Volume 36

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Author: Philip E. Parvin

PP: 32

The International Plant Propagators' Society is a good as its members want it to be. Our Society is US—you and me, not THEM—some shadowy group of strangers! It has been my very great privilege to attend meetings of several of the Regions that comprise IPPS, Inc., and I come away from each meeting feeling a unique sense of pride that I belong to such an organization!

During the past five annual meetings of the International Board, I have heard increasing concerns expressed by the Directors over various aspects of the policies and rules under which we operate, such as the relationships of the Regions to each other, and the relationship of the Regions to the International body. Finances, publications, forming new Regions, voting rights, Region's rights, are frequently on the agenda for discussion. This is GOOD! An organization worth supporting is an organization that serves the needs of its members and, truly, an organization must change as the needs of its members change.

Most of us know


Author: J. Heinrich Lieth

PP: 77

A crop model is a mathematical representation of how a crop grows and develops. Although not much modeling has been done on horticultural crops, there are a number of agronomic modeling projects. Over the last few years many of these have developed to the stage where it is now possible to develop management tools from the results.

Only recently have research dollars been allocated for modeling horticultural crops. This is probably due to the realization that benefits are possible for the horticulture industry. The greenhouse industry has, for example, discovered that a crucial step in the area of automated environmental control is to be able to provide the control computer with some representation of how the plant responds to modifications in the environment. Those interested in production can benefit by having a lot of crop-specific information placed into a package which mimics the crop's response to changes in cultural practices. With such a model it is possible to develop cultivars


Author: T.E. Welsh

PP: 455

The breeding and selection of summer flowering Zantedeschia hybrids has had a long history in New Zealand. Over the past 50 years amateur breeders have crossed and back-crossed selections originating from the following species: Z. elliottiana; Z. rehmannii; Z. albomaculata; Z. tropicalis; and Z. pentlandii. The result of this work has led to a wide spectrum of beautifully coloured hybrids suitable for cut flowers, potted plants or garden plants.

In recent years commercial nurseries have been able to exploit the tremendous potential of this crop through the rapid multiplication process of tissue culture. Previous to this technique, clones could only be multiplied by division which was very slow and often led to disease. With tissue culture propagation it is now possible to bulk up thousands of progeny from a single clone in a very short period of time. This process is, however, expensive and a clone must be thoroughly assessed before it is selected for bulking up.



Author: Esme J. Dean

PP: 458

Capillary beds were installed at Omahanui Native Plants in December, 1985. Although 9 months is a relatively short period of time to offer an assessment, I feel that current interest in capillary beds is high and our experiences to date could be of relevance.

I intend to outline structure, cost, management techniques, and offer an overall assessment of this system 9 months on.

Basically, capillary beds are a watering system where water is made available at the base of the container-grown plant rather than by an overhead sprinkler system. Water availability is an extremely important factor affecting plant growth rates and general plant health. Overhead watering inevitably has variable distribution, resulting in some overly wet and other very dry areas in the nursery. There is also considerable water wastage with fall on standing out areas and pathways. In the capillary system water is available at all times through capillary action from the moist sand of the bed up through the drainage


Author: John A. Eiseman, Michael B. Thomas

PP: 462

The effects of four different seed sowing times, plus fungicide treatment, were evaluated for peach rootstocks direct-sown using seed from ‘Golden Queen’ peach. The two earliest sowings resulted in significantly higher seedling emergence and percentage buddable stocks, than later sowings. The second sowing time of May (late autumn) gave the highest seedling emergence (59.1%) giving 48.9% buddable stocks based on the number sown. Soil temperature and moisture were considered key factors influencing subsequent seed stratification, while prior handling and storage were also thought to influence the results. Fungicide treatment with thiram had no significant influence.

Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 468

Pingao, Desmoschoenus spiralis, is a native plant endemic to New Zealand. It is a sedge and its natural habitat is the sand dunes. The thick rope like stems and long roots allow it to thrive in the shifting sands. The stiff leaves, which range in colour through green to gold to orange, form semi-tussocks.

In pre-European times pingao was a common plant in both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Now, farm stock and feral animals graze the foreshore and introduced plants, marram grass, buffalo grass and lupins, which have been widely used to control the spread of the sand dunes, have displaced this native plant. Pingao is localised and may become endangered.

Pingao has always been used for a weaving material by the Maori people, for kete, and for tukutuku panelling which lines the walls of the meeting houses. In the last decade, the renaissance of taha Maori, both in the weaving arts, and the refurbishing of marae, have increased the use of the pingao fibre, and in many areas


Author: Jack Harre

PP: 470

Thirty years ago the germination of Proteaceae seeds and their survival through to a saleable plant was a great mystery to me and, judging by the results I sometimes see in New Zealand and other countries, it still is to many people.

In this paper I will outline the methods I have developed during those thirty years and now use to propagate this family of plants from seed in my particular climate. In doing so I must generalise as there is insufficient time to go into the finer details for each species and cultivar. In practice one should never generalise about proteas.

Proteas are unique in some of their demands for survival. A basic understanding of where, how, and why they grow in nature will help understand why they need these specific conditions.

Almost all the proteas we know in New Zealand gardens come from the Cape Province of South Africa and are mostly found in an area about 600 km long by 80 km wide, stretching from Capetown eastwards to Port Elizabeth along the coast and


Author: Cathy Jones

PP: 477

Acacia melanoxylon R.Br. plants have been regenerated from dissected embryos using tissue culture techniques. Shoots excised from seedlings grown in-vitro formed roots in a non-sterile environment following an in-vitro auxin/cytokinin treatment. The Quoirin-LePoivre (Q-LP) medium currently used for in-vitro culture is not optimal; addition of activated charcoal resulted in clones with less foliage abscission, larger shoots, more leaves, and higher leaflet numbers.

Author: P.G. Fenemore

PP: 481

Before the question posed in the title of this paper can be answered it is necessary to pose, and attempt to answer, two others:

(1) What is biological control? and (2) what can it achieve?

What is biological control? The term biological control can mean rather different things to different people. Like many well worked (or over-worked) terms it has been adapted and modified by various authors to suit their own particular view points. The way in which the term will be used in the present paper should be clear from the following discussion.

The basic ideas, concepts and early applications of biological control were developed primarily by entomologists who, at least 100 years ago, recognised the importance of natural enemies in regulating populations of pest species. To a large extent it is only during the past few decades that such concepts have been extended to organisms other than insects and mites. I will first discuss biological control with respect to pest insects, then consider


Author: Roger White

PP: 488

At Lyndale Nurseries we are of the opinion that the production of good plants from cuttings begins with the maintenance of stock plants that will produce the cutting material.

By growing the majority of our stock plants on the nursery property we can be sure that:

  1. The history and identity of each stock plant is known.
  2. Material produced by the stock plants is free of pests and diseases.
  3. Cutting material can be collected with ease at the optimum time to ensure best possible results.

As well as our regular stock beds we have employed the available space between areas on banks, etc. to grow plants suited to particular conditions. For example, on a sunny north-facing bank grevilleas thrive in very sandy soil built up from used propagating mix. Banks are also filled with leptospermums and smaller growing conifer cultivars.

In the laying out of stock beds thought should be given to accessibility when collecting cuttings. Plants need a certain amount of room to grow and we need room to be


Author: C.B. Christie

PP: 490

A discussion group met to consider why Photinia × fraseri ‘Red Robin’ was a difficult subject to manage in the propagation and growing-on departments of many nurseries. The stock plant management and history prior to taking cuttings was probably more important than the propagation environment in producing a well-rooted, but not heavily callused plant, provided normal requirements for light, temperature, and water are satisfied.

Author: John A. Eiseman, Michael B. Thomas

PP: 494

The relative success of T-budding, with and without "backwood", and of chip budding were compared at four different times for the production of peach nursery trees. Early budding resulted in the highest bud takes. There was no significant difference in success among the three methods. Budding was unsuccessful for the last budding time, regardless of whether chip budding or T-budding was used.

Author: Lorence R. Oki

PP: 83

Computers at Oki Nursery are not a new sight. We obtained an IBM 403 Card Sorting System about 1960. Programming the machine required actual rewiring of a program board. Later, we graduated to an IBM System 3 and in 1980 to our current computer, an IBM System 38. With this computer, we have linked our Portland branch to our main office in Sacramento. There are more than 12 terminals distributed through the main office in Sacramento and between 20 to 30 people a day use the computer to utilize its processing capabilities or to access information which is held in its memory. Lately we have been networking personal computers to the System 38 to increase our capabilities. Our major applications are order entry, order picking, inventory, truck dispatching, accounting, payroll, credit, and accounts receivable, accounts payable, crop planning, and a variety of management reports.

Now, let me tell you about my personal experiences with a computer because I am not an expert with it. I want to assure you that it does not take a genius to figure out how to use them


Author: Jenny Aitken-Christie, Astrid Coker

PP: 499

The effects of surfactants Tween 80, Citowett, and Silwet L-77 on foliar absorption of cytokinin and urea on juvenile Pinus radiata plants were examined. BAP in the presence of either 0.2% Silwet L-77 or Citowett gave a 9 and 5-fold increase, respectively, in axillary shoots at the top of the plant as well as a marked increase in stem shoot number after 18 weeks. Tween 80 had little effect.

A 1% 15N-urea + 0.1% Silwet L-77 foliar application doubled the amount of nitrogen absorbed. In the absence of L-77, seedlings tolerated 5% urea, whereas in the presence of 0.1% L-77 and urea concentrations higher than 2%, needle burning occurred.

Silwet L-77 ("Pulse", Monsanto) may be a useful surfactant for foliar applications of growth regulators, growth retardants, and nutrients to other plants.


Author: Charles A. Hildebrant

PP: 506

Membership in IPPS as well as various other professional nursery organizations invariably gives us opportunities to tour many prestigious nurseries. We see their propagating facilities and come away with a feeling of respect and probably a bit of envy. When we get home, however, we soon realize that even if we did have a sophisticated 30,000 sq ft propagation house, the most probable method of utilization would be by having our plants off in one corner and having a weekly barn dance in the remaining empty space.

The facts of life of the small nursery (ours is 8 acres) is that you simply do not need a large propagation facility. We currently propagate 95% of our own stock. This includes summer softwood cuttings in mist beds as well as winter hardwood cuttings in bottom-heated beds without mist. These winter, bottom-heated beds also serve to hold the young stock that we graft during the December to March period. We do 100% of our own grafting of both evergreen and deciduous plants. Our


Author: Randall H. Zondag, Michael Brugger

PP: 511

Root zone heating or soil heating is an old concept being modified with new equipment to produce high quality, uniform plants in a relatively short period of time using little energy. In basic terms, the techniques used simply circulate hot water through plastic tubing to provide even heating throughout the soil medium. Two major types of root zone heating systems are commonly used. The first utilizes ¾-in. plastic tubing and the second uses the similar EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) tubing. Both systems work well when engineered and installed properly (1).

The root zone heating system has a boiler, supply lines, a header system, runs or loops of tubing, a return line to the boiler, a pump, and a quality thermostat. The root zone heating system should not be the only heat supply for the greenhouse. Secondary heaters must be installed to assure warm air temperatures during extreme cold periods and to help melt problem ice and snow. Root damage from high soil


Author: Clayton W. Fuller

PP: 515

Air movement or circulation is certainly not new to the greenhouse or nursery industry. There are many ways in which we have succeeded in doing this over the years: by opening vents, use of fans to pull air through, fan jet convectors with the punched poly tube and duct fans to create a horizontal air flow.

Horizontal air flow, or HAF, is the topic of my subject today. What exactly is HAF? It is simply air circulating horizontally in a column around the house. Fans located on opposite sides of the house provide a gentle but continuous circulation which mixes the air from top to bottom in the structure. We have used HAF in our growing houses since the advent of double poly during the energy crisis. Double poly sealed our houses so tight we found there was no natural air movement. Many articles have been written over the years about HAF in growing houses, so we will move on to cold storage houses.

Why would we want to install HAF in these structures? Are there advantages or maybe


Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 519

Cuttings of 8 woody shrub species were rooted under intermittent mist in mixes containing 0, 25, 50, and 75% (by vol) of polystyrene pellets with 100, 75, 50, and 25% of either sand or peat. Based on evaluation of rooting percentage and (or) on an index of root mass and quality, rooting performance of all species was better and (or) more uniform in sand/polystyrene than in corresponding peat/polystyrene mixes. Inhibition and greater variation in rooting in the peat/polystyrene mixes seem to be associated with low pH, non-uniformity, and excessive moisture in these mixes.

Author: James S. Wells

PP: 523

Some of you may be mildly surprised to see my name associated with daffodils rather than rhododendrons, misting, hormones, wounding or similar topics. How has this come about? Most nurserymen, I fell certain, do not plan to retire. I did not. I thought that eventually, in the distant future, I would perhaps collect the mail daily, make a few pungent comments to those who really do the work, and then move off to examine an unusual plant I had noticed the day before. But this was not to be.

