talking about propagation perhaps we should say something about the plants.

Calluna vulgaris. (Ling) is indigenous to the northern, western, and southern moorlands of the British Isles, as well as other parts of Europe and Asia Minor. As a garden plant it is easily grown in an open situation but most must be planted in acid soil. There are some, however, that will stand a certain amount of alkalinity. The plants are both attractive as flowering plants from July to November and as foliage plants for early spring and autumn colour. There are literally hundreds of cultivars now available from British nurseries.

Erica. (Heath)—Several species and again several hundred cultivars are propagated and grown in the United Kingdom. In fact, it is possible to have ericas in flower most months of the year. The species of particular significance are:

     E. herbacea (Syn. E. carnea)     Winter-flowering heath     flowering November–April      E. ciliaris                                        Dorset heath                       flowering July–October      E. cinerea

Author: Malcolm P. Woolmore

PP: 501

At Lyndale Nurseries situated in Whenuapai, Auckland, the problem of what not to grow is often more difficult to decide than the more commonly asked question of what to grow. There is a need to be continually assessing cultivars and market response to them.

When we identify a plant with "potential", resources have to be allocated to produce a required number. Given a production limit something has to be sacrificed—what not to grow. The two species discussed in this paper add to the dilemma of what not to grow.

In identifying what criteria are necessary for shrubs of commercial promise or significance the demands of the market are paramount. The market specified for these plants is for flowering shrubs with end use as patio plants in pots, or in rockeries and small courtyard gardens.

These requirements are:

  1. A long flowering period.
  2. Good shape and form, irrespective of flowers.
  3. Good colour of flower contrasting with foliage.
  4. A height of under two meters and

Hence we have a good place to start identifying


Author: R.T. Poole, C.A. Conover

PP: 503

The various methods of propagating foliage plants include making cuttings, airlayers, divisions, tissue cultures, sowing seed, and spores. Vegetative propagation by cuttings is the most popular. Cuttings are sometimes placed in flats or benches, but placement in pots is the method used most. Although direct sticking requires more space, growth is usually accelerated and labor for transplanting is reduced. Less labor is a big advantage as labor costs continue to increase.

The vigor of the stocks plant is important. They should be healthy, turgid, free of insects, diseases, and nutritional deficiencies (Table 1). Single-eye cuttings of Ficus elatica ‘Decora’ stock plants grown in full sun and fertilized with 21 grams of 18–6–12 per 12–in. pot had 97% survival rate while 70% was obtained from stock plants fertilized with 7 grams and grown in 30% shade. Maximum leaf surface should be left on cuttings since reduction in leaf surface reduces production of carbohydrates and natural


Author: Bill Barr

PP: 507

Dwarf nandinas (Nandina domestica) are relatively easy to root. However, there are three problems: It is hard to obtain enough cutting wood; the work is very labor intensive; and third, the proper application and frequency of the mist is critical.

At the Hines (Houston) facility, we grow four cultivars of dwarf nandinas: ‘Compacta Nana’ (‘Purpurea Nana’), Harbour Dwarf, ‘Gulf Stream’ (Plant Patent 5656), and ‘Moon Bay’ (Plant Patent 5659). We use the same propagation techniques for all four.

All of the propagation wood is collected from container-grown material which is a very time consuming job. We use the tips only with no brown wood. Usually the stem part of the cutting will be ½ to 1½in. long. The wood is stored in a walk-in cooler at about 50°F to up to 48 hours, but preferably no longer than 24 hours.

The cuttings are prepared indoors. All we do is strip off a few bottom leaves, just enough so that the foliage


Author: Bruce Moesel

PP: 509

This paper details available methods of controlling mist propagation systems with environmental sensing. Control objectives, similarities, differences, and interrelationships with fog systems, sprinkler cooling, and watering controllers are discussed.

Author: Daniel C. Milbocker

PP: 513

Research was begun in 1974 at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Experiment Station to minimize or eliminate the weaknesses found within accepted propagation practices. Eliminating the application of excess water and its resultant soaking and cooling of the propagation medium was the primary objective of this research. The result was the introduction of ventilated high humidity propagation.

Author: F.S. Zazueta, A.G. Smajstrla

PP: 518

Irrigation is for the purpose of maintaining an adequate water supply within the active root zone. In order to maintain the soil water system within acceptable bounds it is first necessary to estimate the present state of the soil-water system. The estimation may be made indirectly by maintaining a budget of available water or directly by measuring soil-water content distribution or a closely related variable (4). Changes in the state of the system are made by manipulating the irrigation system so that water is applied at the proper time and in the proper quantity as established by some irrigation management policy.

The objective of this work was to develop a digital computer control system (DCCS) as an aid for irrigation system management such that: 1) its cost is of the order of magnitude of a low-cost microcomputer; 2) all system components are readily available from local outlets, or they are low cost so that they can be kept in stock; and 3) the system operates in manual,


Author: Paul E. Sumner

PP: 522

Fourteen different types of nozzles were evaluated for mist propagation. Spacing recommendations are presented for 85 percent or better coefficient of uniformity under the nozzle. Growers can take this information to construct their own mist propagation beds.

Author: Conrad A. Skimina

PP: 82


This is case history report on our progress in recycling irrigation runoff water over container ornamentals. In 1974, at the 15th Annual Meeting of IPPS, Western Region, I described a minor system of filtration of water for reuse. Later that year, we began more intensive research in the study of recycling water. This report describes the increase in knowledge gained since the original project was conceived, the culmination of this research, and the resulting construction of a 2.0 million gallon per day (MGD) (7571m3) water processing plant, and the results since we began recycling in 1979.


Author: Bill Reese

PP: 526

Thorobred Trees produces trees in root-control, field-grow containers on approximately 100 acres in north central Florida. We have been container growers of plants and small trees for 13 years. For the last three years, we have planted approximately 80,000 trees in Gro-bags, 14-, 18-, and 24-inch. We are growing around 35 cultivars of trees for landscape use in the southeastern United States.

Early in 1983 after hearing Dr. Carl Whitcomb present a program on field growing in root-control containers, we decided to try some for ourselves. We planted 1200 trees in 14- and 16-in. Gro-bags. We planted some in our potting soil mix consisting of pine bark, native peat, and coarse sand; some in a blend of potting soil and native peat, and coarse sand; some in a blend of potting soil and native sand, and the majority in just native sand. In the first winter the 1983 Christmas freeze devastated about 30% of our container stock, but we had no damage or loss in our bag tree area. The trees planted in native sand grew off much better than the others.


Author: Kent Langlinais

PP: 529

During the Southern Nurserymen's Association convention in Atlanta, in August, 1983, Dr. Carl Whitcomb came over to my booth in the exhibit hall and began talking about a system of growing that I had never heard of before. The more he talked, the more interested I became. He took me over to his booth, introduced me to Mr. Ralph Reiger and the root control bag. He had a tree growing in this fabric bag. Realizing the need and importance of this new system, I made the remark, "Where have you been all these years?"

Author: Buck Jones

PP: 532

For 15 years my business has operated from a location in Gwinnett County, Georgia. This is about 30 miles northeast of Atlanta. The business is plant brokerage, plant, and sod distribution. We grow some plants we have not had in adequate supply or that need to be grown in or near our climate. This also evens out seasonal labor requirements and provides a method for keeping high-quality employed.

We have to think WEATHER in everything we do in our area. Our winter temperatures have dropped as much as 70° to 80°F overnight and to lows of 8° to 12°F. The cold-damage risk is high when we have trees and shrubs that are unprotected. So we spend a lot of time and money on winter protection. Our annual dilemma is that our ideal stocking time is from February 15 through March 15. If we stock earlier, we worry about cold damage; if we stock later, growth is beginning. If it is too wet for growers to harvest during that 30 days, we may not get our orders. If we bring in plants


Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 534

The Titanic is unsinkable! Grow bags are wonderful! Some people may bet their lives or livelihood on these statements. We know what happened to the Titanic, and we are witnessing equally disastrous results for many on their maiden voyage with grow bags. No! Grow bags are not all we had hoped for.

Author: Buddy Motley

PP: 536

Flowerwood Nursery is using several different fungicides for different fungus problems. Our fungicide program begins before we take the cuttings. It is necessary to start off with clean, fungus-free stock plants. The cuttings' first fungicide treatment begins right after they have been cut. They are dipped for 15 to 20 minutes in captan 50 WP mixed at a rate of two pounds per 100 gallons of water, with no sticker. This is the manufacturer's recommended rate. The cuttings are still in the burlap sack where they were placed directly after cutting. After soaking they are spread out on tables under light mist until they are ready for planting.

Our second step of fungicide use is spraying right after the cuttings have been planted in the propagation beds. This is done every seven days as a general spraying. It is done in the afternoon 30 to 40 minutes after the mist clocks have been cut off. We wait this long to allow the cuttings to dry before spraying. We spray with a Bean 200-gallon,


Author: Marty Langmaid

PP: 539

Herbicides play an essential role in the propagation of woody ornamentals at our nursery. A large percentage of our propagation is done in outside areas where blow-in weed seed can be a problem. Our weed control program consists of selective use of post-and pre-emergence herbicides and minimal hand weeding.

The majority of our crops are propagated in either outside mist areas or greenhouses. The medium we use is pine bark: sand, 4:1(v/v). We do not use composted bark, it is green. In addition to these areas we produce one crop a year of bare root conifers in sandy ground beds at our river Division.


Author: Patricia P. Cobb

PP: 541

Control of insect and mite pests remains an important part of the total scheme of propagating plant materials. Ideally, control of these pests is only a small part of the total management program. Both cultural and chemical practices are important in keeping insect and mite pests under control. The following includes general suggestions for cultural control of pests and comments about chemical control of spider mites, whiteflies, and thrips—three important pests in plant propagation situations.

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 543

In an effort to reduce production costs and to ease weeding hours in seed beds, our nursery initiated tests in 1985 using a chemical soil sterilant, (active ingredient: dazomet). A rather intensive review of all the IPPS Proceedings does not show reference to this product.

Over the years our nursery has used methyl bromide as the fumigant for seedbed areas, with varying degrees of weed control. We had this product applied by private applicators, and the price per acre has steadily increased for the past six years. Our quotation for spring, 1987 was $1,100 per acre! In addition to the product cost there still remained a labor cost incurred in the removal and disposal of the polythene sheeting. This is very distasteful and time-consuming. Weed control has been less than perfect. Weeds started appearing in late June on October-treated areas.

Margaret Scott, IPPS G.B.&I. Region, and Wayne Lovelace, Eastern Region, shared information on an Orbit-Air Gandy Spreader to apply Basamid. Based


Author: Gregory John Langeler

PP: 545

Loading trucks from stationary docks using conveyers has been standard procedure for a long time. Both cost a great deal of money and are permanent fixtures of a loading operation. As our research into the applications of this technique at Chesapeake Nurseries began, we saw many problems with it.

