Volume 32

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Author: Tony Biggs

PP: 34

The following are important desirable characteristics of propagation media:
     — The necessary physical consistency to support seeds during germination and cuttings during rooting.
     — Freedom from pathogens and other harmful organisms.
     — The ability to retain and release sufficient moisture for germination, rooting and, possibly, subsequent growth.
     — Good drainage to prevent waterlogging and allow the presence of sufficient air for optimum root growth.
     — Ease and low cost of preparation.
     — Absence of chemical reactions which are deleterious to plant growth, e.g. very low or high pH values, and high salinity values.
     — Presence of nutrients if seedlings or rooted cuttings are to be retained in the medium.
     — Consistency from batch to batch.

Many characteristics are inter-related. Air and water retention properties are closely related and greatly influenced by the physical composition of the medium. Ease and cost of preparation; consistency from batch to batch and freedom from pathogens will all


Author: Jon. T. Slykerman

PP: 89

Preparation and Pasteurization of Medium. One part German peat and tree parts coarse river sand are mixed in a 6 cu.yd. concrete mixer. This is driven by a 3 h.p. electric motor. The drum revolves at ¾ rpm.

Heat pasteurisation of the medium is performed in the revolving drum by a diesel oil burner. (Fig 1.) This is best described as a "conduction heater" or an "indirect flame heater."

A vented mild steel pipe, approximately 6 ft. long, is attached to the burner and carries the heat inside the drum. When mixing, the drum revolves in a counter-clockwise direction, pulling the soil to the right hand side of the drum. The heat is directed into the air space on the left hand side of the drum. The hot air then warms the steel drum. The medium is warmed by contact with the hot air and heated metal surface inside the steel drum. Hence the reason for the above names.


Author: R. Owen Blackwell III

PP: 461

Blackwell Nurseries was started in August, 1938, by my father, Owen Blackwell, Jr., after gaining experience at other nurseries in the area. The nursery was originally in general ornamentals with azaleas and camellias as the lead crops. This evolved into lining-out stock, especially magnolias, and then into container production. The azalea, always a mainstay of our production program, is now our sole crop. These plants are grown in various-sized pots for the florist and nursery trade as either growing-on or budded plants. The majority of our sales are to other growers, and all plants are graded according to head size, not pot size.

Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 463

CAUTION is the signal word on the label of the least toxic pesticides. When used according to label directions, there is no danger to the applicator nor to the environment from any pesticide, even the most highly toxic ones. No pesticide is safe when used haphazardly.

Author: Gerald E. Smith

PP: 466

Twenty-six years of working with Georgia nurserymen has acquainted me with a wide range of problems that can affect the production of shrubs in the artificial environment of containers. By far the most common problems that I have encountered are related to watering practices and/or soil aeration of potting mixes.

The single most important practice in container production is water application. If the grower is sensitive to the effects of water on container plant growth, then he is in a position to refine other practices, including fertilization and pest control.

Here are some observations that I would like to share with you concerning water application:

There is often inadequate communication by nurserymen to their employees who actually make the day-to-day water management decisions. The ultimate quality of the crop depends, to a great extend, upon the quality of decisions made by the individual in charge of watering. Nurserymen often do not take the time to train their employees to


Author: Carl Whitcomb

PP: 469

The Question Box was moderated by Carl Whitcomb, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,Oklahoma.

TED RICHARDSON: Carl, I would like to know more about the pot you developed that has slits in the sides.

CARL WHITCOMB: The roots are air-pruned when they reach the slits, which leads to the branching. In fact, we believe this container may even encourage top branching in some plants. We have no explanation, but the container is the only different factor used in production of the plants that were better branched. They have been costly to manufacture, but we are now working with Lerio and believe they have a method that will make it possible to manufacture the pot economically.

JOSE GARCIA: Does anyone have a method for effective mole control?

BRYSON JAMES: If you eliminate grubs, the moles will likely disappear.

GERALD VERKADE: Can Acer grisseum be propagated from cuttings

MRS. BEN PERRY: I have propagated it using a peat:sand medium. I took the cuttings in May.


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 476

Some of the most interesting and unusual small trees and shrubs for use in ornamental planting are the deciduous taxa of the genus Stewartia, which is a member of Theaceae, the tea family (1). Plants grown in the area of Boston, Massachusetts, start flowering in late June and continue to flower into July, a time when the flowering of most woody ornamentals has passed. Figure 1, photographed on May 1st, shows the presence of flower buds and partly expanded leaves. Buds present at this early date remain inactive and blossoms do not appear until late June. Flowering characteristics of most taxa are basically alike, comprising single white flowers, with bright yellow stamens, borne in the axils of the leaves. Exceptions are S. Malacodendron with purple stamens and S. ovata f. grandiflora, where flowers with yellow stamens and flowers with purple stamens may be found on the same plant.

Members of the genus Stewartia are found only in eastern North America and eastern Asia. Those found in the Orient can


Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr

PP: 482

Plants of Cornus florida forma rubra are currently propagated by budding or by softwood cuttings. Seed propagation of rubra plants would be of interest for economic reasons. Crosses of rubra × rubra yielded all rubra seedlings whereas progenies of rubra × a rubra / white heterozygote showed 1:1 segregation for pink or red and white-bracted plants. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the rubra characteristic is conditioned by a single recessive gene. Thus, it would be possible to produce pink and / or red-bracted plants from seed by growing rubra plants of diverse origin in an isolated seed block. However, anthocyanin pigmentation of the foliage and bracts of rubra seedlings is highly variable; also, undesirable floral "doubles" occur with high frequency in some progenies. The production of pink-and/or red-bracted plants from seed provides the potential for selecting new and superior plants that can be propagated asexually.

Author: Dennis P. Stimart

PP: 489

In the section Trifoliata of the genus Acer are 4 species: A. griseum, A. mandshuricum, A. maximowiczianum (A. nikoense) and A. triflorum (10). The species are characterized by short tree stature at maturity and autumn foliage of red, scarlet, or orange. A cinnamon-brown or yellow-brown flaking bark of A. griseum and A. triflorum, respectively, further enhance the horticultural qualities of these maples, making them excellent ornamentals.

Schizocarps of A. griseum, A. maximowiczianum and A. triflorum have a ligneous pericarp which delays germination for several years (3,6). Two to 5 years can elapse between good fruiting, with most fruits producing few seeds exhibiting double dormancy (6,15). Trifoliate maples are not easily rooted by cuttings but can be grafted; however, they need a rootstock of a similar species. Thus, trifoliate maples are rarely seen in cultivation.

Dormant seeds of Acer have germinated following gibberellin or kinetin treatments (12,13). Radicle elongation of


Author: Robert W. Lovelace

PP: 495

The primary purpose for establishing seed orchards is the genetic improvement of plants that are usually propagated by seed. In addition to improved quality and quantities, seed produced in orchards greatly reduces the cost of collection and insures a more dependable, consistent source with known parentage.

Site selection. Northeast Missouri offers a favorable climate for a wide range of deciduous species. Although temperature extremes can range from a high of 115°F to a low of – 22°F, the climate is favorable for plant growth, flowering and fruiting. I selected a site that was elevated above surrounding terrain because it offered good air drainage. This is desirable to reduce the danger of late frost damage to flowers and fruits. A deep, well-drained soil is preferred to produce healthy, vigorous growth which favors heavier seed production. Rolling terrain with strips of native tree growth can offer protection from strong winds and also serve as a barrier to eliminate unwanted


Author: John C. Pair, Houchang Khatamian

PP: 497

Germination percentages of Chinese pistache (Pistacia chinensis Bunge) seed ranged from 63 to 92 percent after 60 days stratification at 40°F (4°C) compared to 0 to 24 percent when sown directly without chilling. T-budding performed in August was more successful than in May. Softwood cuttings taken from juvenile shoots of seedlings and treated with 0, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm IBA rooted at all hormone concentrations, but cuttings from older trees were unsuccessful.

Author: William N. Valavanis

PP: 503

In Japan, horticulturists have promoted gardening with ornamentals into highly refined art forms involving both artistically trained dwarfed potted trees and Japanese gardens. To meet the demands of both bonsai and Japanese gardens horticulturists have been searching for specialized plant material which will grow into "living sculpture". Japanese propagators, like Western propagators, are always searching for new or unusual plants material. Characteristics of special interest include: growth habits, size/shape, foliage coloring/shape, fruit coloring/shape, bark coloring/shape, cultural care, winter hardiness, and propagation ease. Select cultivars of numerous species have been propagated for the above reasons; however, the characteristics of growth habit are perhaps the most popular.

Definition and origin. Since the bonsai market is highly significant and economically important in the Japanese field of ornamental horticulture, many of the cultivars originally were selected and introduced


Author: Mark A. Clements

PP: 93

The propagation of Australian terrestrial orchids from seeds or plants collected in the wild, using the fungi with which they are normally associated, is described. This technique relies heavily on the successful growth of the appropriate fungi to supply the orchids with essential nutrients for growth.

Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 509

During my tenure as grower for Ozrark Nurseries, the firm became interested in adding Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’ to the product line. For about 3 years we tried various methods of budding, none of which were successful. We tried "T" budding in spring, summer, and fall as well as chip budding. None of these methods yielded greater tha 15% takes.

Therefore, we decided to try whip and tongue grafting just as we were doing on Malus cultivars. The first year we tried this we obtained a 73% yield of salable trees and the next year 75% yield. In addition, the grafted trees were straighter than budded ones.

During the last 2 years at Hill Country Nurseries we have grafted Pyrus calleryana cultivars but have not been as successful. In 1981, out of a total of 27,436 grafts, we obtained a summer live count of 62% on ‘Bradford’ and 43% on ‘Aristocrat’ P.P. #3192. In 1982, out of a total of 47,657 grafts, we obtained a summer live count of a total


Author: David Reath

PP: 512

Propagation of tree peonies by grafting is highly successful on a commercial basis. Tree peonies, which are not trees but shrubs, can be divided into 2 main types. The first to be developed were the moutans or Japanese tree peonies. These belong to the species Paeonia suffruticosa which is native to Northwestern China and Tibet. For several centuries the Chinese selected and improved upon the wild plants. In about the eighth century A.D., the cultivated tree peonies were taken to Japan, probably by Buddhist monks. The Japanese, through years of cultivation, improved upon them and produced a race with single and airy semidouble flowers in a spectacular color range unsurpassed by any other flower.

The second type of tree peony and perhaps the one with the greatest future is the hybrids produced by crossing the Japanese cultivars onto the small yellow species, P. lutea, also native to China. This hybridizing was done in this country by Prof. Saunders of New York during the later part of


Author: Kathleen S. Freeland

PP: 516

Careful selection of both the scionwood and rootstock is very important. The condition of both must be carefully monitored for nearly a year prior to the actual grafting. Scion wood should be growing vigorously, free from disease, and true to name. Grafting understock should be a 1 or 2 year old seedling, potted in the spring of the year it is to be grafted. Understock for Fagus sylvatica at Weston Nursuries is purchased from a seedling grower, potted, and grown in a cold frame until grafting time in the winter. We pot the understock into 3 inch black plastic pots. Our soil mix is made from composted leaves, peat, and perlite in equal parts. The understock is potted no deeper than it was growing in the ground, and the soil is pressed firmly to eliminate air pockets. The potted understock are placed in plastic trays that hold 16 pots, taken to a cold frame, set deeply into a sand bed and thoroughly watered. The plants in the cold frames are given the normal feeding and weed control that

Author: Richard A. Simon

PP: 517

My experience is that most horticulturists do not know much about ornamental grasses. It is a group of plants that only recently has begun to gain popularity.

Bluemount Nurseries is a wholesale nursery specializing in perennials, unusual ground covers, wildflowers, ferns, ornamental grasses, and bamboo. We supply plants to garden centers and landscape contractors in seven states. Our nursery was started by my father in 1926 who had his early training as a grower of perennials for the original Moon's Nurseries in Morrisville, Pa. In 1960 we bought to our nursery from Germany a young nursery worker who later became a friend of a German-born landscape architect in Baltimore. They both saw the potential of ornamental grasses in this country after having had experience with them in Europe. We began to import grasses in the early 1960's and have continued to expand our collection since then.

