Volume 30

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Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 34

The thoughts I shall share with you will be centered from the title — The Philosophy of the I.P.P.S. Mr. Webster's dictionary, in defining the word "philosophy," will guide our discourse. He suggests three concepts for the word philosophy and we shall share together the relationship of the dictionary definition and our beloved Society.

Philosophy — "The study of the causes and relations of things and ideas." This first dictionary concept will allow us to reflect upon the beginning of the International Plant Propagators Society and some thoughts shared during the founding of the Western Region As we look back in history, we learn that our Society is traceable to the existence of a previous and somewhat similar group. An organization known as, "The National Association of Propagating Nurserymen," was formed in 1919 and survived until 1931, at which time it succumbed due to the severe economy of the period. At the Eighth Annual Meeting


Author: William L. Nelson

PP: 72

With the current interest in energy conservation, the efficiency of greenhouses has come under close scrutiny. The use of double walls, ground insulation, tight doors and vents is now common practice. Several new ideas are being put to use and it seems certain that energy costs can be reduced even more. I'd like to review four areas that show great promise:

Placement and Design. A complete turnabout in thinking has occurred in the orientation and construction of greenhouses. It has been found that for maximum solar energy entry, the single-span building should be positioned in an east-west direction. The north wall should be opaque, well-insulated and at an angle of about 60°. The south wall or roof performs best if built at an angle of 35° to 45° (1).

Heat Delivery. Space heating may soon be replaced by bench or floor heating. Don Dillon's Four Winds Nursery in Fremont, California, is one of many that have had success with the use of the hot water circulated inside the bench. Whitcomb


Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller

PP: 427

MODERATOR ALEXANDER: Our first speaker today is Dr. Richard Jaynes.

DICK JAYNES: Kalmia latifolia 'Pink Charm' was selected from the progeny of a controlled cross (x1078) made in 1970 between two unnamed pink-flowered selections obtained from Weston Nurseries, Hopkinton, Massachusetts. The plant first flowered in the fourth growing season, 1974, and has flowered every year, except one, since then. The flower buds are red in color (RHS Colour Chart 53C), but less brilliant than the redbuds: 'Nipmuck', 'Ostbo Red', and 'Quinnipiac'. The open flowers are a rich pink being more deeply pigmented than the earlier named 'Pink Surprise'. The inside of the corolla is a relatively uniform pink (RHS 54B but a bit lighter and towards 55B, or 67D). A narrow and deeply red pigmented ring occurs on the inside and near the base of the corolla.

In addition to floral traits, 'Pink Charm' was selected for the relative ease by which the cuttings root. Small numbers of cuttings have been


Author: Henry A. Van Der Staay

PP: 436

Tasmania is the smallest state in the Australian Commonwealth with land area half the size of Alabama. It is an island state situated 43° south, which gives a very mild and even climate. In Hobart the temperature in winter occasionally drops to 32°F at night and averages 55°F during the day. In summer we have a few days over 100°F, but temperature averages 73°F. The main disadvantage is the high cost of transport to and from the mainland.

Tasmania landscape is very mountainous with some spectacular scenery. The west coast with its mountain ranges receives up to 180 inches of rain yearly, while in the eastern part the rainfall is down to about 20 inches.

In the 1800's Tasmania was an English penal colony. It is now a busy commercial state. Hobart, the capital, is famous for its yachting Copper is mined around Queenstown, and the sulfuric acid associated with the mining activity has killed much of the vegetation in the vicinity of the mines.

Our own nursery occupies about 20 acres. Two of our


Author: Marcus A. Petersen

PP: 438

The climatic regions in Australia vary considerably, from tropical wet in the north through sub-tropical, to temperate in the south, with isolated areas of intermediate climates. There are small areas of alpine climates in our snowy mountains, an area of Mediterranean type climate, and much desert in the interior of the continent. Consequently, Australia has a wide range of plants with differing requirements, though many have adapted to such an extent that they grow in a variety of climatic regions and conditions. We also have some that are very specific in their requirements, and many of these have not been brought into cultivation successfully at this stage.

Because of the extremely wide range of Australia flowering trees, I will consider only a small selection found in my state of Queensland and give you some idea of the climatic range in which they can be grown.

Acacia longifolia, Mimosaceae Flowering Bright yellow racemes in spring Height Approx 3–5 m, variable Habitat Dry


Author: A.T. Wood

PP: 442

General Considerations. I would suggest that there are two reasons for using cold storage. Both of these are tools of management: (1) to avoid the closed season when lifting cannot be undertaken, (2) to extend the planting and lining-out season by holding material dormant and prolonging the optimum condition for planting and establishment. Our experience is wholly with this second reason, and I propose to discuss our successes and failures at some length.

In North America and on the Continental mainland of Europe, it is most necessary to avoid the closed season by placing plants in store. However, the British Isles, with their maritime climate is usually open for most of the lifting season and the necessity to lift in the autumn and hold throughout the season seldom arises. However, where stock is required for grading and dispatch of plants to more favorable climates or stock for bench grafting is required, there is no alternative to the early lift. The main problems in the storage of


Author: Mike Hallum

PP: 445

Proper storage of dormant plants is a necessity, whether the plants are to be shipped to customers or used as lining-out stock in the nursery. For this reason careful attention must be paid to controlling the environment of the area where dormant plants are stored.

At Mountain Creek Nursery we have attempted to develop a system whereby we can efficiently process dormant stock and still maintain plants in such as a way as to insure maximum survival after transplanting. Our bare-root stock is dug soon after it becomes dormant and immediately transferred to our grading, baleing and packaging building. Here the stock is graded and, depending on our needs, packaged, baled or boxed for shipment — or in the case of our lining-out stock, moved to our heeling area until planting time.