Our nursery began in 1956 at Red Bank, New Jersey. We started with an open field, in which a few pegs were placed to indicate roads, frames, etc. We propagated a crop of rhododendrons and in 1957 began to plant out our first beds. Twenty years later we had reached a point at which we were able to help host the summer meeting of the IPPS Eastern Region. That year, 1976, was the apogee of our New Jersey nursery. The previous year we had decided to move, and a farm on the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains


Author: Richard A. Simon

PP: 528

Bamboos belong to the Bambusoidae division of the grass family, Graminae or Poaceae. Some people have given the name "tree grass" to bamboo because of the giant size they can attain, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Since some bamboo species only reach a maximum height of 18 to 24in. (and some varieties even less), the "tree grass" name is not appropriate for all bamboos.

There are two main divisions in the bamboos based on rhizome habit. The clump growers, or pachymorphs, have constricted rhizomes so that the plant remains in a relatively tight clump. Although the clump increases in size over the years, its increase per year is generally measured in inches rather than feet. The other group, the leptomorphs or running bamboos, spread rapidly by vigorous rhizomes which can extend out from the parent plant several feet, or more, per year. For garden purposes, the clump growers are more desirable, but, generally speaking, they are the tropical of


Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 531


Plastics and textiles have played an increasingly important role in the continuing search for better ways to grow nursery crops. Continuous films fo clear plastic have replaced glass throughout the industry. Woven polymer shadecloth provides reduced heat and light to sensitive crops, is easier to handle and has become less expensive than wooden lath. Milky white plastics have become an integral part of winter protection for container nurseries. Insulating plastic foams and laminates help nurseries overwinter more valuable or delicate stock.

Today, we are often pumping water through plastic pipe and nozzles onto plants in plastics pots on a plastic groundcover with plastic protection between the plant and the sky. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, etc. have become familiar terms during the polymer revolution that has captured us in the past 20 years. This rapid change has occurred because the nurseries must use technology that will perform required tasks as well as or better than


Author: K.W. Mudge, C.A. Borgman, J.C. Neal, H.A. Weller

PP: 538

Micropropagation has had a significant impact on the commercial propagation of several small fruit crops, especially bramble fruits. Tissue culture is commercially viable under certain conditions, primarily because these crops are relatively slow and labor intensive to multiply by conventional techniques, and because of the demand for virus indexed registered stock. Red raspberry, for example, is difficult to root from cuttings, and hence is conventionally propagated mainly by division of canes arising from root suckers. Typically, a multiplication rate ranging from about 4 to 1 per year is achieved with stock infected with common viruses. At Congdon and Weller Nurseries, however, multiplication rates of about 10 to 1 per year are achieved from division-propagated stock largely because of a virus index registration program which has been in place since 1964 (11). These relatively low rates of multiplication combined with stringent cultural requirements required for participation in the

Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 543

Our basic approach to outdoor grafting of deciduous trees had always been coupling or triangling. When the scarcity of good, capable grafters to make intricate triangle grafts became a problem, we decided to try modified side grafting. We felt that this procedure would solve two of our problems; the need for experienced and skilled grafters, and the poor "takes" that we encountered with various species. This resulted in the loss of the full standard. When only a portion of the stem is lost, the tree is made less uniform and not as readily saleable.

To overcome both of these problems we decided to see if side grafting, as we were using in evergreen grafting, might work. We were grafting around 30,000 evergreens at that time, had plenty of experienced help, and time to train more, as grafting is done during our slacktime—winter.

Let me describe to you the procedure using Morus alba ‘Pendula’, which is grafted onto M. alba or M. alba var. tatarica as


Author: Steven A. Hottovy

PP: 89

The numerous cultivars of Japanese maples, Acer palmatum, comprise an interesting group of desirable landscape plants. Their variations in leaf form, color, and habit, merit special placement in the landscape. To preserve these characteristics, Japanese maples are traditionally grafted on to seedlings of Acer palmatum.

At Monrovia Nursery Company, we are propagating the cultivars by grafting and budding. The propagation method used is determined by the time of year and the size of the scion and rootstock. During late winter, stick budding and side cleft grafts are utilized. In the late summer, chip budding is used.

Stick-Budding. Stick-budding uses a small stick with several sets of buds as a scion. The rootstock must be actively growing and in the bark slip stage for a successful union. This method is particularly useful if there is a caliper difference between scion and rootstock.

In late winter, dormant seedling Acer palmatum rootstocks of approximately pencil thickness are


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 545

Bench grafting of scions on bare root understocks has long been a mainstay of the production of wine grapes and fruit trees, particularly fruiting apples. It is a slower and more expensive process than budding the same trees on understocks already established in the field. Nevertheless it has several advantages over field budding. It is done at a traditionally "slow" time of the year for northern nurseries when there is little to do outside in the field and extra workers are available. Plants which sprout vigorously from the understocks, like Hamamelis and Corylus, sucker far less from deeply planted bench grafts than from pot grafts. Similarly budded trees like crab apples and Japanese cherries, which sucker readily from the understock, give far less trouble from grafts because the graft union is more deeply buried. Lilacs and other plants which are grafted on nurse roots with the intention that the scions callus and then put out their own roots produce superior and more permanent

Author: Robert H. Osborne

PP: 550

Chip budding is not a new technique. It has been used for decades and possibly for centuries. Recently however there has been a renewed interest in the technique. Much of the interest in North America has occurred as a result of British studies which have shown the technique to have many advantages over shield budding or T-budding. Before describing these advantages it might be advisable to describe the technique for those who are unfamiliar with it.

It makes no difference whether the stock or scion piece is prepared first, however we generally prepare the stock first. This reduces the handling of the scion piece and requires less juggling. The initial cut involves a downward thrust with a sharp grafting knife. The cut begins with a gentle curve until a depth equal to 1/3 of the stock's diameter is reached. Keeping the cut straight, proceed downward until the cut is approximately ¾ in. long. The length of the cut will vary somewhat with the size of the material being used. The second cut


Author: John J. Mcguire

PP: 556

Commonly used propagating media were compared for efficiency and speed of rooting Rhododendron cultivars. Peat/perlite, peat/vermiculite, and vermiculite were found to be efficient when used at a depth of 19 cm under mist at a minimum temperature of 19°C. A 3 year comparison of the two peat mixtures showed peat-vermiculite to give the best results in the shortest time.

Author: Michael H. Dodge

PP: 563

Heaths (Erica) and heathers (Calluna) are members of the Ericaceae family, which contains 70 genera with approximately 1500 species distributed through both hemispheres. Erica is one of the largest genera, with some 500 species that are found chiefly in South Africa, also in the Mediterranean region, as well as Central and Northern Europe. The South African species are not hardy in northern climates, but several are useful ornamentals in the U.S. Southwest as well as for the cut-flower trade. The Mediterranean species are cold hardy to +10°F (+5°F with winter protection). It is the group from the less temperate regions of Europe that we are chiefly concerned with, species with cold hardiness ratings that range from -5 to -35°F (E.carnea, E. cinerea, E. × darleyensis, E. tetralix, E. vagans and E. × williamsii). There are other genera that are called heaths that can be grown in northern climates; they are the spike heath (Bruckenthalia), the Irish heath (Daboecia

Author: James R. Johnson, John A. Meade

PP: 567

Unrooted cuttings of Rhododendron obtusum ‘Hino Crimson’, Euonymus fortunei ‘Emerald Gaiety’, Ilex crenata ‘Helleri’, and Cotoneaster horizontalis were treated with Dual, Devrinol, Ronstar, Surflan, and Rout. Cuttings were then allowed to root under intermittent mist in a polyethylene greenhouse, and were later evaluated for rooting percentage and rooting quality. When compared to the untreated check, results indicated no significant difference with the use of Ronstar as a pre-rooting herbicide treatment for R. obtusum ‘Hino Crimson’, E. fortunei, and I. crenata. Likewise, Rout showed similar results for R. obtusum ‘Hino Crimson’ and E. fortunei ‘Emerald Gaiety’. All other herbicide treatments demonstrated poorer results of either percentage or quality of rooting on the species tested.

Author: Gary Knosher

PP: 571

A "system," according to Webster, is "a scheme, plan or method," or "a regular method or order". If this definition were interpreted for ground cover production, it may read, "a consistent method for producing groundcovers". At Midwest Groundcovers, we have always felt the need for a system, because of the large number of units involved. We have also found that as the components within the system change in size of nature, the entire system may need to be modified to compensate for these changes. This will be the thesis for this presentation based on our experiences at the nursery. The system which will be looked at is the production of groundcovers, from the making of cuttings to the loading of the flats on the customer's trucks.

To start out, let's set some parameters on this discussion. The crops which are included are Pachysandra terminalis ‘Green Carpet’, Euonymus fortunei ‘Colorata’ and Polygonum cuspidatum var. compactum. The cuttings are direct stuck in 2 in., 3 in, or quart pots in flats. The


Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 577

Most evergreen and deciduous plant material, whether seedling or cutting propagated, is being successfully integrated into our GRO-PLUG system. It has become a basic "Hub" and feeds directly into our second "Hub" — the SIX-PAC.

Author: Betsy S. Kenyon

PP: 582

Prior to the freeze of 1983, tree production at Greenleaf Nursery Co. was a containerized operation with the exception of the seed bed for some shade trees. Our propagation techniques were either by seed, grafting, or rooted cuttings.

Seeds were sown in the fall in raised ground beds, grown for one growing season and dug the following winter. They were healed-in outside storage beds of sawdust until March 15th when they were planted into 1-gal containers. That November the 1-gal trees were then shifted into 5 gal containers and grown for one more year to saleable size.

Grafts were made in January and February as bench grafts, allowed to callus, and then potted into peat pots and placed inside quonset houses heated to 50°F. This allowed to losses to occur in the less expensive propagation space instead of after planting in containers. The grafts were planted directly into 5-gal containers in May or June once they were actively growing. These grafts were then grown for 2 years in 5-gal


Author: Arthur J. Vrecenak, J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 586

Medium temperatures and between pot air temperatures were measured within blocks of closely packed round and hexagonal #1 nursery containers inside of a white polyethylene covered, unheated overwintering storage house at John Vermeulen & Son, Inc. Nursery in Neshanic Station, NJ. Temperatures were recorded every 2 hours from November, 1984 through June, 1985. During the period of November, 1984 through March, 1985, little consistent difference was seen among pot types along the wall of the house and along the aisle. In the center of the block, however, hex pots showed average temperatures and minimum temperatures that tended to be in the range of 0.5 to 1.5°F warmer than round pots in similar locations. Within each pot type, there were differences associated with pot location within the block and with thermocouple location within the pots at the various locations.

Author: Jeremy Wells

PP: 593

It has been 14 years since I last spoke before this Society. At that time I was 27, full of ambition and naive idealism. I was part of a symposium discussing the production aspects of hybrid rhododendron production and was beginning to formulate the plans for restructuring and moving our company. Very little thought was given to the future economic policies of companies in our capitalist system; I was aware of the historical view and felt that the future was relatively secure. As I mentioned, I was very naive.

The last 14 years have been very turbulent; our economy has experienced a series of "crises", both real and imagined. There have been problems with energy in production, distribution, and availability. There have been rapid and rather severe "boom and bust" cycles in the economy; at one point the experience has been severe double-digit inflation with high interest rates, followed by severe deflation with an accompanying drop in rates. Consumer demand for


Author: Charles W. Heuser

PP: 91

The effects of the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, and their breakdown products, cyanide and benzaldehyde, on callus from ‘Marianna 2624’ plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. × P. munsoniana Wight & Hedr.), and on that from two almond cultivars (P. dulcis Mill. ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Texas’) were compared. Prunasin inhibited the growth of ‘Marianna 2624’ plum and ‘Nonpareil’ almond callus but not ‘Texas’ almond. Amygdalin inhibited ‘Marianna 2624’ plum callus growth but promoted growth of both almond cultivars. All 3 cultivars were inhibited to the same extent by sodium cyanide; however, benzaldehyde was strongly inhibitory to ‘Marianna 2624’ plum callus at 0.05 mM, but a concentration of 5 mM was required to similarily inhibit growth of either almond callus. The greater sensitivity of ‘Marianna 2624’ plum callus to the cyanogenic glycosides and benzaldehyde suggests that benzaldehyde is an important factor in the almond/plum incompatibility.

Author: Mark Richey

PP: 597

The following is an update on how we are processing and handling Taxus cuttings at Zelenka Nursery.

At the Grand Rapids IPPS meeting in 1982, you saw approximately ½ of our Taxus crop stuck as unstripped cuttings and the balance struck traditionally as stripped cuttings. We talked about the reasons and what we had found out to that point on the tour. We have refined our process to balance labor efficiency with rooting efficiency.

