Volume 33

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Author: Douglas E. Sabin

PP: 36

There are five main methods of propagating rootstocks: by seed, softwood or hardwood cuttings, root cuttings, mound layering, and tissue culture. Our firm has specialized in the growing of hardwood cuttings since 1955, when Lyle Brooks, my grandfather, retired as co-owner of the Carlton Nursery Co. and began the Daybreak Nursery.

The hardwood cutting method is an excellent way to propagate fruit tree rootstocks such as those for plums, pears, and cherries. It is also an excellent way to propagate certain shade trees such as London planetree (Plantanus × acerifolia) and Prunus × cistena. There are two times in the year in our area when such hardwood cutting material can be gathered and rooted successfully — the months of November and December (late fall and early winter) and the last half of February and the first half of March (late winter and early spring).

Cutting material should be taken from stock trees that have been in place for at least two years. Material can be taken off


Author: C.J. Sally Johnson

PP: 64

The Industrial Forestry Association (IFA) is a nonprofit association of companies involved in the timber industry. It was founded in 1934 with the intent of developing an adequate timber supply for the Douglas-fir industry. Towards that end, IFA started its first bare-root nursery in 1941 and has since expanded to three bare-root and one container nurseries that produce approximately 45 million seedlings every year for reforestation. The basic building block for those future trees is, of course, seed.

Seed Sources. The principal timber species grown by the IFA is Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Other conifers of importance are noble fir (Abies procera), grand fir, (Abies grandis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata). These species are grown in areas of the Pacific Northwest primarily west of the Cascade mountains from the Canadian to the California borders.

All contractors belonging to IFA supply their own


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 422

At our nursery we primarily use the side veneer method of grafting. Most of our grafting is done in January and February, sometimes into March. Grafts made in the workshed are finished in two separate greenhouses, each with different micro-climates, one for conifers and the other for deciduous plants. The greenhouses are zone controlled for regulating temperatures for the differing requirements, (1) of the medium into which the pot and graft union are plunged (buried), and (2) the ambient air surrounding the tops, the latter being the cooler. We make approximately 50,000 grafts a year.

Understocks are potted well in advance of grafting time to permit good establishment. The recommended practice is to use dormant, sturdy, straight-stemmed seedlings between 1/8 and ¼ in. in diameter. They should have good fibrous roots. In some species these requirements will be found in a one-year (1–0) seedling but, most generally, a two-year (2–0) seedling is used. Occasionally, a 3


Author: Leonard Savella

PP: 425

I will discuss a type of grafting, called a saddle graft, which is not used as often as some other types, but is valuable in certain situations. In saddle grafting the scionwood should be soft enough so that one can cut into the center of the wood with little effort and without splitting or otherwise damaging it. The scion is held with the base pointing away from the grafter. A 1 in. long cut is made starting about ¼ in. from the base and to the center of the scion. The scion is then turned over and an identical cut is made on the other side. The wedge of wood is removed. The rootstock is cut by making 1 in. long cuts on both sides of the top to form a wedge. The scion is placed tightly over the cuts on the rootstock and tied with a rubber band. If the union is to be waxed, grafting twine should first be used to tie the union.

The grafted plant is then placed in a poly chamber or grafting bench and buried with moist peat to above the union. Healing should be complete in 4 to 6


Author: Thomas L. McCloud

PP: 426

Shield or "T" budding is the most widely practiced form of detached scion grafting used in commercial propagation because it is easy to perform, fast, and effective. It is used for hybrid roses, fruit trees, and ornamentals such as dogwoods, lilacs, and shade trees.

The knife used for budding is rounded on the end of the blade, which facilitates making the cuts. In contrast a grafting knife is straight to the end and comes to a sharp point. Budding knives may have a folding or stationary blade and usually some form of an attachment to help "lift" the bark if necessary after the cuts are made. This attachment can be a thin piece of bone attached to handle or an extra "bump" on the top of the blade. Whatever knife is chosen, it should be of good quality, light-weight and "feel good" in the hand of the user. A budding knife should be kept razor sharp at all times. A budder must take time to learn how to sharpen his knife properly. This will help to


Author: Francis R. Gouin

PP: 428

It has long been recognized that pot-bound plants are slow to establish after being transplanted. Unless their roots are disrupted from their circular habit of growth, the roots branch poorly and the plants often die from drought, despite being surrounded by moist soil. Close examination of pot-bound or near pot-bound plants that have been lifted, after having been in the ground for several months to several years, often reveals only a few roots originating from the bottom or from the top edge of the root balls. Generally, problems with transplanted container-grown plants occur within the first growing season. However, based on observations made in the Baltimore and Washington area over the past 5 years, it is becoming apparent that there could be long term problems with trees that originated in containers.

Approximately 10 to 20% of Norway maples (Acer platanoides) die as they approach 8 to 10 in. (20 to 25 cm) caliper from self-inflicted girdling roots. What causes these girdling


Author: D.K. Struve, R.D. Kelly, B.C. Moser

PP: 433

Difficult-to-transplant species such as scarlet oak, Quercus coccinea, and black gum, Nyssa sylvatica, have considerable ornamental value, but are not widely offered in the nursery trade. Poor transplant survival has made these species uneconomical for nurserymen to produce and landscapers to install. If a means of increasing transplant survival can be found then these and other ornamentally valuable but difficult-to-transplant species could be added to the nursery catalog lists and increase the range of plants available to landscape architects.

It has been estimated that as little as 2% of the soil volume originally exploited by a plant's root system is retained in standard balling and burlapping operations (20). Root systems are further disturbed when a plant is dug bareroot. Without the protective soil ball the roots, especially the small feeder roots most responsible for water and nutrient absorption, are easily desiccated and broken. It is essential that a plant rapidly regenerate


Author: Larry J. Kuhns

PP: 439

Weeds are the most costly pest to control during the production of conifer seedlings. Competition from weeds causes losses in density and quality. Hand-pulling weeds is expensive and also causes a decrease in density when conifer seedlings are pulled along with the weeds. For these reasons, a safe and effective form of chemical weed control is needed.

Weed Control Program. When planning production schedules, growers should include a weed control program. In the past, weed control was often treated like firefighting — the problem was attacked after it was started. But you can have much safer and effective weed control by developing a weed control program. A program includes three basic steps:

Step 1. Eliminate all weeds prior to planting. It is especially important to kill all perennial weeds because they are not controlled by preemergence herbicides, which are generally the safest.

Step 2. Prevent weed growth. There are now several preemergence herbicides labelled for use in conifer


Author: Lori Graunke, F.R. Gouin

PP: 445

Weed control tests were conducted in seedbeds amended with composted sewage sludge and seeded to 4 hardwood and 1 coniferous species, at a forest tree nursery using 4 preemergence herbicides applied soon after seeding and granular soil fumigant as a preplant soil treatment. Napropamide and bifenox applied in combination at 1.7 and 3.4 kg/ha provided good weed control without reducing populations and growth of Quercus rubra, Juglans nigra, and Pinus taeda but caused a severe reduction in the population and growth of Cornus florida and Liriodendron tulipifera. Oxyfluorfen at 0.3 and 0.6 kg/ha provided acceptable weed control without causing any decline in population or growth in any of the species tested except L. tulipifera. Prometryn did not provide acceptable weed control at either 0.7 or 1.4 kg/ha. Weed control with sodium azide as a preplant soil treatment at 400 kg/ha was unacceptable.

Author: Art Vanderkruk

PP: 450

Let me say at the outset that I am not against herbicides nor am I against the use of them. In fact our nursery makes limited use of herbicides such as Devrinol, Gramaxone, Ronstar, Roundup, Simazine, and Treflan. Devrinol and Ronstar are on a trial basis only because neither of these are registered for nursery use in Canada. Ronstar probably will not be registered since the manufacturer is reluctant to spend the money required to have it tested. The estimated cost to obtain a label for a crop is about $1,000,000.

As I mentioned, we are not against the manufacture or the use of herbicides, but we are against the reckless use of chemicals. Many farms in our land are suffering from a shortage of earthworms and beneficial bacteria, the "living phase" of the soil, so vital to produce superior crops.

God did not intend for us to abuse the soil, rather we are to be good stewards of it. Future generations will also need to make a living from the land. I believe that the fewer chemicals we use


Author: Ray Brush

PP: 455

Will you have the pesticides you need next year? My answer is maybe! Many of you will have the most of the pesticides you need for next year. However, some of you will not be able to obtain or use specific pesticides that you would like to have.

With the passage of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, nurserymen began experiencing difficulties in obtaining the pesticides they needed to: 1) produce healthy vigorous plants, and 2) to meet state or federal quarantine certification requirements. Keep in mind that under the first need, you, like other segments of agriculture, are only interested in efficient control of the common pests so that your nursery plants are healthy, vigorous, and of a good quality that will readily sell. In contrast, under the second need, you have to maintain your plants completely free of some hazardous pests. These are specific pests not widely distributed in the United States. Historically, the nursery industry has


Author: Jerome L. Frecon

PP: 461

Semi-hardwood cuttings of 6 cultivars of peach (Prunus persica) were successfully rooted by wounding, dipping in 2500 ppm IBA and misting. Cuttings of each cultivar were grown to 30 in trees and transplanted in the field for further study. Hardwood cuttings of ‘Cresthaven’ and ‘Redhaven’ were also successfully rooted by wounding and dipping in 250 and 500 ppm IBA. Although callus formation on ‘Rio Oso Gem’ was achieved with IBA treatments, no formation of callus or roots occurred with ‘Loring’. Hardwood cuttings were not successfully transplanted.

Author: David G. Adams

PP: 66

Trees of Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens ‘Glauca’) have for many years exhibited a condition in which the primary terminal bud fails to grow normally in the spring. The severity of the condition also appears to differ from year to year. Since thousands of these trees are propagated and shipped yearly, this malady constitutes a major economic problem to the ornamentals industry of the Pacific Northwest.

Native habitat: The natural range of this tree (1) is from southern New Mexico and Arizona through the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, eastern Idaho, and possibly southwestern Montana. The trees are usually found in or near stream beds particularly in the more arid areas of its range. It grows at elevations of 6000 to 9000 ft. in the north and 7000 to 10,000 ft. in the southern parts. Soils are often of calcareous nature with a pH of 6.8 to 7.2. As might be expected, mean annual temperatures have an extremely broad range.

Symptoms: Bud abortion symptoms differ


Author: Harold Pellett

PP: 468

This presentation will attempt to accomplish three things. The first is to review some background information that provides the basis of our approach to breeding and selection of cold hardy landscape plants. Secondly, I want to discuss a cooperative plant improvement effort that I am promoting. Third, I would like to mention our plant improvement research at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.

The primary goal in improvement of landscape plant materials is to combine desirable aesthetic and utilitarian qualities with ability to tolerate environmental stresses. The most limiting environmental factor for landscape plants in much of the United States is cold winter temperatures. To incorporate tolerance to such low temperature, an understanding of the physiology and genetics involved is essential. Research has shown that, in simplified terms, cold acclimation is a two-stage sequence, with photoperiod the initial stimulus triggering various metabolic events leading to cold


Author: Ruth Kvaalen

PP: 473

To review how plant names are formulated, what makes a name legitimate, and why and how to register a cultivar name, let us follow an example. You are on a fishing trip. A storm comes up, the boat sinks, but you make it safely to a deserted island where there is no evidence that man has ever set foot before. While awaiting rescue, you discover some small trees that look very similar to Hibiscus syriacus, but the flowers and growth habit are different from any hibiscus that you know. Some specimens of this plant bear yellow flowers: others have finished flowering and have set seed. You gather seeds and specimens and, when rescued, you take your plant specimens with you.

Once safely at home, you try to determine the identity of the mystery plant by using keys in books such as Rehder's Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs, but your specimens just do not fit the keys or descriptions. Having exhausted your own resources to identify the plant, you send it to a taxonomist at a local


Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller

PP: 480

MODERATOR ALEXANDER: Darrel Apps from Longwood Gardens will begin the new plants session with a presentation on the J. Franklin Styer Award of Garden Merit and then discuss a promising plant.

DARREL APPS: The Pennsykvania Horticultural Society established the J. Franklin Styer Award in 1980. Its purpose is to promote the recognition and dissemination of woody ornamental plants of outstanding graden merit. However, award is made to the plant and not the introducer. Entries must be received December 1 for examination in February of the next year. Application forms are available from:

J. Franklin Styer Award
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society
325 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
For further information call 215-625-8250

The award is given in two stages:

The first stage is the Certificate of Preliminary Commendation. A group of horticulturists and landscape architects reviews entries each February. The committee makes its selections on the basis of slides and written descriptions.


Author: John McGuire

PP: 494

I will concentrate on the personal history of the 1983 recipient in an attempt to show you how his determination and courage led to his success as a plantsman of the highest regard. I could simply catalog his accomplishments which were many since his professional career spans 60 years but as I looked into this personal history, I was fascinated with it.

He first entered the world of horticulture at the age of 13 as an apprentice in a market garden. He continued to work as an apprentice at estates and gardens for 5 years when he went to a large nursery. He was now near a large city (Copenhagen) where he had the opportunity to go to school at night while working during the day. This was the first time he was exposed to plant breeding which would eventually become his profession. It was also here where he met a young lady who would eventually be his wife.