We also buy a quantity of bare-root plants from other growers. We maintain a cold-storage facility for storage of some of this stock, especially if we anticipate delays in spring planting. Inside the building this


Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 446

The storage methods which will be covered here have all been used by Ozark Nurseries Company, with whom I have been associated for 21 years. Ozark Nurseries produces a broad line of field-grown deciduous ornamental and fruit plants, as well as coniferous evergreens. The firm is located at Tahlequah, Oklahoma, which is in the northeastern part of the state, in U.S.D.A. plant hardiness zone 7a. According to the U.S.D.A. map, the low winter temperatures in this zone range from 0 to +10 degrees Fahrenheit However, we usually experience a few days in which the temperature drops to –5 degrees F. and, in some winters, to –10 or –15 degrees F.

The proper storage of bare-root deciduous plants enables the nurseryman to keep them in a viable, dormant condition through the fall, winter, and spring in such a manner that they are readily available for order-filling and shipment when and as needed.

There are three basic storage methods which accomplish this goal with varying degrees of success They are;


Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 452

Forrest Keeling Nursery is located in northeast Missouri on the hills above the Mississippi River, almost equi-distant between the Gulf and the Canadian border. Here normal minimum temperatures range between 0° and –10°F, but recent cold winters have seen temperatures plunge as low as –25°F.

We are in-ground or field growers. Therefore, we do not have the over-wintering problems facing northern container growers. However, we do grow several million deciduous seedlings, liners, and other trees and shrubs harvested bare-root. These are mostly dug in the late fall or early winter when they are dormant and just before the ground freezes. This material requires most careful and attentive storage to retain its viability until it is ultimately planted by the customer the following spring.

In addition to this bare-root stock, we grow trees, shrubs, and evergreens, which are harvested balled and burlapped (B&B) or, mostly, balled and potted in fiber pots (B&P). A considerable portion of this balled material is harvested


Author: H.C. Nienhuys

PP: 457

We will concentrate on a deviation from the standard method of propagating deciduous azaleas. The azaleas we are discussing were selected by the late Lionel de Rothschild at his estate in Exbury, England. This is why they are commonly called Exbury azaleas. The great value of Mr. de Rothschild's breeding program was that he never kept a plant unless it was superior to the parents. Only the very best was kept for further crossings and all the rest immediately destroyed. The Exbury's are noted for their exceptionally beautiful colors. The Knap Hill group was developed by Knap Hill Nursery. They are hybrids of R. molle, R. calendulaceum, R. occidentale and R. arborescens.

Today most of the propagators take cuttings from stockplants that are growing under normal conditions. Usually this is done in the beginning of June after the plants have flowered and developed new shoots. Our method was developed by Adrian Knuttel about 1965, now operating as Knuttel Nursery in Windsor Locks, Connecticut


Author: Jack Finch

PP: 459

Why grow rabbiteye blueberries? There are many reasons. They are excellent for homeowners since they not only provide fruit but can serve as screens or as ornamental plantings to provide fall color. With the correct choice of cultivars the homeowner or pick-your-own grower can have an 8 to 10 week bearing period.

Our operation is different from the usual in that we do everything in the open. Our main reason for choosing this method of operation is that plants do not require the constant attention that is necessary if they are either in the greenhouse or in containers outside. Even our rooting of cuttings is done outside. Although we have been very happy about this system, we may in the future expand to include greenhouse and container production as well.

Our soil is a well-drained Norfolk sandy loam. We are, therefore, able to put our propagation beds right on top of the native soil. We have used a 1:1 peat:sand medium and have found it quite satisfactory. We have experimented with


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Allan Storjohann, William D. Warde

PP: 462

A 35 factorial set of treatment combinations were developed to study the effects of iron, manganese, copper, boron, and zinc on growth and development of container nursery stock. A computer was used to select 1/3 of the treatment combinations for the study and data analysis.

Interactions were noted between iron and copper, iron and manganese, and copper and boron. Plant growth and quality increased or decreased as the micronutrient ratios shifted. This study revealed that the ratio among the micronutrients was a more important consideration than the rate of a particular micronutrient.


Author: Charles M. Hoagland

PP: 74

I want to introduce a concept of heating that is new to the greenhouse industry, but is as old as the sun. The system is a gas fired, low intensity, infrared radiant system Infrared is proving to be an ideal method of heating greenhouse crops from propagation to finish while saving substantially on fuel consumption. The name of the system is CO-RAY-VAC and it is manufactured by Roberts-Gordon Appliance Corporation.

Infrared energy is as old as the sun and its principles have been applied for many years in heating. The cave man used it when he heated the rocks around his campfire. The sun itself is the source of infrared energy which heats the earth's surface. Infrared radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic waves and has some similar properties to visible light waves. Light, radio waves, x-rays are all electromagnetic waves with different wave lengths and physical properties. Infrared energy travels in a straight line until it strikes and is absorbed by the object to be heated. The energy is then converted into


Author: Carl E Whitcomb

PP: 468

As work progresses, effects of micronutrient fertilizers on all aspects of plant growth becomes more clear. Preliminary studies with several species of shrubs suggest that the micronutrient level in the parent plant, and/or increased plant growth and vigor associated with improved parent-plant micronutrient nutrition affects rooting of cuttings and subsequent growth. Taking cuttings from the existing container crop is expanding as container production continues to expand across states in the sun belt. Many growers feel it is impractical to maintain stock plants specifically for cuttings. Stock plants can be reduced or eliminated without sacrificing plant quality, if the performance of cuttings taken from existing container stock can be improved.