The nursery was rapidly expanding and the demands of our loading system were changing. After many discussions, the idea of a mobile loading dock on a truck that could be moved from trailer to trailer as loading required was considered. A 50-ft. conveyer was considered necessary to load 40-to-45-ft. trailers used in shipping efficiently. We felt a moveable dock 50-ft. long would be at best very awkward and inefficient, but a 25-ft. truck would be very easy to move. We began to look into a way to build a 50-ft. conveyer that would slide together into 25 feet.

Our conveyer consists of three main components. The first is two conveyer sections, the top one 25 feet in length and the second 28


Author: Billy Powell

PP: 547

Because of its seasonal nature the bedding plant industry is a difficult candidate for automation. However, changing markets, labor, and the rising costs of production materials have many growers considering automation technology.

Powell farms of Troup, Texas, a bedding plant grower since 1958, started considering a high-tech facility in 1982. Their existing facility was too extensive and productive to replace, so the facility of range was designed to integrate with it.

In the process of design to accommodate the two type production systems, Powells avoided one of the major pitfalls facing growers switching to high-tech automation—automation bottlenecks.

An example of a common bottleneck is having one rolling table unloader with a capacity of 1000 flats per hour as the sole source of a supply for a conveyer truck-loading system with capacity of 3000 flats per hour, which would be needed during peak season. Unless the capacity of this table unloading system is increased,


Author: Ed Kubo

PP: 88

Presented by Mr. Ed Kubo, President of the IPPS Western Region, at the annual banquet, Sheraton Santa Barbara Hotel.

This year the Curtis J. Alley Merit Award recipient is a person we all admire and respect because of his vision, his "young ideas" compassion, understanding, and leadership.

He is a charter member of The International Plant Propagators, Western Region, serving as President of the Western Region in 1967, and International president in 1970.

He has served on many committees, including the Finance Committee, Long Range Planning and Nomination Committee, Site Committee, Research and Scholarship Committee, Education Award Committee, and the Awards Committee.

When I was told who the recipient of this award would be, I was thrilled and honored that I was going to make this presentation. He is a man that I admire and respect, a man that showed me how to seek and share, who questioned my decisions and made me think again. He was a pioneer in the development of the U.C. system of


Author: Dewayne L. Ingram, Thomas H. Yeager

PP: 550

Computers can be an effective tool in management of information and control of "real-time" events or processes. Common limiting factors to expansion of a plant propagation business are ready access to known propagation techniques for less common or difficult-to-propagate plants and the management and analysis of information gained through experience with particular plants. The optimum flexibility and management of environmental control devices may also limit the maintenance of an environment suitable for sensitive plant materials. Recent advancements in microcomputers can help in this area.

Computer programs have been written to assist in the calculation of rooting hormone formulations, calculation of dilution ratios for fertilizer injection into an irrigation system, and for storage and retrieval of propagation techniques for selected landscape plants. Landscape Plant Propagation Information (LPPI) is an interactive computer application developed for retrieval of propagation


Author: Sam Allen

PP: 554

International Forest Seed Co. (IFSCO) has an active program breeding loblolly pine for fusiform rust resistance. Controlled crosses of resistant parents were made in 1983–1985. Seedlings derived from these crosses have been established in cutting orchards.

During the winter of 1986–1987, a 108 ft. × 41 ft. propagation greenhouse was constructed at IFSCO's nursery near Odenville, Alabama, to root cuttings from the rust-resistant selections. Loblolly pine is a difficult species to root. The best rooting reported in the literature is 68% (2).

Greenwood et al. (1) reported that the distribution of mist accounted for 75% of the variation observed in rooting loblolly cuttings. For this reason we decided to use a fog system for propagation. The use of fog for propagation has been addressed several times in this and other publications so will be treated briefly here. We have been satisfied with a Mee system in operation for several years and decided to use the Mee II Cloud


Author: Carl Whitcomb, Bryson James

PP: 556

The 1987 Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Carl Whitcomb and Bryson James.

QUESTION FOR CARL WHITCOMB: How are plants in the Gro-bags fertilized?

CARL WHITCOMB: The key is the development of roots through the fabric. The way it works is different from above ground. We want to encourage the nurse roots so fertilizer should be spread both inside and outside the bag. If liquid is used through the drip system be sure a sizeable area is wetted and fertilized outside the fabric.

RALPH SHUGERT: Is drip irrigation important with Gro-bags?

CARL WHITCOMB: Not really. Usually natural rainfall is enough to carry the fertilizer into the feeder roots. The quality of the liner affects results in the same way that putting more money in the bank affects the balance. It has the advantage of getting more interest as well as being bigger in the first place. There is a multiplication factor involved.

BRYSON JAMES: Why are you fertilizing the 10 percent of the root system that is


Author: William L. Nelson

PP: 88

Air layering seems to be one of the least used methods of propagation. I think that this is largely due to the fact that air layers are messy, awkward, and may be dangerous to apply. Imagine standing near the top of a 16-ft. orchard ladder holding a wad of wet peat moss around a branch with one hand and wrapping it with binder twine with the other. A sudden breeze and some sweat burning your eyes may make tissue culture sound pretty good.

At our nursery, air layering has been a great help in building the inventory of many rare or slow-growing trees. Along the way we have picked up a number of ideas that have helped to make this method more effective and safe. It is used primarily in the propagation of litchi, longan, mango, macadamia, and guava. We can produce a well developed and saleable tree in less than a year where other methods could take 2 or 3 years.

Following are refinements that have been of assistance to us:

  1. To remove the bark section in the girdling process, we have found a

Author: David W. Hill

PP: 90

Have you ever noticed that when you mention rooting of tissue-cultured plants, there is a certain "mystique" or "high tech" attitude towards it from nurserymen and growers. I know I felt the same, and still do about new techniques that I hear about.

Well, is there a lot of differences between rooting tissue-cultured shoots and standard cutting propagation? I would like to show that by applying the fundamental principles of propagation very few, if any, changes have to be made. I am going to briefly outline our procedure for rooting stage IV shoots from our Tissue Culture Lab at Briggs Nursery. I am not going to compare different systems, methods, or ideas as each propagator has made adaptations for his own crops, location, and climate. Our primary concern is to provide conditions that meet the requirements of the micro-cuttings until they root. Of course, weather and time of year are the most changeable, especially in sunny weather.

Briggs Nursery roots 95%


Author: John Moore

PP: 93

At L.E. Cooke Co., a wholesale nursery located in the San Joaquin Valley of central California, the use of hardwood cuttings allows a quick and uncomplicated means of clonal propagation for trees, shrubs, understock, and grapes. Due to their quick callusing properties and rapid root initiation, plants such as poplars, willows, and pomegranates can be direct stuck as uncallused hardwood cuttings in the spring. Marianna plum, an understock for stone fruits, is planted as uncallused cuttings also. Planting in late November allows the Marianna cuttings to callus and initiate roots in winter months so shoot growth commences early in the spring.

Grape hardwood cuttings are buried upside down, in moist sand for two months to allow callusing, and often initiation of roots, prior to planting. The sun warms the two to three in. of sand covering the basal ends of the cuttings, enhancing callusing. This method of burying the cuttings upside down in sand is also used, sometimes in combination with


Author: A. Bruce Macdonald

PP: 95

The practice of layering ornamental woody plants is a standard technique for vegetative propagation. It was a primary method on nurseries during the early development years of the European nursery industry in the 19th and 20th centuries. Despite recent innovations in equipment and facilities for today's modern nursery, layering still serves as an important method of propagation for some specific situations. The objective of this short paper is to outline some aspects of the different techniques used.

Layering can be defined as a method to clonally regenerate plants by allowing the development of adventitious roots while the stems are still attached to the parent plant. The shoots are then severed from the parent plant when sufficient roots have formed for successful establishment following containerization or planting in the open ground. There are two physiological principles to encourage root initiation and development on the stem. The first principle is the restriction of


Author: W.H. Brokaw

PP: 97


Until 10 years ago, nearly all orchard-bound avocado trees raised in California were on seedling rootstocks. Clones were used only for fruiting scions such as Hass, Fuerte, and Bacon. Since 1977, however, some half million trees have been planted on clonal rootstocks. It's my guess that avocado tree production today is split about fifty-fifty between seedling and clonal rootstocks. How has this come about?

The stimulus for the newer commercial technologies came from Dr. George Zentmyer who was working toward the solution of a serious disease, avocado root rot, which first came to avocado growers' attention during the late 1940's. During the 1950's it occurred to industry leaders that this disease, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc), was a serious threat to the entire avocado industry. Zentmyer, in a search for tolerant rootstocks, found that a factor for Pc tolerance occurred in the Duke cultivar, and that the tolerance factor was transmitted through a certain proportion (25%,


Author: A.D. Ali

PP: 104

Arthropod pests commonly associated with plant tissue culture production include thrips, mites, ants, and cockroaches. The first two are particularly troublesome for several reasons. First, their small sizes allow them to go undetected for a long period of time. Second, they have a tremendous reproductive ability and can build up to large numbers within a relatively short period of time. Last, they often are found infesting tubes and jars inside the incubation area which may necessitate destruction of a large portion of the stock. The other two, ants and cockroaches, are frequently found in transfer rooms and surrounding outside areas. They are largely scavengers and may be physically excluded from buildings.

Author: Robert M. Boddy

PP: 38

The geographical area referred to in this article includes only a portion of the internationally famous "Redwood Empire" of the state of California. But, it is a portion that is particularly unique. Rhododendrons, heathers, azaleas, and pieris thrive in this area.

The boundaries of this Northern California area include the entire coastline from Point Arena to Cape Mendocino. This is a land area resembling a bench. The ocean is to the west and a mountain range is a few miles to the east. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 75°F and the coldest winter temperatures normally do not drop below 15°F. A great portion of the area directly along the coast will not even have a frost. Giant redwoods [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.] have grown in this area for thousands of years.

Before the turn of the century, this entire coastal area was a vast grove of prime redwood. (Strangely, however, the initial major forest crop was tanbark.] In this area there were formerly many


Author: Steve M. McCulloch

PP: 107

Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel), can be propagated by seed, grafting, cuttings, layers, or micropropagation. By far the easiest method of propagation is by seed. But for clonal reproduction, micropropagation is clearly the most successful mode of propagation.

Within the last five years nurserymen have seen literally an explosion of new introductions. This is partially due to market demands, but also it is due to the ability to dependably propagate Kalmia in large volume. The 1980 paper by Lloyd and McCown (1) presented a protocol for successful micropropagation of Kalmia. The nursery industry has benefited greatly from these and other researchers.