An ornamental grass can be a very dwarf plant like blue fescue, Festuca ovina var. glauca, or a 16 foot


Author: Edmund V. Mezitt

PP: 521

Nurserymen have been engaged in the production of top-grafted standards for many years. For example, the Camperdown elm, Catalpa bungei, and more recently weeping forms of cherry, laburnum, and caragana. These are only a few of many kinds of deciduous trees grown in quantity by wholesale producers. This paper will deal mostly with top grafting of plants that are not produced commercially at this time, so far as I know, and are evergreen in nature.

The circumstances that led to our production of top-grafted standards was the availability of greenhouse space during the first week in March when plants forced for various flower shows are removed for the spring exhibits. Our winter greenhouse grafting is completed by this time, and we have personnel and space available for several weeks before our spring season begins. We have been doing this for about 20 years, and we are finding a good market for some of these plants.

The cultivars we choose for top grafting are mostly dwarf, slow-


Author: Rick J. Lewandowski, F.R. Gouin

PP: 525

Microfoam thermo-blankets can be used throughout the year to root Euonymus kiautschovica Leos. ‘Sieboldiana’3 cuttings outdoors. Microfoam thermo-blankets help in maintaining cooler temperatures around the cuttings in the summer than white copolymer alone. Euonymus cuttings taken in March will root equally as well under microfoam covered with either clear or white copolymer with or without bottom heat. However, cuttings propagated in the fall rooted significantly better under intermittent mist than similar cuttings stuck under the thermo-blankets. Compost with other materials made from lime dewatered sewage sludge and woodchips blended at 1/3 by volume significantly reduced rooting and survivals as compared to cuttings rooted and grown in equal parts by volume of milled pine bark and expanded shale.

Author: Daniel K. Struve

PP: 535

Propagation of pine and spruce by stem cuttings is not a common nursery practice. The problems associated with propagation by stem cuttings are discussed and methods to overcome the problems are suggested. Also emphasized is the need for a breeding program to be coupled with a clonal forestry program. A breeding program would insure the continued development of genetically superior individuals for operational use.

Author: Robert H. Eastman

PP: 547


There is nothing new or special about growing bare root conifers for cold storage. Before following my procedures, however, you need to understand that the Northeast region, particularly the State of Maine, is different from most other regions in the United States or Canada. The timing for any particular region needs to be taken into careful consideration. It must be remembered that within a short radius there can be considerable differences in temperatures, moisture, and other variations which need to be taken into account.

Our fertilization program commences about the middle of August and can run into September, depending on weather conditions. I utilize straight nitrogen fertilizer. We use Urea 45, and apply this at 50 to 85 lbs per acre depending on the species involved and the time of application. An example is digging and storing any species that continues to grow from spring until a good fall frost slows down the growth process. You do not want to induce growth in the plants


Author: N. Frederick Miller

PP: 557

Terminal stem cuttings from 5-year-old Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] stock plants were collected in early fall, when in a state of rest or winter dormancy. Cuttings were subjected to dark storage at 4°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 weeks. Following storage, and prior to insertion into a rooting medium, cuttings were subjected to one of two treatments: non-treated, and wounding + indolebutyric acid (IBA). Cuttings received short- or long-days during a 10-week rooting period. Non-chilled cuttings did not root or break bud. High percent rooting occurred after 4 to 6 weeks of chilling, whereas visible terminal bud activity peaked after a 10-week chill. Rooting was primarily contingent upon IBA treatment and chilling, although long days had a strong promotive effect when cuttings were chilled less than 6 weeks.

Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 564

The concept of capillary watering is an age old practice but its application to irrigation of container-grown nursery stock on ground beds outside is a new use in the U.S. This method of watering nursery stock had its beginning at the Efford Experiment Station in England and is now in wide-spread use in Europe (12) and New Zealand (7). Capillary watering has several advantages to overhead watering including reduced water consumption, water run-off, weeds, root (5) and foliar diseases. This procedure has been evaluated at The Ohio State University for the past several years and the following report summarizes several of these studies (10,11).

Author: V.J. Hartney

PP: 98

Clones of several eucalypt species have been propagated in vitro, enabling the utilization of genotypes which have been selected as superior individuals. By this means it is possible to produce clonal populations showing superior growth rate, form, and adaptation to specific sites. Large numbers of hybrids exhibiting a marked degree of hybrid vigour can also be grown.

Close cooperation between researchers and the horticultural and forestry industries will be needed to fully exploit the commercial potential of this technology. The clonal propagation of high value horticultural specimens, such as E. caesia and E. macrocarpa, offers obvious and immediate commercial benefit. Extension of this practice to plantation forestry will require lower production costs but the large demand for plants will stimulate the development of improved and cheaper techniques.


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 569

Growing shade and ornamental trees from cuttings is no startling new development on the horticultural scene. For many centuries trees like willows and poplars have been grown from hardwood cuttings. With the development of mist propagation and rooting hormones it was discovered that many more genera could be successfully grown from softwood cuttings. Tree hybridization and the selection of superior clones of natural species has given much impetus to research in rooting tree cuttings and expanding the list of cultivars which can be propagated in this manner.

There are many advantages to cutting propagation over grafting, budding, and other methods of vegetative propagation. One very important factor is cost. In general it is much cheaper to make up and root a cutting than to buy or grow an understock, then pot it or plant it out in the open ground, and finally graft or bud it. After that there are the inevitable losses and the subsequent expenses of cutting out suckers and staking the


Author: John R. Havis

PP: 580

The success of summer propagation of rhododendron has been demonstrated by McGuire (4) and is being used by a number of nurserymen (6,7,8) both to avoid the high fuel requirement of winter propagation and to distribute the use of facilities over the year. In our studies, we assume that the cuttings are rooted by the fall. They can be stored at a minimum temperature near freezing and planted out in the spring, or growth can be forced during this time provided fuel and energy costs are not too great.

Author: John Walters

PP: 583

Our primary objective at Walters Gardens Inc. is to produce the perennials we need to meet the projected demand. This is not our only concern. With today's market conditions, we must look very closely at the cost of producing perennials with an attempt to keep this cost reasonable. We must be able to produce perennials profitably. Please keep this in mind as we examine the following methods of propagating perennials.

First of all, one must have a plan of action. One must write down what is to be done and how it is to be done. One must also set goals of production levels. Never rely on verbal communication. Never just guess at what you need. Never propagate more just because you happen to have a lot of propagation stock and it would be a shame for it to go to waste. Always analyze your market. Try to propagate what you think you can sell.

Setting down a plan of action gives you something to refer back to at any point in time. It also gives you the opportunity to assess your


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 588

The Question Box Session was convened at 3:00 p.m. with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as Moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Bob Eastman. Please talk about storing plants ungraded over winter as opposed to graded prior to storage.

BOB EASTMAN: My philosophy has been to grade them shortly after digging because you do not have to rehandle them. It cuts down labor costs and provides a better quality plant.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Elton Smith. Please offer comments on the possible promotion of Phytophthora on capillary mats.

ELTON SMITH: Initially there was concern that capillary mat watering would promote root diseases. Experience has not proven this to be true. We have not done any work on that aspect.

DAVE DUGAN: Elton, were you using chlorinated water in your capillary mat study?

ELTON SMITH: Our experiences are with chlorinated city water. However, this is not the case for other countries where this research has been done. We have not


Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 593

MODERATOR ALEXANDER: Our first speaker today on this topic is Kurt Tramposch.

KURT TRAMPOSCH: Lamium spp. are members of the mint family and are useful as shade-loving groundcovers because of their variegated foliage, rapid growth, and undemanding cultural requirements. An excellent review of Lamium spp. can be found in the 1981 summer edition of the American Rock Garden Society Bulletin. Because of their aggressive nature most Lamium spp. should be used with discretion.

A commonly cultivated taxon is L. maculatum which produces an invasive, dense low carpet in a short time and has purplish flowers throughout the summer.

An English introduction, named L. maculatum 'Beacon Silver', is more restrained and produces a mass of silver leaves in the shade.

The most widely cultivated species, L. galeobdolon, (now reclassified as Lamiastrum galeobdolon) is commonly known as yellow archangel. I have found this ground cover to be an attractive trouble-free species that is useful


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 598

This award exemplifies the true meaning of our beloved Society's motto "to seek and to share", because truly the award this evening goes to two loyal, devoted, and dedicated IPPS, Eastern Region members. My words this evening are not going to be lengthy. Although those of you who know me may find that statement hard to believe. The brevity of words in no manner is intended to reduce the magnitude of the meaning of the award to the recipients.

Undoubtedly, some in the room tonight must wonder what is an Award of Merit? In one word it is appreciation. It is the method by which the Eastern Region recognizes the contribution of individual members within the Society. This is appreciation of excellent research shared with members, or for a commercial propagator who shared a technique to increase the rooting success with a particular plant. The appreciation is also acknowledgement of service. The timeless extra hours that few people are aware of, such as, committee assignments,


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 599

The intent of this paper is to assist propagators of woody plants in designing propagation facilities, correcting problems in existing facilities, and to point out correctable situations that may involve disease problems. The views are not those of a pathologist, but those from a profitable production nursery. The ideal propagating conditions are hospital and laboratory sterile standards; however, one must be practical and profitable, which may require making reasonable compromises. Emphasis is placed on preventive measures, not cures by the continuous use of fungicides or other remedies applied on the cuttings or plants after troubles have started. Difficult propagating subjects are not avoided, but are major part of the production schedule.

The use of fungicides on cuttings is rarely necessary if growers select designs, materials, and methods which prevent diseases from becoming established and provide conditions that both stimulate cuttings to root rapidly and support root growth. The


Author: Barry R. Yinger

PP: 605

Japanese nurseries are among the best places in the world to observe a great diversity of cultivated plant species and variants, but they are much less rewarding for those who are intent on broadening their knowledge of propagation techniques. In Japan even the most prosperous nurseries rely on propagation techniques which many American nurserymen would consider primitive, inefficient, or inappropriate. When we do find imaginative propagation techniques in Japan we often observe them among hobbyists or in small, specialized nurseries, and then used to create a certain aesthetic effect rather than as a means for what we consider efficient production. It would surprise no one here to see pines grafted in Japan, but the Japanese practice of grafting scions of Pinus parviflora on stock of P. thunbergiana to combine the distinctive foliage of former with the handsome bark of the latter might strike some of us as an excessive effort for an aesthetic effect.

The use of grafting to produce


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 609

The effect of a cold treatment on rooted cuttings of woody ornamentals is very difficult to document from readings of past Proceedings. To be specific, in 1955 Charlie Hess reported that Cornus florida "Rubra" required 1,000 hours at 32 to 4°F temperature to break bud dormancy. In 1958, Hank Weller presented an excellent paper relative to taking moderately rooted cuttings of Buxus, Euonymus, and Ligustrum and placing them in poly bags at 34°F for 4 months prior to field planting. Harvey Templeton, in 1957, also discussed Viburnum carlesii relative to dormancy after rooting. In 1966 a K.D. Holmes briefly reported on September stuck Taxus that were lifted as rooted cuttings in February, stored in poly bags at 36°F, and then spring-planted into transplant beds. The following year Andy Adams reported on azaleas stored as rooted cuttings. As recently as October 1982, during the Western Region Conference, Dennis Connor spoke on rooting kiwifruit cuttings, giving them a cold treatment

Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 612

Many deciduous cuttings can be directly stuck into Gro-Plugs® and successfully rooted. This method greatly reduces stress encountered in transplanting the rooted cuttings into the field or container.

Author: Dennis A. Hearne

PP: 109

I would like to preface this paper with a quote from Dr. Ron de Fossard. He advises that:

"We should not lose sight of the advantage of tissue culture plants and propagation. It is not just to clonally propagate a cultivar. It is to produce a far superior product, free of virus, fungi, and bacteria, from a highly desirable horticultural specimen and, where yield is important, from the upper 0.1% or better of the normal curve of distribution of the species."