The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the optimum rate of a micronutrient fertilizer for container nursery stock, and 2) to determine if the level of micronutrients provided to the parent plant influences the rooting and subsequent


Author: Bryson L James

PP: 473


Motherhood, apple pie, and mist propagation — guess which isn't sacred? Since misting revolutionized the propagation of softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings, innovators have devised many types of control systems trying to perfect misting cycles to fit virtually every situation. Seldom do we see any two propagators using exactly the same system, nor should they, because water sources, media differences, geographic location, plant species and many, many other variables dictate unique systems.

After many years of trying to help growers perfect their misting systems, we finally decided that mist wasn't sacred. As a result we stumbled onto a system without mist that you may want to try. It eliminates the major problem propagators encounter when using many misting systems; i.e., too much water. Also, concerns about power failure, clogged nozzles, iron and/or other solids deposits on leaves, nutrient leaching, and variable weather are eliminated.

Preventing moisture loss from the


Author: James Gilbert

PP: 475

I would like to describe a traveling boom propagation system used for misting, watering, pesticide spraying, fertilization, and photoperiod control.

Gilbert's Nursery is located in northwestern South Carolina in USDA Hardiness Zone 7. We propagate and grow about 275,000 1–, 2–, 3–, and 5-gallon plants annually. Forty-five percent are conifers and 55% are broadleaved evergreens. All cuttings are stuck directly in Lerio SR325 plastic pots in flats in a medium of 70% pine bark (½" or less) and 30% coarse perlite. All cultivars are treated with Hormodin #2 or #3 and placed in greenhouses under intermittent mist. After rooting the liners remain in place until canning in April.

Our first two mist houses were equipped with stationary ¾ inch pipes with Flora-mist nozzles placed every 3 ft. This system has worked well in the past, but there were a few problems. These houses were not level, so when the pipes were leveled to prevent excessive dripping, they were closer to the ground on one end of the


Author: D.C. Milbocker

PP: 480

Two types of propagation are commonly used by nurserymen: (1) high humidity propagation where cuttings are prevented from wilting by preserving a humid environment, and (2) mist propagation where cuttings are prevented from wilting by restoring the water lost by evaporation from the cuttings. High humidity propagation remains in use because some species of plants propagate quite easily with this method, a few of which are more difficult to propagate by other means. Its greatest weakness is low humidity stress following sudden temperature increases. The effect of this weakness is minimized by taking small cuttings during the cool season and placing them in small enclosures located in shade. Intermittent mist propagation is the product of progress from manual sprinkling to automatic misting. It is popular because cuttings can be successfully propagated and the results repeated due to automatic programming. Its weakness is the difficulty of adjusting the water distribution rate, which must be increased during hot dry weather and decreased during

Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 483

This paper concerns the storage of Japanese holly cuttings Ilex crenata, at near freezing temperatures for 10 and 12 weeks before propagating. Dormant tip cuttings were made prior to spring growth and rooted after propagation houses were emptied by spring plantings. This work was done by D.C. Milbocker and T.J. Banko using the research facilities of the Virginia Truck and Ornamental Research Station, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Although we did not dislike what we were doing, we felt we could do better. Our present method gives us nicely-rooted liners in August, and we usually get a fall flush of growth. The following April the liners are potted 3 to a 3-gallon bucket and moved to the field. We cannot economically compete in the 1-gallon market with growers in the 3-gallon market, and we want our product to be the best available. Since we then get 3 flushes of growth — one in June, one in July, and one in August — we are pleased with our field operation. The plants are 12 to 15 in high and


Author: R.C. Lambe, W.H. Wills

PP: 485

Soil-borne fungus pathogens exist in soil, water, or in or on infected roots. Fungi may also reside in crown and foliar tissue as both mycelium, spores or resting structures such as sclerotia of chlamydospores. Spores or resting structures may be transmitted by tools, equipment, pots, benches, flats, shoes or any other items that may harbor bits of infested soil.

Fungus propagules may be disseminated in water used for irrigation, in soil used in containers, and with soil particles splashed, blown, or otherwise moved to susceptible plants. Soil insects may also transmit pathogenic soil-borne fungi. Soil-borne fungi commonly invade plants at or below the soil line and disease development begins before top symptoms are detected. During prolonged periods of high humidity accompanied by splashing water, fungi such as Phytopthora, Rhizoctonia, Cylindrocladium, Sclerotium and Pythium infect and colonize stems, petioles and occasionally leaf tissue. The youngest tissues are


Author: William L. Brown

PP: 493

Hydroponic fertilization is the supply of all mineral nutrients to a plant in the irrigation water. It has been used for many years, both commercially and as a research tool, primarily for greenhouse flower and vegetable crops.

The possibility of its use with container-grown woody ornamentals was first considered by us several years ago as we pondered the full range of possible fertilization methods. Incorporation into the growing medium of all nutrients needed for a year's growth was envisioned as one extreme of this range and the supply of all nutrients in the irrigation water as the other extreme. There are considerable advantages to the use of one of these extremes or the other.

One of the advantages of hydroponic fertilization is that it eliminates the necessity for mixing the medium. If an economical material is available that has the physical and chemical properties needed, plants can be potted in this material without additives. In our area the obvious choice is pine bark.



Author: Bob Grimes

PP: 496

In propagating ground covers we are speaking of large quantities. In order to propagate these plants in quantity, plenty of "wood" is needed. Since all of our plants are either from vegetative propagation or division, we must have stock plant facilities.

Out stock plants are grown in 1-gal plastic containers, on approximately 1 A of treated ground covered with 1 to 2 inches of slag gravel, 1/8 to ¼ inch in size. We use #25 impulse-type sprinkles on 30-ft centers with 160 lb city water pressure. This area is treated twice a year with Ronstar (oxadiazone, Rhone-Poulenc) at the recommended rate.