The early 1980's saw an imbalance in growth. Production was increasing faster than sales, so we were looking at ways to reduce labor while keeping our quality up. In November 1980, an R&D project was initiated to stick 5,000 cuttings of two Taxus cultivars as unstripped cuttings. The goal was to decrease the cost per cutting by $0.001 cents, while not reducing quality. That first year's experiment was successful, so we increased it in 1981 to 5,000 cuttings of 4 Taxus cultivars. This showed even more favorable results. We not only


Author: Nina Bassuk, Brian Maynard, John Creedon

PP: 599

The technique of stockplant etiolation has made it possible to root cuttings of plants which previously could only be propagated by budding or grown from seed. The cost of producing rooted cuttings from etiolated stockplants is approximately $0.05 to 0.10 more per cutting than traditional cutting procedures. The practice of field etiolation can produce a finished plant in the same time as field budding. Greenhouse etiolation substantially decreases the time required to produce a finished plant.

Author: Ron St. Jean

PP: 605

Propagation of azaleas at Van Hof's begins about the last week of August, when cuttings are taken either from bedded plants, containers, or lined-out material. Having these choices of locations assures that good healthy cuttings will be taken.

Author: Philip L. Carpenter

PP: 608


The value of the liner crop based on the area occupied (amount of land) is extremely high and it is not cost effective for the herbicide industry to label herbicides for use in liner beds. This means that the nursery industry will need to do most of its own research to determine what herbicides will be effective and safe for use in liner beds.

The use of herbicides in liner beds should be done only after careful evaluation of the existing weed problems, the liner species being grown, and the bed medium. To do otherwise is courting disaster.

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a nursery should develop a weed control system for its liner beds including an in-house research program.


Author: Kathleen Freeland

PP: 611

Illinois is known as the prairie state, but little of the original prairie remains. A resurgence of interest in the planting of display gardens as well as actual prairie reconstruction is happening at the present time. Hopefully, no more virgin prairie will be destroyed in the future. The public has been informed and all we need to do is keep the interest going. The use of prairie plants in a garden is just a small way that we in the field of horticulture can help with conservation.

The Chicago Botanic Garden has begun planting a display garden with prairie grasses and forbes. Our display of these plants is not only ornamental but is used as a learning tool for the interested public who chooses to see plants displayed in landscape settings. Classes are held for plant identification as well as prairie construction. In addition to these, a tram stop is being planned for next year to be able to make people more aware of the beauty and ornamental qualities of these plants. We collect seeds in


Author: Stephen D. Verkade

PP: 613

Mycorrhizae are the symbiotic associations of certain soil fungi and plant roots. Hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi are in close association with the cells in the outer region of the root and extend outward into the soil, effectively increasing the surface area of the root system. Mycorrhizae have been documented for nearly all plants in their natural habitats.

Since this is a symbiotic relationship, both the plant and the fungi benefit. The plant benefits primarily from increased nutrient and water uptake, while the fungi benefits from the use of the plant as a source of carbohydrates and plant exudates.

Research with ornamental plants has focused on both ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizae form a visible hyphal sheath around root tips and are responsible for the characteristic branching of ectomycorrhizal roots. Within the root, the hyphae surround, but do not penetrate individual cells. Unlike ectomycorrhizae, endomycorrhizae are not visible without magnification. In


Author: Thomas James Vanicek

PP: 619

Rhode Island Nurseries, Inc. has grown to become a 500-acre, field growing, wholesale nursery since its founding in 1896. Much has changed in this time but it remains in the control of the Vanicek family and still considers the genus Taxus to be their specialty. With such introductions as T. × media ‘Densiformid’ and T. × media ‘Nigra’ they stand ready to embark on the next 90 years with same drive and dedication to the nursery industry.

From the time the Taxus cuttings are stuck until they are sold the nursery will lose roughly 20% of them. Much of this loss comes from grading out the weaker or less desirable plants, as opposed to cultural (disease, insects) and mechanical damage. Eleven cultivars of Taxus are stuck each season. The average yearly total for all 11 cultivar is 150,000 cuttings. Within 8 to 9 years, depending on the cultivar, 115,000 plants will be sold.

The taking of cuttings begins in mid-November and is usually


Author: Janet C. Henderson, David L. Hensley

PP: 623

Seeds of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), common honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioica) were coated with either an adhesive plus hydrophilic gel, an adhesive only, or neither (control). The seeds were then planted in sand in the greenhouse, and irrigated at either 3–, 6–, or 9–day intervals. Percent germination of black locust and common honeylocust seeds irrigated at 3–day intervals was significantly decreased with exposure to hydrophilic gel. Gel-coated Kentucky coffeetree seeds irrigated at 6–day intervals also had a significantly lower percent germination than those treated with adhesive alone, but germination of untreated Kentucky coffeetree seeds was not significantly different than that of adhesive- or gel-coated seeds. No other significant difference in germination percentage was observed. Seedling heights and dry weights were not affected by seed treatment; however, decreased moisture availability due to longer time periods between irrigations tended to delay emergence and reduced seedling vigor.

Seeds treated with the same coating as above were planted in the field where there no significant effects on germination as a result of seed coatings with any of the species.


Author: Alice Jacot McArdle

PP: 629

Plant propagation plays a vital role in every facet of the tree and shrub breeding programs at the U.S. National Arboretum (USNA). Although the Arboretum employs most commercial propagation methods, the way in which they are used and the plant materials involved make for a very unique propagation program.

The tree and shrub breeding projects of the USNA have been of particular interest to the members of the IPPS and other plant industry associations. The USNA has strived to introduce to the nursery trade plants with improved horticultural characteristics, which are most often meant to rectify deficiencies found in the list of available cultivated plants. The improved trait of a new plant may range from such functional characteristics as increased disease resistance to visual attributes such as novel flower color.

The main role of the shrub breeding project, led by Dr. Donald Egolf and described in previous papers (2, 3), has traditionally been the introduction of new cultivars. Mr.


Author: Paul Smeal

PP: 634

Thursday Evening, December 11, 1986

The thirty-sixth annual banquet was held in the Aztec Room of the Hershey Lodge, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

On behalf of the Society, the research award was presented to Dr. Dennis Stimart, Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin at Madison by Dr. Paul Smeal.


Author: Rick Wells

PP: 97

At the 1985 IPPS, Western Region meeting, Dennis Connor of Monrovia Nursery Co. reported (1) on the production of Mahonia aquifolium ‘Compacta’ via cutting and tissue culture. Since then we have conducted an experiment to determine whether this plant could also be propagated utilizing air layering techniques.

Air layering is an ancient and, under favorable conditions, a very sure method of plant propagation for many plants. This method has been practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. The method has been used mostly with plants native to the tropics and subtropics; however, some hardy perennial plants such as dogwoods, hemlocks, hollies, rhododendrons, viburnums, and wisterias have also been propagated in this manner.

Basically the method involves the stimulation of root development by injuring a stem and surrounding the wound with a medium which is porous enough to admit sufficient air and yet will remain moist enough to provide a good environment


Author: Leonard P. Stoltz

PP: 634

Dr. Leonard P. Stoltz made the following IPPS Eastern Region Award of Merit presentation:

Award of Merit

Our Award of Merit recipient came from a family of small farmers. His life upholds the old adage "You can take the boy away from the farm, but you can't take the farm away from the boy!"

After graduation from high school he entered the army and spent 3 yr in Europe where he became an expert in artillery, travel, and poker—his expertise, however, was not necessarily in that order. With 3 yr of expertise behind him in dealing with numbers and juggling the probabilities of poker he decided to enter Ohio University in 1946 to become an accountant. Upon graduation in 1949 he decided not to become an accountant but entered Stanford Graduate School of Business and graduated in 1951. Being an inveterate gambler and wanting to play for higher stakes but with someone else's money he joined a Wall Street firm as an investment counselor. After 10 years in this position he left to become manager of the Personal Investment Division of another Wall Street firm.

In 1964 the frustrations of picking the


Author: John W. Einset

PP: 635

When shoots of Actinidia kolomikta were cultured on a basal medium supplemented with 30 µM N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (i6Ade), cytokinin was rapidly consumed from the medium at a rate corresponding to 100±23 nanomoles i6Ade per g FW per day. At the same time, zeatin (io6Ade) was excreted into the medium where it reached a level of approximately 8µM during 10 days of incubation. Rates of i6Ade consumption, expressed as nanomoles consumed per g FW per day, for shoot cultures of other species were as follows: Actinidia arguta, 160±23; Magnolia × soulangiana, 18±3; Metasequoia glyptostroboides, 120±43; Nicotiana tabacum, 33±8; Paulownia coreana, 130±30; Sassafras albidum 53±11; Syringa × hyacinthiflora, 62&plusmn10. Based on these consumption rates, one can expect that if one uses standard procedures for micropropagation (e.g. 30 µM i6Ade, 20 ml per tube], the medium will become totally depleted of within about 3 to 10 weeks depending on the species.

Author: Joerg Leiss, Bruce Briggs

PP: 641

The Question Box Session was convened at 9:00 a.m. with Joerg Leiss and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR LEISS: We have yellow nutsedge and are not in a position to move our nursery. I understand that Roundup will only burn off the tops and set the nuts into dormancy for one or more seasons. I've also read that Besagran applied when new growth is 4 to 6 in. tall will kill both top growth and nutlets. Can anyone comment on these herbicides?

PHILIP CARPENTER: Roundup is not an effective control. Besagran is an effective control but it has no woody ornamental clearances on the label. I cannot recommend it on that basis.

MODERATOR LEISS: Question for Philip Carpenter on the fumigation of liner beds. The labels on most brands of methyl bromide list application rates between 1 and 4lb/100 sq. ft. In light sandy soils at what rate can we expect control of wild chrysanthemum and yellow nutsedge. Also, at the higer rates, do we chance eliminating beneficial soil fungi and


Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 646

In the 1930's when our nursery began to expand and shift emphasis from herbaceous plants toward hardy trees and shrubs, a definite need became evident. The flowering season for most woody plants that were appropriate for our type of customers was quite short. Blossoms, with few exceptions, were limited to May and June. Those that bloomed earlier or later often lacked the garden appeal of the "in season" choices. Since we already grew a lot of our plants from seed, we decided to try to breed and select for improvements and to begin with rhododendrons and azaleas.

One of the goals in our earliest selecting and hybridizng programs at Weston Nurseries was to expand the flowering season and color choices for landscape plants. We begn primarily with early blooming species, such as Rhododendron mucronulatum and R. dauricum var. sempervirens and R. carolinianum. Results of those efforts have been gratifying and have given us incentive to continue. The rhododendron hybrids


Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller

PP: 650


Acer saccharum ‘Globosum’ is a globe-shaped sugar maple. What makes this tree of interest to the nursery trade is its small eventual size. This sugar maple has the same fine fall color as the species. We have two plants at the Arnold Arboretum. One, a 45 year old plant, is about 25 ft high by 18 ft wide and was grafted low to the ground. It could also be grafted as a standard. I don't know about the history of this cultivar but we received our material in 1942 from the Henry Hohman Nursery in Kingsville, MD. I see this cultivar as an excellent tree for lawn, patio or park use.

Betula grossa, the Japanese cherry birch, is a small tree that has shown no pest problems at our arboretum. It is native only to Japan and is found in the lower three islands but seems to be most common in the central provinces of the large island, Honshu. Its bark, while not being a "commercial white", is a fine silvery-maroon color which resembles the bark of


Author: Rick Wells

PP: 99

Camellias are one of the major crops at Monrovia Nursery. We prepare in the neighborhood of 1,500,000 camellia cuttings per year resulting in the production of over 1,000,000 liners. Approximately 600,000 of these liners are used for the production of larger containers while the rest are sold as liners. Of the 600,000 or so # 1 container plants produced each year, only about 5,000 are grafted, (this is only about 0.8%).

We graft camellias for one of three reasons. First some cultivars (‘Pink Pagoda’ for example) are very poor rooters or grow poorly on their own roots. Second, we can multiply new cultivars faster by utilizing both softer cuttings and heavier scionwood from the plants where cutting wood is limited. Third, when we receive wood of the new cultivars from other nurseries or arboreta the wood is often unsuitable for cuttings, but better suited for scionwood.

Camellias require considerable care during the grafting process. We have had the best results utilizing the following


Author: Don J. Durzan

PP: 101

Major advances have emerged in methods for cloning, creating new genetic variation (directed and misdirected), and in risk reduction associated with the vegetative propagation of woody perennials. These advances are related mainly to the capturing of specific genetic gains. Advances will be illustrated with wood ornamentals, forest (pine, fir, spruce) and fruit trees (peach, cherry, pistachio).

Author: Calvin Chong, Luce Daigneault

PP: 108

Cuttings of 20 woody genotypes belonging to various species were treated with 0 (control), 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, and 40,000 ppm of indolebutyric acid (IBA) as a 5-second dip and rooted under intermittent mist. Except for two species (Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’ and Forsythia × intermedia ‘Lynwood Gold’), rooting of all plants was significantly greater than the control after treatment with one or more concentrations of IBA. Maximum rooting varied between 24 and 100% depending on the genotype. IBA-induced basal injury to cuttings occurred in all plants and increased with increasing IBA concentrations, especially between 20,000 and 40,000 ppm. In certain difficult-to-root genotypes, basal injury at these high IBA concentrations was associated with swelling and enhanced rooting above the injury.