Good and timely advice, indeed. Anyone can produce a plant in tissue culture. Often, a little careful juggling with media can produce better yield results than those published in the literature — but, to what end? Many of the plants grown in culture originate from seed or spores. Frequently, too, tissue-grown plants are just that, and no positive selection has actively taken place. Consequently, these plants are of little or no value in improving the standards of that cultivar. I feel it is an essential feature of any


Author: Leonard P. Stoltz

PP: 616

A new technique for budding nut trees, called "change-purse" budding, involves a single cut on the stock which is opened much like the flaps of and change-purse. When properly done change-purse budding has a success rate of 85 to 95%. This budding technique has been used for black walnut, English walnut, butternut, heartnut, and pecan.

In Kentucky the budding is generally done from June 1 to July 20. The time is controlled primarily by the availability of buds in proper condition. When the bud is cut from a current year's shoot, the pith area should be solid and green in color. As growth of the new shoot proceeds the green color of the pith is gradually lost and dark pigmentation increases until the pith is nearly charcoal in color. The ideal shield bud for change-purse budding has green pith and a large plump bud. Shields with a yellow pith and slight pigmentation will also work but once pigmentation of the pith becomes dark the buds should not be use.

Making the


Author: Bernie J. Phillion

PP: 619

A program for the large-scale production of spruce cuttings has been ongoing in Ontario for 4 years. This work has been based on preliminary studies by Rauter (7), Armson et al. (1), Perez de la Garza (4), and Fung (3). The program was initiated in 1979 when approximately ½ million rooted cuttings were produced for operational outplanting (1). This program was so successful that in 1980, it was decided to build a new facility for the production of spruce juvenile cuttings for the Ontario Tree Improvement Program.

The purpose of this new program is to clone spruce seedlings for progeny testing. Seedlings of full-sib origin are grown and, as they develop, cuttings are taken from them and propagated. New cuttings are later taken from the original seedlings and also from the first rooted cuttings. This cycle is repeated until 140 ramets of the same age are produced from each clone. After rooting, these last cuttings are used for progeny outplanting tests in Northern Ontario.


Author: Bruce E. Haissig

PP: 625

Occurrence, distribution, and function of the "endogenous root-forming stimulus" (ERS) were examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedling cuttings via surgical treatment and application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Removal of terminals or needles markedly reduced rooting, indicating that both terminals and needles contained substantial amounts of ERS and that ERS was rather generally distributed in the cuttings. However, terminals contained much more ERS per unit dry weight, compared to needles. ERS consisted of an auxin and non-auxin component. Applied IBA did not replace the effects of terminals on rooting and, therefore, was largely ineffective when non-auxin ERS was limiting. Auxin ERS was initially required for the development of callus in which primordia initiated. Subsequently, auxin and non-auxin ERS were required for primordium development. However, limiting the supply of non-auxin ERS was primarily responsible for reduced rooting after terminals were removed.

Author: Paul E. Read, Athanasios S. Economou

PP: 639

Literature pertinent to the influences of light intensity, light quality and photoperiod on propagation of ornamentals is presented. Direct effects, as well as effects mediated through the stock plant are discussed. In addition, research is reported which illustrates improved microcutting production and rooting when hardy deciduous azalea microstock cultures were illuminated with reduced light intensities, or when subjected to 2 weeks of red light after 2 weeks of far-red light prior to rooting.

Author: Adrian Salter

PP: 114

The potting mix currently in use at Kasteel's Nursery is the result of several years development. I intend in this paper to outline some of the more interesting facets of this development process.

About six years ago we used two basic potting mixes. The first, a peat, sand, perlite mix, was used for all plants up to 6" pot size. The second, a mixture of soil, ash, cow manure and wood shavings, was bought premixed and delivered by the truckload and used for all plants in 8 in. or larger containers.

The decision to look for another potting mix was made when the price of German peat moss was rising almost every day and it seemed reasonable at the time to use one mix for all container sizes.

On the strength of a free sample which looked and felt good, a proprietary mix based on composted hardwood sawdust and coarse sand was tried. By the time we were using the third truckload the first batch of plants had stopped growing and developed severe yellowing of the upper leaves and tips. Although


Author: Gordon Lamb

PP: 116

When our local Department of Agriculture first recommended using pine bark as an alternative to German peat in 1978–80 we were overjoyed. We thought it was an unbelievably simple, cheap source of potting media and too good to be true. We discovered it was cheap, it was too good to be true, but it certainly wasn't simple.

At Grove Nursery we grow a variety of indoor shadehouse plants and we have an interest in growing Ficus benjamina and Ficus lyrata (Syn.: F. pandurata).

Our old mix prior to using pine bark was 40% German peat, 40% Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) sawdust, 20% blue metal. We had this mixed commercially by an outside contractor and it cost us $338 for 6m3. Substituting pine bark for all the German peat resulted in magnificent savings so we decided to experiment further.

In the first season we encountered chlorosis and phytotoxicity problems in Ficus benjamina and Ficus lyrata, something we had never encountered before when using German peat. The puzzling factor here being the chlorosis


Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 120

My visit to South Africa in March and April, 1982, was sponsored by the South African Co-operative Citrus Exchange and the South African Citrus Nurserymen's Association. Terms of reference were as follows:
  1. Three weeks conducted travel through the main citrus growing areas to study orchards, nurseries and research centres.
  2. Attend the Citrus Nurserymen's Seventh Conference as principal speaker and cover these areas;
    1. How we produce citrus trees in one year at Renmark, South Australia, at our own nursery.
    2. Comment on impressions gained about South African nursery production and, where relevant, about the industry in general.
    3. Offer suggestions towards improving nursery technology, particularly the rapid production of clean, container-grown trees.
  3. Observations on citrus production in South Africa:

The visit was extremely well organized with adequate time allotted to get a balanced view of the industry. The citrus industry is extremely well organized, heavily dependent on


Author: Stephen Goodwin

PP: 121

It is a fact that over the last 30 to 40 years there has been a world-wide trend towards the complete reliance upon chemical pesticides for the control of pests and diseases on all agricultural and horticultural crops. Nurserymen have become as reliant as any other group in this respect (12).

Public demand for undamaged plants from the nursery industry has resulted in the reliance upon strict pesticide control programmes. This approach has raised certain potential problems for all nurserymen.

Resistance can develop in pests following continued exposure to some pesticides. In addition to the more obvious signs of phytotoxicity, some pesticides may also interfere with proper plant function. There is the ever-present consideration of environmental contamination, very relevant to this public service industry. Finally, in most situations problems are experienced in incorrectly applying pesticides. The subsequent ineffective control encourages unnecessary repeated sprayings. This is time-consuming,


Author: Ian Yarker

PP: 129

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the initial physical developments of a system in which I have been interested for several years. The developments discussed arise from the aim, which may be broken into three parts;
  1. To re-think the basic approach to the volume production nursery and to develop an integrated nursery system with stock control which economically enables increased production volume and efficiency.
  2. To design a system around the plant's growth requirements of moisture, light, temperature, humidity, and nutrition.
  3. To develop mechanical systems and aids on a universal or multi-purpose basis, especially in the early stages of propagation — by seed, cuttings, or tissue culture — from small parent stock to 100 mm and 125 mm pot production.

A basic design criterion was adopted with regard to the species most likely to be grown, (indoor and outdoor container foliage plants), available energy sources, local engineering


Author: John H. Colwell

PP: 132

As propagators, we find at some time we must produce some plants by sexual propagation. The old cry can be heard that seed lines are easy to grow. I often wonder how many good propagators have lost a batch of seed or have failed to germinate them. When this happens a good propagator will look to find out where he has gone wrong. Seed propagation is easy in most instances if one understands all their requirements and have the facilities to fulfill the various needs of the species intended to be sown.

I have so often been surprised that, within the nursery trade, many failures still occur. If we take a close look at some of the failures encountered most can be traced back to bad management or shoddy workmanship. As a consultant, I am constantly asked to look at problems occurring every day with seed germination, not only from inexperienced people but from people in all branches of horticulture, including seed testing laboratories.

Many of the problems that occur could be overcome very quickly


Author: Rosemary Lewis

PP: 40

I believe that tissue culture is something that is here to stay and something that all horticulturists should be aware of. So what are we doing about it in the classroom? Just that — making students aware of the benefits and the problems it presents and giving them an idea of the laboratory work involved.

We only have 4 hours in our curriculum allotted to this topic, and, because most of our students are not doing this type of work and laboratory techniques and hygiene are so important, I divide them into 2 hours each of theory and practical. Of course, there are students who do more practical work but this has to be apart from normal school hours.

The theory I tackle on a "what, when, why, who, and how basis."

The "WHAT," of course, covers not only a basic definition but also the fact that tissue culture is a term of convenience covering both techniques like, in vitro, micro-propagation, and mericloning, and also different parts of the plant —


Author: Graeme Catt

PP: 138

Seedling Acer palmatum are field-grown for one year, then dug and potted into 200 mm buckets in mid-winter (July). A few are large enough by early summer (December) for budding, but most are carried over into the following year, trimmed to make standards up to one metre high for weeping cultivars; these are approximately 10 to 15 mm in trunk diameter.

All understocks are grown in full sun in containers but are brought into the shadehouse to be budded and are left there for the remainder of the growing season.

In early summer scions for grafting are selected from vigorous new season's growth, preferably having three sets of nodes. Their length may be from 4 to 20 cm depending on the cultivar; leaves are trimmed back close to the bud. At the bottom of the scion a diagonal cut, approximately 3 cm long is made, I use a very sharp knife as it is very easy to bruise the very thin cambium layer.

A "T" cut is made on the side of the understock, the same as for a normal T-bud, the length of the cut to


Author: Richard H. Jones

PP: 140


Crop improvement through hybridisation of selected parent plants has been practised for many years. In its broadest sense hybridisation is simply a cross between two plants but in practical terms hybridisation is usually considered to be the crossing of individuals of unlike constitution such as species of the same genera or inbreds of species which have different genetical characteristics.

In the natural environment hybrid crosses between species of the same genus may occur indiscriminately but the number of natural hybrids which develop is limited. However in commercial species hybrid seed production utilises inbreds which are developed with certain desirable characteristics and hydridisation of these lines produces hybrids with specific advantages.

With certain vegetables, grains and flowers species different genetic systems are used to enforce controlled hybridisation in the production of commercial hybrid cultivars. In this paper I want to outline the advantages of hybrids,


Author: Fred Von Allmen

PP: 148

Among the many new species of fruit trees now being introduced into Australia, I have selected twelve of potential future significance. Many exotic fruits, although native to and favoured in Southeast Asia and in tropical America, are virtually unknown in Australia.

Australia's diverse climate produces conditions which have proved quite suitable for the culture of many tropical and sub-tropical fruits. For example, litchi will grow from Cairns to Sydney, but mangosteen, durian, and rambutan will grow only in northern rainforests.

Litchi chinensis (Syn.: Nephelium chinensis) (litchi) is already well known in Australia where it has been cultivated since the turn of the century. It is already proving its worth as an economic crop in Queensland and Northern New South Wales. The tree bears red, warty fruits which have translucent white pulp and an agreeable sweet acid flavour. A proven method of propagation is by air layering. A 5 cm girdle of bark is cleanly removed, then a mixture of


Author: Brian C. Hanger

PP: 151

This note summarizes the results obtained with Australian-made horticultural rockwool used as a substrate for the propagation of seeds, rooting of cuttings, and for hydroponics. Growth was compared against that in: Danish horticultural rockwool; in a 50:50 mix of perlite and vermiculite; and in scoria.