Our spraying program consists of Spectracide (diazinon, Ciba-Geigy) and Docide 101 (copper hydroxide, Kennecot Copper), alternating with Daconil 2787 (chlorothalonil, Diamond-Shamrock) and Orthene 75% WP (acephate,Chevron). We spray about every 30 days, using a 100 gal Mighty Mac trailer-type sprayer with 40 to 50 lb pressure.

In order to maintain weed-free plants we utilize Ronstar at


Author: Rex McDonald

PP: 499

McDonald's Nursery is located near Cameron, North Carolina, a small town in the central part of the state. It is in zone 8, which has an annual minimum temperature of 10 to 20°F and high temperatures of approximately 100°F. The nursery was started in 1972 as a wholesale operation specializing in groundcovers, and it is a little more than an acre in size.

In recent years, plants which could be used in special locations or to take the place of grass have been in demand due to a desire to reduce maintenance costs. Landscape architects are specifying groundcovers for problem areas such as banks, dense shade, or other unusual areas.

As the nursery is a small one and has no full time workers other than myself, any labor-saving techniques that can be used in a small scale operation must be used. Perhaps the best example of such a labor-saving device is a machine which cuts vine-like plants such as ivy and euonymus into cuttings of 3 ¼inch long. This machine has 2 electric motors. One powers 11 saws


Author: E.F. Dubose

PP: 502

This wholesale nursery is composed of 10 acres of land on which we have coldframe-hotbed combinations. We have our stock-blocks to furnish wood for evergreen and deciduous liners in addition to ground covers. Propagating beds are mostly 6 ft by 15 ft, covered with 3 ft by 6 ft hotbed sash. Frames are made from 2 inch by 12 inch by 16 ft pressurized-treated lumber. Frames are set about 6 inches in the ground, sloping to the south, and carved out beyond 6 inches to an average total depth of 18 in. To this we add 6 or 7 in. of coarse sand and 6 cubic ft of peat the first year we use the bed. We add 3 cubic ft of peat each year thereafter.

This nursery was first certified by the state in 1934. At that time I didn't see anything like a mist system around. We watered with a 3– or 4-inch sprinkler heads on a regular hose and still do. A mist system is not appropriate as the beds would soon have to mush water. Since our frames are partly in the ground there is no way for the water to drain.


Author: C. Jay Allison

PP: 78

X-radiography is a quick and inexpensive means of assessing soundness of the internal structure of seeds an indirect indication of seed viability. Testing of seed quality before sowing can ameliorate problems of low yield or overcrowding in the propagation of perennial ornamental plants.

Author: Richard W. Henley

PP: 505

Interior trees can be defined as tropical or semitropical plants with evergreen foliage, woody, predominantly upright stems which are approximately three feet or more in length. Most interior trees have prominent branching structure including plants with single stems, branched trunks or multiple stems from the base and are well adapted to the light level, humidity and temperature regimes inside buildings maintained for human comfort. Several unique aspects of producing interior trees are discussed in this paper. Cultural practices are those commonly used by Florida nurserymen in southern and central regions of the state. Nurseries located in Dade, Palm Beach, and Broward countries, the southeastern region Florida, account for most of the interior tree production, with limited production in southwest and central Florida.

Interior tree production on a massive commercial scale is a relatively new industry when contrasted to the landscape tree business. Most interior tree nurseries in Florida have developed



PP: 510

The Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Richard Ammon and Ted Richardson.

LES CLAY: We are working with tissue culture of rhododendron and kalmia using IAA (3-indoleacetic acid). Has anyone tried using 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T in tissue culture preparations? We have a problem getting a complete plant when tissue culturing kalmia.

FRANK BLAZICH: The usual auxin is NAA (1-naphthalene-acetic acid).

HENRY VAN DER STAAY: You can use IAA or NAA, depending on what results you want and what species you are using: 2,4-D induces callus formation, and you may then have trouble getting a complete plant.

LES CLAY: We are using IAA in agar with kalmia and rhododendron and are then taking the explants from agar to the medium. We use sand, soil, peat and perlite for the rhododendron. However, this mix is not satisfactory for the kalmia, but instead we have found that a mix of peat and sand is better. We make no further hormone application, as there seems to be a carry-over effect. The cuttings


Author: J B Fletcher

PP: 515

Greenleaf Nursery Company is headquartered approximately 90 miles southeast of Tulsa, Oklahoma, at Park Hill. Our Texas division is located in South Texas approximately 70 miles southwest of Houston at El Campo. Both nurseries are exclusively producing container-grown ornamentals, growing a broad selection of narrow-leaved and broad-leaved evergreens, trees and shrubs. The practical aspects of growth manipulation of junipers presented in this paper will be from experience gained at the Oklahoma site.

Our Oklahoma division is growing 50 cultivars of junipers, offered for sale in 1–, 2–, 5–, and 7-gallon containers. Our juniper crop comprises 58% of our total production.

Growth manipulation of any crop, in this instance, junipers simply means to operate, manage and control this growth to one's; advantage. Thus, the growth manipulation of junipers is done to achieve a quality, salable product at a price that is favorable to both the seller and the buyer.



Author: Richard A. Schnall

PP: 518

The production of azaleas requires that the apical growing points of the plants be periodically removed during the growing season. This removal induces side branching and produces a well-branched, higher quality plant.

Manual removal is a labor-consuming and costly process. The use of shears to speed up the process often results in neglecting to pinch apical tips occurring below the shearing level. These shoots then grow, and the result is a poorly shaped plant.

Various chemical pinching agents have been developed to replace manual methods this paper compares two of these chemicals.