He began to think about coming to America and 1922 he got the opportunity. His lady friend was not as enthusiastic about moving as he was


Author: J.S. Coartney

PP: 496

From time to time it is good to reflect on past accomplishments to assess one's rate or progress. This presentation will deal with some of the changes in plant propagation that have occurred during the past 10 years. The first item of progress that I want to bring to your attention is the printing in 1983 of a 4th edition of the Hartmann and Kester plant propagation text. This new edition deals extensively with findings that have occurred since the 1975, 3rd edition.

Significant changes in plastics and their diverse uses have occurred in the past 10 years. The new greenhouse coverings, which include UV inhibitors, have greatly extended the life of greenhouse coverings. Milky opaque plastics have greatly simplified winter protection of container-grown stock and now show promise in providing an ideal environment for winter propagation. Plastics are now available that include reflective surfaces to control light intensity; others include mesh, structure for increased strength; some are


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 500

Witches'-brooms are dense shrub-like growths that occur as a result of the mutation of buds (Figure 1). They are found mainly on conifers and generally retain their dwarf and dense character when propagated vegetatively (1,2). The grafting of witches'-broom tissue has been done since 1874 and is the origin of such dwarf evergreens as Pinus sylvestris ‘Beauvronensis’ and Pinus nigra ‘Hornibrookiana’.

Author: Craig R. Adkins

PP: 504

Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) seed germination was examined as affected by cold-moist stratification, temperature, and light. There were strong interactions among these factors in the germination response. Germination was accelerated by cold-moist stratification and/or warm germination temperatures. Stratification periods up to 12 weeks improved germination at low temperatures (8-hr/16-hr thermoperiod of 20° / 10°C), whereas 8 weeks was sufficient for seed germinated at high temperatures (30° / 20°C). Germination was influenced by temperature regime, but temperature and light sensitivity decreased with increased durations of stratification. Except at low temperatures, a close relationship existed between daily heat input and germination. Maximum germination occurred at 500 to 600 degree-hours per 24-hr cycle. A 1-hr daily light treatment during the 8-hr temperature cycle broadened the temperature range for optimum germination. For a 42-day germination period the effect of a daily 1-hr light treatment was essentially equivalent to 4 weeks stratification at 4°C.

Author: Ralph Shugert, Joerg Leiss

PP: 515

The Question Box Session was convened at 9:15 a.m. with Ralph Shugert and Joerg Leiss serving as moderators.

Author: William R. Studebaker

PP: 520

As you probably realized, this title really asks two questions: (1) What is the state of art? What is out there today? and (2) Where are each of you today and where are you headed in relation to computers? This article discusses the 1st question and gives some guidelines to use as you may attempt to answer the 2nd question.

I would like, first of all, to share with you where our firm is today in relation to computers — where we are headed and why — as an example of another nursery to whom you can relate.

Studebaker Nurseries has had a Basic Four Model 600 for about 7 years. (We upgraded from a Model 400 and increased capacity during that period.) It has 48 KB of memory and 20 MB on-line disc storage and currently operates 4 terminals. It has served us well, but:

  1. Technology in computers has greatly improved over this period of time.
  2. The older hardware and dust in our environment causes too much downtime.
  3. We need to expand our capacity for on-line storage and for processing time

Author: D. Burke McNeill

PP: 525

Most propagators, I believe, do not really think about water except that they have a sufficient amount to do the job. The most important factors seem to be an adequate supply and that it is sufficiently clean to prevent clogging of nozzles in the greenhouse.

Also, in the past, I believe that life was simpler, most nurseries were off by themselves, or they were on city water and most water supplies were naturally clean. Many often used cisterns to collect rainwater which was, in those days, considered to be as clean as you could get. However, today with urbanization, industrialization, extensive use of herbicides, shortages of water in some areas, and increased costs of city water, propagators need alternate sources such as ponds and wells for water supply. Therefore, concern for good quality water for use in propagation has become increasingly important.

Acid rain, herbicide runoff, algae control, mineral content, etc. are all factors that have to be considered when using natural, untreated


Author: Barbara M. Hupp

PP: 68

Equally as important to successful Christmas tree growers as it is to the timber industry is the selection of seed for plantation Christmas trees.

In the early days of Christmas tree farming, in the early 1960's, growers began to see a marked difference among trees with seed origin from different geographic areas.

This prompted provenance tests using the most popular Christmas tree species, namely Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Douglas-fir), Abies procera (noble fir), Abies grandis (grand fir), Abies magnifica var. shastensis (Shasta fir), Pinus contorta (shore pine), and Pinus nigra (Austrian pine).

These provenance tests were laid out, managed, and evaluated by member growers of the Northwest Christmas Tree Association, in conjunction with Oregon State University, United States Forest Service, Oregon State Department of Forestry, and Washington State Department of Natural Resources.

These provenance tests were established from northern Washington to southern Oregon to give a wide


Author: Claude Richer Leclerc, Calvin Chong

PP: 528

Crude water extracts were prepared from shoots (1 g freeze-dried powder/25 ml H2O) of weeping willow (Salix alba var. tristis) or of lombardy poplar (Populus nigra ‘Italica’) collected at intervals during the year. Extracts from both species or combinations of extracts + 5,000 or 20,000 mg/liter IBA inhibited rooting of Cotoneaster acutifolius cuttings. In comparison with water-treated (control) cuttings, cuttings of both Philadelphus coronarius ‘Aureus’ and Ribes alpinum (but not Cornus alba lsquo;Argenteomarginata’) showed consistently better rooting after treatment with seasonal willow extracts.

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 536

Many commercial root promoting compounds have been offered to the nursery industry since the introduction of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in 1935 (7). IBA and NAA form the chemical bases for these commercial preparations which are offered as talc, organic or water-based formulations (3). Many nurserymen make their own preparation by purchasing pure IBA or NAA crystals and dissolving them in an appropriate solvent (usually alcohol). Dip 'N Grow and Wood's Rooting Compound are liquid-based commercial formulations that are becoming more common in commercial propagation. Dip 'N Grow contains 1.00% IBA and 0.5% NAA plus an anti-pathogen agent in an alcohol solvent. Wood's contains approximately the same IBA and NAA but uses a solvent-carrier (20% dimethylformamide) and 80% ethyl alcohol.

This study compared the relative effectiveness of Dip 'N Grow, Wood's and Hormodin #2 against the pure chemicals using Photinia × fraseri is


Author: David Byers

PP: 542

What plant other than my favorite, Lagerstroemia indica, blooms about 100 days most years, in a color range from deep red to pink, lavender, and white? Name another that has such beautiful fall colors and outstanding bark characteristics and grows in so many different sizes and forms. Crape myrtle is truly one of the world's best and most adaptable plants.

Found originally in China, Lagerstroemia was named by Linnaeus in 1759 to honor his friend, Magnus von Lagerstroem, a naturalist who was a director of the Swedish East Indies Company. Late in the 18th century, crape myrtle was brought to this country, and George Washington was an early admirer and collector.

Many, many selections have been made throughout the years. The ones described herein are favorites that we have grown and seen flourish across the southern U.S. for years. This information is based on observations and is not the result of scholarly work or well-designed experimentation. Because crape myrtle is subject to problems of


Author: Gary Fraser

PP: 546

Since 1979 we have changed our production of daylilies to a year-round approach. We divide our daylilies during any month in the year, except when they are blooming. The demand for our daylilies has surpassed our quantity grown. We retain enough stock plants to redivide individually. Our plants are then cut back to half their matured height and spaced on 12-in. centers in the drill on 38-in. row spacing. We utilize this spacing because our farming equipment is set for 38-in. spacing — planters, cultivators, harvest equipment, and sprayers.

Weed control. After a block daylilies is planted, I use a rolling cultivator to plow up a 3– to 4-in. wedge on the drill. I then apply the herbicide Lasso 4 EC (alachlor) over the entire bed and middle at the rate of 2 gal./A Lasso 4 EC (8 lbs. a.i./A), using 85 gal./A of water. In Florida, Monsanto recommends post-emergence application of this chemical because of our sandy soil composition. We repeat this spraying every 65 days. This


Author: Gary Adams

PP: 547

The species Prunus laurocerasus, or English laurel, is native to southeastern Europe and Asia Minor and has been known in cultivation since 1576. It is a large, wide-spreading evergreen shrub growing 10 ft. tall or more, with a spread up to twice that. It is a medium-textured plant with medium to dark green leaves, which lose some of their luster in cold climates. The leaves are alternate, simple, and about 1/3 as wide as long. The leaves may be as long as 6 inches, and are obscurely serrate to nearly entire. The ¼ in. white flowers are borne in 5-in. long racemes in April to May and are unpleasantly fragrant. The fruit is a round purple to black drupe 1/5 to ½-in. long. The fruit is often lost among the foliage.

Prunus laurocerasus is a medium-fast grower capable of attaining 10 ft. in 5 to 6 years under favorable conditions. It is hardy to Zone 6. This species and its cultivars are shade tolerant and withstand pruning quite well. They are relatively easy to transplant balled and


Author: Don Shadow

PP: 551

Japanese maples have been used in the Orient for more than 300 years. They can no longer be brought here directly from Japan but must be sent to Korea or Holland for growing on, then sent here. They are one of the most diverse groups of all ornamental plants. Within the group can be found close to 300 cultivars. Forms range from dwarf to upright, cutleaf to palmate, and variegated to many other unusual characteristics. Also, outstanding spring and fall coloration is an added feature among this group of plants. Some have red or green bark or exfoliating bark. The most serious cultural problem is leaf scorch, which is a physiological reaction to water stress. They are extremely sensitive under high light conditions. There is an excellent reference by J.D. Vertrees (1).

Grafting of Japanese maples begins in early January. The well-established understock is allowed to go


Author: James Whaley

PP: 552

Pleasant Cove Nursery is located in Middle Tennessee where competition is keen. Since our only products are containers and balled-and-burlapped material, our customers are usually retail nurseries and landscape contractors. One of our foremost objectives is to provide our customers with a large selection. With over 140 cultivars of field stock and 100 cultivars of container-grown plants, it has become necessary to propagate many of our plants. In recent years we have expanded our propagation facilities to an annual production of over 500,000 plants. Of these, 125,000 are flowering and shade trees. We are constantly trying new selections of trees that can feasibly be rooted from softwood cuttings. Since this program was investigated, several cultivars, such as flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) cultivars; thundercloud purple leaf plum (Prunus × blireiana); and Yoshino cherry (Pruus × yedoenis), are produced each year with good success. This past season we had very good results with some of the red

Author: Keith R. Guthrie

PP: 555

The topic of lime and lime sources is one that has confronted nurserymen throughout nursery history, especially since the advent of container production in soilless and bark mixes.

In container production, the standard practice has been to add a certain quantity of lime to the mix, either for pH adjustment, or to supply calcium and magnesium, or for both reasons. There are a number of products available to growers that will fill the need when a lime source is desired (10).

It is my intention to focus on several sources of lime, the merits and disadvantages of each, and also to present some of the findings from an O.M. Scott and Sons research project this past spring.

It is important to know what calcium and magnesium are and what they do for the plant. The element calcium is required for active cell division, formation of cell walls, transport of carbohydrates and amino acids, and formation of roots.

A deficiency of calcium results in a stunted plant and restricted leaves. Some plants show


Author: Fred T. Davies Jr

PP: 559

Importance of juvenility and maturity in propagation. Why are juvenility and maturity important in propagation? In a schematic representation of a 100 year old tree there are three zones of maturation: (1) a juvenile zone at the crown and base of the tree: (2) a transition zone; and (3) a mature zone or region (Figure 1). Any propagules taken from the base of this tree will have juvenile characteristics and be potentially easier to root, regardless of the chronological age of the propagule. The transition zone of the tree is comparable to puberty in humans with both juvenile and mature characteristics. In general, transition zone material will not flower and propagules taken from this region root less readily than juvenile material, yet more readily than mature material. The mature zone is characterized by the ability to flower and set fruit, but frequently there is drastic reduction in rooting potential. Characteristically, a plant will not express its commercial potential until after

Author: V.P. Bonaminio

PP: 565

Hundreds of thousands of man-hours been spent by nurserymen and university researchers trying to formulate the ideal rooting medium, the ultimate mist system, the best structure, and the perfect rooting compound. In fact, such a creature, or combination thereof, probably doesn't exist since there are no two nurseries that are exactly alike in all aspects. Unlike the manufacturing industries, which can produce identical products at two or more distant locations, given the same set of specifications, we deal with a rather diverse group of living systems — dynamic living systems. As proof that our plant materials are continuously undergoing subtle change, consider the new clones, sports and hybrids which "appear" in our nursery industry annually. In comparison to the manufacturing industries, our actual production sites are subjected to a multitude of environmental and other influences — heat, cold, drought, flood, air pollution, weed pressure, air and water

Author: Dick Tuefel

PP: 71

Because of the diminishing supply and increasing cost of barkdust and sawdust which we were using in our nursery, we have developed an alternative container medium, using materials which are locally availably in abundant supply.