Within the last 5 years, Richard Jaynes has produced several new introductions of mountain laurel with improved flower, foliage, and plant characteristics.

Why micropropagate or use tissue culture to propagate Kalmia? Micropropagated Kalmia are own-rooted, true-to-name, vigorous, and have superior branching. Large numbers of Kalmia


Author: Ralph S. Moore

PP: 109

Most likely much of what I am about to say is "old hat" to many of you. However, we can all learn something new or give an old idea a new twist. All too often we see something or get an idea but fail to follow it through. Sometimes we are too busy to bother or the idea fails to "click." Often we are just not ready or have no need at the time.

We know how to do many things in the nursery business but someone is always coming up with a different idea or a new need arises. Often an idea which may have been impractical at the time can come to life because of new materials. Rooting hormones, misting, plastic materials, etc. are some of the developments which have made older ideas more practical.

For many years I have worked at propagation (mostly roses) and have come up with several innovations...some original, some borrowed. Some ideas come about by accident and others out of necessity. Now I would like to go down my list of helpful ideas for the propagation of


Author: Dennis K. Perry

PP: 112

This paper will cover growing of Proteaceae transplants, propagation by both seedlings and cuttings, transplanting, and cultural aspects, including soils, fertilization, and disease control.

Author: James A. Robbins

PP: 116

The use of concentrated indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solutions is widespread in the nursery industry, however no data is presently available on the shelf-life of these solutions. The purpose of this study was to provide practical information about the effect of storage conditions on the long-term shelf-life of concentrated IBA solutions. The concentration, solvent, and storage environment were chosen to represent conditions that a plant propagator would encounter.

IBA was purchased from two suppliers, United States Biochemical (USB) (Cleveland, Ohio) and Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, Missouri). A bulk quantity of IBA was prepared for each concentration (5,000, 1,000, 0 ppm) and chemical supplier; 50% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol was used as the solvent since it is readily available to the public. The color of freshly prepared solutions depended on the chemical supplier. A 5,000 ppm solution of IBA prepared using the USB product was a light-yellow color. The intensity of this color is


Author: Alexander E. Gad, Iris Ben-Efraim, Miri Yavzury, Chava Weinberg,

PP: 119

Rooting, in cuttings of several plant species, was promoted by 4-chlororesorcinol, a polyphenol oxidase inhibitor, that was applied at mM concentrations before rooting. The subsequent growth of the cutting was also affected by the treatment with 4-chlororesorcinol. Treated cuttings developed greater number of leaves, larger leaves, and produced an overall greater fresh and dry weight. The treatment inhibited, in Pelargonium peltatum L'Her cuttings, flowering during the rooting period. The treatment also inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase in the root initiation region of cuttings. The enhanced vegetative growth is attributed to the more developed root system.

Author: Richard A. Criley

PP: 124

Sphagnum moss has been the traditional medium used in air layering. Its desirable traits are a good water-holding capacity, good aeration characteristics, and a low capability to carry diseases. The difficulty of handling, wrapping, and tying a handful of wet moss make it a less than efficient system for mass production. Using a 1 in. bark ring girdle and sphagnum moss with either aluminum foil or plastic film required 3 to 3½ min., respectively, to apply an air layer (1). In addition, the cost of sphagnum moss is increasing and this, coupled with the cost of labor to produce an air layer, suggests a need to evaluate some alternative media and systems of air layer production.

Plant propagation classes at the University of Hawaii have experimented with different media as alternative to the use of sphagnum moss. In addition, some new technologies have created potentially interesting materials which require evaluation.

One of the early substitute substances was called "Red


Author: W.J. Rietveld, R.W. Tinus

PP: 125

Root growth potential (RGP), the ability of seedlings to promptly and abundantly initiate and elongate new roots after transplanting, is an important and useful attribute of planting stock performance. However, it is generally laborious, tedious, and subjective to measure. A method was developed that employs aeroponic culture of seedlings in a root mist chamber (RMC) and measurement of root growth by changes in root area index (RAI) with a video camera and digitizing area measurement system. The area meter scans each horizontal TV line and sums the segments that are traversed by roots. A high resolution camera was used for accurate area measurement of roots. The method consists of: 1) premeasuring RAI of individual seedlings, 2) growing seedlings in the RMC for about 2 weeks (depending on species), 3) staining new roots to make them visible to the camera, and 4) remeasuring RAI of individual seedlings.

An experiment was conducted to compare xylem water potential (XWP) of seedlings grown in the RMC


Author: Jeremy M. Tolley

PP: 128

This report is based on observations made in our citrus nursery, where the media, containers, and nursery methods differ very little from other nurseries. The major difference is that the crop is for orchard rather than ornamental planting.

Our citrus plants take from 9 to 10 months to develop and most of the trees are sold within 24 months. Seasons are important to the orchardists who plant the trees.

The medium used in our propagation is 80% eucalyptus hardwood sawdust and 20% sand, plus Nutricote and other nutrients required for normal plant growth. Containers are both overhead and hand-watered.

The Problem. A problem developed in our production so that trees were not meeting our sales schedule. There was no lack of bud burst, but there was a following lack of shoot length and development.

Often 3 or 4 leaves would shoot out from a bud, and one month later these leaves would begin to show chlorosis and nutritional disorders, often followed by tip abortion and senescence for long


Author: Vic Fines

PP: 130

Breynia disticha ‘Roseo-picta’ [syn..B. nivosa ‘Roseo-picta’] (Euphorbiaceae) is a delightful ornamental plant of uncommon beauty. Exotica describes it as a most unusual plant having small oval papery leaves that are mottled or variegated, green white and pink, looking like flowers, with red stems and petioles.

This plant has proved difficult to propagate in the past, so we have developed the following method for its propagation.

Squat pots (175mm) are used for the propagation of the cuttings. A layer of charcoal about one centimeter in depth is placed in the bottom of the pots, and a 15mm layer of perlite is placed on top of this. A 75mm pot is placed in the centre of the larger pot on the perlite. The larger pot is then filled with a propagating medium of 2 parts sterilised coarse river sand, 2 parts perlite, and 1 part vermiculite. The small centre pot is then three quarters filled with sterile river sand (Figure 1).


Author: Tony Biggs

PP: 132

The desire to produce uniformly standard potting media is a major reason for the evolution of soilless mixes. Components such as peat, sand, composted sawdust, pine bark, vermiculite, and others are used worldwide but others are only used locally because of specific availability. The possibility of using diatomite arose because of sizeable deposits of this material at Barraba in north eastern New South Wales.

Properties of a diatomite. Diatomite is a sedimentary rock which consists of siliceous skeletal remains of tiny freshwater or marine organisms called diatoms. The microscopic organisms measured only a few microns in length and when they died the skeletons sank to the bottom of the sea or fresh water lake where very thick deposits gradually accumulated. Geological movements of the earth's crust have relocated the deposits into a accessible situations from which the diatomite can be mined. The New South Wales deposit was laid down in a freshwater lake and is rich in a diatom


Author: R.L. Ticknor, J.L. Green

PP: 45

Interest in water use for nursery production in Oregon became acute in 1977 when Water Masters in some districts started enforcing a 1909 law following the dry 1976–77 winter season. This law states that 30 acre-inches can be used during the irrigation season from April 1 to September 30 with a standard water rights permit. Water for commercial use, a separate permit which could include nursery use, is not restricted but has a lower priority in case of a water shortage.

To find out how much water was used by Oregon nurseries, a survey was conducted of six crop groups by Bluhm, et al (2) in 1978 and 1979. Water use in acre-inches was: container nurserystock 53–170, forcing azaleas 86–114, miscellaneous greenhouse crops 33–87, field rhododendrons 19–36, deciduous trees 21–34, and conifer seedlings 8–164. Summer cooling and frost protection were responsible for the very high use in container nurserystock and conifer seedlings.

Water use in container


Author: Adrian Bowden

PP: 138

The basis of this discussion came about indirectly from a statement made by Professor Carl Whitcombe at Oklahoma State University several years ago in which he said "pH doesn't matter." I was reluctant to accept this statement, so over time I set out to find out what he was really saying.

I have concluded that there is some truth in his statement with the following qualifications. There is no problem if the necessary elements can be applied in the correct form to sustain plant growth without becoming fixed, and thus unavailable to the plant. However, for more practical purposes, such as growing commercial quantities of blue-flowering hydrangeas at a pH of 7.5 to 8.0 it is probably much easier and cheaper to achieve good plants at a pH of 5.5 to 6.5.

Here we had the situation of a university professor questioning one of the traditions of nursery practice.

This suggested to me that everything was open to question and this led to my assault on the claim that plants from the


Author: Deborah Law, R.A. de Fossard

PP: 141

Tamborine Mountain Plants specializes in fuchsias and these are grown from cuttings. Our main market is for potted plants in flower in the winter months. To feed this market, about 85,000 cuttings are struck in summer, during the months of December and January, each year. The cuttings are struck in 50mm tubes with a propagation mix consisting of peat and perlite, and the tubes are placed, 109 tubes per wire tray, on wire benches in an "open" area, and the cuttings are misted at regular intervals during the day. The "open" area consists of walls of solar-weave and the "roof", made of wire mesh supported by water-pipe, is covered with solar-weave over the newly-struck cuttings and with 50% shade-cloth over older cuttings. The nursery is supplied with bore-water.

In late February, 1986, a rapid deterioration of the fuchsia cuttings occurred, affecting first the stem tips and leaves, then the stem, and much later, the roots. Nearly 80% of all


Author: D.K. McIntyre, W. Woodruff

PP: 144

Over the past few years there has been an increased awareness of the need to plant trees in Australia. This has been of particular importance on agricultural land, which is being degraded at an alarming rate. Various bodies such as "Greening of Australia" the "National Tree Program" have launched major programs of rural reafforestation.

A large number of ingenious methods have been tried, both in the raising and establishment of trees with varying degrees of success to support these programs. There appear to be three major problems to be overcome for these programs to succeed.

Firstly, plants must have a very low cost so that farmers, reserve managers, and other interested groups with limited budgets can afford to plant and establish significant numbers of trees.

Secondly, these plants must be easily handled and transported in the field, be inexpensive to plant but still with sufficient growth potential to establish quickly when planted out.

Thirdly, it


Author: Gavin Porter

PP: 148


The persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is native to China and Japan. Most of the development of the crop has been done in Japan where the persimmon has been considered as its national fruit. In 1987, domestic production of the persimmon in Japan was 309,000 tonnes; the fruit is consumed both as a fresh fruit and a processed product. Persimmon industries are now being developed in Australia, New Zealand, California, Israel, and Italy.