Off-Shoot-O Off-Shoot-O (2) (methyl) ester of fatty acids, Proctor & Gamble) was the first commercial pinching agent for azaleas. It was originally used in tobacco production. When the chemical is sprayed in azaleas, it selectively destroys unexpanded leaves and shoot tips. Branching occurs since lower buds then develop. There must be physical contact between the chemical spray and the shoot tips because the chemical is


Author: Frank A. Blazich

PP: 520

The chemical identification and elucidation in 1934–35 of the role of auxin [indoleacetic acid (IAA)] in promoting adventitious root initiation was a landmark in the history of plant propagation (8,9). This advancement led to auxin treatment of cuttings to stimulate rooting and made it possible to consistently root large quantities of cuttings from difficult-to-root plants.

Following the discovery that IAA promoted adventitious root initiation, the search began for other naturally-occurring auxins .Also, chemicals with structures similar and dissimilar to IAA were examined for root-promoting properties. The former studies, conducted for many years, were unsuccessful. Currently, it is generally agreed that IAA is the only naturally-occurring auxin found in plants. The latter studies were more successful and, in 1935, appeared the first report indicating the synthetic auxins, indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), had strong root-promoting properties (14). Reports


Author: R.C. Lambe, W.H. Wills

PP: 526

A stem and trunk canker of undetermined cause has been damaging flowering dogwood for the past 13 years in Virginia. Fungicides applied to the leaves and stems were ineffective in preventing cankers. Pruned trees had fewer cankers per tree and there were fewer cankered trees among them.

Author: John Ed. Kinsey

PP: 529

Rhododendron production in the U.S. was for many years centered in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Oregon and Washington area. It has gradually moved east and is progressing further south. We feel that the significant differences in our production are that we are growing finished plants in full sun at lower elevation and further south than has previously been reported on a commercial scale. Otherwise our techniques are traditional.

Rhododendron production at Kinsey Gardens accounts for about one-third of our nursery sales. Our other major crops are azaleas and conifers. We are presently growing about 25 large-leaved rhododendron cultivars and several dwarf or small-leaved ones. Most of these are of H-1 or H-2 hardiness. The majority of the plants are marketed in 2- and 3-gallon containers; and some are sold in half-bushel baskets. We strive for one to two year turnover Knoxville, Tennessee, is in hardiness zone 7 and is about 800 feet in elevation. We feel that we are in


Author: Ted Goreau

PP: 532

Imperial Nurseries' southern division is located in Quincy, Florida, approximately 20 miles northwest of Tallahassee. The climate in this part of north Florida is mild compared to the endless summers farther south or the long winters of the northern states. The long growing season, abundance of good water, and moderate winter temperatures of this area combine to make it virtually ideal for growing many species of ornamental shrubs and trees in containers.

Although most of the woody ornamentals grown here require little or no cold protection, some species do require special handling because of the prolonged periods of high humidity and warm temperatures that are common in the summer months. There are several cultivars of rhododendron among this group.

At the southern division of Imperial Nurseries the cultivars of rhodondendron receiving special handling are Rhododendron ‘Nova Zembla’, R. ‘Roseum Elegans’, R., ‘English Roseum’, R. ‘Pink Treasurer’ and three catawbiense cultivars —


Author: Noel Chopping

PP: 540

Queensland is a vast state of some 667,000 square miles. It has 3,263 miles of coast line and is situated in the tropical and sub-tropical southern zone, with the Tropic of Capricorn passing through Rockhampton. The state is divided by a series of mountain ranges and spurs along the east coast which from The Great Dividing Range. This mountain range varies from a few miles off the coast to 200 miles inland. It is the coastal side of this range that receives the bulk of summer rains. The areas where the range is close to the coast are predominantly rain-forest areas, marshy low-land Melaleuca or coastal Wallum areas. Summer monthly rainfall in this area varies from 200mm to over 500mm in the northern tropical regions. The rain-forest contains a wealth of trees and shrubs suitable for cultivation as garden and indoor plants. Unfortunately many have still to be collected and tested, but time is running out as great areas of our rain-forests are being cleared at an alarming rate for

Author: Ben Swane

PP: 551

I am sure many plant propagators still measure each individual cutting and still use secateurs (pruning shears). All the secateurs I have used in the past bruise the ends of every hardwood cutting and tend to split them, especially when the cutting material is of a large diameter, e.g. Platanus (plane tree).

I believe that better and more uniform cuttings can be produced by sawing; this is practicable even for small growers, especially for those who grow hardwooded plants, such as plane trees. Sawing of hardwood cuttings is clean and fast and leaves no bruising of the ends of the cutting.

The experience I have had with hardwood cuttings includes the following plants:

              roses (stock)          quince stock
              plum (stock)            Lagerstroemia               poplar trees             Hibiscus mutabilis
              plane trees               Ligustrum (stock)
              Fraxinus (stock)    mulberry (Hick's)
I have been sawing rose cuttings for 10 years.

I would like to point out some of the normal methods where each cutting is made individually with secateurs.

First — time is, of course, the first disadvantage (time is money)

Second — the hard work involved. It is


Author: Richard H. Wells

PP: 89

The "upright" junipers are some of the most sought after plants we grow at Monrovia Nursery. The high demand for these plants is in part maintained by the difficulty in producing them in large quantities. Although some can be successfully and economically grown from cuttings, many others must be propagated by grafting. The types of junipers we graft are mostly cultivars of Juniperus scopulorum, some of which are: ‘Cologreen’, ‘Gray Gleam,’ ‘Welchii,’ ‘Tolleson's Weeping’ and ‘Wichita Blue.’ Except for the use of different understocks, the methods for grafting our other conifers are the same as those used for the junipers. Since the grafting of our Magnolia grandiflora types coincides closely with that of our conifers, their production will also be described in this paper The cultivars of magnolia we are now grafting are: ‘Majestic Beauty,’ ‘St. Mary’ and a USDA introduction called ‘Little Gem.’