Seeds of various sizes (e.g. petunia to sunflower) direct sown into Austrialian rockwool blocks germinated and emerged normally. The only problem encountered was a temporary iron deficiency in Gypsophila and Petunia, but this was easily rectified. In one study many gerbera seedlings failed to emerge from Australian and Danish rockwool blocks because of resistance imposed by the fibers to the cotyledons. This problem was overcome by shallower sowing. Early samples of Australian rockwool blocks collapsed badly but this problem was largely overcome in samples manufactured later.

Herbaceous and woody cuttings of exotic and Australian plants rooted readily in rockwool blocks and in about the


Author: R.J. Worrall

PP: 152


There are many advantages in growing plants in lightweight mixes compared to those containing a large proportion of soil. These are:

— Easier management (e.g. better drainage, greater moisture holding capacity)
— Disease and weed problems are usually less, and
— Significant savings can be made in handling and transport costs

However, many landscapers and nurserymen believe that plants grown in "heavy mixes", i.e. those containing a large proportion of soil establish more quickly when transplanted into the field — especially into soils containing a large percentage of clay (otherwise known as the interface problem). There is also much argument as to whether tubes or advanced plants should be used.

A series of experiments were done to answer these questions, with particular attention being paid to the penetration of roots from the original potting mix into the surrounding soil and water usage by the plants in the field situation.


Author: G.I. Moss, R. Dalgleish

PP: 155

We have developed a method for producing rose bushes to a flowering stage in less than five months under greenhouse conditions. It can be done at any time of the year. Rosa multiflora cuttings are rooted and budded to required cultivars, then grown on to flowering. The percentage of saleable bushes was about the same as for field conditions. Because there is control of the environment there is considerable scope for improving the product and the method. The rose bushes produced were an attractive item, flowering in a container, and were suitable for planting.

Author: Robert Miller

PP: 164

I want to show you how we produce cuttings, on the understanding that we are a young nursery, and have only been in existance for five years, four years on a full time basis. We started with an empty field and built a nursery to suit ourselves, so in theory we have no hangover of old habits and practices. After two years we built a purpose-designed barn which incorporates a separate propagation room. It is built of brick and fully insulated, with tiled floor and walls, so that it can be heated and easily washed down and sterilized. There is a bench and comfortable chairs for the workers, and good lighting conditions.

The only "mechanical propagation" is knives and secateurs, the tools of the trade. We employ two girls full time on propagation, and we hope they will do 2000 cuttings per person per day, which includes insertion and putting out the trays on the benches. In twelve months we do 600,000 cuttings, on a 300 working day year. Secateurs are used more than knives as


Author: Robin B. Tacchi

PP: 167

When I left college some 13 years, or so, ago; with ambitious plans to turn a small family retail firm into a production orientated wholesale business, there were three factors which determined our propagation set-up:

Firstly, large amounts of money were not available;

Secondly, the lack of any existing conventional propagation systems, which allowed me to start from scratch with a fresh approach. People are reluctant to change what they already have!

Thirdly, the reluctant realisation by horticulturists that polythene did have applications other than wrapping sliced bread, and that it might even be used as a glass substitute.

Using this magical substance it became apparent that not only did it work, it enabled one to erect large areas of propagation covering, simply and with a low initial expense.

I say initial because, over a period of time, re-cladding labour and material costs mean that there must be a point where the cost of glass versus polythene evens out. But is it the low initial cost which


Author: Alan E. Down

PP: 171

Last summer, I toured the United States and Canada as a Nuffield Scholar fully funded by the Studley Trust. My prime interest was in the production and marketing of container plants but, as I visited over forty container producing nurseries, I gained an insight into their propagation methods.

One cannot fail to be impressed by the vast open-air mist units of the South and Southwestern states. The progressiveness of the growers in the Pacific Northwest with tissue culture of ornamentals is equally impressive.

However, the humbler propagation techniques used by some growers set me wondering whether we in Europe are employing over-complicated and unnecessarily sophisticated methods for the propagation of easy subjects.

For instance, in the Midwest, millions of Taxus and Juniper cuttings are produced annually employing a technique which is really no more than an adaption of the old coldframe. Instead of frames, walk-in polytunnels are used to enclose the cuttings stuck in raised ground beds.


Author: Lars Rudin

PP: 174

Like most countries the nursery industry in Sweden has its own standards for nursery stock. These standards however have, by tradition, been adapted to the unofficial international standards for nursery stock in Northern Europe.

The difference between Sweden and other countries is that our standards were made compulsory some years ago. This means that today no single woody plant might be sold unless it complies with The New Official Standards for Nursery Stock. The official and the former trade standards are very close in their requirements. This means, in practice, that the new official rules are a revision and an elucidation of the former nursery standards and are furthermore made into law.

The purpose of this law is to create a consumer's protection. The background for this is that the trade with nursery stock changed drastically during the last 10 to 15 years. Briefly, the distance between the producer and the consumer has increased. Earlier nursery stock was produced and


Author: G.M. Moore, R.G. Hall, E.A. James

PP: 45

The pasteurization or disinfestation of growing media is now an accepted part of nursery hygiene. Media can be pasteurized by physical or chemical means, but the preferred method of treatment involves steaming the medium at 60°C for 30 minutes. Such methods are essentially a disinfestation, as some organisms survive the treatment.

Methods of pasteurization suffer from disadvantages such as high cost, time consumption, and a limitation in the volume treated. Thus a new method of media treatment has been investigated — the exposure of the media to microwave radiation.

Although the method is restricted in the volume of material that can be treated, it is a very rapid technique and because the material is heated directly it is also energy efficient. The method can be used to either completely sterilise media, or to disinfest them so that at least some of the bacteria and saprophytic fungi survive.

It is envisaged that the technique could be used to treat a continuous supply of a medium moving along a conveyor, thereby eliminating a major bottle-neck in nursery production.


Author: Jeremy C. Beesley

PP: 181

The advantages of propagating Elaeagnus from cuttings are that it is cheap, there is no problem of suckering, and good growth can be achieved. Strong cuttings are taken between October and December from the current year's growth. Terminal cuttings root better than the thicker basal cuttings although the basal cuttings, when rooted, produce more vigorous plants. The cuttings are made about 12 cm long, wounded at the base, and treated with 4% IBA in talc mixed with an equal quantity of Captan. Ten cuttings are placed around the edge of a 5" clay pot filled with a mixture of five parts 2 to 3 mm grit to one part fine moss peat. The pots are plunged in moist peat on benches heated by electric cables; these are controlled by electronic thermostats using semi-conductor sensors. These sensors are placed in the rooting medium, level with the base of the cuttings, and the temperature is set for 65°F.

The cuttings are covered with 150 gauge clear polythene which is removed once a week


Author: Ole Nymark Larsen

PP: 182

There is, in Denmark, a long tradition for the growing of sour cherries and this has expanded rapidly in the last few years.

Sour cherry is now, after apple, the most grown tree fruit in Denmark. Sour cherries require relatively little regular care and are often grown by farmers. The rapid expansion is in part due to a high demand for juice by the processing industry and in part, to the development of machine harvesting.

Sour cherries belong to the species, Prunus cerasus L., and all cultivars which are grown in Denmark are self fertile. By far, the most planted cultivar is ‘Stevnsbaer’ which has been grown in Denmark for at least 200 years. It is preferred by the processing industry because the fruit is strongly coloured and has a high content of sugar and of acid.

The well-known Danish rose breeder, D.T. Poulsen, has bred two cultivars ‘Kelleriis 14’ and ‘Kelleriis 16’. These are little grown in Denmark but ‘Kelleriis 16’ is quite


Author: D.N. Whalley, K. Loach

PP: 186

Data are presented on the rooting of February-taken, dormant, leafless cuttings in heated bins and on their subsequent establishment in containers.

Both rooting in the bin and survival at the end of the season we highly correlated with the degree-weeks of temperature which the cuttings had experienced in the bins.

The survival of Acer saccharinum cuttings markedly decreased with increase in the number of degree-weeks. This response was not as marked for Laburnum × vossii and Platanus × acerifolia, suggesting that Acer cuttings rapidly become depleted of their carbohydrate reserves.

Survival of A. saccharinum cuttings in containers was markedly increased by placing them under mist enclosed by polyethylene in a netting tunnel.

Difficult-to-root species such as Acer platanoides ‘Drummondii’ and Prunus ‘Shirofugen’ responded poorly even when mist used to assist cutting survival.


Author: Hilary Schonbeck

PP: 199

This project was secondary to a main college project, and I decided to examine the need for stripping cuttings before insertion, as the topic had been questioned at last year's Conference. As it had to commence in September, of necessity I worked with evergreens, but did do some successful work with soft-woods.

I questioned the three main reasons normally given for stripping cuttings, and my findings were as follows:

  1. "The lower leaves decay and this decays spreads to the stem."
  2. Largely this was not true. Either there was no decay (examples Spiraea × bumalda ‘Goldflame’, Viburnum tinus and Hebe ‘Eversley Seedling’) or decay did not spread (examples, Pernettya mucronata, Erica herbacea (Syn.: carnea), and Elaeagnus pungens ‘Maculata’). An exception was autumn struck Ceanothus, where decay from decaying stems did not spread to the stem.

  3. "Cuttings are difficult to insert."
  4. This statement is true of large, thick-leaved species such as


Author: Tracy L. Lunn

PP: 200

The object of my project was to compare the effects of different rooting composts and rooting hormone treatments for Acer palmatum ‘Osakazuki’, Hibiscus syriacus ‘Woodbridge’, and Magnolia × soulangiana.

Author: Stuart St. John

PP: 203

Is it worth growing hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from seed in the U.K.? Liners are always available in quantity from abroad, usually at unrealistic prices, whereas they are fairly expensive to produce here, with a necessity for regular sprays against mildew.

Points against imported plants are the chances of dried out roots, and problems developing where the liners have been raised on peat soils and have developed fine roots which do not transplant well on heavier soils. The quality is unknown until the plants arrive. There may come a time when imports are banned because of disease such as fireblight. So perhaps it is useful to know how to grow this utility plant, and a "home-grown" label may help to sell it.

From a smaller nurseryman's point of view, I have always had excellent sales of this plant, and by producing it myself can offer it at reasonable prices. For the smaller grower it is not worth buying in small numbers, and there is a self satisfaction of home-grown


Author: John Turnbull

PP: 205

In my advisory career I have always found that economics are an extremely potent incentive for new technology to be adopted. If we take this point in the context of better quality fruit nursery-stock I am sure it is the improved results of using this certified stock which has led to its rapid acceptance by the industry.

At the recent "Fruit Focus Exhibition" in Kent, the Ministry of Agriculture's Fruit Certification Schemes were featured in the Agriculture Development and Advisory Service (ADAS) Exhibit and whilst I was there two very well known fruit growers were discussing the subject with me. One of them who has been around long enough to have known the situation prior to certification said, "John, it was like the Irish Sweepstake when we used to buy stock before certification standards put reliability and confidence into fruit production."

I propose to outline my talk with an examination of why improved health standards in fruit tree


Author: R.J. Garner

PP: 209

The establishment and maintenance of standards has long been a laudable objective of trade guilds and associations. It arises from a wish to standardize nomenclature and quality.

In 1927, at the request of the Empire Marketing Board, Hatton of East Malling wrote a paper entitled, "Standardization of horticultural material with special reference to rootstocks." There were requests for material of known status, and some fruit tree raisers set out to meet this demand.

The primary concern of any standards scheme is with trueness-to-name, as in the rootstock certification scheme introduced in 1946, and in the health schemes for bush and soft fruits, which are so important to the U.K. fruit industry.