Evaluation of the persimmon in southeast Queensland has primarily been aimed at making better use of frost-prone, marginal, horticultural land unsuited to most other tree crops. There is the potential for exporting "out-of-season fruit" to Japan, other Asian countries, and Europe as the fruit is much sought after in these countries.

At this stage there are approximately 15,000 trees planted in southeast Queensland and market prices in Brisbane for 1987 have been firm. The use of top quality, uniform planting material is critical in


Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 151

This paper contains impressions observed in California and in the United Kingdom gained as a result of a Professional Experience Program undertaken in 1986. The primary aim of the program was a teaching exchange with a lecturer from the Merrist Wood Agricultural College in Surrey, England. The nursery Department of the Merrist Wood College concentrates primarily on the Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stock Industry (H.O.N.S.) and the scope of this paper reflects that specialisation.

Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 158

A micropropagation method for Lavandula angustifolia ‘Rosea’ is described. Shoot tips and nodes were sterilized and placed on a basic Murashige and Skoog medium with Linsmaier and Skoog vitamins, supplemented with 0.3 mg/l benzylaminopurine (BAP). Under culture conditions of light intensity, 2000 lux; photoperiod, 16 hours; and temperature, 25°C, the shoots elongated and axillary growth formed. After 4 weeks the resulting axillary shoots and nodal sections could be used for further multiplication or as cuttings. The cuttings were rooted on a half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/l indolebutyric acid (IBA). The rooted plantlets were then gradually acclimatized to the greenhouse environment with a 98% success rate.

Author: Richard Ware, Ian S. Fankhauser

PP: 161

Increasing costs in production and demand on our product, the ornamental shrub, has made it necessary to achieve a fast turn around in growing-on-line (G.O.L.) production to maintain any profitability in the industry.

This has meant better structures and, most of all, better coverings. The more efficient the covering the better the product, enabling us to force it along in cold weather, protect it from cold winds, excess rain, hot sun, heavy frost and hail.

For this paper I would like to describe two weatherproof films and one woven fabric that we use in our nursery.
     PVC Hyperlyte
     Polyethylene woven fabrics.
     Knitted polyethylene shaded cloth

PVC "Hyperlyte" greenhouse film. "Hyperlyte" greenhouse films are formulated from P.V.C. and have been developed in New Zealand to provide a greenhouse covering of the highest possible strength. They are available in two standard light transmission formulations: the clear formulation, providing 89% transmission of


Author: B. Tjia

PP: 166

The world trade in floriculture products has expanded during the past 10 years. This trend is increasing at a rapid rate. Actual production from various countries, and their projected output for the next decade, have been adequately published in the Floriculture World Trade Magazine (2), a magazine that had its origin and start in the Netherlands in 1982. More and more people, especially in the technologically advanced nations such as Europe, USA, and Japan have more and more disposable income that they can spend on florist products. This increase has been noticed by the third world countries wanting to enter the world floriculture market.

There are other good reasons why these countries are seriously looking into flower production, especially the Caribbean basin countries. Growing flowers gives a better return per square meter or per hectare when compared to other agricultural products. Flower production is labor intensive, thereby providing more employment for the local work force.


Author: Wayne D. Williams

PP: 171

Chilean bellflower (Lapageria rosea Ruiz & Par.) a not so distant relative of Australasian flora, both geographically and botanically has been a fascination for me, often bordering on an obsession. This, in conjunction with some other work which grew out of it, was prompted by a note from L. H. Bailey, "propagated by layering, cuttings, and seed."(2)

The work on Lapageria rosea (red and pink), and L. rosea var. albaiflora Hook., was undertaken between 1981 and 1984 in Dunedin, New Zealand.


Author: C.J. Allison, Michael D. McKay

PP: 176

Hydroponically-grown Butterhead-type lettuce is propagated from pelleted seed. Cultivars are selected for superior growth and yield under the environmental conditions available as well as the marketability of the finished product. Seed is sown in mineral wool starter cubes and germinated in a dark, temperature and humidity-controlled chamber. Seedlings are grown under supplemental light until large enough to transplant to gutters where they are grown to harvestable size. The nutrient film technique (NFT) of hydroponics is employed during the grow-out phase.

Author: Greg Moore

PP: 48

Few propagation mixes today are devoid of at least some perlite and so this common tie deserves elaboration. We will first identify its origins and processing and then examine how perlite uniquely meets traditional grower applications, with a passing comparison to several other inorganic amendments.

Origins—Perlite is found worldwide as a naturally occurring igneous glassy rock (an amorphous silicate) similar to obsidian and rhyolite. It is distinguished from them by possessing 2 to 6% combined water collected from free surface or atmospheric moisture present as it cooled. The raw rock ranges from translucent to gray or black and is quite friable, with a loose density of 60 to 70 lbs./ft.3.

Perlite ore is generally surface mined via tractor ripping and scaping. The ore is then crushed, dried and screened, to size segregate it, before being transported by truck, railcar, or barge to expansion plants.

Processing—Precision expansion of a variety of finished products is


Author: Kathryn S. Wilson

PP: 181

Recent legislation has been introduced in New Zealand for the further protection of new plant varieties. The legislation, under the name of the 1987 PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS ACT, is along similar lines of other intellectual property acts for patents, designs, and trade marks.

That Plant Variety Rights are viewed in the same manner (in legislation at least) as patents, is important in a commercial atmosphere. New plant varieties should be viewed as any other product, the development of which incorporates a large amount of time, effort and money. As with new products it is essential that the developer recovers his investment by obtaining sole rights to the production, marketing, and licencing of the product and, perhaps, obtaining a trade mark for the product.

There are of course differences between plants and "standard inventions". Standard inventions do not reproduce themselves, nor do they continually produce saleable merchandise (e.g. fruit, flowers). It is because of these differences that


Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 186

Platt's Nursery is a native plant nursery growing the widest range of New Zealand native plants possible. This material is selected from the length and breadth of New Zealand and our many Offshore Islands. In accordance with our conservation policy, and because many of our plants are on the critically endangered list, we do not remove any plants from the wild for resale—only seeds and cuttings. We do take the odd plant for experimental or stock bed use. However, this is very rarely ever necessary. Many of the plants grown at Platt's were the first to be introduced into cultivation by any nursery.

We are now in a position to be able to sell all we can produce, including many plants that only a short while ago were either despised as weeds or never considered as suitable plant material for amenity horticulture. The public seek us out from all over the country, and increasingly from overseas. We do not advertise, but do carry out some direct promotion by giving talks to


Author: M.W. Hill

PP: 194

Pukaki Orchards Ltd, through its parent company, Turners and Growers Ltd, became involved in strawberry breeding in 1982. In that year a joint agreement was made with the Crop Research Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Lincoln. From 1983 to 1986, 50,000 seedlings have been evaluated and 51 selections made. No cultivars have been released. Cooperating growers in the testing programme want "to run" with an ‘Aiko’ × ‘Pajaro’ selection, ‘T26’, and a day-neutral selection ‘T30’ (Fern seedling × Douglas).

Author: Philip J. Carson

PP: 196

Family—ARALIACEAE—mainly a tropical family with some genera in temperate regions, e.g. Pseudopanax



There are approximately 20 species of this genus of which about 14 are endemic to New Zealand. Species that were previously classified in the genus Neopanax are now included in the genus Pseudopanax, which are glabrous shrubs or small trees with very variable leaves which may be simple, digitately compound or palmately lobed. The juvenile leaves of young plants often differ greatly from those of the adult.

Some of the species, particularly Pseudopanax crassifolius are excellent plants from a landscape point of view with a great variety of foliage type and plant form not found in any other hardy exotic trees. In other species, particularly Pseudopanax laetus and P.lessonii, the plant form is not so characteristic but they are excellent foliage plants and are


Author: Beverley J. Nairn

PP: 200

This paper gives a brief account of some experiences with gelling agents and their effect on the survival, multiplication rates, and vitrification in a production crop of micropropagated Pinus radiata. No attempt has been made to obtain quantitative data. Vitrification was also influenced by benzylaminoprine (BAP) concentration and other factors (1). The additives to the medium studied were Merck 2186 activated charcoal, Difco Bacto agar, Davis Bacto agar, Coast Biologicals agar (batch 950), Agarose type V, and Gelrite.

The study was undertaken to find the best combination of agar, Gelrite, and BAP to give the greatest multiplication of shoots without vitrification.


Author: Michael Macdonald

PP: 205


Nerine, a genus belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family, is becoming an important ornamental bulbous plant in New Zealand. Already there have been large plantings of Nerine in New Zealand. Nerine species have a high potential as export cut flowers. However the natural multiplication rate of Nerines is fairly low. Although seed propagation can increase plantlet production by 1,000-fold, such a method does not maintain hybrid traits important for commercial crop production (5).

Large bulbs may only produce only a few daughter bulbs each year. To raise this multiplication rate growers have used a method known as "twin-scaling". This technique involves dividing the bulb into small portions, each consisting of a section of the basal plate. Grootaarts, et al. (2), showed that Nerine bowdenii bulblet regeneration always occurred at places where scales contained basal-plate tissue. This technique can be used in vitro, for the most bulbous species including Nerine


Author: David N. Whalley

PP: 212


Salt-affected soils cover 10 percent of the globe and a further 20 per cent are of marginal use (10). Furthermore, the world demand for timber is reducing the amount of forest cover globally by 0.6% (11,303,000 ha per annum) (13)or, in equivalent terms, an amount of afforested land equivalent to the size of Kew Gardens (120 ha) ceases to exist every six minutes. These are frightening statistics by any standards and, perhaps because we in Western Europe are not directly concerned, we view them with some complacency.

Recently, I was fortunate enough to view many of these problems first hand when I attended two international Symposia in India, one on this topic and one on "Agroforestry for Rural Needs". This paper largely reports the ways that were discussed of combating problems of growing trees in salt-affected soils, and particularly the immediate problems raised by the high population pressures and arid conditions in India.


Author: Philip R. Swindells

PP: 222


Harlow Car Gardens is the headquarters of the Northern Horticultural Society (NHS), an organization established just after World War Two to serve home gardeners in the north of England—its traditional area of activity having been "twixt Trent and Tweed". Today the NHS has a wider remit and its gardens fill a more extensive role than could have ever been envisaged by the founders.

The original concept of a trial garden for the north of England remains, but Harlow Car is also of international stature and maintains an important living collection of horticultural and botanical subjects. A member of the International Association of Botanic Gardens and a centre for the teaching and examinations of the City and Guilds of London Institute and The Royal Horticultural Society, Harlow Car is a remarkable hybrid without parallel in the United Kingdom.