Author: Deane M. Ross

PP: 553

One problem that all nurserymen who grow their plants in the open fields have in common is that they have to do much of their work at ground level. Planting weeding, shaping, budding, heading off, etc. all involve getting down to ground level by bending, squatting, kneeling, crawling, or, if you are lucky, sitting. Before long, every one of these positions becomes insufferably uncomfortable, and you are left wishing that you were growing your plants at beach height in the comfort of an air-conditioned propagating room.

Some of the faster "ground-bound" operations, such as planting and digging can be done by tractor-mounted rigs, but the slowest of all operations, that of budding, seems to have defied all efforts to make the job tolerably comfortable. And a comfortable working position, by its nature, makes for greater efficiency and higher morale.


Author: Rod Tallis

PP: 556

Weed eradication and control have always been a major problem for nurserymen producing ornamental trees and shrubs. As growing media and nutritional programs have improved over the years providing better plant growth, weeds have also prospered. In field production, cultivation to prevent weeds is possible but pulling of the weeds by hand is very slow and expensive particularly with escalating wages. Also the cost of maintaining weed-free pathways or tracks has become astronomical.

In order to beat the ever increasing weed situation in nurseries, Casuron granules, Roundup, Tenoran and Gesatop (Simazine) were used in weed control experiments during 1980 with the following results.


Author: J. Kevin Long

PP: 559

The term "stud buds" has been coined in the context of "fvf" or "Fruit Variety Foundation" to denote propagating material which has been tested for virus content and for horticultural characteristics.

The Problem. Viruses and virus-like diseases can affect members of both plant and animal kingdoms. They are considered to be parasitic entities but they are so small they can be seen only through the electron microscope.

Symptoms in virus infected plants vary widely. They can occur on any part of the plant although most often are seen on leaves and flowers. Sometimes they are symptomless or nearly so and not seen at all. On leaves, viruses can cause changes in colour, shape and size. On stems they may shorten internodes or cause flattening or swelling or defoliation of terminal growth or pitting of the wood under the bark. Flowers may be variegated or transformed into leafy structures. The fruit may be deformed, show colour changes, be russetted, or marked in other ways. Roots may be killed or


Author: K.G.M. Skene, M. Barlass

PP: 564

A method is described for the in vitro propagation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) from fragmented shoot apices, which has the potential of producing many thousands of plants from a single apex between one growing season and the next. Apical fragments were grown in a liquid culture medium with cytokinin but in the absence of auxin. Transfer of the differentiated fragments to the same medium solidified with agar resulted in shoot masses which could be repeatedly subcultured. Excised shoots readily initiated roots on a basal medium which, for most cultivars, was supplemented with low levels of auxin. Plantlets were successfully transferred to the glasshouse and subsequently to the field. The technique has also been used for a range of Vitis species and hybrids, and is considered to have promise for the commercial clonal propagation of grapevine.

Author: Allan J. Antcliff

PP: 570


The idea of breeding grape cultivars specifically for Australia is almost as old as Australian viticulture itself. The Macarthurs, more famous for their activities with sheep, also grew grapes and believed that they should raise vines from seed to allow selection of types suited to local conditions. Busby (3) records that William Macarthur had, 250 such seedlings, out of a much larger number raised from seed in 1824, under trial. None of these appear to have survived and this may be because they were not the result of deliberate crosses but raised from open-pollinated seed. We now know that most of this would be self pollinated and the seedlings would lose much of the heterotic vigour of the parent. Busby himself (2,3) advocated a deliberate breeding program as the surest means of obtaining grapes suitable to the climate.

Busby went to Europe and made as complete a collection of grape cultivars as he could to establish in Australia with the intention of systematically testing them (4). Unfortunately he left Australia soon


Author: Margaret Sedgley, D.McE. Alexander, K.G.M. Skene

PP: 575

A hybridization programme involving controlled hand pollinations has been developed for the avocado. The floral mechanism is very temperature-sensitive and crosses are carried out in a temperature-controlled glasshouse to ensure suitable conditions for pollen tube growth and fruit set Grafting techniques are used to ensure synchronous flowering of cultivars which otherwise would not flower at the time. Because the majority of pollinated fruitlets abscise an embryo-culture method is under development to increase the numbers of progeny obtained from each cross. Progeny are topworked onto large stumps for a rapid assessment and are also planted out on virus-tested seedling stocks.

Author: Robert H. Symons

PP: 578

It appears feasible to replace the time-consuming biological indexing of the sunblotch disease of avocados and possibly also of the exocortis disease of citrus by a more rapid method which is highly specific and can be completed in several days. This new method involves the sensitive detection of the avocado sunblotch viroid and the citrus exocortis viroid in partially purified nucleic extracts of candidate trees by a technique known as hybridization analysis. Details of this new method are given together with a summary of the results so far obtained.

Author: Rosemary A. Wren

PP: 583

In the course of their occupations may people, particularly those who are self-employed or who are associated with small businesses, experience a need for information or technical expertise which they are unable to readily satisfy. Scientific and technical information exists today in greater quantity than ever before, and the store grows rapidly. However, the very mass of available literature can create added difficulties in locating and acquiring the particular piece of information required.

Libraries as avenues of information. Library services at local, state and national government level are one of the most important — and often one of the most overlooked — avenues of assistance open to the private citizen seeking information. Some I.P.P.S. members are connected with institutions or bodies which maintain research libraries, so that they have access to the library and information services supportive of their needs. For those without direct access to such services, the first point of


Author: Brian G. Pell

PP: 587

The first thing we must recognize is that the people we employ in the 1980's must be different from the people we employed in the 1950's or 60's. Even those of us who had advanced training and education, have learnt much of our present expertise by experience, often from the boss. We have 20, 30, 40 years of experience.