Author: Philip McMillan Browse

PP: 116

This project was undertaken to elucidate and confirm the pattern of seed dormancy and the conditions required to achieve an optimal germination in a range of the early flowering Asiatic magnolias. It constitutes the primary phase in a series of observations which are being carried out to develop a productive and reliable schedule for magnolia seedling production. The programme is required to produce seedling rootstocks of suitable size, at relevant season, for budding or grafting with scions of selected clones or named cultivars of the early flowering, "tree" type, Asiatic magnolias,

It is necessary to propagate these plants vegetatively so that flowering specimens can be produced in an acceptable time span. Seedlings of some species (e.g. Magnolia campbellii) can exhibit juvenile phases of up to 40 years and even then flower quality is not guaranteed. Stem cutting propagation is not reliably documented and what little information is available points to a poor rooting


Author: Tony Biggs

PP: 120

Containerised plants were traditionally propagated and grown in soil-based media but there has been a major shift towards soilless media in the last 30 years. Peat, sawdust, pinebark, sand, vermiculite, and perlite are all used in a variety of mixes but the search for suitable ingredients continues. This paper deals with developments in the use of horticultural rockwool and diatomaceous earth as components of plant production systems.

Author: Tok Furuta

PP: 36

For the next few minutes, I invite you to join me in doing something rarely done at these meetings. I invite you to take this opportunity to dream—to look at where the nursery industry and plant propagation have been—where from. This look will not be sharply focused—rather it will be somewhat out of focus and somewhat directionless so that the essence of what was there will seep into our thinking without conscious direction.

Then, I want you to join me in directing this receptive mind forward—to where we are going—where to? In preparing for this discussion, I wrote several colleagues inquiring of their thoughts on where the industry is going and what it would be like.

     "My dreams…do not extend 25 to 50 years ahead. Yours probably do not either…" wrote Professor Elton Smith of Ohio State.
     "One thing is for sure, the mule and Ga stock plow…is not going to be a part…" wrote Professor Fred Perry of Auburn University.
     More of the same, others responded. If it is to be more

Author: Henry Lima Jr, Robert Ticknor

PP: 126

Production of Syringa vulgaris as forced potted plants is significantly affected by the cultivar and its method of propagation. Few flower buds were set on one-year-old plants from tissue culture and none were set on one-year-old plants from cuttings. Plants from tissue culture were significantly taller and wider than plants from cuttings. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fewer stomates on plants from tissue culture. A count of stomates per unit area of leaf indicated 21 to 32% more stomates on plants from cuttings. Damage from Pseudomonas syringae was greater in S. vulgaris ‘Mme. Lemoine’ than in ‘Michael Buchner,’ and greater in plants from cuttings than in plants from tissue culture.

Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 131

The project I have been working on at the University of Connecticut is the development of new forms of dwarf conifers. The dwarf plants that I have developed are not the result of hybridization, but originate from seed obtained from mutations found on various conifers. These mutations called witches'-brooms, occasionally produce seed which give forth plants of which half are dwarf and half are normal.

We have at our nursery over 20,000 plants that range from two to 22 years of age. Although a graft taken from a broom would provide a dwarf plant, I prefer to collect seed because of the variability that occurs among the dwarf seedlings.

We have found that not only do the individual seedlings within a progeny exhibit variability, but differences also occur among progenies obtained from different brooms. Seedlings obtained from two red pine (Pinus resinosa) witches'-brooms, for example, have exhibited two different forms of growth.

In one, the plants are all upright while in


Author: H.B. Tukey Jr

PP: 138

When people are asked what they expect from arboreta and botanical gardens they all agree on one thing—to see plants. Nurserymen are no different. They look to botanical gardens for new plants, plants from other regions, and unusual plants with unusual characteristics not found in the trade, because botanical gardens are associated with plant exploration, selection, and introduction.

Where do horticulturists get new plants? Fruit production is based on a small number of cultivars, developed over long periods of time, usually from a chance seedling or a sport. Only in the past 40 years have organized breeding programs begun to produce new and improved cultivars for commercial production, supplanting the better known and older types.

In contrast, vegetable, flower and turfgrass cultivars have been developed through extensive breeding programs of institutions and commercial companies. Competition is keen, the market is large, and the financial return for success can be substantial


Author: Bruce Briggs

PP: 142

The 1986 recipient of this Award was born in Missouri, March 16, 1921. He grew up in Kansas and came to California in 1939 to attend a carpenter's apprenticeship program at California Polytechnic Institute, San Luis Obispo. A few months later he enrolled in the Horticulture program and several years later received a B.S. degree.

During World War II he served in the military as a flying staff sergeant. Then he returned to California Polytechnic Institute as a teaching assistant and became a permanent instructor in 1947. In 1954 he became Acting Department Head of Horticulture. At about that time he took a sabbatical leave to obtain an M.S. degree at Ohio State University. He took another sabbatical leave in 1963 to complete his Ph. D. degree at Ohio State University. Our recipient was a charter member of the IPPS Western Region and active during its formative years. He was the 6th president of the Western Region in 1965–66.

He has been recognised for his many contributions to


Author: Bruce Briggs, Ralph Shugert

PP: 143

BRUCE BRIGGS: How do you propagate Juniperus scopulorum?

VOICE: It depends upon the cultivar. Some are easy to root — others not. Use 6000 ppm or 3000 ppm NAA. They take a long time to root, 5 or 6 months. Start them late in the season — November.

BRUCE BRIGGS: Do you use talc or the liquid hormone in your rooting?

VOICE: We use all liquid.

BRUCE BRIGGS: If you are rooting Juniperus horizontalis, J. sabina, and J. chinensis, do you take cuttings all at the same time for best rooting, or at different seasons?

VOICE: We start in late summer and early fall with J. horizontalis and J. chinensis, which are easiest to root, then we go into more difficult ones later in the season; when it warms up in the spring we go back and finish the J. horizontalis.

BRUCE BRIGGS: In rooting our rhododendron cuttings, they do not root around the edges of the bench. What is the reason for this?

DUANE SHERWOOD: It could be due for


Author: Mike Bennell, Gail Barth

PP: 148


Banksia coccinea is one of a number of Western Australian species being developed for commercial cut-flower production. Reliable methods of vegetative propagation are required so that selected individual plants can be clonally propagated and trialed by research institutions and growers.

This species is reputedly propagated by cuttings by some nurserymen but so far no published information is available on the best methods. Generally this species, along with several other desirable banksia species, has a reputation of being difficult-to-root and commercial practice is seedling production. (Note the effect of temperature on seed germination of B. coccinea at the end of this paper).

George (2) states that cuttings of many banksia species, including B. ericifolia, B. spinulosa, B. pulchella, B. nutans, B. integrifolia, and B. seminuda, strike root without auxin treatment and that, in some cases, the application of auxin may be lethal. Other authors have reported that auxins


Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 153

Preliminary results of an experiment on the supply of sulphur (S) to plants in containers were reported in my IPPS paper in 1985. (1). I stated that if a liquid feed is the sole source of S for plants in containers then that feed needs to contain in at least 15 ppm S for some species and at least 25 ppm S for others.

Those figures were used before an adequate statistical analysis was made on the data. This has now been done and the results of a number of other experiments analyzed, as well.

This paper summarizes these results and offers some guidelines for ensuring that your plants are never short of sulphur.

Sulphur—an essential element. Sulphur is an essential nutrient which plants take up mainly through their roots as sulphate ions (SO4 =). Other forms of sulphur such as elemental sulphur (yellow powder), or sulphur present as part of soil organic matter must first be converted by microorganisms into sulphate ions. Inside the plant, the sulphur of these sulphate ions is used


Author: John Falland

PP: 158

The growing of plants in covered houses, whether they be greenhouses, conservatories, or orangeries, is essentially a northern hemisphere phenomenon. It is not, however, a new phenomenon, and the first attempts at growing plants under artificial conditions go back to at least early classical times. For countless generations much use has also been made of "shade houses" or natural cover to allow the cultivation of many plants which were affected by excess sunlight.

The Greeks with their "gardens of Adonis" appeared to have had forcing houses in miniature. Plato says that "a grain, a seed or a branch of a tree placed in or introduced to these gardens acquired in eight days a development which could not be obtained in as many months in the open air." Columella, a Roman writer on rural matters, speaks of Rome possessing "within the precincts of her walls, fragrant trees, trees of precious perfumes such as grown in the open air in India or Arabia."



PP: 165

This award was set up in memory of the late Rod Tallis, a young Sydney nurseryman who had been very active in IPPS. The award is offered each year in the State where the Conference is being held. Young people under 25 years of age in nurseries, educational institutions, and government departments who have an interest in plant propagation are invited to apply.

The applicants, who need not be members of IPPS, must outline why they should be given the chance to attend the IPPS Conference. They also have to present a biography and outline their interest in horticulture and plant propagation.

The winner of the award attends the Conference as a guest of the Society and must prepare a paper for presentation at the Conference. The winner also receives a book award.

In 1986 Alison Fuss, a student at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, won this year's award and presented the following paper:


Author: Alison Fuss

PP: 165

Murray Bridge, which is 85 km southeast of Adelaide, is one of South Australia's significant glasshouse areas. In the past, tomatoes and cucumbers have been the main crops grown, however at present such crops are unprofitable. In this economic situation there has been a great interest shown by the growers in finding alternative crops which will bring greater returns.

Following the success of temperate-zone fruits, such as apples and peaches, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, it was suggested that they may also be suited to the hot and humid conditions of a glasshouse.

In December 1984, a glasshouse of peaches was established at Murray Bridge. A cultivar of a low chilling Prunus persica hybrid developed in Florida, U.S.A., was budded onto a nematode-resistant rootstock, ‘Nemaguard’. The trees were closely spaced and four main branches were trained from the main stem onto the outer wires of a low, 5-wire T trellis.

Work began in February, 1986, to


Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 40

We are in a very crucial period as we look at the future of American agriculture and examine the promise of science. On one hand we can look at the past 30 or so years and be impressed with contributions that science and technology have made to agricultural productivity. Let us look for a moment at the history of American agricultural productivity as shown in Figure 1 from an Office of Technology Assessment Report (3). We see that it can be divided into four major periods—hand-power, horse-power, mechanical-power and finally, science-power. The transitions from one form of power to another were marked by the Civil War, World War I, and World War II.

Author: A.D. Rovira

PP: 169

Knowledge of the biological processes in growing media is necessary where soils, whether synthetic potting mixes or natural soils, are to be used to produce vigorous, healthy plants. I describe some of these soil processes and also some electron microscope studies of soils which demonstrate the spatial distribution of micro-organisms in soil in relation to roots, clay, sand and organic matter. This paper deals also with soil-borne root diseases which can be devastating to plant health and are a part of the whole scene of soil biology. If soil is considered in this holistic way, control of root diseases through biological control, soil and root modifications, and bark composting will become reality.

Author: John Gray

PP: 180

When evaluating methods to improve cutting propagation, the need to overcome the following problems associated with conventional mist propagation became obvious:
  1. Nutrient leaching from the leaves
  2. .
  3. Cutting media becoming saturated, resulting in decay of cuttings below the surface of the medium
  4. .
  5. Wide fluctuations in humidity level, especially when misting is done in conjunction with evaporative cooling or fans
  6. .
  7. High volume of water used
  8. .

One method of overcoming these problems is to create a fog which will remain suspended in the air. This maintains a very high humidity and reduces transpiration loss from the cutting.

We have found Sonicore nozzles a cost-efficient method of producing fog which produces particles between 3 and 5 microns in size. These nozzles are air-driven acoustic oscillators for atomising water, by passing sound waves through a convergent/divergent section into a resonator cap where it is reflected back to compliment and amplify the primary shockwave.

The result is


Author: Ole Nissen

PP: 181

My nursery is located on the southeastern coast of Florida, about 80 miles north of Miami near where the Gulf Stream comes closest to the Florida coast. This provides ideal conditions for the production of our crops.

Our crops include miniature carnations, gerberas, and Asiatic lilies, grown under saw-toothed fibreglass structures, plus snap-dragons, delphiniums, and other crops under Saran shade cloth, as well as in the open.

Flowers are shipped to about 350 wholesalers as far west as San Antonio in Texas, and Denver, Colorado, but most are sold along the east coast of the U.S.

Shipments of flowers, mostly by refrigerated truck, begin in October and continue to the end of June each year. All flowers are shipped upright in deionised water with a floral preservative. All flowers are pre-treated prior to shipping and this is considered of great importance to give the consumer good value.

Florida plays a very important role in the U.S. horticultural scene, leading in foliage production


Author: Richard Williams

PP: 183

The Black Hill Native Flora Centre was established in the 1970's with the broad aim of promoting the cultivation and conservation of the native flora. This was to be achieved by propagation and research of the State's flora, the establishment of landscaped display gardens and a comprehensive information service, as well as the sale and distribution of a wide range of native plants, particularly those not readily available elsewhere. The research programme aims to bring into cultivation a wide range of State's native plants, both as an aid to conservation and revegetation programmes and to select and improve species with horticultural potential. To date the work has concentrated on the collection of a wide range of plant material and development of propagation techniques.