In 1960 the Horticultural Trades Association, jointly with the National Farmers Union, published descriptive standards for nursery products. At the same time the Institute of Park Administration issued specifications for trees for roads and gardens, as did the Road Beautifying


Author: Stephen J. Haines

PP: 211

Not many years ago it would have been frowned upon to have a session such as this at an I.P.P.S. Conference. In fact, at the inaugural meeting at Syon Park I remember being worried as to whether I would be granted membership when our first president defined "propagators" as, "those who put roots on cuttings and grafted in a controlled environment" or some such words, as against "despised" field workers and growers. Being in the latter category, I never really forgave him and the hurt must have been deep for me to remember his words. Greenhouse propagation has always had a certain mystique, unwarranted in my opinion, about it and those engaged in it tend to consider themselves superior to the peasants who graft in the fields. However I rejoice in the words of John Steinbeck in his book, "The Grapes of Wrath". He says, "The men who graft the young trees, the little vines, are the cleverest of all, for their's is a surgeon's job, as

Author: Don Hatch

PP: 215


The most important procedure before any grafting can be undertaken is the establishment of stock beds of true-to-name cultivars. Stock plants need to be planted with plenty of space for full development. Even the dwarfs can soon fill out to take more space than allocated. Good cultivation is important, as is a regular spraying programme, for the control of conifer spinning mite on spruce and adelges on Pinus sylvestris forms. It must be appreciated that, with the dwarf cultivars especially, some years must elapse before commercial quantities of scions become available, dependent upon the number of each cultivar planted.


Author: Ruth E. Auld, Arthur Carrall

PP: 55

Except for the higher areas away from the coast, clematis plants do not usually grow really well around Sydney, Australia. The climate during late summer is very humid. Often considerable rain is experienced; such weather is conducive to phytophthora development. However, if the planting site is carefully selected and the roots kept cool by placing flat stones or rocks on the soil surface over the root area some degree of success can be obtained.

It is worthwhile to note that although clematis can be difficult to grow and provides few problems, lucrative markets for this beautiful flowered climber are available in the Mountain and Tablelands areas of New South Wales as well as for interstate shipments.

To be successful in growing clematis hybrids a programme of sanitation must be employed to eliminate disease rather than trying to arrest it after the cutting material or plants have been affected. Such a programme must start before the cuttings are taken from the mother plants. Common


Author: C.G. Lane

PP: 217

This paper covers the bench grafting of deciduous trees which have proved, in the past, to be very difficult to propagate by conventional field propagation techniques. This mainly covers the production of ornamental cultivars or species of Alnus, Betula, Fagus and Quercus.

Author: Paul Bradley

PP: 220

The aim of our bench grafting is the production of pot-grown whips for growing on into small sized, container-grown trees suitable for Garden Centre sales. We only grow the more popular kinds of ornamentals and a range of fruit species.

Established potted stocks are used for Acer, Fagus, and Betula cultivars.

Bare-root stocks are used for all the fruits, i.e. apples, pears, plums, damsons, cherries, and peach. Of the ornamentals, Syringa, cherries, Malus, Prunus cerasifera ‘Atropurpurea’ (Syn.: ‘Pissardii’), Crataegus, Laburnum, Pyrus salicifolia, Sorbus, and Robinia are also grafted bare-root.

We do not find it convenient to grow our own stocks, so these are bought from a reliable source during the autumn. The potted stocks are put straight into a tunnel or glasshouse.

It is vital that the bare-root stocks are the best quality, freshly lifted, transplants available — preferably 7 to 12 mm. Undercut seedlings and one-year layers are not good enough.

When the bare root stocks are delivered they are


Author: Ronald Thurlow

PP: 224


We have four grafting benches, each 45 ft long and 6 ft wide and having 9 in high wooden sides. These benches are supported by small 2 ft 9 in high walls, made of concrete blocks. The floor of the benches consists of corrugated zinc sheets covered by a layer of polystyrene for insulation. On top of the polystyrene there is a layer of sand in which we have soil warming cables embedded. Only three benches have bottom heat.

Each bench is covered by a 3 ft high polythene tent with lift up sides. These benches are housed in a double span greenhouse, two benches each side.

Across the roof and partly down the sides of the greenhouse we have a movable Netlon type shading. This shading was stitched by a sheet maker and is made to measure fit. It is held in place by wire and can be easily slid to the sides when not in use.

Also three tunnel houses are available, measuring 50 ft by 14 ft. These are used by the propagators in summer and have soil warming cables in them if we need them.


Author: David Hutchinson

PP: 228


The diseases Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pestalotiopsis spp., Pythium spp., and Cylindrocarpon spp. can cause significant crop losses in Erica and Calluna production and, in recent years, the disease Rhizoctonia solani has caused appreciable losses to specialist growers especially in wet growing seasons.

Having specifically identified Rhizoctonia as a problem with a specialist producer, nursery trials were carried out using the fungicide Iprodine (Rovral) to contain the disease. (Rovral had the necessary clearance and recommendations for the control of Rhizoctonia in lettuce and bedding plants).

The nursery practice is to grow 1 year Ericas and Callunas in ½ litre containers under high polyethylene tunnels (the polyethylene being removed in May/June and replaced in September/October). Overhead irrigation is used with a fibre capillary mat on a black polyethylene sheet base.


Author: Bill Mathews

PP: 230


I am committed to grafting as a way of propagating plants because:

I worked in Boskoop for 2½ years and, during this time, I went to Sweden doing contract grafting roses for the glasshouse industry. The money I received for this work purchased the liners and stock plants which helped to start my business ten years ago.

It is ideal for the small nurseryman.

There is a need for a quick turnaround of plants.

I consider that grafted plants produce a better end product if handled properly in containers, i.e. grafted viburnums are superior to viburnums produced from cuttings.


Author: David Hill

PP: 233

After spending 5 years in northeastern America, and with our experience in this country of the coldest winter on record, I decided it would be relevant to discuss methods of protecting plants used at two different nurseries in the U.S.A., and to discuss what we plan to do at our nursery in Boningale.

My first 3 years in the states were spent at Jim Wells Nursery as a student and then manager. The Wells Nursery was located 30 miles south of New York on the East Coast with temperatures ranging from 100°F (38°C) in July to –15°F (–26°C) in January and February. Wells specialized in growing rhododendrons and azaleas, which were subject to damage by the extreme cold if unprotected, therefore every precaution had to be taken to minimize the risk of damage.

The first thing Jim Wells did was to select a hardy range of rhododendrons and azaleas able to survive harsh East Coast winters. Rhododendrons he selected for their hardiness were the ‘Iron Clad’


Author: Ted Lewis

PP: 238

This paper is a report of my trip to America using the 1981 Travel Award.

The aim of my trip was to look at some micropropagation being practiced commercially, and to make practical recommendations to British nurserymen interested in the technique. I also wanted to find out about any new knowledge in mycorrhizal relationship that could benefit the nursery trade in the U.K. While focusing on these two areas, I took the opportunity to visit some nurseries of more general interest, a chance not to be missed.

Undoubtedly rhododendrons are the most successful subject for micropropagation developed so far in the American northwest. Dr. Wilbur C. Anderson of the Northwestern Washington Research Unit at Mount Vernon estimates that at least 10% of rhododendron production in Washington State now is done by micropropagation. He has done a lot of research and development of rhododendron microculture and explained some of the practical problems to me. The majority of micropropagation work requires


Author: John Edmunds

PP: 240

I hope by the time I finish I will have frightened you a little, because during my tours abroad in recent months I have become scared. I could begin with the story of a French micropropagation concern who propagated 500,000 M27 apple rootstocks, and when they were out in the field it was realized that there had been a swapping of flasks in the laboratory and they had 500,000 MM 106!

In the U.S.A. they have reached a stage of very considerable over-production. I could tell you about the American nursery stock industry in deep trouble, partly because of economics but partly because of over-production. In some cases the latter is due to micropropagation. An example is of ferns in 4 litre pots transported 7000 miles from Oregon to sell at 40p. There are twenty-one micropropagation units in Florida, many doing ferns.

I could tell of dumping of nursery stock. A large nursery is dumping daily. Well-trained pyracantha plants are being dumped to make way for younger stock, but the frames and


Author: John Giggini

PP: 244

The Rose Bowl, given to G.B.&I. in 1974 by the Eastern Region, is presented annually by the G.B.&I. President to someone who has made a special contribution to plant propagation. This year the award was made to Tom Wood, currently Secretary of the G.B.&I. Region.

Tom joined I.P.P.S. in 1974 and has always been a very active member, becoming Vice-President in 1978 and organizing an excellent conference at Bristol University. During his Presidency in 1979 the Region's varied range of activities were consolidated and our links with the International organization were further strengthened during his term as International Director in 1980–81. Tom took over the Secretariat on Bruce MacDonald's departure for Vancouver, British Columbia in 1980.

He trained at Kew Gardens and, on his return from Uganda in 1965, joined Oakover Nurseries in Kent, specializing in seedling production, a subject on which he is a recognized authority. He is a Governor of Hadlow College, which has a


Author: William L. Theobald

PP: 246

Over the past decade-and-a-half a little known garden has been developing in the Hawaiian Islands which is unique in its origin, mode of operation, and scope. It is the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden; the only national, privately supported, tropical botanical garden chartered by Congress, The charter (P.O. 88-449) was granted on August 19, 1964 and gave the organization the following purposes:
  1. to establish, develop, operate, and maintain for the benefit of the people of the United States an educational and scientific center in the form of a tropical botanical garden or gardens, together with such facilities as libraries, herbaria, laboratories, and museums which are appropriate and necessary for encouraging and conducting research in basic and applied tropical botany;
  2. to foster and encourage fundamental research with respect to tropical plant life and to encourage research and study of the uses of tropical flora in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, and other

Author: Rudolf R. Willing

PP: 58

Poplars have been grown in many widely different regions of the world since very early times, especially in the East and Far East. In Europe, when the North American poplars were introduced and hybridized with the European poplars, the expansion of poplar cultivation really began.

In Australia the early settlers introduced several species, growing them mainly as ornamental trees. Only very few clones were known: two clones of Populus alba; the Lombardy poplar, or P. nigra ‘Italica.’ (the best known poplar of them all); the Yunnan poplar, P. yunnanensis; and the American cottonwood, P. deltoides. There are no native poplars in Australia nor in the Southern Hemisphere. All poplars growing in southern Africa, South America, and New Zealand are introduced or manipulated clones. In the 1940s some of the so-called "Schreiner hybrids" were introduced. They are known as Androscoggin poplar, Geneva poplar, Oxford poplar, and Rochester poplar. They are hybrids between


Author: Ralph B. Shugert

PP: 251

For the benefit of the guests in the audience this morning, the motto of the IPPS is "To Seek and To Share", and all members adhere to this creed. In discussing any topic, the origin is always quite fascinating. When one reviews the Proceedings of the first Plant Propagators' Society, held on November 8–9, 1951, in Cleveland, Ohio, there are some interesting words presented by several important people relative to the formation of our Society. Words which the late Ed Scanlon wrote are certainly appropriate today. I particularly enjoyed one sentence in his opening statement, "no man should ever entertain the thought that he is omnipotent". This, of course, was one man's view of the interchange of ideas which has made this Society the success that it is today.

Several people showed a tremendous amount of foresight in those early years of the 1950's. For example, the committee which was appointed to draw up the Constitution and By-Laws, consisted of


Author: John A. Wott

PP: 256

Beginning in the 1960's and continuing into the 1970's, Americans became increasingly concerned about their environment. Even though these environmental concerns have fluctuated along with the reorientation to our economic and resource management issues, the concern for our environment continues into the 1980's. Let's begin by thinking about the changes which have affected the horticulture "world" (6).

First, we have witnessed a return to home fruit and vegetable production. This interest has helped to spawn such organizations as "Gardens for All" and the new "American Community Gardening Association". Then too, land for parks and "green areas" for everyday enjoyment is now a commonly accepted part of community and residential planning.

Those of us who work with the public have witnessed the almost overwhelming demand for information, on the selection, use, and maintenance of plants in our everyday lives. Plant societies, many with specific plant identities, have appeared in large numbers.


Author: Richard A. Criley

PP: 263

One educational principle is that learning is a function of perseverance, time, and teaching. The first component, perseverance is largely a personal characteristic of the learner as modified by his personal experiences and motivation. The second component, time, can be a limiting factor both when there is too little time or when there is too much (procrastination). This factor is elastic in that we can modify it.