I am impatient. When I employ someone, whether it be a gardener a clark or a lecturer, I don't want to wait 20 years for him to get experience. I want him to be able to do the job NOW. I can hear some of you saying that there is no substitute for experience. Think of the most difficult technique that you can do. How did you learn it? My guess is that for most of you, you may have read about it somewhere and then by trial and error, by a lot of experience, you have mastered the technique. Now looking back, couldn't you teach it to someone else a lot quicker? You could tell him what he needs to know, show him the little short cuts that you can take and the ones you can't. Sure it will take experience —


Author: Leslie R. Hall

PP: 592


The basic aim of an irrigation system designer is to design a system capable of applying equal and even amounts of water in a controlled fashion to every plant within the system as required by the plant.

This aim is common to every system whether large or small. Such a system allows application of the optimum water requirement to each plant, thus optimizing production. The plant or plants depending on this system are usually of high value, when taken in terms of crop loss, lack of seed germination, reduced growth or replacement of the plants. Hence there needs to be a greater appreciation of system costs in relation to possible losses incurred by poor system performance.

In the practice of plant propagation the system becomes a part of the environmental control rather than solely an irrigation system. However many of the same principles of hydraulic design apply and the requirement for correct performance becomes of even greater importance.

Engineering technology today is


Author: Bruce C. Lane

PP: 94

Plantlet crowding and biological contamination are problems experienced by many who propagate ferns from spore. At Bordier's Nursery, our attention has been directed toward finding propagation methods which would work to diminish these problems. The methods we are now using are not uncommon. They require tedious labor with cleanliness being stressed at every step, but they are successful in that we are able to produce the fern liners we need. Briefly, our propagation procedure involves germinating spore and growing the young fern gametophytes on a nutrient-agar solution, transplanting adult gametophytes onto a growing medium where fertilization can lead to fern sporophyte formation and finally, transplanting young sporophytes to give them space to develop into liner-sized plants. Previously, we germinated our spore on fine sphagnum peat and had a serious problem with gametophyte crowding, as well as fungal, algal and moss contamination. However, approximately 1½ years ago, we tested and

Author: Ray Aitken

PP: 600

The first task in preparing for a field trip is to organize efficient insulation of the vehicle floor.

In our climate, the transfer of temperature through the chassis and vehicle floor frequently raises the floor temperature above tolerable levels. It has been found that a false floor of pressed packs available for seedlings, is excellent insulation.


Author: Ian G. McCure

PP: 603


The plant propagator of today is not only a craftsmen but also a technician. The environment in which cuttings or seeds is placed, is now equally important as the techniques used in preparing them. In the past decade, advances in technology have become as much a part of the nursery industry as any other enterprise. There is a greater understanding of HOW a plant functions. WHY it develops, and WHAT is required to make it grow. With improved growing systems and sound business management, there is now greater potential for efficient plant production than ever before.


Author: K.B. Bevington, R.A. Sarooshi

PP: 607

A major change in attitude towards management of citrus orchards is the interest in smaller, densely planted trees which yield well and can be easily sprayed and harvested.

There are various methods currently being investigated to control tree size in citrus. A simple method is the use of bud transmissible factor which can produce dwarf trees on certain rootstocks. This follows from work done in New South Wales which showed that citrus on Poncirus trifoliata rootstock inoculated with exocortis or scaly butt virus produced pronounced dwarfing, while trees on Troyer and Carrizo citrange and Rangpur rootstocks were less dwarfed. Most other citrus rootstocks did not respond.

Different inoculants produced varying levels of dwarfing on P. trifoliata. From these, two dwarfing budlines have been selected as future sources for inoculations. They are classed "mild" dwarfing budlines and produce moderately dwarf tress with no symptoms of scaly butt, periodic leaf drop or unthriftiness which


Author: T. Thochoulias

PP: 608

Nine month old composted macadamia husks were tested with sand, soil and sawdust in a combination of potting mixes.

Sand and husks increased macadamia seedling height by 73% after one year in 10 containers while sand and sawdust depressed growth by 39% compared to soil and sand.

Dry weight of leaves, stems, tap roots and fibre roots at the end of the experiment showed high dry matter in the leaves (61%) compared to Pinus radiata (49%) The shoot to root ratio was 4.6 compared to 21 recorded for avocados.

The sand and husks treatment (11 v/v) would reduce the time for macadamia seedlings to reach graftable size by 9 months compared to sand and soil( 11 v/v).


Author: John Teulon

PP: 612

It has been the practice to market peach trees during the dormant months of the year. From a retail aspect this practice develops sales resistance as, during this period, the public does not display the same purchasing interest as during the summer period when fruit is available. The reverse attitude applies in the summer when field stock is not available until winter. In addition, field-grown containerised stock is usually large, lacks sales appeal, and is difficult to handle.

Producing rootstocks of ‘Okinawa’ (100 hours chilling required) and ‘Nemaguard’ (resistant to certain species of nematodes) from cuttings during spring, summer and autumn, is more economical and reduces the production time to a few months.

Rootstock tip cuttings are taken in the autumn (second week in April), disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 4 minutes, cut to 10 cm in length and slightly wounded at the base of the cutting by removing a small slither about 1 cm long by 2 mm wide. They are dipped in a


Author: Ross G. Burgess

PP: 613

The genus Pittosporum provides us with some 160 species endemic only to the southern hemisphere. One such cultivated species is Pittosporum eugenoides ‘Variegatum’. This handsome creamy-white margined form is one of the finest of hardy variegated plants. It has become widely propagated by Australian nurseries since its introduction.