Field Collection.The first step in the research programme is the location and collection of plant material and establishment of a comprehensive seed bank and stock plant collection. At the same


Author: Allen Gilbert

PP: 188

Plant propagation in China is done at a basic level by the predominantly peasant population, without the aid of modern technology or the sophisticated equipment that money can buy.

Climatically and geographically China is a land full of surprises. Areas where plants are cultivated range from the permanently frozen tundra in the north to fully tropical zones in the south. China is much larger in area than the whole of Australia, measuring over 5000 km from east to west and more than 5500 km north to south.

In the far west is the Tibetan plateau which remains cold all year. Mountains fill about 33 percent of the Chinese landscape and, because of the rainfall experienced in these mountainous regions, there is a very large number of river systems spreading across the land. One of these, the Chanjiang (Yangtze) River, is the fourth longest river in the world—covering some 6000 km. There are other major rivers such as the Huang He (Yellow) River, and hundreds of smaller ones as well as


Author: R.J. Van Velsen

PP: 192

Following the publication by Kenneth F. Baker of "The U.C. System for Producing Healthy Container Grown Plants" (1), plant propagators have introduced various techniques to treat growing media to eliminate diseases and pests. The pasteurisation of growing media has resulted in improved profitability of propagation enterprises and a healthier product for the consumer.

However, it is evident from requests to import propagation material from overseas, that many plant propagators, fanciers, or plant breeders are unaware of the advantages of clean propagating material.

Advantages of Clean Propagating Material
—Reduction of "nesting" diseases in propagating benches, e.g. water-borne diseases—Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium, and Verticillium.
—Reduction in foliage diseases, e.g. mildews, rusts.
—Improvement in &quotbud-take" with use of virus-tested budwood, e.g. prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus-tested peach budwood.
—Better plant growth


Author: Acram Taji, R.R. Williams

PP: 195

Whilst for horticultural plants it is desirable to use vegetative propagation to maintain genetic uniformity, there are times when genetic diversity is desirable, e.g. in plant breeding and selection programmes, or for conservation of species diversity. However, not all plants set viable seed and, in other cases, seed is damaged by insects or released from the plant before it can be collected. Hybrids often do not produce seed, either because of pollen incompatibility or because of embryo abortion during seed development. Under these circumstances some means of artificial seed production could be valuable. At the Black Hill Native Flora Centre we have been developing the application of in-vitro techniques to such situations.

In-vitro studies of pollination and seed development may also shed light on problems which may ultimately be overcome by more conventional techniques once we understand the problem.

This paper presents examples of the application of in-vitro techniques to the


Author: R.J. Worrall, G. Cresswell

PP: 198

One of the most common problems encountered in nurseries is salinity, although the grower is often not aware of it. Excessive salinity may be the result of over-fertilization, combined with lack of leaching, and/or high levels of salts in the water supply. It will dramatically reduce growth rates, often before there are any visible symptoms. Low levels of soluble salts in the potting mix can also be a useful indicator of fertilizer deficiency.

The salt level in pots may also change rapidly, even on a daily basis. For example, in heat-wave conditions there may be rapid fertilizer release from controlled-release fertilizers, especially if it has been recently applied. A single heavy watering can also dramatically reduce the salt level. Since salinity readings can be "out of date" quickly, measurement at the actual nursery is very desirable.

A number of techniques for measuring the salinity of potting media are being evaluated by the Department. The techniques are:

  1. Saturated paste extract method (SP). This is a widely used

Author: Christopher Perry

PP: 201

Many horticulturists would argue for the development of crops in areas that seem most suited to the growing requirements of the species in question. Thus, it is thought that avocados should be grown in Queensland, almonds on the Adelaide Plains, and pistachios in the Murray Valley. In general this tends to be the way things are and so it should be.

Certain aspects of the fruit and nut market however, encourage the spread of crops into areas where their presence may be considered unusual. For example avocados in the Adelaide area. Avocados are not produced in any quantity or quality in Queensland in January or February, and in these months prices rise sharply as a result. Avocados grown in the Adelaide area are harvested later, and can supply fruit during this period. The high prices obtained compensate for the increased production costs and lower yield.

Producers of unusual fruits and nuts can take advantage of the special interest generated by their produce locally grown. There are


Author: Noel Chopping

PP: 204

This may appear an unusual title, but I hope the title will become self-explanatory. Some 20 years ago I became interested in producing Strelitzia reginae as a plant for the small container market. The normal method of propagation by rhizome division was out of the question due to the large size of the divisions and the high cost of this method. It was decided to try propagation by seed. At this time seed was available mainly from overseas suppliers and cost approximately 3 to 4 cents a seed. After some rather costly and poor germination results with commercial seed I decided to try and produce my own. At this stage I went to the horticultural literature to further study the genus Strelitzia.

Description of the genus:

The genus Strelitzia was named in honour of the queen of George III of England—Charlotte of Mechlenburg of Strelitz in Germany. This South African genus in the family Musaceae has four species of large perennial herbs with a rhizome or with a woody trunk.


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 48

Employers of today's Ornamental Horticulture graduates expect more of their new employees than just technical knowledge. They seek people who not only can pull their own weight, but who have leadership ability and experience in the industry. Most of the students in our horticulture program at Cal Poly have had some applicable experience. They have worked in nurseries, done landscaping, or been active in high school or community college horticulture programs. It is up to us to provide them with the technical knowledge and at the same time give them a greater depth of experience. This can be done in several ways—through part-time employment during the academic year, through industry-sponsored summer employment, through industry internship, or through production and sales experience.

Many years ago Cal Poly found its niche in agricultural education in California through educating young people for immediate employment in agricultural production and management. The "Learn by Doing" philosophy


Author: Brian Cuming

PP: 208

There has been growing concern in Australia about the problem of tree decline in the rural landscape. In particular there is a vital need to re-establish tree plantations on farms.

We decided in 1979 that there was an opportunity to participate in and promote an activity which we believed was in the national interest as well as offering a commercial opportunity. One of the reasons farmers do not plant as many trees as they should for their own economic good is that the whole business of choosing species from lists, planning layouts, and getting the planting done, is unfamiliar to them and requires considerable effort.

We recognized that the farmer needed a product package which simplified their task and allowed them to use their own equipment and labour to keep costs down. Hardy species were needed, grown and hardened off to survive freighting and establishment, often in harsh conditions. From the nursery point of view, flexibility in production was essential to provide for the


Author: Ruth E. Auld

PP: 211

Bougainvillea plants grow readily in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and can easily be produced in the Sydney metropolitan area. Care must be taken however, in positioning these plants in the colder and more frosty areas. With careful positioning these delightful scramblers can be encouraged to grow indoors, and in glasshouses and arbortariums.

There is a lucrative market for bougainvillea in Australia, as they give a beautiful display of colour throughout the summer, which makes them very popular.

To successfully grow this plant a sanitation program to eliminate disease should be used. This should begin before the cuttings are taken from the mother plant, rather than trying to arrest problems after the cuttings have been made.

Mother plants are grown in large shrub tubs in polythene tunnels to produce the correct type of cutting material. They are watered by trickle irrigation, because the sprawling habit and the large thorns make conventional watering very difficult.


Author: Gordon C. Biddle

PP: 214

This is not a scientific presentation but a factual record of the strife a plant propagator can get into if the quality of the water one is using is taken for granted.

When we began our nursery, life was fairly straightforward. Seeds were sown, cuttings were planted, and we enjoyed reasonable success with the majority of lines attempted.

In the summer of 1980/81, however, our results began to deteriorate and in the next two years it seemed that we may have to give up propagation. We could not get roots on Lamium or Maranta. Asparagus densiflorus "Sprengeri" seeds were reluctant to germinate, though Dracaena draco was still cooperative. All the trays on the heated benches were looking dreadful.

The chemical analysis of the propagating mix began to tell a story, though their correct interpretation took some time.

The test result were:


Author: Angela Cooper

PP: 216

I would briefly like to examine the importance of hygiene in the preparation of stock plants for tissue culture and in the planting out of tissue cultures. These are the two areas where the nursery propagator and the tissue culture laboratory interact, and for the relationship to be effective and trouble free there must be communication and understanding between the two spheres of activity. I think these two areas are worth exploring at an I.P.P.S. meeting.

Research is expanding the range of products which can be produced by commercial laboratories and tissue culture is going to become a more routine feature of propagation. Therefore theorists and practioners from both areas urgently need to come to grips with each other's requirements.

A combination of higher capital costs, higher labour costs, rising taxes and on-costs must cause the nurseryman to examine his/her nursery turnover in terms of dollars per square metre of floor space. The true cost of producing cuttings


Author: Gail Barth, Mike Bennell

PP: 220


Banksia species are showing great promise as a plantation-grown cut flower crop in South Australia where currently 56 ha are under cultivation. Two species with outstanding flowers and high export potential are Banksia coccinea (the scarlet banksia) and Banksia menziesii (raspberry frost banksia). Banksia coccinea has a reputation of being difficult to grow and is currently grown commercially only in well-drained acid sands in South Australia and Victoria. The flower is recognized in overseas markets from the export of bush-harvested blooms from Western Australia. There has been little success in cultivation overseas.

In addition to the striking appearance of the bloom, B. coccinea is suitable for export due to its small to medium size, relatively fine straight stems, compact leaves, and terminal flowering habit without side breaks. Considerable variation exists in populations in relation to flowering period (May to December) and color of blooms (yellow, orange to


Author: T. Allender

PP: 225

Commercial tissue culture propagation of salt-tolerant clones of eucalypts has been started by a South Australian nursery company, Land Energy Laboratories, Pty Ltd. Clones of salt tolerant genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. occidentalis will have an application in salt land reclamation, and in mine dump rehabilitation applications.

The clones could feasibly produce a biomass energy tree crop on large areas of abandoned irrigation farmland affected by increasing salinity and rising water tables. There is a perceived future in using superior clonal eucalypt material to rehabilitate degraded lands not only in Australia but also overseas.

A tissue culture laboratory has been established at Macclesfield to complement the existing tubestock nursery operated there by its affiliate, Land Energy Pty Ltd.

Young seedlings of selected species and provenances are first screened for their ability to survive and grow in increasing concentrations of salt water, as high as 80,000 EC


Author: D.W. Robinson

PP: 230

Ireland lies between 51.5° and 55.5° N latitude. The climate is essentially maritime being influenced by the Gulf Stream and the relatively warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift which reach the coastline of Ireland and northwest Europe.

Ireland's mild, oceanic climate is characterised by equable temperature, plentiful rainfall in most seasons, overcast skies, and high humidity. Conditions are suitable for the growth of a wide range of temperate trees and shrubs. In addition, many sub-tropical species, such as banana (Musa basjoo), tree ferns, Echium pininana, Callistemon spp. and Dacrydium spp., thrive in the open in mild areas. With some notable exceptions most of Ireland's best known gardens occur near to the coast.

Although the climate in Ireland is generally favourable for gardening, wind and year-round weed growth are two potentially major handicaps. Gales and strong winds are common; salt damage occurs frequently in coastal gardens and occasionally some distance inland. A wide range of plants is used to form windbreaks including Pinus muricata, Cupressus macrocarpa, Escallonia rubra var. macrantha, and Olearia macrodonta.

Herbicides can be used particularly effectively in Ireland to suppress weed growth. The rainfall, fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, enables soil-acting herbicides such as simazine to be used more effectively than in many other countries. In addition, the generally high organic matter content of the soil reduces the risk of plant damage. Herbicides have a major advantage in landscape maintenance in shifting major weed control activity from the busy late spring/early summer period to the late autumn/winter period when labour is more readily available.


Author: J.G.D. Lamb

PP: 238

When asked to speak on alpines worth growing, one is immediately in a dilemma, so numerous are the plants worth growing in the rock garden. One can only make a selection—and a selection must be largely subjective. There are some huge genera: gentians, saxifrages and primulas, to mention only three, which have contributed so many lovely species to our gardens that each genus alone could fill the 45 minutes allotted to this talk.

So here is my selection. I have avoided, on the one hand, those rather rampant but worthy plants represented by, for example, aubrietia, arabis and cerastium (though there are a few aristocrats amongst these) and on the other, those choice but exacting plants that demand culture in an alpine house, like the high alpine androsaces and dionysias. I love them all, but I have to come down to earth, and I have endevoured to choose from those that I consider choice enough for the keen plantsman, but not too difficult to grow and propagate. Above all, they


Author: Duncan J. Small

PP: 241

Anglia Alpines is a wholesale alpine nursery. The ultimate aim of any propagation enterprise is to produce a plant that is saleable at the right time. When wholesaling to retail customers this generally means a good potful in flower. In order to achieve this, potting and propagation must occur at the appropriate time, this being dictated by the sales period.

The natural conditions in which mother plants produce cuttings may not fit this desired production timing, but manipulation of the mother plant by altering its environment, and pruning as well, can be used to achieve this goal.