This new medium is made from wheat straw that is resin-impregnated in a special treatment process. Treatment of the straw is necessary because straw normally decomposes rapidly, and requires large amounts of nitrogen when it does. It also shrinks rapidly and is full of seeds.

The treatment process is as follows:

  1. Bales of straw are placed in a tub grinder which rotates and feeds the straw to a hammer mill.
  2. The straw is then conveyed to a mixing auger where the first set of chemicals are injected.
  3. This mixture is then augured to the next machine where the second set of chemicals is sprayed on the straw. It is then augured to the cube dies where it is extruded into blocks. The extreme pressure of this extrusion process forces the chemicals into the

Author: Timothy F. Press

PP: 568

(See Western Region, page 100)

Author: Malcolm James

PP: 569

James Nursery was begun in 1967 on a very small scale — approximately 16,000 liners per year. We now produce about 1 million liners a year, consisting of 22 cultivars of ornamentals. Of this number, 50% are Photinia × ‘Fraseri’.

We operate with three full-time workers — Malcolm and Edward James, and Malcolm's son, Jonathan. Other family members work when needed. We hire six high school students for approximately 7 weeks in May and June, when time is of the utmost importance in order to have all our cuttings in by July 1, after which the rooting response is not as good.

We have been asked what is the most important part of liner production. The correct answer would be, "All of them." You must begin with a good stock plant, for you cannot produce a good liner from weak or diseased stock. On the other hand, if you have the best cuttings available but fail to furnish a good rooting medium or watering program, you will still have a failure.


Author: Brian A. Nelson

PP: 571

Pieris japonica is a broad-leaved evergreen shrub of neat, compact habit, valued in the landscape. It is native to eastern Asia and was introduced into culture around 1870. Most Pieris japonica cultivars are of slow to moderate growth rate, seldom exceeding 6 ft. in height and width after many years of growth. Pieris japonica offers attractive dark green leaves with a prolific display of flowers in early spring that range in color from white, pink, pink and white bicolor, to red. The young foliage is highly colored with some selections having a most brilliant red new growth. Leaves are alternate, from 1 to 3 ½ in., with a slightly toothed margin. Flower buds are formed in late summer and are held in terminal, dropping clusters 5 inches long. When open, the flowers resemble those of lily-of-the-valley.

Propagation. Pieris japonica can be successfully propagated seed and by cuttings. Seed can be collected as soon as it is ripe. The seed is sown in flats of peat from late summer through early spring.

We propagate Pieris japonica from softwood and


Author: Shivu I. Patel

PP: 573

The purpose, objectives and goals of this article are to provide an overview of the propagation, multiplication, and production techniques of some rare and tropical plants grown and utilized in Florida rural and urban landscaping. From several thousand rare, exotic and tropical plants, only a few of the most that are highly utilized for residential as well as for commercial landscaping were selected for discussion.

The opinion, comments, remarks, suggestions or criticisms offered or most encountered problems within this article should be useful to plant propagators and nurserymen throughout southeastern United States. It may bring or provide to the average nurserymen information and practical propagation knowledge of plants used in landscaping in our subtropical parts and provide a guideline in the choice of plants that do well in the warmer regions of the state of Florida.

  1. Acacia auriculiformis, Leguminosae. Earleaf acacia is native to Australia. Best adapted to cool, sub-tropical,

Author: Bill Reese

PP: 580

Greenbriar Nurseries was started in 1974 and produces hardy, woody ornamentals on 21 acres in north central Florida. We produce all of our own liners and the procedures used in propagation as well as our costs and method of productivity are described as follows.

We get most of our cuttings from our landscape scheme as well as from our inventory of container material.

The trays we use are approximately 12 in. × 18 in. and we use a 40-cell insert made by Growing Systems. We get approximately 5-yr. use from the tray and 3-yr use from the insert.

Our soil is mixed for us locally and consists of 4 parts native peat, 3 parts composted pine bark, 3 parts Soilite (expanded rock 1/8 in. max.) with 3 lbs dolomite per yd3 and ¾ lb Micromax/yd3.

We built a fumigation chamber approximately 8 × 16 × 4 ft and use methyl bromide at the rate of 4 1-lb cans per chamber per treatment. We apply Osmocote (18–6–12) 9-month formula as a top dressing prior to sticking cuttings.

The structures used at Greenbriar Nurseries


Author: Richard W. Henly, William H. Bodnaruk Jr, Robert Mellen Jr, Dewa

PP: 583

Trends in bottom heating in Central Florida are reviewed with emphasis on heat placement and techniques of heat trapping. A study involving three different heating chambers for potted plants is described. Findings indicate that a temperature increase of 4° to 5°F can be achieved within medium in 6-inch pots if chambers are utilized, compared to medium temperature of free standing container-grown plants with heating pipes between them.

Author: Jerry L. Wetherington

PP: 589

The propagation of torulosa juniper, Juniperus chinensis ‘Torulosa’ (J.chinensis ‘Kaizuka’), in the Florida climate has long presented a problem. Whether this be a climate problem, stock selection, or procedure, has not in the past been determined to any degree of consistency. However, general opinion seems to suggest that bottom heat would be the most conclusive single factor contributing to successful propagation of this plant. It was fully realized at the onset of this experiment at Tampa Wholesale Nursery that bottom heating was not a new process, neither were we pioneering any radically new or innovative techniques for providing the heat. The specific purpose was to design and implement a system that would provide a functional, economical means of producing liners for this operation, as well as to add to existing knowledge of techniques and procedures for propagation of this plant.

Author: Ted Springer

PP: 594

Bottom heating is not a new idea. Fifty years ago steam-heated greenhouses were heated from the ground up. Today we are returning to that method as is becomes more and more critical to use energy in the most efficient way possible. Now, however, we are interested in the number of cubic feet actually heated as well as in minimizing the level of heat used. We are interested in the transfer of low-grade heat. The Biotherm system does this by using hot water as the heat carrier. We do not need or want high temperatures in our growing benches. One mum grower quite accidentally discovered the advantages of bottom heat when he left his Modine unit on the floor following a tornado. He began to notice increased plant growth, which dramatically illustrated what we have known all along: soil temperature is what counts! For many plants a 70°F thermostat setting will give a good crop. But this is head high! It is not the same with bottom heat. Check the soil temperature where the best plant is

Author: Bill Daughtry

PP: 596

Our nursery is a container operation where we place all of our containers on polyethylene. Most of our beds drain into one of our ponds, along with any pathogens that are washed out of the containers. Therefore, recycling the water will distribute these pathogens over the entire nursery. While researching this problem, we found that many pathogens may be inherent in the water supply and that recycling the water can only increase the problem. Before considering chlorination, have the water tested to make sure that it is part of the problem.

Chlorine compounds have been used for the disinfection of water for 100 years, but how it works is still not fully understood. We chose the injection of Cl2 gas as our method of chlorination.

The element chlorine exists as a gas at room temperature. It has a characteristic pungent odor, which can be detected at extremely low concentrations. It is greenish-yellow in color, 2 ½ times as heavy as air, and will seek the lowest point in the


Author: D.L. Morgan, P.F. Colbaugh

PP: 600

Rooting of Japanese boxwood and peperomia shoot cuttings was used to determine the influence of chemical treatment procedures on propagation efficiency of two widely planted nursery and greenhouse crops. In the first experiment 10 commercial fungicides and a disinfectant1 were applied as drench and cutting soak treatments to boxwood, Buxus microphylla var. japonica, cuttings which were rooted in a steam sterilized mist bench. Lesan© 70W applied as a soak was the only treatment that inhibited rooting of boxwood cuttings when compared to cuttings not receiving chemical treatment. Cuttings treated with drench or soaks using Terraclor© 75W or drenches using Banrot© 40W produced more roots than control, but in root length, number of roots, and root weight, the treatments could not be separated from results with untreated cuttings. Root numbers of cuttings treated with drench applications of Lesan 70W, Subdue© 2E, Banrot 40W, and Terraclor 75W were greater than with soak treatments using the fungicides. In a second study the influence of soil fungicide treatments on rooting of Peperomia caperata ‘Blackie’ leaf cuttings was determined in a peat/perlite growing medium receiving periodic manual watering. Rooting percentage of untreated leaf cuttings was equal to or better than that of cuttings receiving chemical treatment application. Root development of cuttings receiving Agrimycin© 21W, Benlate© 50@, Subdue 2E, and combinations of Subdue 5W + Benlate 50W, and Truban© 5G + Benlate 50W Agrimycin 21W, was greater than control. In general, however, rooting percentage and root development was restricted when combinations of chemicals were applied to cuttings. Treatments using the fungicides Terraclor 75W and Captan© 50W gave consistently poor results, suggesting phytotoxicity.

Author: Hugo C. Wildschut

PP: 72


I am basically a nurseryman and I want to have a smooth, efficient controlled nursery operation. My major problem was finding a reliable system for watering and heating my nursery beds. Having a fair background in electronics, I turned to this field to solve my problem and I feel that it has been nicely accomplished.

Mention, the word COMPUTER and a lot of people seem to get nervous. "Computerphobia" it is called. Accompanied by comments such as — "too complex" — "too expensive" — "too everything" —. Nonsense. If you can tie your shoes or drive a tractor, you can operate a computer.

A computer and a shovel had one thing in common. Initially they both need you at one end to start working. However, unlike a shovel, you can walk away from a computer and it will keep on working until you tell it to stop. The computer itself has no intelligence, no mind of its own; it is simply an electronic tool, serving a real purpose by following your instructions to the letter, instructions you give it called PROGRAMMING.


Author: Eugene H. Moody Sr

PP: 608

Growth difficulties of ornamental plants produced within a commercial nursery are usually due to poor management practices. Results of such practices are reductions in plant quality and increases in disease losses. Among these less than desirable conditions for plant production is the lack of a well-conceived disease control program that includes sanitation — a deliberate, essential function for disease control. All comments will be directed toward this end.

A sound sanitation program must be an integral part of all production practices. This becomes apparent when requirements for plant disease development are understood, i.e. (1) the presence of a pathogen; (2) the presence of a particular, susceptible host; and (3) a proper environment. A pathogen is either a fungus, bacteria, virus, mycoplasma-like organism, or nematodes. Any one of these particular disease-causing entities causes a particular disease on a particular plant under certain conditions. The host plant, the one you grow to


Author: Jaime E. Lazarte

PP: 614

Developing Plant Reproduction International, Inc. and moving from the academic world to industry has been a challenge — a challenge that has increased my respect for all industry-related people. In the industry one must not only keep up with new technology, but one must also be creative, stubborn, a good business person, a leader, and have the mental and physical capacity to prevail. To start and develop a business takes a lot of pioneer spirit with the tenacity to succeed.

At P.R.I., Inc. our main emphasis is on quality and our present objectives are:

  1. To produce herbaceous and woody plants through tissue culture. At present all production work is pre-contracted.
  2. To research for procedures and better production systems to propagate plants via tissue culture. This research is either contracted or of our own interest.
  3. To offer consulting services in plant propagation and production, especially in the field of tissue culture.

A field of major concern to us is woody plant tissue


Author: John L. Griffis Jr, Gary Hennen, Raymond P. Oglesby

PP: 618

It has been almost 9 years since Oglesby Nursery, Inc. ventured into the plant tissue culture business. In that time, our facility has grown from a small laboratory with one technician and 120 ft2 of culture space to a modern production laboratory with over 3500 ft2 of culture space and about 40 employees, plus a separate research and development facility with 250 ft2 of culture space and 2 employees. The demand for tissue-cultured plants is such that our laboratory is in continuous operation, 24 hours a day, Monday through Friday. An additional shift also operates on Saturday. We have, over the years, successfully propagated through tissue culture more than 400 kinds of plants including bananas, pineapples, plantains, gerbera daisies, spathiphyllums, daylilies, caladiums, and many other ornamental species (2). Included among current research project are tissue-culture propagation of avocados, nandinas, heliconias, araucarias, various spices, and numerous other plants.

Because of our


Author: William M. Brailsford

PP: 622

Our nursery was established in 1939 by John F. Brailsford, Sr., with retail sales, container yard, and a garden shop in town. Shady Grove Nursery now has 350 acres under cultivation with 150 acres of new ground; 60 acres of this will come into production this year, 25 to 30 acres a year later. Hopefully, we will then be able to rotate fields in the old nursery and top out at 500 acres. We are wholesale growers, now serving landscape contractors, architects, and other nurseries.

Around 20 years ago we realized people deserved better than seedling-grown magnolias. We were also interested in broadening the usefulness of Magnolia grandiflora by selecting clones with different architectural shapes and textures. Consequently, through the years we have developed six Magnolia grandiflora selections with distinctly different architectural characteristics. The names of the selections are ‘Claudia Wannamaker’, ‘Margaret Davis’, ‘Hasse’, ‘Shade Grove #4’, ‘#5’, and ‘#6’. All of them have dark, glossy green


Author: Tim Gwaltney

PP: 624

Flowerwood Nursery is currently producing two dwarf nandina cultivars. They are:
  1. Nandina domestica ‘Purpurea’ (N. domestica ‘Nana Purea’)
  2. Nandina domestica ‘Harbour Dwarf’

We began producing ‘Nana Purpurea’ by cuttings in 1978 from our first batch of purchased plants. ‘Harbour Dwarf’ was started from purchased plants in 1980.