The teaching component is complex. Whole curricula are based on the development of teachers. There are many aspects which must be studied, and the application of education theory to educating students is a practical result.

In agriculture, and specifically horticulture, we do not teach in formats designed by professional educators. Our methods follow a basic lecture and laboratory format and only occasionally do we reach out for different ways of doing things. Our clients in industry (= employers), on the other hand, are bombarded with new concepts: zero based budgets, we


Author: Tok Furuta

PP: 267

Every generation has a need to state things in its own way. Let us look at some examples: "It is well, in fact it is necessary, that the seasons be considered (for grafting and budding) in which new growths are generally made, namely fall, spring, and the period of the Dog Star." Describe time by the Dog Star, and you are not in the 20th century of scientific writing unless you are an astronomer. "The following is a good method of grafting olives, figs, pears, or apples: Cut the end of the branch you are going to graft, slope it a bit so that the water will run off, and in cutting be careful not to tear the bark. Get a hard stick and sharpen the end and split a Greek willow. Mix clay or chalk, a little sand and cattle dung, and knead them thoroughly so as to make a very sticky mass." This description goes on to state how the bark grafting is done and how to protect the newly made graft from rain and cold. Because of the unique substance used to seal the graft, you

Author: Jeanne Barnhill Jones

PP: 271


Propagating systems continue to evolve from the introduction of Jiffy-Pots in 1954 (1). These and other peat pots are made in round and square shapes, in a range of sizes for the propagation and growing on of individual units. Propagators familiar with peat properties find few difficulties in growing plants in these biodegradable units and buyers like the concept of planting pot and all. While others less familiar with peat technology, encounter difficulties in watering procedures and observe restricted root development. We see the "wicking action" problem when plants are set a bit high in the final container. Individual peat pots tend to fall over on the propagation bench. They are difficult to efficiently handle during packing and shipping processes.

The buyer of plants rooted in these pots must also deal with single units which can be difficult for him to manage. From the individual peat pot or plastic pot we see the development of Jiffy-Strips and a whole array of


Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 275

Efford Experimental Horticulture Station (EHS) is part of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food's Agricultural Advisory and Development Service and has responsibility for work with propagation and container production of hardy nursery stock. Work on propagation has been in progress for 4 years and has considered aspects of fuel economy, improving speed of rooting, and maintenance of cutting quality. The scope of this paper reviews the work aimed at reducing electricity fuel costs for heat-assisted winter propagation. Economy measures investigated can be categorised under four headings:
  1. Efficient heat control.
  2. Efficient heat transfer to rooting medium.
  3. Reduction of heat loss.
  4. Plant requirements.

Author: F. Loreti, S. Morini

PP: 283

The present status of mass fruit tree microprogation in Italy is reported. Information is given concerning species, clones, and the amount of trees of various rootstocks and cultivars produced by several laboratories. Methods, materials, and main characteristics of the laboratories, as well as perspectives of this technique are discussed.

Author: F. Loreti, S. Morini, C. Barbieri

PP: 291

Observations were made on the behaviour of ‘Mr. S. 2/5’ rootstock propagated by "in vitro" culture on a modified MS substrate. Shoot tips were collected in February from actively growing shoots kept in a growth chamber. Numerous shoots were produced from the shoot tips during the proliferation phase but many of them did not develop (only a few millimeters in length) even when subjected to the elongation phase. Shoots, elongated on a medium with reduced BAP concentration, gave better results but their rates of rooting were slower and their numbers less than those of shoots elongated on a medium without hormones and with half strength MS nutrients. Plantlet survival was not satisfactory.

Author: Steven M. McCulloch, Bruce A. Briggs

PP: 297

Several researchers have experienced the frustration in trying to obtain viable, sterile explants. This step, frequently referred to as stage 1 (17), is initially the most important area with which researchers should be concerned. Simply stated, a plant cannot be multiplied effectively if a plant part cannot be properly sterilized. It is the purpose of this paper to reexamine this area and offer possible solutions to these problems.

Whenever possible, the stock plant used for multiplication should be healthy, vigorous, and preferably virus-indexed. If the plant is indexed for certain viruses, care should be taken to prevent reinoculation of that plant. Screening methods have been developed to detect systemic contaminants (2,14).

As in conventional propagation, timing is very important. The physiological state of the plant part will partially determine whether or not the plant will grow, stay dormant, or die.

The environment in which the stock plant is grown is an important


Author: Maureen Murphy

PP: 304

You can probably understand why Kauai's nickname of the "Garden Island" is so appropriate, for we have some of the most beautiful gardens in the United States right here. But these gardens did not happen naturally. It took a great deal of planning, preparing, and designing, or in other words, intentional landscaping to create the lush tropical feeling that is so prevalent here.

In most places, creating a garden involves getting plants from a nursery. Somewhere along the line those plants were carefully propagated by someone, and chances are, they made use of such supplies and equipment as rooting hormones, disinfectants, pots and rooting media, special timers, bottom heaters, mist beds, and temperature controlled greenhouses. Then after the new plants developed, they needed to be transplanted and acclimatized (in perhaps another greenhouse) before they could be put in the landscape. A fair amount of time, labor, and expenses goes into this process.

Here in


Author: Frederick C. Hellriegel

PP: 65

The ability of wounded plant tissue to regenerate is important for successful plant propagation. It enables a union to occur in budding and grafting, healing to occur at the base of cuttings, and allows rapid multiplication of selected plants in tissue culture techniques.

Regenerating cells from wounded tissues emanate primarily from the cambium region of the plant and they grow over the wound both radially and laterally. The overwalling of these cells is called callus and the nature of callus and its part in the rooting and unification process is explained in this paper.

With some species excess callus forms, inhibiting root primordia from emerging and preventing the formation of a viable root system on cuttings. This problem is examined with reference to the pH and nature of the propagating medium, the time of year of selection of cuttings, auxin application, wounding, trimming of callus, environment, and the type and condition of stock material. Certain recommendations are given for problems encountered with the propagation of some Australian native plants.


Author: Barrie L. McKenzie

PP: 311

Topline Laboratories, Limited, was established in early 1981 after 6 months of research and construction. At the beginning it was decided that a new building would be erected, but due to local laws, delays were experienced, and the laboratory was, therefore, established within one of the present buildings sited on the premises of Topline Nurseries Limited.

The decision to move into this field was brought about after having attended one of the first tissue culture workshops held in New Zealand. Since this occasion, considerable interest has been shown in this field. A lot of plant breeding and research currently being undertaken in New Zealand has been a result of a horticultural boom. The establishment of a Laboratory Company within the nursery confines appeared most attractive.

The interest of a staff member, Lynsay Averill, who had been with the Company for 5 years, with a good horticultural background and basic plant propagation knowledge, also aided the decision to proceed with this


Author: Kalfred K. Yee

PP: 315

We are a specialized laboratory with over 90% of our work dealing with the mericloning of orchids. The other 10% entails the mericloning of other ornamentals, such as Anthurium andraeanum, Cordyline, Dieffenbachia, Spathiphylum, and bromeliads.

In sharing my experiences with you I will cover:

  1. Planning and building the laboratory
  2. Culture and management
  3. Production and marketing
  4. Personnel

As I have just returned from a visit to various tissue culture laboratories in the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore, I will also touch upon the facilities and problems I saw in the Southeast Asian laboratories.

First of all, about planning and building the laboratory. When we started in 1977, we had very little information on hand to guide us. If we had had ample funds, we could have hired a professional consultant, engaged a private contractor, and thus perhaps lessened our problems. But we accepted the challenge of starting something new and did most of the work ourselves. To begin with, we


Author: Jeanne Barnhill Jones

PP: 322

The current use of in vitro techniques for rapid clonal propagation is the most advanced area of plant tissue culture. According to Murashige, by 1978 there were at least 100 facilities engaged in commercially propagating a variety of plants through tissue culture. Nearly all of them arose within the previous 5 years, and several new ones continue to emerge each year (6). It is difficult to obtain accurate production numbers from these commercial micropropagation laboratories. Conservative annual United States estimates range from 14 million units (flower crops, ornamental foliage and ferns) to 55 million (all agronomic crops).

Commercial propagators using plant tissue culture techniques produce plants through adventitious shoots and/or enhanced axillary branching pathways. The in vitro propagation steps are as follows:

     Step I.     Establishment of an aseptic tissue culture of a plant.
     Step II.    Rapid numerical increase of organs or other structures.
     Step III.  Preparation of propagule for successful

Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 327

In a world where it seems that every time we turn around we hear of another life form that is near extinction or has become extinct it is nice to read or talk about a life form that has been rediscovered after it was thought to have been extinct. Such is the case of the genus Metasequoia or Dawn Redwood. "Meta" means "akin to" and "sequoia" refers to relating Sequoia and Sequoiadendron, all of which are related to the Taxodium. Fossil specimens of Metasequoia have been identified in Europe, Asia, and North America as old as 50 million years. However, in the mid 1940's, Mr T. Wang of the Chinese Central Bureau of Forest Research discovered groves of trees of Metasequoia growing in central China. Upon hearing this news, the Arnold Arboretum in the United States financed an expedition to secure seed. In the late 1940's, the first seed was delivered to the Arnold Arboretum, which then shared seed with other botanical institutions throughout the world. It was also then that the trees were formally

Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 329

Kiwifruit is a relatively new product on our supermarket shelves, but kiwifruit plants have been around for centuries. Once again, we must go back to China where the kiwifruit, or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia chinensis), is native. In the early 1900's, Actinidia was introduced into New Zealand. Eventually, it found its way to California where the production of major quantities did not get a foothold until the early 1970's. Presently, several thousand tons of kiwifruit are produced each year in California.

Kiwifruit is about the size of an egg and gets its name from the kiwi bird of New Zealand whose body resembles the shape of the fruit. The fruit weighs about four ounces and has been a high vitamin C content. It is best eaten raw, and its use with other foods is becoming more popular.

Actinidia chinesis is a deciduous vine that is dioecious (that is, a plant produces either all male or all female flowers). To obtain fruit development, male vines are needed to pollinate the female vines.


Author: Michael J. Tanabe

PP: 333

Removal of fleshy seed pulp accelerated germination of maile (Alyxia olivaeformis). Trendwise, presoaking in aerated water was the most effective treatment. Non-heated medium produced highest germination whereas 31°C severely inhibited germination.

Author: Philip E. Parvin

PP: 336

The development of proteas as an export cut flower crop for Hawaii is relatively recent. As a result of a research project in University of Hawaii's Department of Horticulture, the first commercial protea farm was planted on a 6-acre tract of land adjacent to the Experimental Station in Kula, Maui in the fall of 1972. The second farm was planted in 1975, encompassing approximately 12 acres. Today, there are over 110 acares of proteas planted in Hawaii on the cool slopes of volcanoes on Maui and the Island of Hawaii.

At first, plants from seed were considered to be the appropriate material to use. As the protea industry expands on an international level, it has become increasingly evident that farms planted with vegetatively propagated selections of cultivars with superior colors, shipping qualities, and resistance to disease will have significant competitive advantage over farms with seedlings of variable quality.

In anticipation of the release of 3 clones of the sunburst protea,


Author: Mike A. Nagao, William S. Sakai, Darrell Ito, Jerome Sasaki

PP: 339

Defoliation of topped Tupidanthus layers initially stimulated higher numbers of lateral breaks than decapitation alone. The subsequent elongation of the laterals, however, was greatest in the non-defoliated treatment.

Author: Fred D. Rauch, Laurie Schmidt, Paul K. Murakami

PP: 341

Interest in the production of palms in Hawaii has accelerated in recent years. This has resulted from greater use of palms in the landscape and the potential production of palms for the export market for interior landscape use on the mainland.

With this increased production has come a great awareness of some of the production problems with this crop. During the past year we have initiated a research project to study the culture and nutrition of palms. One of the objectives of the project is to determine the factors that influence the rate of palm seed germination and establishment. Two preliminary trials are reported here.