Situated some 150 metres above the sea level on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales and on a heavy acid clay soil,


Author: R.J. Cripps

PP: 226


Flexiheat is the trade name for low voltage electrically heated mats, distributed by Foil Engineering, Ltd of London. They operate at a safe 24 volts, and generate 14 watts for each 300mm length of foil element. The elements consists of aluminum or nickel foil, laid out in an intricate winding pattern, similar to the original printed circuit boards which revolutionised the electronics industry. For horticultural use, the elements are mainly aluminum foil, and the electrical connections consist of cold copper tails soldered onto a pair of foil busbars, running down each side of the active heating element. The resultant mat is then encapsulated between two layers of polyester film, making it impervious to moisture or chemical fluids.

Each mat has a total width of 380mm, with a foil width of 350mm, including the two busbar strips. The active heating section of the element in the centre is 250mm wide, and designed to form a complete circuit module every 600mm. Table 1 shows


Author: Gareth Griffiths

PP: 230

In September, 1985, an existing glasshouse was converted into a mist propagation unit at Midland Nurseries. After looking at several systems of base heating, we opted for a hot water system, which we would design and install ourselves.

The system. At the heart of the system is an ordinary, domestic 100,000 BTU boiler, fired by liquid petroleum gas. The warm water is heated to about 30°C, and pumped along a flow header. This then feeds a flow sub-header, which feeds four 20mm alkathene pipes, which run the length of the bed. These four pipes turn at the end of the bed, to become four returns. These flow and return pipes alternate in the bed, to give even heat distribution. The warm water from the return alkathene pipes flows into a return sub-header, and from there into the return header, and back into the boiler.

The construction. The flow and return pipes are in copper for the first two metres to and from the boiler, but then change to 50mm P.V.C. pipe. The temperature in these plastic


Author: F. Allan Elliott

PP: 52

One the methods of propagation used at Carlton Plants is that of top-working or winter-field grafting. This technique is used in combination with other methods of propagation to develop a unique style of tree. This style or form is characterized by having a clean straight trunk to a specific height, then a burst of limbs and foliage from that point. A select group of plants lend themselves to top-working, specifically those with compact globular form and those that are weeping. Other advantages to top-working are to circumvent the problems of poor bud take and slow growth rates of some cultivars.

Cultivars. Current production levels consist of about twenty cultivars totaling 50,000 plants. The majority of this production is in flowering cherries with the remainder being globular and pendulous forms of ornamental tree, (See Table 1).

Materials. The grafting process requires some basic tools and supplies. Those used at Carlton consist of a good knife, sharpening stone, leather strap,


Author: B.E. Humphrey

PP: 231

The provision of basal heat for providing optimal conditions for rooting cuttings has been accepted for many years. The phrase "cool tops, misty middles, and hot bottoms", was coined for MacPenny's Mist System at a precursor of these meetings held many years ago at the old Kent Farm Institute in Swanley, Kent.

Author: Andrew Hewson

PP: 236

These observations on nursery stock management in North America were made during a visit there in September, 1986, as recipient of the Great Britain and Ireland Region's Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship award.

During the six week trip, which began in Boston, Massachusetts, and finished in Olympia, Washington State, I travelled some 7,000 miles and viewed 20 production nurseries in reasonable depth. The nurseries, of varying size and composition were selected to provide a cross section of approaches to contrast, compare, and make comment on.


Author: J.J. Costin

PP: 244

Starting a nursery is a daunting task. You have an ideal that you want to achieve. In reality the ideal is postponed to a long-term ambition. Some preconceived advantage such as horticultural training, nursery skills, or the ownership of land may give birth to the idea of setting up in business, but the new nurseryman quickly finds that he labours under many handicaps: lack of capital or markets, growing facilities, labour, or even not enough hours in the day. Alone he has to build, propagate, grow and sell—tasks which are departmental responsibilities in larger nurseries.

Is it not surprising, therefore, to learn that 50 per cent of all new businesses fail within five years? Those that survive the first five struggle on for a few years more. The accepted business wisdom is that successful companies rarely show successful characteristics in the early stages. Most come about in the seventh or eighth year.

One attribute of those successful in new ventures is their ability to analyse their


Author: Sam Macdonald

PP: 248

Last year Barguillean Nurseries joined the queue for a top class plant propagator. We had high expectations when we ran advertisements in the national trade press. Two months later and almost a £1,000 poorer we drew a blank. Three advertisements had drawn five applicants—none of them suitable—and all of them glaringly underqualified.

Thinking that the right candidate might not have applied because, let's face it, who wants to travel 400 miles north to the backwoods for a job. We re-wrote the advertisement and placed it again without the banner of Barguillean, simply inviting the right man or woman to name a salary and apply to an anonymous box number. In fact, the advertisement sounded very positive and we were bitterly disappointed with the response. Three replies. Same story.

Curious about the lack of response and anxious to see whether other nurseries had had similar disappointments, I contacted David Clark at Notcutts and John Hedger at Fargro, along with several other nurseries


Author: Paul Labous

PP: 255

Recruitment for the National Diploma in Nursery Practices course is declining at Merrist Wood College, and at other county colleges with similar courses. The number of students enrolling for certificate courses in nursery practices is also falling, although not quite so dramatically.

In contrast to this, courses in arboriculture, landscape, and countryside recreation at diploma level are oversubscribed.

The question may well be asked, ‘is this a true decline or only a decline in comparison with the 1982 and 1984 peaks?’ If the decline is a real one, then why is it that young people fail to see the prospect of a worthwhile career Within the nursery business? Do they not realise that someone has to propagate the trees which are to be climbed; the ‘soft’ landscape material which is to be planted, and the forest species which are to play such an important part of leisure and recreation in the future?

My thoughts go back to a college industrial liaison day in 1982, when 44


Author: Dilys K. Davies

PP: 257

When hunting allium material and slides, for a talk in America in 1982, no one seemed to have any interest in the genus, but suddenly alliums have become respectable, indeed, sought after. While their appeal may be less than that of gentians or primulas, there are plenty of good onions for the average garden.

When collecting plants of a genus the faint-hearted would do well to stick to Belamcanda, Acorus, or Paradisea, all two-specied genera. Contrariwise, there are around 600 alliums world-wide. Some would say that the only good ones appear on plates—not so.

Most alliums would love life in a Greek meadow, few relish rain-soaked Cumbria. A. amabile, (10cm) deep pink, dodging the slug packs, does well; A. mairei is a pale pink look-alike. A. polyastrum (50cm), purple, and A. tuberosum (Chinese chives, 40cm), white, are quite hardy and brighten the September border. A. macranthum (40cm), purple, flowers a little earlier.

A. splendens (20cm), lilac, is not spectacular but dries to a pleasant


Author: John C. Lawson

PP: 259

This paper concentrates on meconopsis we have grown on the nursery at Inshriach. Before I plunge into the subject of meconopsis I must describe the conditions in which we grow these magnificent plants.

The climate at Inshriach is as near Himalayan as you will find in Britain, although the rainfall is much less than you would imagine, on average between 750 mm and 900 mm per year. It is the cool climate rather than a heavy rainfall which enables us to grow meconopsis so well.

For simplicity I divide the genus into two groups, the perennial species and the monocarpic species. The word perennial needs no explanation, it simply means that the plants come up year after year producing flowers every year. Monocarpic means that the plant will only flower once, although taking one, two or three or maybe four years to do so. The rosette of leaves which is formed over these years can be very attractive and decorative, especially Meconopsis nepaulensis, M. regia, M. paniculata, and M. superba, with


Author: E.J. Lamont

PP: 263

The sea hollies are an interesting and wide ranging group of plants. They are natives of Europe, the Americas (particularly South America), North Africa, Asia Minor, and Eastern Europe, and while many are hardy, some species prove tender in the United Kingdom.

The genus has considerable ornamental value which is not widely recognised. Eryngium alpinum and E. tripartitum are perhaps the commonest, but only the largest garden centres would be likely to stock both.

The merits of the genus lie in the ornamental flowers and foliage. The long lasting thistle-like flowers are usually blue or purple and very striking in appearance. The flowers can provide display from June to October and are well suited to drying for winter display. There may even be some potential in their use as cut flowers. The foliage of most species is attractive and often sharp or thorny. The American species have evergreen, long, narrow leaves often forming a basal rosette, whereas the European species have rounded or


Author: D.M. Donovan

PP: 265


Stonecrops (Sedum spp.) for the herbaceous border, are accommodating plants that are widely grown, some of which are regular items in nurserymen's catalogues. The ease of production and cultivation may lead to a dismissive attitude among those who grow them but a number of attractive garden plants are to be found in the genus. This account, however, discusses only two species and their cultural descendents, namely Sedum telephium and S. spectabile, the orpines, both frequently cultivated.

Sedum telephium. This is a species with one of the largest natural distributions of any flowering plant, from Western Europe across temperate Asia to Japan [11], and with an introduced population in the northeast United States and adjacent areas of Canada [2]. Many variants have been named, from nature and from cultivation; in particular, the taxon Sedum maximum is used for robust plants frequent in gardens.

In the present botanical climate, in which related species are subsumed into a


Author: J.G.S. Harris

PP: 269

Although the British Isles supports only a limited native flora it is ideally suited to growing the many plants that have been introduced from abroad.

Acer campestre is the only native maple, having come into the country from Europe after the Ice Age across the land bridge between Dover and Calais before the sea level rose.

The next maple to arrive was the sycamore, Acer pseudoplatanus, which probably arrived in Scotland in about 1480, where it was known as the plane tree. The first mention of it in literature is by Turner in his Herbal of 1551. Later, Sir T. D. Lauder writes "It is a favourite Scotch tree having been much planted about old aristocratic residences in Scotland and if the doubt of it being a native of Britain is true … then it is probably the long intimacy which has subsisted between France and Scotland that may be the cause of it being so prevalent in the latter country".

In Scotland, the sycamore was also known as the dool, or grief tree, because powerful barons


Author: Philip A. Barker

PP: 56

Tree-root damage to sidewalks along urban streets is a pervasive problem. To meet the desires of their residents for shade and aesthetics, cities have traditionally lined their streets with trees. This practice has received strong endorsement from the residents as well as the nursery industry.