Dwarf nandina cultivars are high-value crops that are relatively easy to propagate if correct conditions can be met and if a large supply of stock plants is available. This latter factor accounts for the difficulty of getting large production numbers in a fairly short time. Generally, on a young plant only one or two cuttings are available at any one time, with the ‘Harbour Dwarf’ at this stage producing the fewest cuttings.

As the stock plants become older and cuttings are made repeatedly, the number of breaks


Author: Tom Couturier

PP: 629

The Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Tom Couturier.

FRED GARRETT: We have heard recommendations of from 8 to 15 lbs lime/yd for a 3:1 bark:sand mix. This is certainly a wide range. What crops are we growing?

BRYSON JAMES: Carol Whitcomb says pH is not important as long as we have the correct Ca and Mg levels. It is more important in the field as field soil contains aluminum that can be toxic in very acid soils. The 8 to 20-lb range is all right for all but the ericaceaous plants. Two other factors that affect the rate are the quality of the lime and the quality of the water supply. We often do not identify either. The only way to know is keep records of growth and growth responses, then monitor with soil and tissue analysis.

CARL WHITCOMB: Our water contains 40 ppm Ca. During the 6-month growing season we add 110 in. water per 6-in. container. This gives an excess of 10 times the amount of Ca that would be provided if we put in 8 lb of lime. It would be necessary


Author: Phil Parvin

PP: 78

The Western Region's 1983 Award of Merit recipient is a distinguished scientist and a former Professor of Horticulture at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He has been a nurseryman in Long Beach, Washington, for many years. He is the author of numerous articles in garden publications and has lectured to garden clubs across the country. He is the author of "Small Fruits for Your Home Garden" and "Getting Started with Rhododendrons and Azaleas". He is a Past-President of the Washington State Nurseryman's Association and was on the Board of Governors of the American Association of Nurserymen. He is a Past-President, and has been a National Director, Executive-Secretary, Editor of the Quarterly Bulletin, and recipient of the Gold Medal Award of the American Rhododendron Society. He is a Board Member of the Rhododendron Species Foundation. He is a past member of the Executive Committee and a Past President of the IPPS Western Region. Our 1983 Award of Merit Recipient is Dr. J. Harold Clarke of Sun City, Arizona.

Author: W.M. Proebsting

PP: 79

Cuttings of Rhododendron ‘Britannia’, ‘Crest’, ‘Dr. Dresselhuys’, ‘Ignatius Sargent’ and ‘Jean Marie de Montague’ were treated with auxin, or auxin + willow water extract, and rooted under mist. The extract failed to stimulate rooting or root quality in any of the cultivars.

Author: Irene Burden

PP: 82

This paper describes how we rack up our flats of small plants for shipment. We use wooden flats for this. I have yet to see a plastic flat that would work well.

Our first jig was a backless box or rectangle made of 1×12 in. rough planks and stood on end. Cleats were nailed on the interior of the sides on which to set flats. The inside dimensions were the width of the flats, by about 5½ ft tall. The bottom board was 3½ ft long. One side had a clasp fastener at the top and was hinged at the bottom so that it could be opened and laid down. We would set the flats into this rectangle like so many shelves, with the heavy end boards exposed on the front and back sides. Then we would take four narrow boards and nail them two to each end of the shelved up flats. When this was completed the side of the frame was opened and the rack of flats was lifted out. There was then one diagonal strip nailed to one end of the flats and another diagonal strip to one side to hold the rack rigid. We had two of these frames, one with closely spaced cleats and the other


Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm, John Burt

PP: 83

Cutting propagation costs for Photinia × Fraseri Dress. and Juniperus sabina L. ‘Tamariscifolia’ were determined to be 20.5 and 13.1 cents per saleable rooted cutting, respectively. Sticking, rooting, and growing cuttings was 71.2 and 73.3 percent of total cost. Securing cuttings was 13.2 and 9.2 percent, overhead 10.7 percent for both, and operating capital interest 4.9 and 6.9 percent of total propagation cost. Labor was the largest single cost in producing cuttings.

Author: John, Geri Mitsch

PP: 88

The term "geothermal" could perhaps be misleading if one thinks of geothermal as meaning hot water out of the ground. Our water comes from the ground at 52°F and is used successfully with heat pumps for propagation of cuttings in heated soil beds. No benches are involved, and we do not heat the air.

In our main propagation greenhouse, the heated soil block is 14,000 sq. ft. with an unheated 15 to 20 ft. perimeter to reduce heat loss to the outside.

We use a low temperature (80° to 90°F) system. Water is circulated in the beds through ½ in. PVC pipe placed approximately 4 in. apart and buried 1 to 2 in. beneath the surface.

In order to distribute the heat evenly, we plumbed the system to force the water to travel the same distance for all the beds, whether it be the first bed or the farthest one at the end of the house.

Beds are plumbed in sets of two. The warm input line feeds each set through the manifold of this first bed, and the water is returned


Author: Lance Lyon

PP: 39

Softwood cutting propagation of deciduous trees is relatively new to the nursery industry. In the past most tree cultivars were produced by budding of grafting. This is still the most common method of propagation for most cultivars. However, this has created some problems. Notably delayed incompatibility in certain red maples, to circumvent this problem it has been necessary to find other methods of propagation. In 1976 Femrite Nursery began to experiment with rooting red maple softwood cuttings. This was done by placing the prepared cuttings in a flat for rooting under mist. The resultant rooting was adequate, but we lost many of our cuttings when we transplanted them to pots for overwintering. We began to look for some method to root the cuttings without having to transplant them.

After much trial and some error we have developed a method of propagation which works well for us. We now use a McConkey pot which is 2¼ in. square by 5 in. deep. We can put 49 of these in a 17 in.


Author: Paul L. Monette

PP: 90

In vitro heat therapy was successfully used in combination with shoot-tip culture to generate grapevine fanleaf virus-free Vitis vinifera ‘Ranny Vira’ but not grapevine leafroll-free V. vinifera ‘Schuyler’ or V. piasezkii. A combination of shoot tip culture and in vitro chemotherapy with either DHPA or vidarabine was ineffective in generating grapevine leafroll-free V. vinifera ‘Limberger’ while ribavirin appears more promising.

Author: Timothy F. Press

PP: 100

Imagine a test tube environment the size of a greenhouse. An environment that guarantees zero transpiration loss, but that maintains a rooting medium that is light, fluffy, airy and not water-saturated. Recent improvements in fog system technology now make such an environment possible. The rooting zone is not overwet so there are much fewer disease problems and higher density planting is possible. Plants are not stressed, so they can tolerate more sunlight and higher temperatures and therefore root faster. But of more importance are the yields that can be achieved — virtually 100% yields with even hard-to-root species. Very large cuttings can be rooted without the need for air layering. This paper describes the hardware of one type of fog system, its applications in greenhouse microclimate control, and the difference between intermittent mist and continuous fog for use in propagation.

Description of Fog system. There are many methods of atomization, but very few are suitable for use in


Author: Craig W. Shinn

PP: 110

Crown Zellerbach has been rooting conifer cuttings, particularly western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla [Raf.] Sarg.), in a fog system since 1976. Crown's interest in the rooting of cuttings stems from ongoing research efforts in tree breeding, genetics, and physiology. For these types of research, vegetative propagation is an essential step. Grafting has been favored by foresters for vegetative propagation but grafting has the limitations of possible graft incompatibility and of rootstock influence on scion performance.

Rooting success of western hemlock cuttings has been reported from zero to near 100%. Sorenson and Campbell (5) reported 75% rooting using one-year old seedlings as donors. Rooting from juvenile donor plants (before onset of flowering) has been reported at 68% by Foster, et al. (3) and up to 95% by Boyd (1). Brix and Barker (2) found cuttings from mature (42 to 150 year old) donors to root at 43%. Foster, et al. (3) found cuttings from mature donors to root at


Author: Ellen Sutter, Philip Barker

PP: 113

Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) is a desirable tree for the urban landscape. It possesses several qualities such as striking fall color, a pleasant form, attractively shaped leaves, and an ability to provide shade, which have made it increasingly popular as a street tree. However, sweetgum has several disadvantages which must be considered when selecting it for the urban landscape.

When sweetgum is grown from seedlings, the trees exhibit great variability in form and color. It also has an invasive root system that necessitates extensive and costly sidewalk repairs. Finally, grafting clonal scions onto seedling rootstocks as a means of overcoming variability is an expensive procedure, and results in higher costs for the growers, and consequently for the consumer.

Considering the popularity of sweetgum, it would be desirable to obtain superior selections and propagate them clonally. However, sweetgum cuttings do not root easily (1) and thus must be produced by budding to maintain


Author: Barrie Coate

PP: 118

In October, 1978, two especially attractive Acacia iteaphylla F.J. Muell specimens (Figure 1) were observed in an insect tolerance test planting at the Deciduous Fruit Field Station of the University of California in San Jose.

Since this species had proven to be comparatively resistant to Acacia psyllid, Psylla uncatoides Ferris & Klyver in these tests and the species has so many attractive characteristics, it was decided to attempt vegetative propagation of these especially attractive individuals.


Author: Roy L. Taylor

PP: 121

A new plant introduction program has been launched by the UBC Botanical Garden. The program, P.I.S.B.G., is designed to increase diversity in commercially-available plants, provide new financial incentives for the nursery industry, provide for effective utilization of The Botanical Garden collections through research and development of new or recommended introductions, and provide a revenue source through royalties for the Garden.

Author: Reggie Hunter

PP: 125

We have been using the direct sticking method for rooting broadleaf cuttings for the last 3 years. The average success rate has been 90%. We have not been able to use this method for hardwood cuttings due to space problems. With direct sticking a cost savings is realized by eliminating the transplanting of the rooted cutting to a liner pot.

The medium, for one cu yd of mix, consists of 1/3; each of peat moss, pumice, and sawdust. To this is added 6 lb of Osmocote 18-6-12 and 1 lb of Micromax (do not use Micromax Plus). In order to keep the Osmocote inactive, we do not add water to the medium at this time. We use cell packs in 17 in. square flats rather than loose pots. The reason — time and space. The cell packs used are either 90 or 64 cells per flat. This same flat would hold only 49 2¼ in. pots. We purchase the cell pack sheets without perforations so that they do not fall apart with only one use. Two cell sizes are used to accommodate the material to be rooted. The


Author: Randall W. Burr

PP: 126

There have been no recent discoveries of new substances which affect plant material and it is now a matter of adjusting formulas of the known ones to suit the needs of different plants and of refining our techniques for handling. This paper will chiefly consider the physical aspects of a tissue culture laboratory, with a brief overview of media and plant material handling. B & B Laboratories, like most plant enterprises, is interested in producing plant material in the most efficient way. The actual physical lab and the handling processes can be very costly and I will discuss ways in which costs have been held down at our lab. We grow a wide variety of plant material, ranging from woody shrubs (rhododendrons, azalea, kalmia, etc.) to ornamental tress, perennials, foliage plants, and bulbs.

Lab Construction and Operation. Our physical building is of a modular construction and built within a large open warehouse of 3,500 sq ft. The present lab size is 1,400 sq ft but is now being expanded.


Author: Edward W. Schultz

PP: 130

There seem to be more contradictions in scientific experimentation in the plant propagation field than in any other phase of horticulture.

Ask any propagator the proper time to take cuttings of a given species. He will say, "take your cuttings in November, April, or July and you can expect 100% rooting".

My personal experiences keep me from making any calendar predictions on timing. Weather patterns change from year to year. Erratic results arise from various cultural practices. Stock plants grown in a greenhouse, a shadehouse or outdoors, irrigated or non-irrigated, well-fertilized, or starved will lead to different responses.

Since each of these factors can change rooting from 0 to 100% and interact with the time taken, it is not a surprise to find some dogmatic conclusions that cannot be verified by repeated trials.

My first experience in timing in the taking of camellia cuttings occurred in 1951. The nursery owner would check the maturity of the wood by using the snap


Author: Wilbur C. Anderson

PP: 132

A micropropagation system is described for shoot multiplication and root initiation followed by a successful transfer of filbert plantlets to soil in a greenhouse environment. Essential factors beneficial for shoot multiplication were the combination of two cytokinins, BAP and 2iP, and the incorporation of Anderson's inorganics, a low salt medium. Shoot proliferation arose primarily from lateral bud break. Proliferated shoots were subcultured on shoot elongation/rooting medium, then planted into greenhouse soil and placed into a humidity tent. The survival of the micropropagated filberts was 93%.

Author: Michael A. Anderson, Allan E. Elliott

PP: 41

The production of clonal apple understocks in stool beds is dependent on the process known as mound layering, hence the terms, "stool beds" and "layer beds", are frequently used interchangeably. In layering, the exclusion of light and provision of a suitable environment favors root initiation and development on a developing shoot while it is still dependent on the mother plant for nutrition. In stool beds this is accomplished by surrounding the bases of growing shoots with moist sawdust, inducing the process of blanching.