Another method is to take cuttings when optimum conditions prevail and, by manipulating the rooting environment, ensuring that the plant is ready for potting when required. For example, with Helianthemum spp., semi-ripe cuttings taken in September will root in a cold frame and be ready for potting in April. For later potting in May or June, softwood cuttings from forced mother plants can be rooted under


Author: L. Nigel Colborn

PP: 245

Our nursery is very small indeed. It will be even smaller next year for we are dropping our mail order service. However, we do pride ourselves on having a reasonably comprehensive collection of unusual plants in the gardens at Careby and have particular interest in some of the more old-fashioned ‘Cottage’ type plants. Furthermore, these types of plants are becoming very fashionable today.

Author: Natalie F. Peate

PP: 52

The population of Australia is just under 16 million. Of that, nearly 10 million or almost 2/3rds live close to the East Coast—from Brisbane south to Adelaide. Of that 10 million, 8 million are in four state capitals (Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide). To further emphasise our skewed demography may I add that there are over 6 million people in Sydney and Melbourne alone.

From these figures you will understand that the significant market for greenstock, and indeed most other goods, is in the southeast of Australia. If I tell you that there are a further 1 million people in Perth you will also understand that the rest of the continent is not exactly crowded.

In Perth there are some excellent nurseries in the hot, dry climate that is deal for much nursery growing. Fortunately for nurserymen in the Eastern States, Perth is remote, being separated from the rest of Australia by some 2,500 km of the Nullarbor Plains (nul arbor=no trees), though a small amount of high quality stock is


Author: J. Nicholas, J. Craigon

PP: 249

Analysis of the environmental influence on volume rooting of Daphne odora revealed that irradiance and night temperature requirements must be fulfilled for successful in vitro rooting to take place.

Author: Philip Wood

PP: 255

An experimental trial was set up using seven cultivars, each in a different genus. One was an Ericaceous plant. Each of the cultivars was potted into four composts which had varying amounts of dolomitic limestone added to them, except the Ericaceous plants which were potted into only three composts, and with the addition of dolomitic limestone not being at such great extremes.

From the six cultivars used in the trial, quite remarkable differences in growth rates appeared due to varying the amount of dolomitic limestone added to the compost. With this indicating that the compost's pH is critical in obtaining maximum plant growth, pH control can also be used for restricting growth.

With the one Ericaceous cultivar, no difference in growth rates were noticeable, as the addition of dolomitic limestone to the three trial composts was not at great enough extremes to appreciably alter the pH.

The seven cultivars that were used were:
     Viburnum tinus ‘Eve Price’
     Berberis thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea Nana’

Author: Donnchadh Mac Càrthaigh

PP: 259

Based on the results of a questionnaire sent to 42 commercial laboratories and scientific institutions (Table 1), an attempt is made to show the increasing use of micropropagated material in the hardy nursery stock industry. Twenty-five replies were received; the response from the commercial companies was poor whereas, in general, the scientific institutions gave a good response. In a number of cases, scientific staff went to considerable effort by contacting numerous firms so as to gain as accurate a picture as possible. Furthermore, direct personal contacts made at conferences on micropropagation, plus numerous telephone calls helped to increase the accuracy of the figures presented. However, it must be emphasized that the figures can only be seen as estimates as there is no method of accurately checking them. So far there are no reliable official figures and it is likely that some figures are counted twice as, for example, when a company imports micropropagated plants and sells them

Author: J.M. Kavanagh, S.A. Hunter, P.J. Crossan

PP: 264

The in vitro response of floret explants of three Catawba hybrid rhododendron cultivars—‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Cynthia’ and ‘Pink Pearl’ to varying indoleacetic acid (IAA) and (Δ2 Insopentenyl)—adenine (2iP) levels is described.

Although the explants of the three cultivars under investigation differed in their exogenous growth regulator requirements, it was found that relatively high auxin (2.0 to 4.0 mg 1-1) and cytokinin (10.0 to 15.0 mg 1-1) concentrations were necessary to induce adventitious growth.

Caulogenesis of both ‘Nova Zembla’ and ‘Cynthia’ cultures was maximised only if IAA was omitted from the medium. Both cultivars had an absolute requirement for 2iP; the former within the range 5.0 to 15.0 mg 1-1: the latter, 5.0 mg 1-1. Maximum propagule development occurred at 1.6 mg 1-1 for micropropagules derived from shoot tip explants used as the test material.


Author: Nigel J. Timpson

PP: 272

There are often many different ways of propagating a particular plant which will achieve the same result. What is described in this paper are the methods used at Hewton Trees and Shrubs for the propagation of Embothrium coccineum, Fremontodendron ‘California Glory’, and Carpenteria californica, all of which are often considered to be difficult subjects. All three types of plant are propagated in a similar way so the majority of the paper is devoted to the description of Embothrium coccineum, reference being made to any differences in the method for the other plants.

Author: Henry A. Van Der Staay

PP: 276

Tasmania is the smallest state in the commonwealth of Australia. Our total land area is equivalent to that of the Irish Republic. Most of the state is mountainous with numerous lakes and beautiful scenery. Being an island state and away from any cold landmasses our climate is very moderate. Temperatures in the mid-thirties are rare, while during the winter the temperature seldom drops below freezing.

This means that we can grow a very wide range of plants. Apart from a wide range of native flora, one will find all kinds of European, American, New Zealand and South African plants. All native trees and shrubs are evergreen and many of those flower during the winter months supplying food for many honey-eating birds.

A large proportion of our native plants are eucalypts, which come in all shapes and sizes. Many of them have silvery leaves like Eucalyptus cordata, which reduces water loss during a dry period.

In the rain forest areas tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica, are abundant and some of


Author: J.C. Kelly

PP: 279

The rooting response of Prunus tenella ‘Firehill’ to a combination of composts and growth regulators was evaluated. The growth regulators tested were the proprietory preparations of the combination of potassium salts of indole-3-butyric acid (0.5%) and naphthaleneacetic acid (0.5%) and of indole-3-butyric acid (0.8%) only. In addition, the rooting response to media mixes of two parts moss peat to one of sand (granitic origin), and one part perlite to one and two parts moss peat, respectively was noted. The potassium preparation produced rooting responses of between 44 and 76% and is a promising pre-propagation treatment for aiding root development of Prunus tenella ‘Firehill’.

High rooting percentages (60 to 75%) were obtained with the potassium preparation where a 2P: 1S mix was used. Results with IBA alone were poor in all composts.


Author: F.J. Nutty

PP: 282

Some years ago trials on the rooting of Hamamelis mollis were initiated at Kinsealy. While the rooting of the cuttings did not present a problem, the overwintering of the young plants did.

The cuttings were propagated by rooting in mist and also using warm bench and plastic. When weaned they were potted into 7.5cm pots using a peat-based compost containing 25% sand. The plants established well and filled the pots with a good root ball before going into dormancy. They were overwintered in a cold glasshouse.

By February the mortality rate was 100% even though water requirements, etc., had been carefully monitored. In later years we tried overwintering the plants at various temperature regimes including cold store treatment, but to no avail.


Author: Joe Whittle

PP: 284

The understanding of peat compost and the changes that can take place in the compost throughout the growing season are important factors in producing quality nursery stock. Knowledge of composts can be summarised as follows: know your peat, know your nutrition.

Peat Types. Peat maybe defined as a mass of organic matter at a stage of decomposition. Peat type depends on the source of plants and stage of decomposition. Sphagnum moss peat with which nursery stock producers mainly work is the final stage of a process which began approximately 10,000 years ago. Peat was laid down in a number of stages which may be divided as follows:

  1. Tundra conditions prevailed at the beginning with vegetation colonising higher ground. Arctic willow and birch formed the main woody plant life.
  2. Mixed forests of pine, oak, and yew gradually covered the areas above flood level while phragmites reed beds encroached the lakes. These constituted the first peat type.
  3. As lakes were filled in by reed beds forests began to encroach

Author: J. Ward, N.C. Bragg, B.J. Chambers

PP: 288

The diversity of the modern nursery stock industry inevitably means that any compost has to be "many things to many plants". Scientifically, the properties of a compost can be divided into physical, chemical, and biological. These can be interpreted to mean that the compost must provide a matrix which can physically support the plant, supply the air and water, contain the chemicals which are required both as major nutrients and micro elements and allow the microbes (required the completion of biological cycles) to exist.

Due to the diversity of species being grown in any one compost on any one nursery there is a difficult in defining precise levels of air, water, chemical, or biological activity. Generally a single mix is expected to "do" every species on a particular holding and variations in physical structure only occur among nurseries.


Author: Barrie L. McKenzie

PP: 56

It must be recognised that the establishment of the nursery industry in New Zealand by those nurserymen who arrived in the first two decades of the colony's history involved experiences that tested their skills and abilities to the maximum. Very few of them arrived with possessions such as bank accounts or other tools of trade to establish an industry in this new country.

When one studies the early days of the New Zealand nurserymen, it appears that most commenced their business as market gardeners, slowly moving their production in varying directions to the market demands of their districts. Those pioneers who arrived with tree seeds, cherry stones, apple and pear pips, and other horticultural plants combined the growing of one and another and slowly made a beginning of an industry in New Zealand. This, of course, was only one part of the story, because along with the production of plants came the potential customers. These were the farmers grappling with the land and the new problems


Author: Mary Forrest

PP: 293

The phrase, "lesser known plant" is an arbitrary one. A plant which is well known to one person may be rare to another. Plant material may succeed well in one part of the British Isles but may not be cultivated in another, even though soil and climatic conditions may be comparable. While preparing an inventory of trees and shrubs cultivated in Ireland and more recently at Glenveagh National Park, County Donegal, I have had an opportunity to examine several thousand trees and shrubs. Some are of botanical interest only but others deserve to be more widely cultivated. The taxa listed are in outdoor cultivation in this country and represent the floras of the temperate regions of the world. The plants selected have an ornamental value, such as flower, foliage, growth habit, peeling stems, or young foliage. They will succeed in any good garden soil and have little pruning requirements. Most are suitable for a suburban garden while the remainder could be planted in public parks or large

Author: G.R. Dixon, A.Q.M. Blain

PP: 297

A vast gene pool of ornamental plant material exists around the world for nurserymen to exploit. New uses will be developed for many existing plants as physiological manipulation becomes more sophisticated. Several schemes which aim separately at more intensive use of current nursery plants, conservation of diminishing genotypes, and the exploitation of plant breeding techniques are described. The Hardy Amenity Plant Introduction and Evaluation Scheme (HAPIE Plants) aims to identify under-utilised plant material in botanical collections and subject this to commercial evaluation. Over a period of 18 months since the scheme was conceived 50 plant types with possible commercial potential have been identified. Batches in excess of 500 plants have been propagated of four types and distributed to cooperating nurseries. Another 8 to 10 types are in the process of large scale propagation.

Author: E. Charles Nelson

PP: 303

There is a rising clamour within Ireland and Great Britain, among the keener gardeners, for a more interesting selection of garden plants to be made available commercially. It seems to me, a botanist and historian of horticulture, that nurserymen only respond to the desire for interest and novelty by trying to produce more new cultivars, and they do not take the time to look back to those cultivars that are already available but not necessarily widely cultivated. The new awareness of the older garden plants has been fostered in Britain by the National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (N.C.C.P.G.) and by its affiliated group in Ireland, the Irish Garden Plant Society.

Think about this for a moment. In the nursery business, it is the newly named cultivar that is the expensive plant — sometimes this means little more than an unscrupulous nurseryman has renamed a plant, something which happens more frequently than perhaps we are prepared to admit. In many other business it


Author: Andre Briant, Guy Fougeray

PP: 309

This paper will be confined to a discussion of cutting propagation at the Andre Briant S.A. Nursery in France.

Author: Gordon Hardy

PP: 314

The company employs approximately 180 to 190 staff throughout the year with some seasonal fluctuations. The herbaceous growing side of the company has three main departments where we have a relatively fixed staff.

In the open ground 110 acres are farmed and rotated with arable land every two years. A great advantage we have is a wide range of soil types in such a small area: fen peat, sands, gravels, heavy clays, and good loams. The department has regular staff of 22 people which do mainly seasonal work, e.g. hoeing, planting, splitting, and order-lifting for despatch once the season starts, i.e. September to April.

In the container department, with 950,000 plants being potted we have a fixed staff of 5, dealing with 5 acres of standing ground with some seasonal fluctuations in staff. They mainly deal with despatching orders, growing on, and watering the plants.

The propagation unit and stock growing area has 9 fixed staff which supply material both to the open ground and container


Author: Donal Synnott

PP: 320

The time may be right for an expansion of the pitifully small number of ferns in popular use. A search of the retail outlets for plants in the Dublin area, including garden centres, florists, and supermarkets, would produce the following short list:

House plants:
     Adiantum capillus-veneris (common maidenhair fern)
     Nephrolepis exalta (sword-fern and the cultivar known Boston fern).
     Asplenium nidus (bird's-nest fern)
     Pellaea rotundifolia (button fern)
     Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly-fern)
     Plus one or two unnamed exotics.