As trees mature, they frequently cause insidious but widespread destruction to adjacent sidewalks. Contrary to popular belief, the soil environment beneath sidewalks apparently favors tree-root growth. The sidewalk, made of concrete, functions as a barrier against soil moisture loss by either evaporation or transpiration. In addition, the high moisture content of the soil, compared to the concrete, confers upon the soil a high specific heat. When the sidewalk warms, some of the heat radiates to the soil beneath it. Conversely, when the sidewalk cools, the temperature drops more rapidly than the soil, and the underside of the sidewalk becomes a surface for condensation of soil moisture which


Author: Jack H. Swan

PP: 274

The Arboretum, of approximately 40 acres, was established in 1972 at Jodrell Bank on the eastern edge of the Chesire Plain. The soil is derived from a heavy boulder clay, becoming progressively lighter towards the eastern section of the Arboretum. The consequent poor drainage causes some problems in the establishment of trees with the planting sites more or less acting as sumps in the late winter months. However, this is compensated for during dry springs and summer drought when very few losses occur. The lighter eastern section has few problems and there is better establishment and growth. Early establishment of shelter planting on the eastern side of the arboretum has helped to alleviate any exposure problems and there is little wind damage. The beneficial effects of this shelter are readily seen when the cold easterlies take place in January to March and damage occurs on the more open sections of the arboretum.

Winter temperatures regularly go down to -12°C and in most springs we


Author: Diana Grenfell

PP: 276

The first hostas to arrive in Britain were H. plantaginea and H. ventricosa imported from China in 1789 and 1790 and still extensively grown today. H. plantaginea, the old August lily, is more at home as a tub or pot plant in gardens in the South of France, but flowers well in southern Britain if grown by a sheltered south-facing wall. Its hybrids ‘Royal Standard’ and ‘Honeybells’ were raised in America in the 1950's; with their H. sieboldii parentage, they increase rapidly, making ideal ground cover and landscape plants, with fragrant flowers. Kevin Vaughn, and Mark Zilis, two American can plant geneticists, have used them as parents to produce hostas with streaked and variegated leaves and very fragrant flowers. Two recent cultivars are ‘Sugar and Cream’ and ‘Sweet Standard’, but ‘Summer Fragrance’ is the first to have scented purple flowers and variegated margined leaves.

The von Siebold introductions to Holland and Belgium led to nomenclatural confusion when the hostas were later introduced to


Author: Peter Foley

PP: 281

Introduction to the genus. Primulas are a vast genus, covering the whole of the northern hemisphere. We grow somewhere in the region of 300 different species, cultivars and hybrids, an indication of how freely primulas hybridise. If you get primulas of the same section, such as the candelabra section, together you end up with hybrids. At the nursery we plant the different cultivars well a way from each other to prevent crossing and untrues. Primuls are so notorious, that if you get seed from seed exchanges you should actually check to see if it is true-to-type. Primulas crop up in many different places—parks, bedding polyanths, pot primroses for Mothering Sunday, the lovely wild birds-eye primroses of the north of England and Scotland, and, further, North America.

Primulas start to flower as early as January. One of the first we have on the nursery is a form of Primula megasaeafolia collected recently by George Smith. It has large, deep magenta flowers, and comes from Turkey.


Author: Roger Turner

PP: 285

Euphobia. What exactly is a euphobia? According to my dictionary a euphobia is a foolish or feeble excuse put forward by ignorant people as a reason for not growing that excellent race of plants called euphorbias. So what are these excuses or reasons? Why should anyone not want to grow euphorbias in their garden?

The first excuse is that they are poisonous. That's my excuse anyway. I used to grow nearly 50 different kinds, and my garden is only small, but having so many poisonous plants was a problem and I gave a lot of them away.

The truth is that they are not very poisonous. They're not like aconites, where one bite on a root and whoops—you've had it! The poisonous part of a euphorbia plant is the white, milky juice which every part of the plant contains. This juice is also a good method of identification. If it has white milky juice its likely to be a euphorbia. If it hasn't, it isn't.

The effect of euphorbia juice is to cause severe inflammation


Author: David Clark

PP: 288

Roses reached the peak of their popularity in the U.K. during the 1960's. The level of imports of rose rootstocks (Table 1) illustrates this fact reasonably accurately, but from 1974 we must also take into account the amount of home-produced stocks. This home production was made possible following work carried out by Dr. Blundell at Bangor University and was industry funded through the Rose Growers Association. An investment by the industry of one or two thousand pounds is now saving half a million annually.

The popularity of the rose declined during the 70's for a number of reasons, the most significant being (a), the need to spray regularly against mildew, blackspot and rust and, (b) the loss of two larger than life rosarians and promoters of roses by the death of Harry Wheatcroft and by emigration to New Zealand of Sam McGredy. I believe the popularity of the rose is due for revival, and sales may again reach 40 million per year. These increases will be brought


Author: Tom Wood

PP: 291

The modification of relative humidity to a point where "fog" is produced is not new. "Humidifiers" and fine droplet sprays have been used for many years to ameliorate the effect of high temperatures under various structures during daytime, for frost protection at night and the control of relative humidity in cold storage. All of these practices rely on the fact that a large amount of latent heat is required to change water from either the solid to liquid or liquid to the gaseous state; the spin-off being a change in temperature.

Most of the equipment was very large, often expensive, and in many cases used only on a large scale and was, therefore, not seriously considered by propagators, particularly those with comparatively small facilities. Recent developments in the range of equipment available have changed all this.

Now we have not only the ongoing fog versus mist debate, which in itself is not new, (over 20 years ago Warner (2) recognised this in his paper


Author: W.L. Mason, J.C. Keenleyside

PP: 294

The reasons for the recent interest in using stem cuttings of tree species to produce rooted cuttings for forest use are reviewed. In Britain, commercial developments are currently confined to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. (Carr.)). A prototype facility for rooting conifer cuttings is described. Results indicate that high rooting can be obtained in a wide range of media and under different propagation systems. Correct feeding of the mother plant is shown to be important in obtaining high quality cuttings. Future developments are reviewed.

Author: James T. Ellis

PP: 304

Ellis Brothers is a slowly expanding young nursery and until the I.P.P.S. French trip in 1983, where we first saw fogging units being used, we were without a modern propagating unit. We need to propagate a wide range of subjects and realised that fog was the solution.

In the spring of 1984, with the help of MacPenny we installed a compressed air and water fogging system in a single 4.2 × 20 metre polythene tunnel. We have expanded, and now have a fog system in three tunnels.

The original cost of the whole fog unit seemed at the time to be very expensive at £1,100 so the choice of structure had to be cheap, hence the tunnels. The tunnels in fact are double clad for energy saving and winter protection, and they are as well-built as possible with tightly fitting, fog proof, doors. The air to inflate the tunnel skins comes from a small fan situated in the building where the cuttings are made. This means that warm dry air from the working area is used, thus giving greater frost protection


Author: Martin Hill

PP: 306


This paper describes how the specification for Neo Plants' new propagating house was drawn up. Decisions have to be influenced by existing circumstances, so while the ideal would be a bare field site and unlimited finances, few small companies would be so fortunate.

Neo Plants needed to expand its facilities in 1983 and bought a typical west Lancashire tomato nursery at Freckleton. It consisted of a 6ha site with a large bungalow, 1ha of venlo glass and two large sheds. Both laboratories and offices were housed in the bungalow and the nursery had good growing facilities which could be adapted into weaning and growing houses.


Author: J. Donovan

PP: 313

To obtain best results from a fogging system each water droplet must be of the correct size. The smaller the droplet the larger the number present from a given volume of water. It is the greater number of very small water droplets that gives optimum coverage and distribution of the fog.

Fog works because the small droplets, with very little mass, stay in suspension drifting with any air movement until they evaporate. Large water droplets must not be formed as these will fall in the immediate area of the nozzle causing overwetting.

Sonicore atomising nozzles can produce much smaller droplets than conventional nozzles. The nozzles are air-driven "acoustic oscillators" which break up water into tiny droplets by passing it through a field of high frequency sound waves. The air expands through a convergent/divergent section (rather like a whistle) into a resonator cap where it is reflected back to complement and amplify the primary shock wave. The result is an intense field of sonic energy,


Author: Douglas Lee

PP: 61

Seed collection and cleaning is an aspect of the nursery trade that is not taught in any college, university, or trade school. It is a skill acquired through apprenticeship' or trial and error. Involved in the collection and distribution of seeds for 14 years, I have acquired some practical expertise.

Growers depend upon the seedsman to be a reliable and consistent source for seeds and information. Ability to meet grower needs without fault is our reputation.

Collection Sources. Much of the parent stock for regional outdoor ornamentals is available locally. Locations may be fields, nurseries, parks, schools, street plantings, or residences. Best times for locating plant material are often when the plant is highly conspicuous in bloom. Good record keeping and keen observation enable you to catalog an area on file cards and maps. A hand tape recorder allows hands-free data collection while traveling.

Habitat. Seed source should be appropriate for ultimate growing conditions. Collection


Author: J.R. Denton

PP: 315


The use of "fog" or humidification systems is becoming increasingly popular for propagation in the UK and is producing encouraging results.

The objective is to raise the humidity of the growing environment. This is done by producing water droplets that are sufficiently small to remain in suspension in the air long enough for them to evaporate and increase the relative humidity.

There are two basic forms of fog system, the air and water system which requires a compressor, and the high pressure water-only system, the Micron 5 Fog system being the latter type.

How ‘Fog’ is Produced. In high pressure water-only fog systems the droplets are produced by forcing water at high pressure through a specially designed nozzle.

The stainless steel nozzle used in the ‘Micron 5’ fog system operates by channelling the incoming water through a small orifice producing a fine jet of water. This is shattered on impact with an &qout;anvil&qout;, positioned


Author: Christopher Fairweather

PP: 317

With the increasing demand for rooted shrub cuttings and liners we decided in 1986 to double the heated space we had available for propagation.

Our first house was installed in 1979, and our first installation was a simple hot water system using alkathene pipe and a secondhand 120,000 B.T.U. boiler for which we paid only £10. This original system is still working well and we find it generally satisfactory. The main drawbacks are the considerable work involved with the installation. The other disadvantage we have noted over the years is the uneven temperature. There can be as much as five and sometimes 10 degrees drop, with the highest temperature near the boiler, dropping away at the farthest point.

Early in 1986 we prepared a new site and erected a 12m by 21m aluminum glasshouse. Our original hot water system had generally worked well for us and running costs had compared very favourably with other possibilities. Electricity on this scale would be easy to install but very expensive


Author: Anna J. Knuttel, Lori K. Benoit

PP: 321

An accelerated growth program for growing tissue-cultured rhododendrons in heated greenhouses during the winter is one way to produce large quantities of small well-branched plants. This method of growing reduces the time needed to produce saleable plants. In 1985 Knuttel Nursery, Inc. implemented such an accelerated growth program that was based on work done by Jim Cross (1).

During the first year of this program, small rooted plantlets were potted in 3 in. cell packs and placed in trays. The trays were placed on pallets on the ground and lights were strung over them. Presently, all rooted cuttings are potted in 14×16×13×½ in. trays and placed on 3 ft high benches. These trays retain water more evenly than the cell packs and the plants perform better in them.