The reasons for propagating apple understocks through this process are: 1) difficulty of other means of production (hardwood or softwood cuttings); 2) its adaptability to mechanization; 3) high quality of the liner produced; 4) relative low cost of production; and 5) ease of maintenance and inclusion into the work calendar.

Understocks currently in production at Carlton Nursery include Malling-Merton 106 and 111 (MM106 and MM111) and, East Malling 7A and 26 (EM 7A


Author: P.B. Scholefield

PP: 140

Relative importance of the tropical and sub-tropical fruit industries in Australia. Apart from the banana (Musa spp.) and the pineapple (Ananas comosus), there are few tropical or sub-tropical species that could be considered major horticultural crops in Australia. Compared with those of the temperate areas of Australia they are very minor (Table 1). However, the area of exotic tree fruit production is rapidly expanding in a period when horticultural plantings are either static or contracting. Exotic tree fruits may never rival the grape or citrus industries in size, but they will have an increasingly important role in Australian horticulture. Perhaps more importantly, however, they will add considerable variety to our fruit diet.

Author: S.C. Brown, B.G. Coombe, G.B. Gotley, C.L. Bennett, I.S. Tolley

PP: 145

In an attempt to improve seed germination and reduce benching in sweet orange and citrange seedlings, seeds were peeled, abraded, or treated with acid, gibberellin, or cellulytic enzymes. Peeled or acid-treated seeds germinated rapidly. Only peeled seeds grown with bottom-heat and mist-watering showed reduced benching. Thus the testa affects germination, but additional factors contribute to benching.

Author: Vic Fines

PP: 153

I had difficulty propagating Cordyline terminals ‘Shepperdii’ in quantity by the usual practice and searched for and developed the following method which yields almost 100% result. The method is also suitable for ‘Tricolor Rosea’, ‘Red Edge’ ‘Baby-Ti’, and other forms.

We propagate from plants at least 12 months old, preferably grown in very deep pots or well managed soil so as to allow maximum development of the rhizome. An application of Nemacur is given as protection against nematodes at planting.

The plants are removed from their garden beds or containers and washed free of all soil. They are placed on a wooden block and with a sharp knife 90% of the rhizome is cut off.

The leafy portion of the plants, with a small portion of the rhizomes and a few roots left on, are deeply planted in a suitable soil mix and watered in with a 1.5 ml/litre of Previcur and water solution. Then they are kept in humid conditions for 3 weeks and set out


Author: Debora H. Law

PP: 154

In a comparative test a new product, Baycor®1, significantly improved control of fuschia rust when compared with currently recommended Plantvax at single or double strength.

Author: Peter B. Smith

PP: 157

My observations are limited to the Central Southern Province of Hunan, latitude approximately 26°N. Citrus is also grown in a number of neighbouring provinces having a similar climate.

Historical records indicate citrus culture began in China about 4,000 years ago and was widespread by the Qin and Han periods, (221 BC to 220 AD). Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province, is the site of an archaeological find of great importance to the citrus world. Seeds of a citrus species were unearthed in a 2,100 year old tomb.

Citrus research was accelerated after the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. However the cultural revolution of the 1970's was responsible for the destruction of vast areas of citrus orchards as citrus was then regarded as a revisionist fruit.

The census figures of 1980 show that China had 180,000 hectares of citrus planted of which 67,000 hectares was bearing. Production reached 797,000 tonnes in 1981. The production per hectare figure of


Author: T. Trochoulias, G.W. Griffith, and N.G. Smith

PP: 160

Comparisons were made of the rooting responses of cuttings taken from terminal flushes of ‘Duke 7’ avocado which were stimulated by wire constriction, etiolation, marcottage, and combinations of these treatments. After seven weeks the treated terminal shoots were removed from the parent tree and placed in a peat-vermiculite mix in 125 mm pots under mist. Only seven cuttings with wire constriction, etiolation, and marcottage, or a combination of them, produced roots after 57 days. All cuttings produced a vegetative flush within 8 to 16 weeks.

Author: Adrian Hicks

PP: 164

Dracaena marginata is easy to propagate from large stems taken from established trees by placing them in double washed river sand in a 3 gal tub under shade and watering once a day for a period of 10 to 12 weeks. However, not only does this method ruin your tree but if done in the winter, between April and September, will kill it. Also there is very little of this mature stock around.

My method is to peel off 8 to 12 leaves from the centre of the head, leaving 10 to 12 leaves below the bared stem section. This leaves a nice, bushy head with mature wide leaves. This is left alone for several weeks until the bark has hardened like the mature wood on the bottom.

The heads are then cut off with a small saw and 5 or 6 are placed in a bucket with a small layer of sphagnum moss for 24 hours until the sap has dried out. The leaves are watered a couple of times to stop dehydration.

The heads are then planted in double washed river sand in a 1 or 2-gal bucket. After 5 to 6 weeks in a bush-house


Author: Graham Parr

PP: 164

Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’ (golden robinia) is a small to medium, fast-growing, deciduous tree of the Leguminosae family. It has golden-yellow leaves from spring to autumn and white wisteria-like flowers in spring.

Golden robinia is grafted onto seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (black robinia). As most deciduous tree grafting is done during winter I, at first, did mine at this time. However, I noticed my understock was large enough to graft by mid-summer (December). I knew this was a good time for budding so why not grafting? I tried grafting some tress as an experiment and was amazed by the good results.

I do my grafting in pots which are 85 mm in diameter and 150 mm deep. This gives good soil volume and allows a large number of pots per square metre. Handling is kept to a minimum by using pallets that are 1.24 m by 1.33 m and hold 263 pots.

Preparation of Understock. From 3 to 8 seeds are sown directly in each pot in a polyhouse in


Author: K. Holmes

PP: 167

The method discussed here has been used successfully for growing vegetable and flower seedlings for many years. It could be used to grow a wide range of shrub, tree, and creeper plants. This method may be of particular interest to people who wish to grow large quantities of material.

The soil should be a light loam in texture, rich in the essential nutrients, and worked to a fine state by rotary hoeing. It should be sterilized with methyl bromide or some other method, be raked as evenly as possible and should be in a moist state.

The wooden drill-making implement (Figure 1) is pressed into the loose soil surface firmly and when removed will leave seven (7) drills approximately 10mm deep. The bed is now ready to plant.


Author: C. Ritchie Bell

PP: 170

Some knowledge of the fantastic diversity of plants and animals that we call "natural variation" has been of critical importance to mankind throughout the course of his history: which plants can be eaten and which must be avoided; which animals were prey and which were predator; which drugs will cure and which will kill. Because life often depended on some rudimentary degree of this quickly learned classification, taxonomy must be considered a very old profession.

With literally millions of species of plants and animals now known to science, one might think that all biological diversity would have been accounted for and that taxonomist would have long ago closed up shop. Quite the contrary. With new analytical tools, new advances in genetic correlation, and new pressures on the few undeveloped portions of the world that still contain many undescribed species, taxonomists still have work to do.

The title of my paper suggests the question I wish to address: "What role


Author: Gayle R.L. Suttle

PP: 46

Microplant Nurseries was established in 1980, with our first crop going to the field in the spring of 1981. We have specialized in the micropropagation of new and improved fruit tree rootstocks of apple, pear, plum, and cherry, as well as self-rooted ornamental and shade trees such as flowering plum, flowering crabapple, birch, and Norway maples. We presently have 26 cultivars in production. These are produced in quantities of 5,000 or more per year. An additional 42 subjects are in various stages of research. Such items as red maple, sugar maple, ornamental pear, filbert, apple, and cherry cultivars are all part of our research program.

Our facility consists of a 1600 sq. ft. building divided into 4 separate areas: an outer office and storage area; a media preparation room complete with an autoclave, water purification system, pH meter, weighing machines and dishwasher; a transfer room with three laminar flow hoods, where all sterile sub-culturing takes place; and a culture room with


Author: R.J. Worrall

PP: 176

The performance of five commercially available mist propagation controllers were evaluated. Those tested were a cyclic timer with day/night switching, paper sensor (A.C. resistance), light sensor, resin block (capacitance) and relative humidity (temperature differential).

When properly adjusted and maintained all the units provided a constant moisture film over the test plants. There was no significant difference in rooting among plants on beds controlled by the various units. The most obvious difference among the units was the level of maintenance and the re-adjusting of required settings. Once installed and calibrated the light sensor and the relative humidity controllers required no further attention for the duration of the trial (6 weeks).


Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 182

Recently I have heard prominent Australian nursery operators remark that plant propagation is labour intensive and mechanisation of propagation is not possible. Such a point of view misrepresents the role that mechanisation can play in the propagation of plants and demonstrates a misunderstanding of the role of the plant propagator.

Much of the routine work of plant propagation is repetitive and predictable and can be carried out by relatively unskilled nursery personnel. Many of the routine operations involved in plant propagation can be performed easily by mechanical aids. The role of the plant propagator is becoming increasingly advisory and supervisory in the selection of propagation techniques, appropriate materials, facilities and equipment.

The objective of mechanisation is to increase the efficiency of the operation by improving the efficiency of staff and by making their job easier (3). Rarely does the introduction of machinery eliminate manpower; the integration of man and


Author: Andrew J. Walker

PP: 186

There is a lack of horticultural training in tropical Australia. The Darwin Community College commenced apprenticeship training in 1980 and a certificate course in tropical horticulture in 1983. The future of horticulture, particularly in the areas of field cropping and nursery production, appears good and these courses are providing trained personnel for this developing industry.

Author: Penelope A. Rose

PP: 190

Why the propagator needs records. The nursery industry in Australia has grown from being a small cottage industry in which the owner-operator "knew it all" from years of on-the-job experience, or simply "green thumb", to one which is literally a branch of agricultural science. As no scientist can exist without records so, in 1983, should no horticulturist.

The propagator needs records not just to prove a technique does or does not work but to compare techniques. In a time when making a profit is essential for survival it is enormously important to know exactly which plants are being produced economically, which techniques give the best results, and which operators are the most efficient.

What records are needed. The records needed are determined by the type of information required. Before collecting information, it is essential to ensure that it will be used.

Consider some of the questions which may be asked of the propagator and for which he may


Author: Tim Trochoulias, Andrew J. Burton

PP: 193

Ten ornamental species were grown in two combinations of sand and macadamia husks (1:1, 1:3) and compared to a control which included sand, peat, sawdust, and polystyrene beads (1:2:2:3). After 51 days all species growing in both the sand and husks media showed significantly (P<0.05) greater vigour than the control. The fresh and dry weight determinations of the tops of one species examined (Nephrolepis exaltata) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher growth rates than the control. Macadamia husks are suitable for use in potting media with a wide range of ornamentals.

Author: Patricia D. Raward

PP: 197

Ipomoea horsfalliae is a native of the West Indies, a morning glory, commonly referred to here as cardinal creeper. Dense, glossy, palmately lobed leaves enhance the beauty of its clustered 6½ cm glossy, bell-shaped flowers, deep rose to cardinal red in colour; which bloom profusely from summer to mid-winter in southeast Queensland.

This showy creeper has been largely unavailable to the home gardener because its poor strike rate by conventional cutting propagation makes it non-viable as a commercial crop. With hydroculture as an alternative propagation method, the nurseryman can grow this beautiful plant economically and reap the benefits from a most desirable and rewarding crop.

The methods described in this paper are the results of trials carried out over a three year period. Many of the methods were duplicated in various standard propagation media; however, because of the extremely poor results in these media, the last year's work has been devoted entirely to


Author: Adrian Bowden

PP: 200

There are a number of points that should be checked before using any herbicide on your tube stock.
  1. Read any available literature on the herbicide, noting such things as frequency of application.
  2. Pay particular attention to the climatic factors in the data.
  3. Pay particular attention to the soil mix being used in obtaining the data.
  4. Frequency of irrigation needs to be noted also.
  5. Having done all that, see if the literature deals with any of the plants you are growing.
  6. Before embarking on large scale treatments do small trials with all plants and sizes then assess the results.

Weed control in a wide range of tube stock can be accomplished if raised benches are used, with windbreaks around holding areas, and with the headland and underbench areas sprayed with Tryquat or Roundup.

Tryquat is non-residual, very toxic to the operator, but very effective on any germinated weed seedlings, causing death within 48 hours except to such weeds as couch, paspalum, and Cyperus which will regrow.


Author: Ben Swane

PP: 202

The growing of palms for food production is one of the most ancient forms of plant propagation. The arid countries of the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia and surrounding nations have propagated palms since time immemorial. The oasis and wadis surrounding sweet water wells and the areas under the palm plantations are used for other forms of plant propagation for many vegetables and fodder crops. Lucerne (alfalfa) is the main green crop grown for their animals.

Each palm tree forms an orchard square, approximately 8 metres by 8 metres, a small mound surrounds each square and holds the water for both palms and green crops. This water is drained off to the next square and the process of irrigation continues.

Over the last 10 to 15 years a great demand has developed for propagation resources which do not exist as we know them.

Seed production of eucalyptus, casuarina, and other Australian native plants is now well established. Other trees and shrubs are also produced from seed under these


Author: Elizabeth Metcalfe

PP: 206

Darwin is situated in a tropical zone and experiences two seasons a year — a wet season in which we receive monsoonal rains with temperatures around 30 to 33°C and high humidity, and a dry season with low humidity and a greater diurnal temperature range, from about 18 to 30°C.