Hardy ferns:
     Athyrium filix-femina (lady-fern)
     Dryopteris affinis (scaly male-fern) — probably a cristate cultivar.
     Polystichum setiferum var. acutilobum (soft shield-fern).
     And occasionally Matteuccia struthiopteris (shuttlecock fern) and Blechnum magellnicum [syn. B. tabulare].

All of this is indicative of a poor state of affairs in regard to fern gardening in Ireland. Since it should


Author: John Joe Costin

PP: 324

The quintessential Japanese Garden was created by Buddhist monks. It resulted from their need to have an environment which aided rather than distracted them in their meditation. The garden they designed provided the ambience of timelessness with no evidence of seasonal change. These were composed of evergreens, rocks and water. They are classically beautiful gardens. Since the early 1960s landscape design has been abysmally dull. The raison d'être of these designs is that they had to be managed with residual herbicides. Plant selection was limited to those resistant to simazine. We have now, as monument to be abandonment of good design skills, the incongruous conifer and heather gardens suffocating in soils too sumptuous and rich for plants of such humble origin. Alternatively for amenity schemes we have pastures of Potentilla, carpets of Cotoneaster, and barriers of Berberis.

Designs such as these based exclusively on woody plants are stiff and unbending, lack movement


Author: Peter Catt

PP: 328

I visited South Korea in April/May, 1984, at the invitation of Mr. Ferris Miller born an American but who adopted Korean citizenship. He, I understand, works in the Korean Stock Exchange during the week but at weekends and whenever else he can, travels about 100 km south to a small village called Chollipo on the Yellow Sea coast. Here he has his arboretum.

He has collected many species of plants from many parts of the world. Naturally, with China and Japan on either side of South Korea there is a predominance of plants from that area.

My wife and I did get into the hills of the area and we also went south to Kwanju and later flew to the southern island of Cheju and climbed nearly to the top of Mount Halla. Listed below are some interesting plants that we saw1:

Aesculus species.

Carpinus coreana. I thought this small tree with its bushy habit a winner for landscape work.

Cedrela sinensis ‘Flamingo’ — when this shrub comes into growth in the early spring the glowing


Author: Roger Peek

PP: 330

Some cultivars are particular difficult to root from cuttings and we therefore have to look at alternative methods of propagation. This paper will discuss the "cutting-graft technique" which we have successfully used for rhododendrons.

The species with which we have done most work is Rhododendron yakusimanum, which forms a compact, dome-shaped bush up to about 1.2 metre high and the same across. The young growths are silvery, and the mature leaves are dark green above with a brown indumentum underneath. It flowers prolifically in a compact truss, rose-coloured in bud, opening pink and maturing to white. This species is only found in the wild on the wet and windy mountains of Yakushima Island, Japan. It was introduced to the United Kingdom in 1934 and has become a very desirable plant.

Our first attempts at propagation were from cuttings. Cuttings were prepared in the usual way, wounded, and treated with a hormone rooting powder and then stuck in seed trays containing


Author: Andrew Kelly

PP: 333

A prime objective in plant production must be to minimize growth checks. Conventional tray propagation and subsequent root disturbance before potting involves a major check to growth. Direct sticking of cuttings into a pot containing fertilized compost ensures that as the cutting produces roots it grows away without disturbance. It is commonly argued that fertilized compost retards rooting. Our experience has shown that rooting evergreen azaleas in pots of fertilized compost is feasible. Subsequent growth is superior to that obtained by using more conventional systems.

In 1982 and 1983, we incorporated nutrients in our rooting composts on a trial basis. We had very poor results. At the I.P.P.S. conference in 1983, Tacchi (3) and Down (2) gave papers which indicated that nutrient incorporation in propagation composts was successful for easily produced hardy nursery stock. A picture of Rhododendron ‘Fashion’ in a paper by Carney and Whitcomb (1) convinced us that we


Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 61

How it started

Although I was trained as a grower, I have never been very good at the growing of plants. I have always had a much greater interest in general management and, in particular, in selling and marketing. I have for a long time had the ambition to introduce a new plant and see it established as a brand leader. Although this had been attempted in the United Kingdom before, the job in my opinion had never been done effectively enough. When I analysed the problems, I found that they were two-fold—one was the high risk which would be related to the introduction of a plant, and the second was the finance which was required to initiate and sustain an effective promotional campaign. It seemed to me an ideal opportunity to co-operate with another major nursery in an attempt to spread the risks, improve the distribution capacity, and help reduce the financing of the promotional campaign.

In the spring of 1984 I approached a colleague of mine who is general manager of Fargro Plants to see


Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 335

The demand for camellias has increased over recent years as its potential as a garden/patio/conservatory plant has been recognised by a wider sector of the public. At the same time the traditional sale by length of often single stemmed plants has been replaced by a demand for younger well branched/budded material. Production of this type of plant has required close attention to detail at all stages of growth and recognition that quality and type of cutting, together with their treatment both during and after propagation, has a major influence on establishment and subsequent growth. This paper reviews the various-factors influencing the successful propagation of quality camellias which have been identified during our extensive experimental programme on camellia production at Efford EHS, which culminated in recommendations for an accelerated production schedule (1).

Author: Robert W. Jones

PP: 342

Lone Star Growers is a container nursery with approximately 200 acres in production. We carry woody ornamentals from 1-gal., 2-gal., 5-gal. material up to 24-in. box trees. We have several specialized production areas within the nursery that set us apart from most other container operations. One is a full-scale native department, introducing and producing Southwestern and Mexican native plant material. The other is a comprehensive color department, which is the focus of this paper. I will explain the reasons Lone Star decided to include a color department from a marketing standpoint, the factors that make a color program different from container material and cultural techniques we employ to produce a quality product in the extreme climatic conditions of south Texas.

Definition of "Color". What is meant by the term "Color"? To us it includes most of the flowering annuals and perennials such as begonias, geraniums, lantanas and plumbagoes. It also includes


Author: Bryan R. Estell

PP: 345

The following cultivars of garden mums are neither totally inclusive nor exclusive. They are those which I have personally seen perform admirably in production in the South.

Characteristics that I look for in selecting cultivars include:

  1. Plant habit—is the growth even and pleasing to the eye?
  2. Is the plant sturdy?
  3. Are the flowers of sufficient numbers and of a form to be pleasing to the consumer?
  4. Are the plant and flowers durable?
  5. When does it flower?

Author: Agnes C. Hubbard

PP: 347

Lone Star Growers, located in San Antonio, Texas, is a wholesale nursery specializing in production of container-grown ornamentals. Besides ornamental shrubs and trees we also grow annual and perennial color crops, tropical foliage, and southwestern natives.

The Native Plant Program developed at Lone Star Growers is based on company philosophy that we owe something to the community in which we make our living. We are introducing to the trade plants that are well adapted to their environment. Texas is facing a growing water crisis, and plants must be drought tolerant as well as hardy to survive. Although the skepticism was great at the time that the program would not be economically feasible, Lone Star believed then, as it does now, that native plants are the way of the future.

The program itself started as an introduction department where species could be evaluated in several areas: their ornamental value hardiness, and regional adaptability; and also where their propagation


Author: John C. Pair

PP: 351

Plants of the Great Plains are exposed to a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most demanding of these stresses is the often harsh and variable continental climate. A number of plants that are tolerant of these stresses and are of ornamental value have been recently introduced in the trade. Some of these plants are improved native plant selections; others are the products of years of breeding programs or from plant exploration trips to regions of the world with similar soil and climatic conditions. This paper emphasizes plants that can be propagated commercially.

Author: Cariedda Hudgins

PP: 356

The system we have at Cypress Creek Nursery is the MEEII fog system. Mee Industries is based in San Gabriel, California; their system is used nationwide for cooling, propagation, and freeze protection. We use the system for propagation and have for a year and a half.

The system is designed to fog 11 double-poly, gutter-connected houses each 108×21 ft. The total are is approximately 25,000 ft.2 There are two fog lines in each house suspended 6 feet from the ground. Copper tubing is used in order to withstand the pressure. The 5 H.P. motor pumps water into the system at the rate of 7.3 gal./min. at a pressure of 900–1000 psi. Maximum pressure is 1000 psi.

There are 20 nozzles in each house, 10 nozzles per line spaced 10 feet apart. There are 2 types of filters built into the system. A bullet filter is placed in the back of each nozzle, and 4 cylinder filters fit into the holding tank. Bromide sticks are used in the holding tank to prevent fungus growth in the fog lines.

The system


Author: Doug Ryan

PP: 358

We are always looking for the best system for root growth on our cuttings and a better and more efficient way of heating our propagation area. After looking at many different methods used throughout the indoor foliage industry in our area, we installed a hot water, bottom heating system. We decided to use a boiler we already had on the nursery. The only problem we had was that our boiler was being used for steam. Once we had the boiler changed over to heat water, rather than produce steam, we were ready to begin construction.

In the summer of 1984, we hired an engineering firm to design the system and assist us with the installation. The total area we were going to heat was 25,000 ft.2. Our boiler was a Kewanne, 1,800,000 B.T.U. heating capacity.

The system consists of 3-in. main lines running from boiler on the discharge side to the middle of the greenhouse. From there it branches both ways down the middle of the greenhouse with 2½-in., 2-in., 1½-in., and 1-in. pipe. These main lines are


Author: James B. Berry

PP: 360

Efficiency is a measure of production compared to cost of time, money, and energy input. How often have you said yourself or told others that you could have done more except you ran out of time or money or energy? We do not have unlimited resources so our task is to maximize productivity within our resource means.

Author: Dennis V. McCloskey

PP: 365

Growing plant material in the ground has been around from before the time of Christ, but even with this vast span of time only the last 25 years have given us any real technical advances.

The shovel has given ground to the hydraulic spade. The hand-tied ball has been replaced in part by the wire basket. The in-row tractor has totally replaced the mule and Georgia stock. The forklift and pallet are quickly replacing the strong back and weak mind. Irrigation and anti-desiccants are extending the harvesting time. Various containers and concepts are helping overcome the shelflife problem of unplanted ball and burlap (B&B) material, and advances in the use of herbicides have all but eliminated the eyehoe.

But given these few changes in contrast to the many technical advances that have taken place in the last 2,000 years, in-ground growing of plant material, with its antiquated methods, still remains the very best way to grow and transplant many kinds of plants and trees.

At Windmill Nurseries


Author: Chris Threadgill

PP: 367

Root Control fabric containers offer many advantages over the traditional methods of producing specimen-size trees; these include: 1) ease of harvest, 2) extension of harvest season, 3) elimination of expensive harvest equipment, 4) utilization of unskilled labor, 5) use of higher plant densities, and 6) improves survival.

Root Control fabric containers evolved from an idea of Dr. Carl Whitcomb, Stillwater, Oklahoma. The objectives were to devise a system of growing that would allow for quick harvest of specimen trees, build a superior root system and be simple to operate.

In 1980, after learning of Dr. Whitcomb's idea, Ralph Reiger of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, had fabric containers made from a spun-bonded fabric material. The fabric containers' measurements were 16-in., 18-in., and 22-in. in diameter, with an 18-in. height and a fabric bottom. After some of the trees were harvested two years later, it was apparent that the fabric bottom was not


Author: F. Loreti, P.L. Pasqualetto

PP: 66

The term "vitrification" describes morphological and physiological disorders of plants cultured in vitro. The descriptions of vitrified cultures given by various authors are very similar whatever the species involved. Stems are thickened and translucent, leaves thick, brittle, wrinkled, curled and frequently very elongated, with no differentiated palisade tissue (Figure 1). There is a general hyperhydricity of the cells as well as deficiency of chlorophyll, and usually the lignification of vessels and tracheids is defective (18). Such cultures lose all capacity for reproduction and may threaten the continuance of their clones. The problem is serious; most micropropagation laboratories face vitrification of their cultures and many tissue culturists have focused their efforts on practical means of avoiding vitrification (Table 1).

Author: R.J. Hutton

PP: 369


Now that the rose is officially the floral emblem of the United States, I can say the nursery industry certainly has a rosy outlook!

I foresee a strong and growing demand for our products and services. In this I include all ornamental horticulture and floriculture. We are gaining more and more appreciation of and desire for all that plants and flowers can do for us in our daily lives both indoors and outdoors. Horticulturally, we are beginning to be a developed country.

I don't pretend to know what the future holds for our industry or any other. However, I can see the changes that have taken place in the years I have been a part of the nursery industry and can see the signs of future changes, which are likely to be much more dramatic on a year-by-year basis. These include:

  1. Computers. Production operations as well as office administration and management functions will be computerized.
  2. Plant Growth Modeling. Better sensors are being developed and programs written that

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 374

Marketing is defined in various ways, but I will define it as the process of promoting sales and presenting the value and use of a product to potential consumers. It sounds simple enough. Everyone is deluged with a vast assortment of marketing ploys every day on television, radio, through newspapers, magazines, and billboards. Many of the products we buy are designed to enhance marketing of the same product in the future. Repeat purchases are encouraged by labels, colors, designs, and other information that we see every time we use the product. The toothpaste you use every morning is in a brightly-colored container to remind you of the brand you purchased and to increase the likelihood of getting you to purchase it again. The manufacturer of the toothpaste advertises it in an assortment of ways to try to retain you as a customer, but you must make your purchase at a local outlet.