The soil mix consists of two yd3 softwood bark, 1 yd3 each of sand, peat, and hardwood bark, to which is added dolomite lime, triple superphosphate, and Osmocote 18–6–12 (8 to 9 month formulation).

The plantlets


Author: Joseph Dallon Jr

PP: 323

Selected cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium and Lilium longiflorum were grown under greenhouse conditions in different ratios of spent compost, and in two commercial growing preparations, with either a 14–14–14 slow release fertilizer, or with a 20–20–20 water soluble nutrient solution. In all cultivars of both plant species, the most commercially desirable plants were produced in spent compost and Speedel in a 1:1 ratio. Plants with the highest bud count were also produced in this mix. The shortest plants were produced in spent compost alone, which exerted a growth retarding effect in all media and nutrient combinations. Nutrient treatments alone had no significant effects on flowering, root development, or bud count.

Author: Martin M. Meyer Jr

PP: 330

A phenomenon of significance to propagation by seeds having dormancies is the postdormancy as hypothesized by Vegis (12). Seeds of two cotoneaster species were used to test this hypothesis and both showed the postdormant condition. These results are discussed in relation to other work and practical considerations of after ripening and germination response of woody plant seeds. Length of moist-chilling, conditions on planting, fall planting, and implications to model systems, are discussed in relation to the postdormant condition of many woody plant seeds.

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 336

The Plant Introduction Scheme at the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden (P.I.S.B.G.) was initiated in 1980 by the Garden's past Director, Dr. Roy L. Taylor. The aims and procedures of the program to introduce plants into the nursery and the role of the eleven test sites across North America, have been previously documented in the IPPS Proceeding (1, 2). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the progress to date, review some of the ongoing work, relate our plans to develop an endowment foundation for the program, and conclude with a tabulated appendix (see end of paper) on the best to-date methods for propagation of these plants.

The cooperation between the UBG botanical Garden (here after referred to as Garden) and the nursery and landscape industries has been the major factor in the program's success. Currently, there are some 26 participator nurseries in British Columbia and well over 1,500,000 plants have been produced from the first six public releases


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 343

Davidia, one of the most unusual trees growing in the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, was introduced to horticulture from China. Abbe Armand David, a French missionary, discovered it while botanizing in the mountains west of Szechuan, China, and sent specimens to Paris, France, where it was described and named after him. Credit for its introduction to horticulture, however, goes to Pere Farges, another missionary who in 1897 sent 37 nuts to the Vilmorin Arboretum at Les Barres in France. From this shipment one seedling germinated in 1899. Two cuttings and one layer were propagated from it. The cuttings were provided to botanical institutions in Europe; the rooted layer was sent to the Arnold Arboretum in 1904 and there it still grows. This particular strain was determined to be different enough from the species to warrant a varietal name and therefore became Davidia involucrata var. vilmoriniana.

In Rehder's Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs, Davidia


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 345

Aesculus parviflora, the bottle brush buckeye, is native to South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, and differs from other members of the horsechestnut family in several ways. It is not a tree but a large shrub that spreads by stoloniferous shoots forming a thicket about 10 ft tall. In the area of Boston, Massachusetts, it flowers in July long after other members of the genus have done so and at a time when there are but few woody plants in flower. It is quite shade tolerant and creates an impressive display when planted at the edge of a field or along a roadside against a background of trees. Other attributes are freedom from insect and disease problems, good yellow autumn color, and the ability to remain free of competing vegetation. Despite its southern origin, Rehder's Manual (1) rates A. parviflora as a Zone 4 plant, capable of surviving temperatures to -20°F.

Flowers and Fruiting. In July, highly conspicuous upright panicles of flowers develop above the plant


Author: Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, D.L. Rinker

PP: 347

Two sources of mushroom compost were evaluated as soil amendments with bark: (1) unweathered (UMC) in proportions of 25, 50, 75 and 100% by volume, and (2) weathered (WMC) in proportions of 25, 50 and 75%. There was also a 100% bark control treatment. Both red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera [syn. C. sericea]) and forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia ‘Lynwood’) grew well in all media. While plant height was little affected by the amount of mushroom compost in the media, top dry weight of the two species was increased in proportion to the amount of both UMC and WMC. Regardless of the media treatment, there was no apparent symptoms of nutrient toxicity or deficiency.

Of four types of papermill sludge (primary, secondary, mixture of primary and secondary from Ontario Paper Co., and a mixture of primary and secondary from Fraser Paper Co.) added at 33% by volume to bark, secondary sludge which has the highest N content provided the best growth of spiraea (Spiraea × bumalda); however, foliage of plants was dark blue-green in color reflecting high N. Unacceptably poor growth occurred in Fraser-amended media because of low N.


Author: Robert J. Gouveia

PP: 354

Spring/summer propagation accounts for 90% of all propagation that takes place at Jackson Nursery. Cuttings are stuck in outdoor bottom-heated and unheated mist beds beginning the first of April. Needle evergreens are the first group of plants to be stuck, next are the softwoods. The softwoods are started approximately the end of May or the first of June and continued into August.

Semi-hardwood cuttings, i.e. rhododendron, begin mid-July and end in August. Direct sticking of cuttings of easy-to-root species was started the summer of 1986 as an experiment and is being continued today.


Author: Eric T. Anderson

PP: 66

High seed germination, if irregular, is no longer acceptable in commercial mechanized production. Seedsmen and propagators are challenged by the advent of "plug" and mechanized production systems to produce uniform seed germination at all times of the year. The single most important step a grower can take for uniform germination, after breaking dormancy, is to imbibe the seeds with water prior to sowing in soil.

The seedsperson must do his part by,

  1. harvesting mature seeds from plants which will produce uniform seedlings,
  2. processing the seed for long storage and easy sowing, without damaging the seed, and
  3. delivering the seed with good vitality at the time needed by the propagator (2, 7, 10). Many germination problems are the result of improper seed handling.

The importance of harvesting mature seed cannot be over-stated. After a seed pod or fruit has reached its maximum fresh weight there are still many changes taking place: (3, 5, 6, 7).

  1. carbohydrate reserves are

Author: Clayton W. Fuller

PP: 357

What is fertilcide? It is the process in which the manufacturer uses a blended fertilizer (in this report it will be 10–10–10) and coats it with a herbicide. In this paper we will only refer to herbicides by their common trade names. The herbicides being used at present for the process and which we will discuss are Dual, Goal, Kerb, Simizine, and Surflan. The blending of these products is covered by EPA Form 3540-16, "Pesticides Report for Pesticide-Producing Establishments". You should secure from your manufacturer a copy of this form and have it on file if you use any of these products.

Although the use of these blended products is not new to agribusiness (the amended EPA Form is dated 1980), they have not been in common use in the nursery industry—maybe due to unavailability.

When we first looked at this program in 1983 we were intrigued with the possibility of applying fertilizer and herbicide in one application. However, being a new program we


Author: Charles A. Hildebrant

PP: 361

The modern nursery has faced cost controls in many ways. One of these has been to install automatic irrigation systems in areas used for container production. Whether the automatic system is drip, or overhead spray there is, in varying degrees, waste in the form of run-off. Without a doubt the worst offenders are the various overhead spray systems. They put as much water on the area between the containers as they put in the containers. No great amount of time need be spent around a nursery to see that serious drainage problems quickly build up near irrigation systems.

There are, it turns out, two related problems with this waste water. The first problem is most readily apparent in the form of the surplus water running across the surface of the ground or puddling in the low spots. Through proper grading of the surface the puddling can be eliminated, and the flow can be channeled into areas where its presence can be more easily accepted. The second problem is much more difficult to


Author: John E. Preece, Pamela H. Christ, Leo Ensenberger, Ji-Liang Zhao

PP: 366

Shoot tip explants from juvenile and adult green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and adult white ash (F. americana) formed callus and single shoots elongated in vitro. Consistent axillary shoot proliferation was not obtained. However, when new shoots that developed in vitro from juvenile white ash shoot tip explants were excised and placed into stationary liquid (1 cm deep) Woody Plant Medium (WPM) (4) with 5 or 10 mg·liter-1 benzyladenine (BA), axillary shoot proliferation occurred. These shoots could be rooted in vitro on WPM with 0.1 or 1.0 mg·liter-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 10 g·liter-1 activated charcoal, or in moistened vermiculite with no plant growth regulators. Plantlets were acclimatized to the greenhouse and field. Green ash internodes produces callus in response to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). White ash seeds that were transversely cut in half germinated in vitro and callus grew from the cut cotyledons. Somatic embryos formed directly from these seedlings or from the callus, especially on a medium with BA and 2,4-D, both at 5µM.

Author: R.E. Bir, J.E. Shelton, S.L. Warren

PP: 372

Magnesium is essential for plant growth. About 10% of the magnesium in green plants is in the pigment chlorophyll which gives plants their green color as well as their ability to change light energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. The remainder of magnesium in a plant has many uses. High concentrations of magnesium are usually found in parts of plants where lots of energy is required such as the growing tips of roots and shoots or areas where seeds are being formed.

Author: Charles E. Tubesing

PP: 377

Chip budding is well suited for the propagation of magnolias because it allows great flexibility in the scheduling of propagation. It is often practiced as a bench grafting technique in winter, and again in late summer and early fall. It is also used for outdoor grafting in spring, and in mid-to-late summer. In reality, chip budding is possible throughout the growing season. Highly specialized facilities are not required, if a greenhouse is used, grafts can be placed on an open bench. Grafting cases are not needed.

As a technique, chip budding is simple, easy to learn, and yields a high percentage of successful grafts. Close matching of stock and scion diameters is not necessary, permitting flexibility in rootstock utilization. Callusing of chip buds is rapid, and the graft unions are strong. Growth from the scion is vigorous, strongly upright, and of good form, frequently branching the first season. While these positive inducements apply generally to many species of broadleaved


Author: Ray Brush

PP: 380

My dictionary defines &qout;bane&qout; as a cause of destruction or ruin and &qout;boon&qout; as something that is beneficial or a blessing. How do you look upon the nursery inspectors who come to your nursery? Do you look upon them as intruders and unwanted guests—a bane, or as friendly, helpful persons—a boon?