Environmental and climatic conditions are important factors to note and control when deflasking tissue cultures. The jars come from the air conditioned laboratory with a constant temperature of 26°C and a high humidity.

To prevent desiccation during deflasking the plants are handled quickly and are placed in a humid tent as soon as possible. A fungicide, such as Zineb, is used as a soil drench and also as a plant wash. This is a preventive procedure that guards against fungal attack. The use of University of California mixes also helps prevent soil-borne fungi attacking the tender growth. The most commonly used U.C. mix is of 75% peat, 25% sand and a small amount of slow-release micronutrient.


Author: Roger Peate

PP: 207

In early autumn, 1982, various adhesive labels were tested to determine if they could be used to fix climbers to bamboo stakes. We had to stake many thousands of climbing plants with very soft stems. Twist ties tightened sufficiently to hold the plants up on the stake damaged the stems.

Quickstick International self-adhesive labels peeled off a backing sheet were used successfully. These are available from most news agents in a range of sizes. The most suitable size was 50 × 13 mm and these were available in sheets of 20 for about $3.20 per thousand. While we needed them to last for a week or two, by which time the plants would be self-supporting, the labels retained their effectiveness for many months.

There were no savings in either material or labour costs as compared to other staking methods. This was because staff had difficulty detaching labels from the backing sheet. This required two hands at a most inconvenient stage of the staking operation. If growers got together to order


Author: Richard Bush

PP: 50

Duplex grafting is a technique for avoiding possible delayed incompatibility in those cultivars classed as shy rooters from cuttings. A duplex graft is essentially using a nurse root provided by the understock. An approach graft is made in the normal manner on an understock established in a 4-in. pot. The first difference occurs when we tie with an .016 × ¼ × 4-in. long budding rubber and put the slip knot on top, spacing the wraps very open, about equal distance untied area to tied area.

In the next step, we use a small ½ in. wide camel hair brush to apply an auxin over the entire cut areas. We use Wood's Rooting Compound 1/10 strength, which is 5,000 ppm IBA and 2,500 ppm IAA. Now a "Twistem" is securely tied just below the base of the cut (this will girdle the rootstock as it grows). "Twistems" are small steel wires covered with paper.

Next, we transplant the rootstock into a pot 3 in. taller but with the dimensions as the above described pot.


Author: Ian Tolley

PP: 208

A quick but effective method to determine the percentage of air space in a mix is as follows:
  1. Get your test mix to average field capacity. If necessary add water to do this.
  2. Use two 200 mm (8 in) pots. Put them together but separated by a thin plastic (0.002 in) film.
  3. Fill the inner pot to normal height and density with the trial mix.
  4. Add water by measure to the point where free water just shows above the mix (i.e. saturation point). A small depression in the mix will make it easier to determine when this point is reached.
  5. Separate the two pots carefully and collect the drainage water in a bucket — this should take only 2 to 3 minutes until the pot is dripping slowly. The medium is then at field capacity.
  6. Express the water added to the water drained as a percentage —      e.g.   2 litres (applied) = 100% of air space
                  1 litre (drained) = ×
             i.e. there would be 50% air space.
  7. Parameters. For most plants, except ferns or water plants, the average mix should have not less

Author: Tom Wood

PP: 210

One may ask, "why ask the question" and I would state emphatically that there is most certainly a need. Plants of interest are capturing the imagination of many people, both within and outside the nursery stock industry and it is the duty of all concerned to fulfill this need.

Certain members have always known of the great potential and resources of the botanic gardens; however, thoughts were crystallized, appetites whetted and action motivated by the Southeast G.B.&I. Area on a one-day visit to Kew Gardens near London last summer. For many, much of the in-depth work being undertaken was seen at first hand for the first time. The role of the micropropagation unit and its potential as an aid to plant conservation on the one hand, and the rapid bulking of new introductions was just one aspect illustrating the potential of an informed botanical garden (one must admit that here avarice crept into the discussion and could have rapidly taken over). However, I contend that IPPS


Author: A. Bruce Macdonald

PP: 213

(See Western Region, page 121)

Author: A.D. Schilling

PP: 213

In order that I may relate my subject matter to a personal level of experience I have restricted this paper to the national plant collections I know best — namely those of The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew and Wakehurst Place.

It would be tempting also to give wide attention to the many other national collections which our islands hold, such as the many National Trust properties, the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, plus its three annex gardens and the various arboreta managed by the Forestry Commission (Westonbirt, Bedgebury, etc.)

The mother station, Kew Gardens, by the banks of the Thames at Richmond near London is world renowned, covers 300 acres and has a long and fascinating history. Much of that history is related directly to the subject of commercial exploitation of plants.

Kew's annex garden (Wakehurst Place, Ardingly, Sussex) is almost 500 acres in extent, and within its 14 mile boundary it nurses a very rich and varied collection of temperate plants with accent


Author: Don Gilbert

PP: 220

The taxonomy of fungi is a difficult topic. In the fungi there are some 47,000 known species. Imperfect fungi, with no known sexual stage, account for 15,000 species and many of these are capable of producing leaf spots.

While we might agree that disorders such as Black Spot of roses (Diplocarpon rosae), Leaf Blotch of chestnut (Guignardia aesculi), and Leaf Spot of willow (Marssonina spp.) should be easily recognised by horticulturists, I feel that this generalisation is incorrect and misleading. Advisory experience has taught me that the services of a mycologist is required to obtain a correct identification of leaf spot disorders.

Leaf spot of willow, for example, may be caused not only by Marssonina spp. but also by Ascochyta, Cercospora, Cylindrosporium, Phyllosticta, Ramularia, Septoria, and other fungi. There are more than 100 species of Cercospora. Regular control measures should not be considered until identification of the disorder is certain.


Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 222


Camellias form a specialist line of work in the experimental programme at Efford, particularly in relation to developing an accelerated production schedule for well branched, budded plants in 2 to 2½ years. However, all camellia trials came to an abrupt halt in 1977 due to the loss of a large proportion of the young plants which developed a progressively worsening leaf drop and subsequently died. The problem was not initially associated with disease as the early symptoms of leaf scorch on the young foliage was similar to that observed when levels of nutrition were excessive, or sun scorch from water splashes, and no fungal bodies could be found on the damaged tissue. The problem persisted and intensive work by pathologists eventually identified the cause as fungal. The organism was originally thought to be Pestalotiopsis guepini, but more recently has been identified as a closely related species, Monochaetia karstenii, which was considered only weakly pathogenic, capable of


Author: John A. Wott

PP: 225

The world population continues to grow and with it the demand for resources. The United States, the land of "never-ending" resources, is now also concerned about resource depletion, population growth and control and, most recently, people living in close proximity to their neighbors. These concerns, first discussed in greater degree in the 1960's, have lead to the simultaneous interest in and development of scientific programs called urban horticulture. They are concerned with the study of the interaction of people and plants in urban environments.

Traditional horticulture, being a part of agriculture, has developed systems whereby we can study and/or produce uniform plants of a single cultivar in large numbers within defined and controlled environments. These systems provide the consumer with plants of similar size, flowers, and harvest time. They are ideal for the massive uses intended.

However, each urban garden is different. An urban garden contains plants grown


Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 229

We categorize herbicides as pre-emergence (those applied prior to seed germination) and post-emergence (those applied to existing weeds). Among the best of the Federally registered herbicides in the U.S. are the following with a brief statement as to why they are being used extensively.

Author: Christine Maunder

PP: 233

The objective of my investigation was to compare the rooting of hardy nursery stock in different types of propagation unit systems which are currently available to the industry.

The systems used were:

Japanese Paper Pot — paper containers in an expandable honeycomb form.
     Vaca 40 — plastic tray insert with 40 sections.
     A.P. 40 — polystyrene tray with 40 sections.
     Speedling — polystyrene tray with wedge shaped cells.
     Jiffy 7's — compressed peat blocks.
     Rockwool — preformed into a seed tray with 45 rockwool blocks.
     Control — standard seed tray.

Comparative costings of the systems were carried out in relation to the following points:

  1. The initial cost of the system.
  2. The number of cuttings per square metre.
  3. Efficiency of handling.
  4. Speed and percentage of rooting.
  5. The growth pattern and response of plant material when subsequently potted off.

Propagation material selected included difficult, moderate, and easy-to-root subjects.


Author: Bruce A. Briggs, Steven M. McCulloch

PP: 239

Until the mid-1970's most successful commercial micropagation had been with herbaceous plant material. Several orchids, foliage plants, and strawberries had become commercially possible. A few woody plants were being micropropagated such as Tupidanthus and Ficus. But the majority of woody plant material still remained to be cultured. Perhaps the main reason for the lack of success with this group of plants, was that researches were attempting to apply the techniques of herbaceous microculture to woody plants. Needless to say, the successes were few.

As pointed out by others (14), the microculture of woody plants is not a new development. In fact, in 1940, Gautheret (5,6) and Nobecourt independently of each other, using the newly discovered auxins, cultured cambial tissue of trees. Later, Jacquiot (7) conducted additional research on bud differentiation from cambial explants of several trees. In California, Ernest Ball (2), working with Sequoia, studied the differentiation of


Author: Verl L. Holden

PP: 51

The introduction of new cultivars of filbert (Corylus avellana) for the production of hazelnuts in Oregon has sparked new interest in planting more orchards, thus creating a demand for more trees of the newer cultivars. Corylus avellana, having been in cultivation for the last 4,500 years, is easy to propagate seed, or from selected cultivars by layering but the latter process is lengthy and laborious.

The most primitive method of propagating a desirable cultivar is simple division. Corylus avellana is prone to produce shoots from the base of the tree or root crown. These shoots, commonly called suckers, sometimes arise from below ground level and root naturally. The naturally rooted sucker is then simply cut from the mother tree and planted in the desired location.


Author: David Pennell

PP: 249

There is little doubt that the commercial use of micropropagation has been considerably greater in the United States than in the United Kingdom. Only in the propagation of orchids has the technique become widely adopted in this country.

Since the early 1960's the range of plants which can be successfully micropropagated has increased enormously. While much of the initial activity was centred upon flower and pot plant crops, over the last 10 years there has been more effort directed towards woody plants. Commercial enterprises have been established throughout the world to propagate plants by this technique either in specialist laboratories or on existing nurseries.


Author: David Miller

PP: 253

The Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of "to-wean" is — teach to feed otherwise than from the breast — by enforced abstinence or counter attractions.

H.J. Welch in his book, "Mist Propagation and Automatic Watering," discusses the weaning problem thus, "I must confess to being skeptical about there being, in fact, any such thing. Even the term "weaning" seems to be singularly inappropriate, the allusion to an infant being gradually taught to accept solid food instead of milk bearing no real connection with what is happening to the rooted cutting.

To a certain extent I think Welch's skepticism justifiable where more traditional propagation is concerned. But I do see some relevance in the case of tissue propagation. "Plants" in culture are incubated in a growth room, where temperature and light levels are closely controlled. Nutrients are provided in the culture medium and a high level of hygiene minimises the risks from injurious


Author: Graham Shillabeer

PP: 256

I would like to relate my experiences with the weaning from tissue culture of the following classes of roses: Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, Miniature, and Rugosa, as well as the following herbaceous plants: Bergenia (cultivars), Hosta, Linum, Potentilla, Rodgersia, and Dicentra.

Plants received from the laboratory must be in first class condition, free from infection, all clean with a good root system of even size and ideally be kept in a cool room for two days prior to potting into soil.

Compost should be nice and open — a fairly coarse peat containing sand and grit, or alternatively, 40% perlite. I have been very pleased with roses grown in a compost containing Enmag.

It is essential that compost be well soaked prior to pricking off plants. Two days prior to planting we drench the compost with Cryptonol at 12 fl. oz in 25 gal. water.


Author: Barry Lockwood

PP: 259

At the 1981 G.B. & I. Annual Conference, the topic of "Work Rates" was discussed at considerable length. It was suggested that an attempt be made to determine average commercial rates for a range of key nursery tasks.

Subsequently, in May, 1982 our Vice-President, Michael Dunnett, devised and sent out a questionnaire to selected members of the Society on the subject of "Propagation of Soft and Semi-ripe Cuttings". The instructions were, "to select any one week between 1st June and 30th October 1982, and record the number of cuttings which you take and insert during this period".

A recording sheet was provided for the relevant information, together with the questionnaire to be completed. Eighteen nurseries responded.


Author: Douglas Anderson

PP: 264

The following is an outline of the methods we use in cutting preparation and in insertion of the cuttings. We have no special facilities available for this operation. In common with other nurseries, benches have been accommodated in existing buildings and the operation has had to fit into the existing layout.

To complete the I.P.P.S. questionnaire we recorded cuttings prepared and inserted during the third week in June, as shown in Table 1. These were all softwood cuttings of deciduous shrubs such as Buddleia, Chaenomeles, Fuchsia, etc. Twenty percent were inserted in paper pots, the remainder directly in trays.