Contrast these techniques with the practices most used in the nursery business. The wholesale


Author: David R. Johnson, T.E. Bilderback, C.D. Safely

PP: 378

Nurserymen are businessmen. Like all businessmen our main objective must be to make money, a profit over and above our expenses. No business can survive without making a profit.

There are several ways of accessing the profitability of a business. Some monitor bank accounts; others produce periodic income and expense statements. Johnson Nursery is concerned about the profitability of every plant. It is the sale of plants that produces income for this business. If the nursery is going to be profitable, the plants we sell must be profitable. To determine this degree of profitability we have developed a method of cost allocation in which all expenses incurred in the nursery are allocated to all plants.

Before discussing the cost allocation procedure, examine Table 1; this is the end result. The table lists the various container sizes we grow, separates the containers according to the size plant which they were potted, and shows the cumulative expense allocated to each size over 18 months


Author: Steven E. Newman

PP: 384

Plants that are container-grown in artificial media are subjected to many stresses different from those encountered by a plant grown in soil. Containerized root systems are confined to a limited volume; thus, they rely on supplemental irrigation, supplemental nutrition, and are not buffered against temperature changes. Containers are left above ground during the winter, exposing the roots to temperature extremes. Roots are not as hardy as shoots; therefore, roots may be injured at temperatures lower than those that injure shoots (15). Summer container-media temperatures, in contrast, can easily exceed temperatures considered optimum for good root growth (14).

Container plant production of woody ornamentals has expanded rapidly in recent years and now represents more than 50 percent of all landscape plants sold in the United States (15). Technological advances have, and are, revolutionizing the nursery industry. However, as growers are keenly aware, temperature extremes and devastating


Author: David L. Morrison

PP: 390

This paper summarizes the production techniques used at Greenleaf Nursery Company's Oklahoma Division to reduce plant stress from both high and low temperatures. The nursery is located in hardiness zone 6, based on average minimum temperature, and zone 4, based on extreme minimum temperature. We have had temperatures from -18°F to 112°F. We are constantly forced to deal with a wide range of temperatures. It is from this experience that we have developed these techniques.

Author: Gary S. Cobb

PP: 393

Obviously it can be. The use of water in the propagation of cuttings is a prime example. For propagation, a portion of the shoot is removed from the stock plant and placed in a favorable environment to encourage the development of roots. Until rooted, the cutting is subjected to various stresses, including water loss. As propagators we manipulate environmental and cultural conditions to minimize these stresses and promote rooting. One tool we use is water. We arrange the frequency and duration of its application to insure high humidity around the cutting while maintaining a film of water on the exposed plant tissue. We attempt to apply sufficient water to keep the foliage wet and the humidity high without actually irrigating or waterlogging the growth medium. How frequently and how much water we apply varies dramatically depending on the crop, location, time of year, propagation medium, and the water delivery system and its controls.

At Cottage Hill Nursery most cuttings are started


Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 396

There is no one best material or combination of materials for every grower and every propagation need. Thus, it is important to understand some of the overall basics, not just characteristics of specific media.

Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 399

Judkins Nursery decided to diversify its product line by starting two new operations: tree growing in 5-gallon containers, and field production of large-caliper trees. A new propagation facility was needed to supply a broader range of plant species and better quality liners to the new operations.

Why use the air root-pruning system? First, it produces a superior root system without the winding common in other types of container-grown seedlings. Second, it offers accelerated growth through controlled growing conditions. Third, the liners can be moved to the next step in the production cycle without shock or loss of the momentum gained from the accelerated growth. Fourth, the transplanting can be done in the late summer or early fall when the nursery work load is at its lowest point. This system was brought to management's attention by the writer, who had observed the work of Dr. Carl Whitcomb and his students in experimenting with growing seedlings in milk cartons. These


Author: John C. Pair

PP: 403

Acer truncatum, a new introduction to the plains, normally hardy only to USDA zone 6 except in its hybrid form with A. platanoides, has performed well throughout Kansas (zones 5 and 6). It has survived considerable heat and drought stress, has had no serious pest problems and has been resistant to leaf scorch. Propagation has been successful from seed stratified for 30 days. Softwood cuttings taken in August rooted better than those taken in late May. Best rooting occurred with basal portions treated with 1,000 to 5,000 ppm IBA although over 50% rooted without the use of hormone.

Author: David Sabalka

PP: 409

Lone Star Growers is a 175 acre wholesale nursery, located in San Antonio, Texas. We are a very diverse operation, with a Color Department growing seasonal flowering crops, a Native Plant Department that is aggressively expanding its production of Texas and Mexican plants, and a container production of woody ornamentals. We sell plants ranging in size from 2¼-in. rose pots to 24-in. boxed trees.

Currently we are growing 350 cultivars of woody ornamental plants. This number does not include the seasonal color or the native plants, which is a significant number more. Of these 350 cultivars, it seems that each one is just a little different in its needs to root and grow.

The Propagation Department at Lone Star Growers consists of 108,000 ft.2 of intermittent mist space. We have Biotherm bottom heat on 35,000 ft.2 of mist, enabling year-round cutting production.

Our average annual production in propagation is 3.7 million 2&frac14-in. rose pots and 300,000 4-in. pots. The


Author: Zachary S. Wochok

PP: 72

Plant propagation in vitro has been a well established technology for over two decades and has been in commercial use for a significant part of that time.

The commercial use of plant tissue culture today primarily involves the micropropagation of ornamental species and the production of early generations of disease-free transplants. Although the number of commercial laboratories in the United States and Canada have been estimated to be as high as 250, there are probably not more than five or ten which produce more than five million plantlets per year.

The commercial micropropagation of agronomic crops is not at the same volume level as ornamentals but is growing in the overall market. Examples include sugar cane, date palm, oil palm, several types of fruit trees, jojoba, and potato


While micropropagation has been the principal form of tissue culture utilized at the commercial level, other aspects of tissue culture technology and other advanced biotechnological techniques will be


Author: Michael W. Smith

PP: 414

Pecan orchards are often established by planting either grafted or seedling trees. Orchard establishment using grafted trees may reduce the time required for fruit production, and no grafting knowledge is necessary. However, grafted trees are more expensive, and cold damage to grafted trees may cause loss of the scion with resprouting from the rootstock. Scion death requires regrafting, which would then delay production. Seedling trees are inexpensive compared to grafted trees; but because additional labor and expertise are necessary for grafting, growers usually prefer to purchase grafted trees. However, a major problem with grafted pecan trees is lack of cold hardiness.

Cold Damage. Cold damage to young pecan trees most often occurs on the trunk near the soil line in the fall. Moderately damaged trees develop vertical splits in the bark, with loss of phloem and cambium in the damaged area. Severely damaged trees may be completely girdled, resulting in the loss of the top and


Author: Don Covan

PP: 419

At Simpson Nurseries we propagate trees in many ways including seeds, hardwood cuttings, budding, and grafting. However, the propagation method that we are steadily expanding is that of softwood cuttings. Today I wish to discuss softwood cutting propagation of oaks, magnolias, crabapples, and dogwoods. We have chosen to use the softwood cutting method because seeds are too variable, hardwood cuttings are too limiting, and budding and grafting are too expensive and time-consuming. We have found that softwood cutting propagation is not the answer for all trees. However, we do consider it an excellent method for many shade and flowering trees that have superior shape and fall color, characteristics that we want to maintain.

Author: Lisa Bennett

PP: 421

A micropropagation method for Quercus shumardii is described. Stem sections were utilized as explants and shoot multiplication was promoted with WPM amended with BA. BA and 2iP were tested in a range of 0.0 to 5.0 mg/liter with 2.0 mg/liter BA supporting optimal shoot growth. After 6 weeks shoots could be divided and subcultured on a combination of BA, IBA, and GA3. Shoots were simultaneously rooted and acclimatized after a 15-minute dip in 500 ppm IBA. The methods presented required only minor refinements for the micropropagation of three other Quercus species and of Cercis canadensis.

Author: Elmer L. Kidd III

PP: 427

Stark Brothers Nurseries is 170 years old and produces 2 million trees on 2000 acres. The company is most noted for its Red and Golden Delicious apples, which account for 60 percent of total production.

At Stark Brothers we employ the following four asexual propagation techniques in combining scions to stocks:

  1. T-Budding
  2. Chip budding
  3. Bench grafting (whip and tongue)
  4. Crown grafting (whip and tongue)

All understocks used by Stark Brothers are purchased as liners from outside vendors except for peach and nut understocks, which we propagate as seeds obtained from both in-house and external sources.

Scionwood is obtained exclusively from our in-house scion orchard blocks, which are maintained as non-fruiting, hedgerow trees. Budsticks are cut and de-leafed one day prior to being used. Our budding season runs from early July through late September. Dormant wood to be used in our winter bench grafting and spring crown grafting operations is harvested from the scion orchards in early


Author: Jaime E. Lazarte, Cal A. Froberg

PP: 430

Quality, competitive prices, and customer service are a must in the tissue culture industry. Quality includes health, branching, size, true-to-name, labeling, packing, and shipping. Stage II and III plants should be planted as soon as they are received and should follow a 4-week acclimatization procedure. Stage IV plants should be watered and placed in a shaded area as soon as they arrive. Transplant Stage IV plants as soon as possible.

Author: Carl Whitcomb, Bryson James

PP: 433

JOE POWELL: David, do you use lime in your propagation mix?

DAVID SABALKA: No. As Carl Whitcomb has pointed out, we can pick up all we need from other sources, such as water.

RICHARD ODOM: Have you tried rooting using Micromax, but no Osmocote?

CARL WHITCOMB: Yes. However, I do not recommend using Micromax unless you also use at least 4 lb. Osmocote 18-6-12/yd. Start out at the low rate. Also, be careful about mixing large batches as Osmocote may begin to release. We have found supression of rooting when most other fertilizers or formulations of Osmocote were tried and therefore use only 18-6-12 Osmocote.

RICHARD ODOM: When do you begin to see trouble from Osmocote if the rate or application method has been wrong?

DAVID SABALKA: It depends on the watering and soil temperature. We don't ordinarily have problems in the winter. Most of the time toxicity problems will show up within the first four to six weeks.

JIM BERRY: What is a dangerous salts level?


Author: Rosalie J. Heckler

PP: 440

Most crop pests, diseases, and weeds established in New Zealand have originated overseas. Many more could still be introduced on imported plants and plant products. New Zealand has the advantage of excellent geographical isolation which acts as a natural barrier to the spread of parasites.

Most diseases and many pests have been carried here by man. Some exceptions are rust diseases and insects which have blown across the Tasman Sea from Australia.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) quarantine role is to prevent the entry into New Zealand of unwanted parasites not already established here. This cannot be done alone so cooperation is required from the industry and the travelling public.

Legislation under which MAF controls plant imports and quarantine include: The Plants Act 1970, Introduction and Quarantine of Plant Regulations 1973, and The Noxious Plants Act 1978.


Author: John M. Follett

PP: 443

Wasabi (Wasabia japonica [syn. Eutrema japonica; E. wasabi] is a member of the Cruciferae family, a semi-aquatic native to the montane forest areas of Japan. Wasabi produces a stem, often referred to as a rhizome, in a similar fashion to a small brussel sprout. As the stem grows the lower leaf petioles fall off, and when the stem is about 15 cm long it is harvested. Traditionally, the stem is ground up into paste and used as a condiment with Sashimi (raw fish), Sushi (fish and rice) and Soba (buckwheat noodles). The best quality stems are sold fresh through the wholesale markets. In recent years wasabi has become more popular resulting in both the lower grade stems and leaf petioles being used for processing. At the Tokyo Central Wholesale Market processing wasabi sells for low prices and price premiums can only be obtained for high quality produce.

Wasabi is grown on all major islands of Japan except Hokkaido, and is also grown in Taiwan and North Korea.

In Japan the area planted in


Author: Stephen M. Butcher, R.A. Bicknell, J.F. Seelye, N.K. Borst

PP: 448

L. peregrinum propagates readily from cuttings stuck in a very free-draining medium. Micropropagation was successful using a modified Linsmaeir and Skoog medium containing naphthaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, and low sugar. Rooting occurred on modified Linsmaeir and Skoog medium containing indolebutyric acid and relatively high sugar. The efficient propagation of this plant will allow its use in cut flower production.

Author: M.B. Thomas, M.I. Spurway

PP: 450

The response of container-grown rewa-rewas (Knightia excelsa) to five levels of N, P, K and lime were studied. The plants responded strongly to added N with the largest and most green plants receiving 450 to 600g N/m3 while foliage was chlorotic at very low N rates. Phosphorus stimulated foliage growth but there was a linear increase in foliar chlorosis due to iron deficiency. Highest foliar dry matter production occurred with no added lime and pH of 3.5 in the peat: perlite medium, which is typical of a calcifuge.