Author: R.A. Hamilton, R.A. Criley, C.L. Chia

PP: 347

Mature, woody, leafless cuttings of ‘Ma opu’ and ‘Maafala’ breadfruit rooted with 95% success under intermittent mist in about 10 weeks after treatment with rooting hormones. Some cuttings rooted and/or sent out shoots more rapidly than others and additional time under mist might have produced stronger root systems. There is also a preliminary indication that leafless stem cuttings can be rooted in a shaded transparent plastic tent, used as a humidity chamber. This would be a particularly useful and practical method where mist propagation facilities are not available.

Author: R. Boden, J.H. Fryer, G. King

PP: 74


The pin oak (Quercus palustris) is a tree of considerable amenity value in the cooler areas of southeast Australia. It is vigorous and hardy on most soils, it is quite drought tolerant and gives heavy summer shade and brilliant autumn colours. To date it has shown only a low susceptibility to the oak leaf miner.

However pin oak has one obviously unattractive habit. In mature trees the upper crown loses its leaves in late autumn but most of the dead leaves on the lower crown persist and are shed gradually during winter and spring, giving the tree a rather tattered appearance for much of this period. This gradual loss of leaves necessitates a number of winter clean-ups by residents or park authorities, rather than one concerted effort in autumn.

The habit of winter leaf persistence was investigated by Scaffalitzky de Muckadell (1) in the European beech (Fagus sylvatica). He showed that growth from scions taken from the upper part of the tree of this species, when grafted onto seedling


Author: Stan Sorensen

PP: 350

The Western Region's 1982 Award of Merit is presented to the recipient to recognize his outstanding contribution to his community, the IPPS and the field of plant propagation.

He was a charter member of the Western Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society which held its first meeting in Asilomar, California, in 1960. He was elected to the Executive Committee of the Western Region in 1972. He became president of the Region in 1976–1977 and President of the International Board in 1981–1982.

In 1962 he was elected to the City Council of Fremont, California. He served as mayor for 5 of the 16 years he was on the City Council. During that time the new city grew from 25,000 to over 110,000 in population. He was a driving force in establishing a beautiful 400-acre park in the center of the community, complete with lake and swim lagoon. He worked to save three homes and gardens of historical consequence; namely, the Vallejo Adobe at the old California


Author: Hugh B. Redgrove

PP: 354

This paper will consider mainly the herbaceous types of perennials, i.e. those that die down each winter and grow again from ground level.

Author: Lynne Scott

PP: 357

The optimum germination temperatures were determined for Eucalyptus species which failed to germinate satisfactorily at 25°C, using a range of temperatures (15 to 35°C), and including pre-chilling for some species. A broad relationship was found to occur between the optimum temperature for germination and the climatic conditions in which a species occurs naturally.

Author: Pauline A. Cooper, Daniel Cohen

PP: 363

Members of the family Araceae have attracted considerable attention as subjects for micropropagation.

Seeds are used for propagation of some species (e.g. Monstera deliciosa, Anthurium spp.), but the progeny are variable. Other species are normally propagated by stem cuttings (e.g. Philodendron scandens, Dieffenbachia maculata (Syn.: D. picta), Epipermnum aureum (Syn.: Scindapsis aureus) and Syngonium podophyllus), but multiplication rates are not very high and large numbers of stock plants must be maintained. Propagation by crown, rhizome, or tuber division is also used with other species (e.g. Anthurium spp., Caladium × hortulanum and Zantedeschia spp.), but propagation by these means is even slower.

Faster rates of multiplication have been achieved by micropropagation than can be achieved by the traditional methods listed above. At the 1981 meeting, Cohen (1) reported that the proliferation rate for Zantedeschia in culture is approximately 5-fold/month (i.e. potentially 100,000 in


Author: Peter B. Cave

PP: 368

Although many thousands of birches are raised from seed in New Zealand each season, two factors have limited our propagation techniques to grafting.
  1. Seedlings of birches are well-known for their variability. This is a result of the ease with which the various species hybridise once they are removed from the geographical barriers which separate them in the wild. Thus, the only reliable seed sources are collections from the wild state and, unfortunately, these are rare.
  2. While propagation of birches by cuttings has been successful to a limited extent with some cultivars, it is very unreliable. Moreover, propagation material has been difficult to obtain — our first material came in small quantities from arboretums and from overseas. Grafting has proved to be the only means of bulking up and producing trees quickly.

Author: J.J. Hosking

PP: 370

When considering nursery and establishment practice of forestry or other mass produced trees, it should be appreciated that outside the state or large forestry companies, large numbers of trees are handled by various types of nurseries. These range from growers who supply their customers direct, to retail garden centres who buy in all trees from a wholesale source. Many nurseries fall between these limits, doing some direct selling and some buying in for resale.

This paper looks at problems associated with packing, transport, storage, shelf life and ultimate survival. The species involved are used primarily for forestry, orchard and shelter establishment, or for some large scale amenity planting schemes.

Objectives. The primary aim must be the high survival of wind firm trees of good genetic quality. Problems in meeting this objective are:

  1. In sufficient seed supply from recognised sources, with no genetic selection in the field of shelter. Seed is, therefore, obtained where available. Many

Author: J.B. Gillespie, Michael B. Thomas

PP: 373

Several pre-germination treatments were given to Cyclamen persicum Mill. seed with the objective of improving germination percentage, speed, and uniformity. Soaking seed in water and in gibberellic acid improved germination speed, but the latter reduced survival. Etridiozole, benomyl, thiram, and sodium hypochlorite treatments did not reduce or delay germination as has been reported elsewhere, but gave no consistent advantage.

Author: Colin D. Henderson

PP: 380

As plant propagators we are all practising conservation. It is in our interest to see that the conservation effort extends to a better use of our capital and labour inputs. Many small nurseries, and indeed larger enterprises, struggle with a shortage or at least an imbalance of capital and labour and the result show up in variety of ways such as poor production or marketing volumes, or poor plant quality. Conservation means using what resources we have wisely. We need to make our operations cost-effective. We need to practice economy. If our businesses are running well we will have better opportunity to develop our propagation skills.

Although I am intensely interested and involved in ornamental plant production generally, I came into nursery work from a background in business management, economics, and accountancy. I use my previous experience to make my small nursery successful and my work enjoyable. The total labour force is equivalent to two full time labour units. We produce


Author: John B. Gillespie, Michael B. Thomas

PP: 383

The effects of five levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and lime on potted cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) growth in peat/sand, 1:1 v/v were studied. Nitrogen strongly influenced most aspects of growth and flowering; it was supplied by Osmocote (26% N). Strongest corm and foliage growth occurred at 450 to 600g N m-3, while early flowering and flowers per plant were promoted at these levels, as long as added P was low. Low to medium levels of P and K appeared primarily to be required for flower quality, such as size. The plants appeared very tolerant of liming and a rate as high as 24 kg m-3 was optimal for flower size (dry weight) and stalk length, when combined with very high N rates.

Author: Stuart N. Dawes

PP: 390

Exotic plants have been successfully established in New Zealand from the very earliest days of European settlement. Naturally these introductions come mainly from areas of similar latitude to New Zealand in either the northern or southern hemispheres. There is, of course, still considerable scope for further introductions from this source. However, I want to point out that there are other areas with a climate similar to that of New Zealand which offer even greater scope for plant introduction. One such region is the high altitude tropics.

High Altitude Tropics. We tend to consider that plants from areas near the equator are going to be unsuitable for New Zealand conditions. Sometimes we are aware of exceptions and wonder at the adaptability of such plants. Mostly we do not realise the effect that altitude has on climate, or even that all areas within the tropics are not low lying and tropical in nature. If, however, we look at even a world scale relief map we see that there are large


Author: R. Harris

PP: 78

Climate. To achieve this goal, a suitable climate is essential. Our operation is carried out in the central western slopes of New South Wales where we have a 7½ month growing period for stone fruit, from mid-September to the end of April (early spring to late fall). This procedure is known as "June budding" in the Northern Hemisphere.

Seed. Golden Queen peach seed is our main stock. We used to purchase these dried, direct from the cannery, and had only 50% germination. We found out that they were dried on a concrete slab in direct sunlight in temperatures of up to 40°C, up to 4 inches (100mm) deep and raked over when manpower was available. We now cart the seed home in bulk direct from the hoppers and dry on a slatted floor in a shed, resulting in 80% + germination. This seed is purchased at late summer and, after drying, is bagged. In late fall the bags of seed are immersed in water for 24 hours to swell the kernel. (Failure to do this will result in a very


Author: D.J. Boyes-Barnes

PP: 394

One of the problems that we have encountered in the growing of grafted macadamia trees for commercial planting has been the development of techniques which will enable us to spread production over the whole year. The proper use of both facilities and people is tied to such an ability.

The central event that is required, is the ability to graft in summer or winter as well as in the more traditional spring and autumn periods. And the key to successful grafting is the ability to keep the scion alive and well until callusing has taken place and the rootstock can take over the job of supporting the graftlet.

Many methods are employed in New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, California, and South Africa.

Some of these methods are: scion painted with a bitumen emulsion or wax, scion wrapped in tape, whole plant bagged in a clear polythene bag, scion enclosed in a clear polythene bag, and the whole plant kept under mist.

All these methods work with varying degrees of success. However, in summer the


Author: Karen M. Cooper

PP: 396

Mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial soil fungi associated with the roots plants. In forming a symbiotic association with the plant root, these fungi can: (a) increase nutrient uptake and improve plant growth in nursery and field soils. (b) reduce transplant injury, (c) assist rooting and survival of cuttings and (d) deter infection of roots by soil-borne fungal and nematode pathogens. Inoculation of horticultural plants with suitable mycorrhizal fungi in the nursery results in the beneficial mycorrhiza being carried with the roots when the plants are set out in the field, thereby improving plant establishment, survival, health, and growth.

Author: Richard Vanlandingham

PP: 406

In the nursery business we do many types of forecasts, labor, expense, weather, sales, market, and production. The sales, marketing, and production forecasts have proven to be in the greatest need in the last two years.

Production forecasting can cover a wide range of areas. Some of these areas are scheduling supplies, labor needs, and equipment availability, but the most important area is in forecasts of product saleability. The forecasting of product maturity is important because if plants do not sell when predicted, warehousing becomes necessary and is very expensive.

Production forecasting is interrelated with and dependent upon accurate market and sales forecasts. Sales forecasts consist of sales by product line, territories, by month, week, or other time period, and by accounts. When making a sales forecast certain intangible factors must be estimated before measurable data is completed for the sales forecasts. These include long range trends of prosperity or depression, seasonal


Author: W.L. Corley

PP: 407

From the world collection of 350 ornamental grasses, 15 were rated as superior performers in climatic zone 8A. Their propagation modes were studied simultaneously with evaluation as landscape plants. All annual grasses were propagated readily by seed with exception of purple fountain grass, which is sterile. Many of the perennial grasses are sterile, necessitating vegetative propagation. Stem cuttings of four sterile perennials rooted readily.

Author: Ted Bilderback

PP: 410

Leyland cypress (× Cupressocyparis leylandii) is an intergeneric hybrid between Cupressus macrocarpa and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. Several clones exist and the most common and available ones are listed in Table 1 (1,3,4,5,6,7,8). These clones may be the fastest growing conifers in the world (8). In full sun and well-drained soils, 3 to 5 ft. of growth per year is possible (1,5). The columnar form and rapid growth make it a good plant for hedges where fast screening is desired. Old Leyland cypress trees in Europe are 95 to 100 ft. tall but trees may reach only ½ to 2/3; that height in the Southeastern U.S. (3,6,8). It is reported to be hardy to zone 5 (9). Leyland cypress apparently has few insect or disease problems although bag worms have been observe on them; trees apparently do not grow well in the San Francisco Bay Area due to Phomopsis canker and a borer associated with the cankers.

Author: D.C. Coston, G.W. Krewer

PP: 414

Semihardwood peach cuttings were successfully rooted by intermittently misting the bases and tops with water. Cultivar and cutting type (terminal or basal) did not affect rooting. Coverage with mist of the base and top of the cutting was essential for a high percentage of rooting.