Author: Thomas J. Campbell

PP: 265

I will concentrate on two areas: one is in continuation of the immediately preceding sessions on work rates and standards, and the other is on the future relationship of IPPS to the provision of industrial training in the nursery stock and related interest sectors of horticulture.

To ensure that we all have the same understanding, my definition of "work rates" and "standard rates" are:

Work rate — is an assessment of the effective speed over a short time period and takes no account of rest time or other factors,

Standard rate — is the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, provided they know and adhere to the specified method, and provided they are motivated to apply themselves to their work.

In the context of our work in the Agricultural Training Board, I prefer to speak of achievable standards of performance and would ask you to bear in mind that such achievable and consistent standards can only be attained by effective work planning and skills training.


Author: Andre Briant

PP: 268

The story of a pot liner starts either with a seed, a cutting, or a graft; let us start it with cuttings.

The cutting material is collected from the stock plants each morning while it is still cool. Then it is kept in cold storage until the cuttings are made (never more than 2 days). All the cuttings are made with secateurs. The speed depends on the worker, of course, but mainly on the species, and it can vary from 200 to 500 per hour. Cuttings are dipped in hormones; we use IBA at concentrations between 1 and 5 parts per 1000.

Polythene tunnels are used for propagation. These are 8 metres wide and 30 metres long, double skinned with windows for ventilation. They are whitened for protection against the sun; we do not use any other shading system. The cuttings are stuck either in frames or in multipots. In both cases the compost used is a 50/50 mixture of peat and sand.

During the first three weeks humidity is kept as high as possible (around 97%) either with mist, with "Humid


Author: Nigel John Timpson

PP: 270

The nursery at Hewton was established 14 years ago. Since I took over in 1976 we have considerably expanded the facilities and production output. On the 3½ hectare nursery, 1½ hectares are used for production and 2 for stock planting. Most of our facilities are under polythene and we have space for ½ million plants under cover. Our current production is around 700,000 plants per annum, 90% of which are produced from cuttings; the remainder, apart from about 5,000 grafts, are from seed.

We specialise in liner production and are, therefore, able to give the attention to detail that is required to enable us to successfully propagate difficult plants. Our policy has always been to concentrate on propagating plants which other people find difficult, or which are in demand for some other reasons — perhaps there is a shortage of suitable stock material for propagation. Growing difficult plants has stood us in good stead in years when orders have been difficult to come by.


Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 274

For many years we have used the procedure of taking cuttings and sticking them directly in a pot filled with growing medium. The cuttings then root and continue to develop into mature liners without interruption until harvest.

The basic system of direct rooting and procedures for handling cuttings is explained in detail by Sidney B Meadows (1) in a paper presented to the IPPS Southern Region in 1981.

Usually cuttings are made during the summer months using multiple cuttings per pot. Nicely-rooted liners are ready in September and on occasion we get a fall flush of growth. Liners are overwintered in unheated poly-houses until March, at which time unit heaters are installed to protect the new spring flush of growth. Planting into #2 or #3 cans starts after the first full moon in April, which is traditionally the last frost date in our area. Plants are grown can-tight for one year, then spaced and marketed beginning in June until they are all sold.

We observed on many occasions that plants


Author: Derek C. Attenburrow

PP: 277

Traditional methods of growing-on rooted cuttings in 7 or 9 cm pots (pot grown liners) commonly consist of standing the pots in small open mesh trays or similar carriers. These methods are often expensive in handling costs, apart from the difficulty of applying water evenly and avoiding attacks by soil-borne diseases. The use of an isolated pallet handling system ("Levington Tray") eliminates these problems and thus produces a higher percentage of good standard pot-grown liners. Additionally the "Levington Tray", holding 294 × 9 cm or 442 × 7 cm pots allows for mechanical and lower handling costs from potting up the rooted cutting until it is returned for potting in the final container.

Author: John Russell Strametz

PP: 52

The hot-callusing pipe, a grafting aid (1), was first introduced by Dr. H.B. Lagerstedt, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Corvallis, Oregon at the 1981 IPPS Western Region meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (2). The first hot-callus pipe was a 2 in. PVC pipe with slots cut in it. Inside the 2 in. pipe, is a ½ in. liquid-filled PVC pipe with heating cables taped onto both sides to maintain 80°F in the hot-callusing pipe.

In August 1981 the first large scale hot callusing pipe was constructed with 1,200 feet of 2 in. PVC pipe and 9,600 ½ in. and 5/8 in. slots cut perpendicular to the pipe. Three slots were cut at one time by clamping three pipes together, and with the use of a radial arm saw containing a variable width dato blade, the slots were uniformly notched.

The heat source for this system is circulating hot water through a ½ in. PVC pipe inside the 2 in. slotted pipe. This is accomplished by using a closed system consisting of


Author: Anton Thomsen

PP: 280

If I look back to 16 years ago most conifer production in Denmark consisted of striking cuttings in frames where they remained for two years, followed by two years set out in well prepared beds before being planted out in the field. Today, approximately 80% of the conifer liners are produced by four nurseries, on a similar but not identical method to the one we use, which I will describe.

In 1967 we built two aluminum greenhouses 20 × 61 m to rationalise production of liners. Half of one house was equipped with mist propagation, the remainder of the glass-house area was used for winter potting of rooted cuttings. This was to produce better liners and make good use of labour in the winter. Today we have four greenhouses of this size, using one for propagation and the others for potted liners.

Our present production of liners is outlined. From July to October Juniperus, Chamaecyparis, some Thuja and Berberis, Euonymus fortunei, Skimmia, and Ilex cuttings are stuck in flats, using a medium of


Author: Nicholas D. Dunn

PP: 282

Our nursery produces fruit trees and rootstocks and some ornamental trees. We are wholesale suppliers to the nursery trade and to the fruit grower establishing fruit plantations. We are, therefore, dealing with very intensive field production of bareroot material that necessitates autumn and winter harvest. The majority of our trees are sold as one-year (maiden) trees; this allows us to mechanically lift and store most of these prior to delivery to our customers. Following our tree lifting of around 150,000 trees we harvest ½ million rootstocks from stoolbeds. Due to the deteriorating weather we aim to have all the field work finished by Christmas as we know from experience that we rarely have uninterrupted working conditions in the field after this. This enables us to organise our labour force efficiently, having six weeks work under cover during January and February.

To enable us to stick to such a tight schedule we, firstly, needed machinery and the capacity to store trees


Author: Andrew Eames

PP: 285

Stems for standard roses are expensive and for this reason some rose growers produce their own. The usual method is to propagate from hardwood cuttings. It is also possible to grow good stems on a stoolbed. A third method, which has been little used by growers, is to bud a "stem builder" on an ordinary bush rootstock and this is what I want to discuss here. At Shardlow Hall we have three years experience budding a range of species and cultivars that seem suitable, using Rosa corymbiferia ‘Laxa’ as the rootstock throughout.

Good results have been obtained using Rosa rugosa, R. multiflora ‘Dornloos’, R. m. ‘De La Grifferaie’, and R. ‘G278’, an unnamed John Innes seedling, which has produced the best stems so far. R. canina selections have been rather disappointing. ‘G278’ is a very vigorous, upright shrub, and the stems are straight and almost thornless although cuttings do not root readily. The stem continues to thicken as the plant gets older.

Ordinary bush rootstocks are


Author: W.-U.v. Hentig

PP: 286

The International Plant Propagators' Society (IPPS) and the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) are among the well known and renowned horticultural societies of the world. Main tasks of both these societies are support of horticulture in general and in special fields through improvement of international cooperation in science and in practice.

For some years efforts of both Societies to intensify contacts by means of mutual information and cooperation have increased. For instance, there were discussions on this in November, 1981, between Mr. Raymond Evison, then International President of the IPPS and the author, who was at that time Chairman of the Section "Ornamental Plants" of the ISHS. Leaders of both Societies met at the 21st International Horticultural Congress of the ISHS in Hamburg at the end of August, 1982. Friendly and constructive talks concluded in agreements, which include future regular exchange of information, and the possibility of


Author: Keith Loach

PP: 291

Aided by an amenable climate and driven by the need to diversify its economy, New Zealand has increased its horticultural production almost five-fold in the last decade. The average daily radiation in N.Z. exceeds that in Britain in all seasons but the most notable difference from a horticultural viewpoint occurs in winter, when N.Z. receives up to eight times as much radiation (Table 1).

Author: T. O'Flaherty, J.C. Kelly

PP: 295

The distinguishing features of the Charlton thermosystem are the use of a special-purpose transformer to supply a low voltage to the load, and of a heavy 4 cm diameter steel hawser connected to the transformer secondary winding as the heating element for use in propagation beds. The hawser has a very low electrical resistance and, therefore, draws a large current from the transformer even at a very low secondary voltage. Delivery of a desired level of power as heat to the bed depends on correct matching of the hawser length, (i.e. its resistance), to the characteristics of the transformer.

The design data, on which this matching is based, is confidential to the manufacturers. The important practical feature of the system's operations is that the desired heat output can be delivered to the hawser while keeping it at so low a voltage that no electrical insulation of the hawser is necessary. Even when laid in a damp medium such as moist sand any leakage currents which occur in


Author: Hannah Lilien-Kipnis

PP: 299

Horticultural practice in Israel goes back to Biblical times. Five of the seven species mentioned in Deuteronomy 8:8 are fruit trees. "The Lord your God is bringing you to a land of wheat and barley, of vines, fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olives, oil and honey." In Leviticus 19:23 the laws concerning the culture of fruit trees are laid down, "When you enter the land and plant any kind of tree for food, you shall treat it as bearing forbidden fruit. For three years it shall be forbidden and may not be eaten, in the fourth year it shall be a holy gift unto the Lord, and this releases it for use. In the fifth year you may eat its fruit and thus the yield it gives you shall be increased."

The Mishna, which was written in the 2nd century, sets out very definite do's and don'ts as far as grafting is concerned, indicating that our forefathers were very imaginative propagators. I quote from Order Zeraim — (Seeds), Tractate Kilaim Chapter 1,


Author: D.N. Clark

PP: 305


We must first consider what is the market potential of our industry. I firmly believe that this can be described as good, as so many factors point to an increased size of market. A number of factors will increase the size of the market:

  1. Increased leisure time.
  2. Increased awareness of the environment and the role of plants in that environment.
  3. The introduction of fashion to gardening, which will make the public want to change their gardens to keep up with the Jones's.
  4. Introduce new dimensions to the garden, such as night lighting and tub gardening. The recent introduction of peat growing modules for the growing of tomatoes and other vegetable plants is a very good example, where a total market has been expanded.
  5. Our continued desire to have something new and, therefore, the continued for new plants.

Author: Bojin Bogdanov

PP: 308

In Bulgaria our current studies with vegetative propagation of conifers are based on an examination of the following factors: (1) rooting potential and plant form as affected by the maturity of the mother plant; (2) seasonal physiological and anatomic features of the cutting as affecting quantity and speed of rooting; (3) selection of suitable types of cuttings to reduce the production time of pot-grown liners;(4) development of equipment to provide suitable regimes for rooting cuttings without the use of heat; and (5) grafting in the open to produce conifers for landscaping and seed orchards.

It is impossible to discuss all these aspects thoroughly. The third will be covered here, with reference to the others where applicable.

The studies carried out confirm that the life and regenerative potential of trees produced from rooted cuttings are closely related to the age of the mother tree as well as the position in the crown (upper portion) of the tree from which they are collected. Cuttings taken


Author: S. Pocock

PP: 316

Topline Nurseries started accepting tissue-cultured plants in spring, 1982, the main crop being Zantedeschia.

These were transferred, but not very successfully, mainly due to the fact that we did not have the right conditions. We had set up plastic humidity tents in an existing tunnel house. As this house was being used as a seed house with variable temperatures, it was obvious that a separate and permanent transfer house was needed.

At the end of 1982, a transfer house was built the size of our standard tunnel house — 1,000 sq. ft., covered and lined with a double skin of Fabricon polythene, with a concrete floor and the roof covered with 50% shade cloth. Inside there is a pull-over shade cloth which we use in the summer. A form of humidifier was used to maintain maximum humidity. We adapted an electrical chemical applicator by connecting a water supply to the vat and using a ball-cock; this ensured the vat would not run dry. The humidifier was on a time switch, which we


Author: Lance Lyon

PP: 54

At Femrite Nursery we graft cedar and spruce in the greenhouse, and cherries in the field.

Production of the grafted conifers begins with the harvesting of the seedling understock. The roots are trimmed and they are potted into 4 in. pots. This is done a year before the grafting is to take place. The understock is left outside until late October and then it is brought into the greenhouse and prepared for grafting.

By December the understock is producing new roots and the scionwood is dormant and is ready to be taken for grafting. We use a side veneer graft for both the cedar and the spruce. First the cuts are made and one edge of the scion is matched to the understock. Then the graft is wrapped with a budding rubber to hold the scion in place and the sides are painted with Tree Heal. The grafts are then placed back on the bench and covered with poly to keep the humidity high until the graft union has time to heal. After about two weeks the poly is removed and the grafted plants are


Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 320

Processed Pinus radiata bark has now been available in New Zealand for over four years and, during this time, we have used it exclusively for all our production of a wide range of New Zealand native plants.