During my 27 years on the staff of the American Association of Nurserymen I maintained contact with the state and federal nursery inspection agencies. During that time I observed many changes in both the nursery industry and the inspection services. Now as I look back I have to conclude the nursery industry and the general public is not benefiting as much as either should from the state and federal plant inspection services. Too many nurseries tolerate the plant inspection regulations and do not really try to understand what the system can do for them. Unfortunately, a few nurseries are uncooperative or outright antagonistic. These few give the whole nursery industry a black eye. And lest you think I am unjustly placing the full responsibility on the


Author: Steven Still, Tracy Disabato-Aust, Greg Brenneman

PP: 386

Cold hardiness was determined for certain herbaceous perennials following exposure to controlled freezing temperatures. Plants of Lythrum, Achillea, and Gaillardia were saleable to an exposure of -11.0°C(12°F), Campanula and Coreopsis to -9.3°C(15°F) and -7.7°C (18°F), respectively, Chrysanthemum and Erysimum to -6.0°C(21°F), Digitalis and Geum to -4.4°C(24°F), and Kniphofia to -2.7°C(27°F). None of the species were saleable after exposure to -12.6°C(9°F), and none of the species survived exposure to -14.3°C(6°F).

Author: Christopher S. Rogers

PP: 393

Weston Nurseries, Inc. chose to invest in a fog-producing machine for two reasons. First, the lack of labor that we could foresee in our area, and second, the increased greenhouse space being used due to our expanding tissue culture lab.

By using fog in conjunction with direct-sticking of softwood cuttings into flats, production time has decreased, two greenhouses that were vacant all summer long are now being used for propagation, and rooting plants with which I had difficulty are much easier to propagate.

After a couple of years of experimenting with fog propagation, I am currently using fog in three ways. First, fog is used for propagating easy to root plants to decrease production time. Second, it is used for rooting plants that do not overwinter very well if their root systems are disturbed after rooting. Thirdly, fog is used for experimenting with plants that I have had little or no success with by other means.

Four different media types have been tried at Weston Nurseries


Author: Dale Deppe

PP: 397

All of us are interested in mist systems. As propagators, we have learned that missing is one of the most critical elements in the rooting of cuttings. Our intense love-hate relationship with the mist nozzle has caused a few gray hairs in many of us. Also, I think more cuttings have died because of over or under misting than any other reasons. If you have ever been involved in the design of a mist system or have learned to live with someone else's mistakes, you'll like the mist boom concept.

A mist boom, as we call it at Spring Meadow Nursery, is actually a traveling irrigator. Traveling irrigators were developed to water seeded plug trays in the bedding plant industry. A long greenhouse can be watered or misted so that each plug cell or cutting receives the same amount of water because the spray pattern is exactly the same all along the width of a boom. Uniformity is the key in producing quality bedding plants and also for us in using a mist system.

A mist boom is


Author: Priscilla Galpin Twombly

PP: 399

Oliver Nurseries is a small retail nursery in Connecticut specializing in dwarf and rare plants, including dwarf conifers, azaleas and rhododendrons, alpines, and rock garden plants. Most of the alpines are propagated and grown on at the nursery. This paper will deal with what constitutes an alpine plant, their propagation, and where they can be used in the home landscape.

In the strictest sense, alpines are considered to be plants that grow above the timberline. They may be evergreen or deciduous shrubs, or they may be herbaceous perennials, but they are never annuals as the growing season is too short to manage a full life cycle in one season.

Alpines are characterized most often by foliage pressed very close to the ground, which is a result of the severe climate in the high mountains. In addition, their flowers are quite large in proportion to their foliage. In part this is because their foliage grows so slowly and is so tightly compressed that their flowers seem overly large


Author: Gary Phipps

PP: 70

Monrovia Nursery Company has a reputation of consistently producing large quantities of high quality plants. We have no secret cures nor magic potions. We do, however, approach our pest problems in a very logical, practical, and methodical manner.

Some nurserymen in California may think that pest problems cannot be managed because of the nature of their business and with pesticide regulations being what they are in California today. We have learned, however, that with time and patience, a solution can always be found. Consider the following facts about Monrovia Nursery:

  1. We do not use any restricted pesticides, except for methyl bromide.
  2. We do not use any pesticide with the word "Danger" on the label, except for methyl bromide.
  3. We do not use any pesticides that have an established reentry interval other than "stay out of treated areas until the spray has dried."
  4. We do not use pesticides that produce strong odors in the field.
  5. We border an elementary

Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 403

Over the last several years the nursery industry has experienced an upsurge in the number of new cultivars becoming available. As progressive as this trend appears on the surface, the implications become far deeper as we explore the commitments that follow. This situation offers large potential rewards along with some special challenges. I believe our industry currently has a real need for self examination; we as propagators are probably in the appropriate position to begin the process.

Author: Jim Cross

PP: 407

For the past 20 years our small nursery, which grows woody ornamental plants for the wholesale market, has been deeply involved in a continual process of building and maintaining a product line consisting primarily of relatively hard-to-find plants. Our selection criteria gives heavy emphasis to dwarf and slow growing plants. The majority of our ornamental plants are not "new" selections, just known but neglected plants.

The very nature of the selection process that we followed up to the advent of micropropagation provided a pace and built-in discipline, which helps assure a fair amount of test and evaluation time in the climates into which we market our plants. The typical starting point would be a single, small plant or a half dozen cuttings, a couple of progeny of which would go into the garden or stock area for observation. If, over the next few years, we liked what we saw, we would run a couple of dozen plants through our production system to see how they performed.


Author: Richard A. Jaynes

PP: 410

First, let me give you a little background. I was trained as a botanist, worked for 25 years at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station as a plant breeder and horticulturist, and since 1984 have been a self-employed nurseryman and Christmas tree grower. I have selected and bred mountain laurel (Kalmia) for 27 years and am responsible for naming about half of its new cultivars. I also serve as the International Registrar for the genus. So, if you are naming and releasing a new mountain laurel, let me know.

I am delighted to serve on this panel because I find I have somewhat ambiguous thoughts on naming and releasing new plants. On an intellectual level I am conservative and would argue for thorough testing before release. However, in the real world I am more pragmatic and, quite frankly, have been willing to release material without acquiring some of the information it would be nice to have.

The criteria for selecting and naming a new cultivar is going to vary somewhat


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 412

In considering the introduction of a new plant to the nursery trade, the first qualification must be that the new plant is recognizably different from existing clones or cultivars and genuinely superior to them. There is really no point in introducing a new plant which duplicates ones already established in the horticultural world. If, for example, I were to find yet another witches' broom on Norway spruce (Picea abies) I would not consider growing it and offering if for sale because there are already over 60 clones which were described and grown in the past, a large number of which are identical from a horticultural point of view, and the chances of coming up with a really superior clone are remote.

A corollary of this principle is to avoid too many new clones of a given species or group of hybrids. Plant breeders are like the proud parents of many children. Far too often each new creation has special merit and distinction (no matter how small) and the result is a needless and


Author: Daniel K. Struve, Mike A. Arnold, David H. Chinery

PP: 415

A system is described whereby the equivalent of 1-year-old red oak whips can be produced in 7 months, starting from seed.

Author: Brian K. Maynard, Nina L. Bassuk

PP: 420

The research presented here focuses on the factors affecting hormone application and timing of taking etiolated cuttings, with the goal of developing etiolation and banding into practical methods for use by the plant propagator. Etiolation was found to be more beneficial than banding when applied to 4 cultivars of Fagus sylvatica and 2 of 4 cultivars of Acer saccharum. In experiments with 2 cultivars of Syringa reticutala, banding, with or without etiolation, was most beneficial in stimulating rooting. The treatment of S. reticulata cuttings with 4000 ppm IBA was of little additional benefit. Conversely, cuttings from etiolated shoots of Stewartia pseudocamellia rooted best, the effect still evident after 2 months greening. Hormone applied at sticking was of a significant benefit to the rooting of Stewartia cuttings.

Author: Harrison L. Flint

PP: 428

For several years, I have had a growing feeling that we are ignoring our heritage in IPPS. We do a reasonably good job of remembering and honoring long-time colleagues and former colleagues, as it should be, but we do not do so well in remembering the skills and wisdom that they have contributed to us. When I hear a question addressed that was answered 20 years ago, and perhaps a few more times since, I sometimes wonder why the speaker is not aware of the earlier answer. The reason seems simple: we don't often enough read our Society's back publications.

When I told Kathy Freeland that I was considering saying something on the topic of "re-inventing the wheel," she was kind enough to send me a sampling of topics that some of you requested for this year's program. From her list I selected three plant genera about which people had asked for more information: Daphne Kalmia, and Sciadopitys. Then I checked our Proceedings for the past 35 years to see what you


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 432

Propagation by root pieces is not obsolete as long as it is economically viable. In spite of the many changes and developments in plant propagation during the last half century, the propagation by root pieces is still a practical and profitable method for certain types of plants.

Reasons for using this method of propagation include: less labor may be involved; the work load may be distributed to periods of reduced demand; less time and space in the propagating facilities, or even none, may be required; and lower crop rollover time may be necessary. For these and other lesser reasons, well managed nurseries still continue using piece root propagation for certain crops.

The source of the root materials is from the growing fields after the crops have been removed. Occasionally, small quantities are dug with a sharpened spade from growing plants in the nursery. All roots are dug in late October and November.

For root recovery until the 1950's, the empty fields were plowed to a


Author: Bruce Briggs, Ralph Shugert

PP: 435

The Question Box Session was convened on Thursday at 4:45 p.m. and again on Friday at 10:40 a.m. Both sessions were combined and presented here as one. Bruce Briggs and Ralph Shugert served as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Robert Gouveia. How often and how do you change media in your sunken beds? It seems that it would be quite difficult to do. From our experience, sunken beds like yours are great for ground heat effects but pose some problems when either treating the medium or changing it.

ROBERT GOUVEIA: It is pure sand and we change it every two years. We just wheelbarrow it in and out. We are thinking of adding perlite to the medium. We do not treat it chemically but simply remove the top 1 to 2 in. of sand at the end of the first season.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Gary Koller. Why should the horticulture industry concentrate on providing dwarf and slow growing cultivars to customers who typically prefer quick establishment and immediate impact. Homeowner


Author: Leonard Savella

PP: 438

Leonard Savella made the following Award of Merit presentation:

The Award of Merit is the highest award the Eastern Region of the I.P.P.S. can bestow. To receive this award is indeed a great honor.

The recipient of the year's award is truly deserving. He started his nursery career at the young age of 6 years. Between 6 and 12 years of age he worked on an estate owned by a Miss Case who also allowed the recipient's parents, Peter and Anna, to grow rootstocks and have cows and chickens on the farm. Peter and Anna Olga Puren were childhood sweethearts in Latvia and Russia. They emigrated to America where they married and had two children—the recipient, and a daughter, Laura.

The recipient's job as a young boy was to maintain the peony and wildflower gardens of the estate, which are presently combined into the perennial display area at the Arnold Arboretum in Weston, Mass.

His other duties, along with his sister Laura, were to deliver door to door through the neighborhood the milk and eggs that