Author: Donald Mylin

PP: 418

Our deciduous azalea propagation system has been developed over a 35 year period. We are currently producing about 60,000 plants yearly, which consist of several cultivars of the Exbury Knapp Hill, and Ilam groups, as well as the Windsor hybrids.

Preparation of Stock Plants: Good healthy stock plants are essential for good cuttings. The majority of our cuttings come from our containerized stock that will be marketed at a future date. These plants are forced into growth in our standard overwintering houses. This commences sometime between February 15 and March 30. Proper maintenance of plants with regard to fertilizer levels and insect control is essential during this time.

Preparation of the Propagating Area: Preparation for a new crop begins by removing all old medium from the house and washing down the benches. All repairs needed are made at this time. Since our benches are wooden, we treat them yearly with a copper naphthenate solution. The entire area is then sprayed with a


Author: Robert B. McCartney

PP: 420

Few temperate regions of the world are blessed with so varied and diverse a flora as the southern United States. Nurseries in this region, which many of you here represent, produce millions of ornamental plants. However, surprisingly few of our native species are in the trade. Most of the plants you grow are of eastern Asiatic origin, but again they are only a small percentage of the possible choices from that area. Potentially useful plants from other regions of the world are hardly known.

Woodlanders, Inc. is perhaps unique in that we almost totally disregard the kinds of plants other nurseries grow. Instead we concentrate on a very broad range of native and exotic material, which is otherwise unavailable or difficult to find. Our plants are sold throughout the United States and abroad via mail order. Many of the plants we grow are hardy in cold areas, but we specialize in plants for milder climates. This affords a wider range of options horticulturally and serves a part of the


Author: Willard T. Witte, P. Anthony Cope, G. Shannon Smith

PP: 423

Since the discovery of photoperiod effects on plant growth and flowering in 1920 by Garner and Allard (1) it has been known in general that long days extend the vegetative growth phase of many woody plants, and conversely that short days are generally associated with the cessation of growth and the onset of dormancy in the fall (4). Exceptions to these generalizations were documented by USDA researchers in 1956, and the following year Nitsch (5) used 4 categories to classify woody plants according to photoperiodic response as follows:
  1. Long days promote continuous growth while short days induce dormancy, as in Weigela florida.
  2. Long days stimulate repeated periodic growth while short days will induce dormancy, as in Quercus rubra.
  3. Long days promote continuous growth, but short days will not cause dormancy, as in Juniperus horizontalis.
  4. Long days prolong the growing period, but plants eventually go dormant regardless of daylength, as in Syringa vulgaris.

It appears that the


Author: Frank F. Willingham Jr

PP: 427

My microcomputer was purchased to serve as a tool for learning about computers in general. Our company had reached a size and complexity level that made consideration of our own computer system necessary, but I really had no good basis for comparing the various features available. The $2500 spent on a micro seemed small compared to the $15,000 to $50,000 at stake for a complete business systems.

Computer basics. A microcomputer is considered to be a desk top machine, as opposed to mini and main-frame computers, which require much more space and are many times more costly. The so-called "personal" computers are microcomputers. All computers, micros included, have certain features in common: a CPU, an I/O, a clock, and a memory. The CPU (central processing unit) does the work or calculations of the computer. The I/O (input/output) gets data to and from CPU. The clock times the various operations and makes sure the computer doesn't try to do two things at once. The memory


Author: W.R. Scowcroft, P.J. Larkin

PP: 80


Plant improvement and varietal selection originated with the dawn of human society. Under the pressure of deliberate selection many of our domesticated species are distinctly different from their wild relatives. For example, the cabbage, the cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are all derived from the same species, Brassica oleracea, as a consequence of deliberate selection for the specialised development of the leaf, flower, and axillary buds, respectively.

Any varietal improvement program has a set of defined objectives. From an agricultural viewpoint, improvement focuses on those variables which maximise yield and economic return, such as disease resistance, earliness and maturity characteristics, drought tolerance, and features which enhance mechanisation and reduced energy dependent inputs. At the other end of the spectrum, the floriculture and nursery industry may see the maintenance of uniformity on the one hand, and spectacle and uniqueness of new cultivars on the other, as the


Author: Richard A. Jaynes

PP: 431

Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) is coming of age. Beautiful selections have been available since the 1800's, but because of propagation difficulties these and newer selections have been largely ignored until recently. Selection efforts by C.O. Dexter, Sandwich, Massachusetts, in the 1930's followed shortly by selection and breeding by the Mezitts, Weston Nurseries, Hopkinton, Massachusetts, began to focus attention on this species in the U.S. A.G. Soames simultaneously selected pinks at Sheffield Park, Sussex, England. He presumably also used material originating with C.O. Dexter but obtained through the Arnold Arboretum, as well as with material from the Knap Hill Nursery. Research begun at the Connecticut Station in 1961 on Kalmia has not only demonstrated a wide range of desirable horticultural traits in mountain laurel but has also shown that many of these characteristics are simply inherited, and thus can be readily manipulated by the breeder (2,4). New

Author: Charles R. Johnson

PP: 434

Mycorrhizae refers to a symbiotic association between a nonpathogenic or weakly pathogenic fungus and living cells of plant roots. Most all plants of the world are mycorrhizal, although wetland rice, cypress, and many plants in the Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae are not mycorrhizal (1,2,6).

Mycorrhizae are categorized into three major groupings: ectomycorrhizae, endomycorrhizae, and ectendomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizae are predominantly found in association with coniferous trees, and the fungi that form them have above-ground mushroom fruiting bodies. These disseminate small air-borne spores. They form a thick covering on roots called a mantle, which is essentially an accumulation of mycelium. The most common forms of endomycorrhizae are vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae, which form


Author: Fred Davies

PP: 440

Mycorrhizae are the symbiotic (beneficial) association of helpful fungi with the fine roots of plants. All horticultural crops form associations with mycorrhizal fungi. What we need to do is learn how to manipulate mycorrhizal associations to reduce nursery production costs and increase profits (2).

Some of the problems confronting the nursery industry are increased production costs and greater governmental regulations, which may curtail water usage of water runoff containing undesirable levels of salt fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides, etc. We also need to produce and market more stress-efficient native ornamental plants that utilize lower levels of water and fertilization. The California industry is currently facing strict water runoff regulations and water salinity problems. The Texas nursery industry stands to benefit from more efficient production systems utilizing mycorrhizal fungi that enable production of nursery crops under reduced watering and fertility regimes. Nurseries


Author: James O. Pelton

PP: 442

Since 1975, when Roadview Farm Nursery was established, rhododendron propagation has normally started in September. At this time the summer growth on the container-grown plants has matured sufficiently so that cuttings may be taken. The cuttings are stripped of the lower leaves, trimmed to a uniform length and double wounded. Leaf surface area is not reduced. Cuttings are then soaked in a Captan-Benlate solution. They are stuck in trays to give 1 ½-in. spacing. In the early years of the nursery the cuttings were stuck in 6-in. deep peat and perlite beds raised 3 ft. off the ground. The beds were in double poly propagation houses. Warm air from counter-flow oil-fired furnaces was blown under the benches, which were enclosed with plastic to contain the heat. Mist regulated by time clocks was applied to the cuttings until rooting was well developed. We found that the hot air furnaces were running constantly on cold nights and, with rising fuel oil costs, a more efficient system had

Author: Robert F. Bock

PP: 444

I had the pleasure of going to England, Belgium, and Holland on the 1980 IPPS tour. One of the most impressive things I saw was the way they propagated with poly lying on the cuttings in the frames and benches. I asked why they had no mist, and the reply was, "What we do works."

Sealed or closed propagating structures are not new to IPPS members. The Nearing frame has been mentioned a number of times in the Proceedings. It was noted for use in rooting difficult-to-root material. It emphasized the use of cool north light and a good moisture reserve built in. The air space around the cutting was small and sealed. I felt that the conditions were similar to what the Dutch were doing. I made up my mind then that when I got home I would try their system. The simplicity of the idea seemed so appealing that I ordered a capillary mat and installed it on the floor of a heated house. The floor has porous concrete with hot water pipes below the surface, which produce good steady


Author: Butch Gaddy

PP: 446

Colesville Nursery is a wholesaler container nursery located in Charles City, Virginia. Since 1975 we have produced about 100 different cultivars of woody ornamental landscape plants. Currently, 7 acres are in container production and 10 acres are in field production. When we first began nursery production 100% of our liners were purchased from other nurseries; today, we are propagating 95% of our own material.

Since commencing our operations, we have employed a wide variety of propagation techniques. Initially we experimented with small propagation tents, but those turned out to be inefficient. We next set up a greenhouse using intermittent mist. But we soon discovered that our water source — a nearby pond — contained trash particles that clogged up the mist nozzles even when a filter was used. We then tried brass spinners, but found that method unsatisfactory because of low water pressure and uneven soil saturation.

In 1980, on the advice of Dr. Daniel Milbocker of the


Author: Carroll G. Hall

PP: 448

At Carroll's Plant Center we are using high humidity for cutting propagation. Three Agritech mist blowers can maintain 100% humidity in our 22 × 98 ft greenhouse. During most of the rooting season (June–October) we keep the humidity from 90% to 100%, adjusting the amount of water, registered in gallons per hour (gph), according to time of day and weather conditions. The mist blowers are set on 24-hour time clocks, which will automatically turn the blowers on and off, but the gph adjustment is made manually throughout the day. The amount varies from 20 gph during the July to mid-September period to a low of 8 gph midday in the winter.

We have one greenhouse for mist propagation and two greenhouses for hardening-off the rooted cuttings. When necessary the greenhouse can be cleared of some humidity by an exhaust fan. The temperature control is set on 95°F during the summer and 85°F during the fall. Cuttings are placed on raised benches made of treated lumber and expanded metal. This helps


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 450

A wet tent that maintains high humidity yet allows sufficient light penetration to support photosynthesis in leaves of cuttings has been devised. The system may be used alone or in conjunction with reduced conventional mist. With little or no mist, leaching of metabolites from leaves and overwatering of the media is reduced or eliminated. With less water in the mix, bottom heat is more effective and aeration is increased, thus stimulating more rapid root development and subsequent growth. Rooting of cuttings in the wet tent has been excellent in fall and winter. Summer softwood cuttings have required some mist since the fabrics tested have not allowed sufficient air exchange for cooling and humidification.

Author: Austin F. Kenyon

PP: 455

Greenleaf Nursery Co., Inc. is a wholesale nursery specializing in production of container-grown ornamental plant material. Our offices are located in northeastern Oklahoma on the banks of beautiful Tenkiller Lake, which also is our source of irrigation water. In addition, we have a branch operation located 4 miles south of El Campo, Texas, which is 31 miles from the Gulf of Mexico.

The Oklahoma operation which receives low temperatures each year of at least 0°F., primarily grows junipers, deciduous trees, and deciduous shrubs. The Texas operation, with the more gentle Gulf Coast climate, specializes in broad-leaved evergreen plant material, such as, azaleas, hollies, euonymus, pyracantha, pittosporum, etc.


Author: Carl Fletcher Flemer III

PP: 459

Nursery organization is a broad and very encompassing subject. Nursery owners, managers, and propagators have to be organized in order to be successful. Nurseries which produce and grow plant materials are complex, complicated operations because of the hundreds of details which must be constantly monitored and managed.

How we organize on a daily basis may be completely different from your operations since organization is determined by goals, business philosophy, size, location, product mix, and personnel.

How is our nursery organized? My father started our nursery operation in 1948 and since then our business philosophy has been the same. Ingleside Plantation Nurseries, Inc. is a general line nursery. We produce and grow vines, broadleaved evergreens, conifers, and shade trees in containers, B&B, or bare-rooted for sale to garden centers, landscape contractors, and governmental agencies.

In Oak Grove, Virginia, we have 4 distinct seasons of the year — spring, summer, fall,