Prior to using pine bark, we had been using sawdust for a number of years and had established that wood waste was a satisfactory medium in which to grow plants. Our prime motive for using sawdust had been economics. Our local timber mill was delivering 12-metre loads to our nursery free of charge, with the exception of a minor freight charge. Our respect for wood waste soon increased far beyond economic considerations. Besides costing nothing, it was weed-free. Plants developed far superior roots, with little or no pathogenic damage — generally described as water-borne fungi — such as Phytophthora. However, the longer we used sawdust, the more problems we were having with non-pathogenic fungi, which rapidly decomposed the sawdust. The final blow was a fungi which only


Author: John M. Follett

PP: 323

Interest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) growing has increased rapidly in New Zealand in the last few years. In the Waikato alone, the area in asparagus has grown from 16 hectares in 1978 to over 700 in 1982. This had led to an increasing demand by growers for planting material. Traditionally, the supply of asparagus plants has been met by growers or specialist nurserymen spring-sowing seed in a prepared nursery bed using a precision sower such as the Stanhay. Late in the following winter, the dormant crowns are lifted, usually with a chain potato digger. The crowns are dipped in fungicide then planted out in the field, often after several weeks in cold storage. Because the open pollinated cultivars are variable in both growth habit and yield, considerable effort has been directed towards the production of more uniform and potentially higher yielding hybrids. Unfortunately, hybrid seed is more expensive than seed from open pollinated cultivars. This need to make every seed count

Author: A.J. McCully, A.F. Rainbow, Gillian Laundon, J.J. Soteros

PP: 327


In June, 1982, United Kingdom (UK) plant health authorities reported to New Zealand that many camellia plants imported from New Zealand over the previous few weeks were suffering from leaf blotch, leaf drop, stem dieback, and in extreme cases, death.

The causal organism was identified as Glomerella cingulata (Stone.) Spauld. and v. Schrenk (con. stat. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.). U.K. authorities contended that a new "camellia strain" of G. cingulata had been introduced from New Zealand with camellia plants and that this strain was capable of causing similar effects to that described by Ngo Huy Can, et al. (4) in USA.

Glomerella cingulata had not previously been recorded as causing disease of camellias in New Zealand, where it is generally regarded as a ubiquitous secondary pathogen commonly associated with tip dieback of plants (e.g. Citrus spp.) especially following winter injury, but important as a fruit rot organism (e.g. causing bitter rot


Author: S.A. Parkinson

PP: 332

Elms (Ulmus spp.) are hardy deciduous trees common throughout the northern hemisphere. They are used both for timber and amenity plantings and for centuries they have been predominant in the European countryside in hedgerows, fields, and wooded areas. Their use most pertinent to New Zealanders is in the urban environment where they are used in street plantings and parks and are frequently seen in the larger home garden. This, however, could change in New Zealand as it has in Europe, the United States, and Canada with the advent of Dutch elm disease (DED), if this dreaded fungus disease ever reaches this country.

Author: Ben Swane

PP: 340

Many Australian plants have been difficult to propagate and many still are in that category. I do not intend to tell you how to propagate all Australian plants, but rather how selection and development of different species have given way to better propagation results.

Australian native plants, like all other flora, have characteristics which enable us to distinguish them from their neighbours. Each species have variations in growth habit, flowering, soil tolerance and climatic range. In an endeavour to gauge these differences we are carrying out experiments with a true-blue Australian plant lover on Sid Cadwell's property 200 km west of Sydney, situated in a very dry area having approximately 300 to 350 mm rain per year. Summer temperatures reach 40°F and winter temperatures are below 0°C.

Australian plants, such as grevilleas, have been collected from all over Australian. This collection has been done with field trips to all parts where careful selection of parent material


Author: M. Richards

PP: 347

Propagation of woody plants from hardwood cuttings planted directly into the field has been a traditional method of plant production; in fact it was probably the earliest method of cutting propagation. The number of plants which could be propagated in this way was limited and it was useful only for those plants which have a very high potential to form roots. Studies over the last 2 decades have changed the whole picture of propagation by winter cuttings. In general it has been shown that by using more sophisticated technology it is possible to produce a much wider range of plants in this way than was previously the case. In particular it has been demonstrated that suitable cuttings of most deciduous woody plants, given the correct treatment, will generally root in the so-called "winter period". Much of this work has been carried out with fruit tree rootstocks, but similar techniques are now being applied to many ornamental plants as well, and this will no doubt become more

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 351

Much work has been done collecting and growing bulbs, corms, and tubers of all kinds. The work of raising hybrids from these plants in many cases has progressed slowly and much material has been lost over the years. Hybrids of the smaller scented species gladiolus are a case in point.

Raising hybrids of these types of plant takes many years as each generation may require 4 to 12 years to flower from seeds. Many of the bulb breeders I have met are in the older age bracket, 70 years or more, and many of them are amateurs; much of their work never gets into circulation and disappears when they pass on.

As this is such a vast subject, I shall discuss just two plants that have been studied and are now at the point of commercial production with the advent of micropropagation.


Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 356

How does the International Plant Propagators' Society relate to the American Association of Nurserymen (AAN)? For one thing, IPPS is an international association while AAN is a U.S. body with a close affiliation with Canada. AAN is an association of nursery firms while membership in IPPS is composed of individuals from the commercial field as well as from academia.

AAN, in addition, has broad concerns with business, management, government relations, nursery stock standards, marketing, public relations and educational services. AAN administers such allied groups as the Garden Centers of America, Horticultural Research Institute (HRI), National Association of Plant Patent Owners, the National Landscape Association, and the Wholesale Growers of America.

AAN, while obviously vitally dependent upon research and progress in plant propagation and culture, is structured to stimulate and encourage such progress rather than to directly engage in such study and research. For example, the


Author: Robert H. Osborne

PP: 361

Softwood cuttings of the dwarf apple rootstock Malus ‘Ottawa 3’ were successfully rooted using material obtained from shoots grown from root pieces of plants which were in an adult (fruiting) state. The data showed that the reversion of the material to a juvenile condition was directly related to the changes about in the root piece process. Rooting percentages were increased by using 0.8% IBA, wounding of the cutting bases, and using terminal cuttings.

Author: Norman E. Pellett, Daphne Dippre, Ann Hazelrigg

PP: 366

A white polyethylene tent was used for 3 years to successfully root softwood cuttings of 16 shrubs and ground cover plants. Three treatments, intermittent mist with and without bottom heat, and watering 3 times daily with spray stakes without bottom heat, were successful procedures for rooting most kinds of plants. A heated rooting medium was detrimental for rooting some kinds of plants. The heated medium reached a higher temperature on sunny days than unheated medium. When the outdoor temperature reached 26°C (82.4°F), air temperature in the tent were not detrimental to the cuttings.

Author: Clark G. Brown

PP: 56

There are many ways that a commercial cone collector/seed processor can go about collection of seed cones, processing those cones to a finished seed, and placement of the finished seed into freezer storage. Imagine that you are a seed within a cone. The choices that a collector/processor has can make your trip to the freezer, as an inventoried seed, a very short trip with few stops, or a very long trip with numerous stops. As an example, one could determine that a cone and the seed therein is now ripe and collection procedures should begin. The cone picker or pickers could be recruited to go to the field to pick these cones at maturity. Immediately after picking these cones could be transported to the processing plant, at which time they could be trayed up on drying tunnel trays and put into kiln dry at the dryer facility at a high temperature to open the cones. Conceivably, within 24 to 36 hours after a cone is picked, either by tree climbing, or by picking a squirrel's cut cone


Author: John J. McGuire, Charles G. McKiel, Stephen Macdonald

PP: 373

A comparison was made of five different unheated or heated insulated outdoor mist systems and a heated greenhouse mist system. Systems were evaluated for seasonal operating and construction costs as well as rooting efficiency of broadleaved and narrowleaved evergreens and deciduous plants. Spring propagation is practical in southern New England and three successive crops could be obtained in a heated outdoor systems.

Author: D.C. Milbocker

PP: 384

The concept of ventilated high humidity propagation is described as well as the equipment necessary for its operation. Vegetative cuttings were rooted with this system of propagation by providing them with a mechanically humidified atmosphere. Solar heating, the primary problem of high humidity propagation, was controlled by shading and ventilation. This system also minimized the problems of more conventional types of propagation.

Author: Thomas R. Mee, Timothy F. Press

PP: 387

(See Western Region, page 100)

Author: Dale M. Maronek, Daniel Studebaker, Thomas Mccloud, Vern Black,

PP: 388

The effect of two different wounding treatments on rooting of cuttings was determined for 19 species. Rooting of stripped (wounded) or nonstripped cuttings varied by species. Differences on root morphology were found among stripped and nonstripped cuttings of some species. The nonstripping treatment saved considerable time during the cutting preparation process. However, the probable money saved during cutting preparation was offset by increased time for collection of suitable wood, sticking of cuttings, and/or the area of space needed to propagate the nonstripped cuttings.

Author: R.J. Griesbach

PP: 398

In order to obtain new genetic variability plant breeders have turned to wide hybridization. Wide hybridization is the process of obtaining progeny from crosses between distantly related species or genera. Wide hybridization could involve more classical approaches such as embryo culture (9) or some of the newer techniques of genetic engineering like electrically-induced cell fusion (13). In either case, a hybrid is produced which is likely to be intermediate in morphology between the two parents. Further breeding is generally required before a commercially valuable plant type is created.

In most instances wide-hybrids are sterile because of a lack of chromosome pairing during meiosis. This sterility can sometimes be corrected through chromosome doubling to create a type of polyploid called an amphidiploid. Amphidiploids, even though polyploid, behave like diploids in that only two of the potential four chromosomes in a set pair during meiosis (1).

Not all amphidiploids, however, are


Author: Martin M. Meyer Jr

PP: 402

Several herbaceous and woody perennial plants have been clonally propagated by tissue culture using the flowers as explants. Even tetraploid plants regenerated from callus from flowers seem to be genetically stable. Flowers from several Rhododendron species and cultivars regenerated plants on Anderson's medium. The epigenetic change from maturity to juvenility may take place in some flower tissues before the formation of an embryo.

Author: Charles W. Heuser

PP: 407

Grafting is an old method of plant propagation and since ancient times propagators have been aware of the problem of scions failing to make satisfactory growth when budded or grafted to an understock. Compatibility is defined as the ability of two different plants, when grafted together, to produce a successful union and develop satisfactorily into one composite plant (5). The opposite, failure to develop satisfactorily, is called incompatibility. Several excellent reviews on stock-scion incompatibility have been published by Argles (1), Hartmann and Kester (5), Mosse (10), and Nelson (11). The publication by Nelson (11) in our Proceedings is particularly important for plant propagators because of the extensive number of ornamental graft combinations surveyed and reported on in tabular form. However, just what constitutes graft-in-compatibility has presented difficulties because many of the symptoms are nonspecific and similar to those which can be caused by unfavorable environmental

Author: Stephen C. Weller, Philip L. Carpenter

PP: 412

The dormant bud on newly-budded crabapple trees are susceptible to injury or even death if they are smothered by common chickweed (Stellaria media) during the winter and in the early spring. The chickweed can grow over the bud, shutting out light and reducing air movement around the bud. There are many preemergence herbicides that will control common chickweed, but the effect of these herbicides on the growth and development of the bud into a saleable crabapple tree is not known. For this reason an evaluation of several preemergence herbicides for control of chickweed and their effect on the growth of newly-budded crabapples was made.

Author: David H. Bakker

PP: 415

Dwarf spruce, such as Picea glauca ‘Conica’ and Picea abies ‘Nidiformis’, are slow growing conifers which are also slow to root from cuttings. To propagate these unique plants many methods have been used: summer-winter cuttings, grafting, mist etc. We use a method which is easy to do, easy to maintain, takes no added heat, uses no misting, and the structure is economical to build. A cold frame with sash is used (no plastic) inside a shade house which has snowfence for shade covering (40% shade). The cold frame must have the sash absolutely tight fitting.

The rooting medium used is a sand-peat mixture with the fine washed sand (plaster type) put on a level bottom of top soil of a sandy nature, then the peatmoss is applied over the top of the 6 in. fine sand layer. The peat moss (2 in.) is watered and thoroughly mixed with the fine sand. The top of the medium mixture, after leveling, should be about 4 to 6 in. from the sash.

Cutting maturity at harvest is very important. A good


Author: Mike J. Young

PP: 417

Grafting is one of the oldest known forms of plant regeneration. References to it have appeared in writings for well over 2000 years. Over time it has become a valuable means of propagating many woody perennials as well as some herbaceous plants. Techniques in common use today are, in most respects, the same as those employed over the past several hundred years.

Grafting refers to the process of joining parts of two or more plants in such a way that they will unite and grow as one. The stock is the part of the new combination which will produce the root system and, occasionally with trees, the trunk as well. The scion is the part joined to the stock which will produce the top of the plant.

There are many reasons for propagating plants by grafting. From the standpoint of the nurseryman and ultimately his customers, three are of particular importance:

  1. Perpetuation of clones which cannot be easily or economically increased by cuttings or other vegetative methods.
  2. To obtain the benefits of