The cuttings are collected in winter, from early June to late July, once the autumn growth has firmed. The current season's growth is collected from the stock bushes in the early morning with the aid of secateurs and placed into disposable polythene bags.

The cuttings are placed in a Captan dip and are prepared with sharpened surgical scissors. These are very light and easy to use; you are not pushing against a spring so they are less tiring than secateurs and they are easier to keep sharp. Bottom leaves are pulled off and a basal cut is made below a node, where last season's growth matured. A wound approximately 2cm long is made on either side of the bud


Author: Bruce C. Naylor

PP: 614

Since the concentration rates of Atrinal reported in the Schering information sheet vary from 5 to 10 ml per litre over a wide range of plants, we decided to use 7 ml/l. on Marguerite daisy plants 9 cm high and in new soft growth, sprayed as evenly as possible. After one week we could see yellowing of the tip growth. From then on our first trial was somewhat of a disaster. On many plants the leaves were hanging down, some started to go black at the leaf axils and gradually deteriorated. We lost about half of those treated; those that survived branched at every leaf axil. The yellow cultivars both single and double, were a complete disaster and we lost about 99.9% of those sprayed.

In our second trial, about a month later, we used an application rate of 4 ml per litre. About 2 weeks after spraying, side branching could be seen from every leaf axil. After 4 weeks all plants were branching well while our control plants had a single stem approximately 10 cm higher than those sprayed. So we


Author: Trevor Doncaster

PP: 616

In the early years, passion fruit growing in Queensland was simple. Seed of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) was sown either directly into the field, usually a newly felled patch of scrub, or transplanted from a seedbed.

The Woodiness virus, also known as "Bullet", because of the effect it had on the fruit, was sometimes present to a minor extent, especially during cooler weather, but did not cause any great concern. However, during the late 1940's it became so bad that production suffered severely.

Breeding Programme. A selection and breeding programme was begun at Redlands Horticultural Research Station, Ormiston. By the late 1950's several unfixed hybrids were produced, two of which were to become the mainstay of production, ‘Redlands Triangular’ (Selection 3–1) and Selection E–23. Selection 3–1 became the basis for the fresh fruit trade until the mid 1970's. Vines of this cultivar are not as vigorous as those of Hybrid E-23, and are less tolerant to Woodiness virus. In fact by


Author: Roy Whalan

PP: 617

Eucalyptus ficifolia. One of the most difficult plants I have attempted to propagate is Eucalyptus ficifolia, the prolific and colourful Western Australia native.

This species is usually grown from seed and takes several years to flower. There is no way of guaranteeing the colour of the flower as a tray of seedlings will vary from white to several shades of pink and red, also orange and maroon. Gardeners buy what they believe to be a red or orange coloured E. ficifolia, and after waiting for years find that it eventually flowers an entirely different colour and could be white.

I have attempted to propagate these both from cuttings and by grafting. By selecting matured softwood cuttings I have rooted a small percentage.

The low percentage didn't worry me as I have found from experience that the few odd plants from a difficult-to-strike species can be grown on in containers and the cuttings from these will give a better percentage. Cuttings from their progeny will give an even better


Author: Robert A.M. Campbell

PP: 620

In the past, moisture-sensing has been carried out in different ways. These include the use of time clocks or balance devices of many types, all with their built-in inaccuracies. We have now entered an electronic age and plant propagators should be availing themselves of this sophistication. Simple electronic devices enable the propagator to control moisture to the cuttings, with light and temperature variations being two of the major factors that have to be considered.

Types of devices currently used include time control with light sensing. This device has a misting duration period in seconds and an interval between misting periods in minutes. Also included is a light sensing cell (UV sensitive). The light sensor enables the cycle period between misting to be increased up to two hours during darkness. Timing equipment is normally used in controlled environment propagation houses and multi-station controllers are available.

Carbon leaf devices sense moisture level at the cuttings. Fine


Author: Chet Boddy

PP: 97

Of the four mahonia cultivars we grow, Mahonia aquifolium ‘Compacta’ is the most popular — and also the most difficult to propagate from cuttings. This paper deals mainly with ‘Compacta’, but the same principles apply as well to our other cultivars M. a. ‘John Muir’, M. a. ‘Golden Abundance’, and M. pinnata ‘Ken Hartman.‘

Stock Field Management: All of our mahonia stock plants are field grown in the full sun, in an acid loam, soil. The climate of the northern California coast, with foggy summers and mild rainy winters, favors the growth of our cutting wood. In other climates, stock plants might benefit from shading. We take ‘Compacta’ cuttings from a ½ acre stock field which is over 15 years old. Because ‘Compacta’ is a slow-growing cultivar, reaching only about two feet in height, we find it especially important to maintain a stock field to produce enough cuttings.

I prune the stock fields hard during their winter dormancy, in order to keep the plants in a "juvenile" state, and to produce more uniform


Author: A.G. Sonter

PP: 622

Giant blue moss has never been easy to propagate except by layering runners. This is not economically feasible, particularly if uniform plants are required.

In our tissue culture laboratory we have spent a great deal of time and expense endeavouring to mass produce this plant, but its very slow and erratic behavior in flasks has so far excluded it from satisfactory tissue culture propagation.

The method described here is the most successful approach we have developed for this difficult subject. Many well advanced stock plants, preferably about six feet high and well branched, are required. At no stage should the stock plants or young plants be allowed to drop below 25°C minimum temperature, and high humidity must be maintained.

First, the terminal shoots on all branches are pruned off. In four to six weeks time, on each branch the first axillary shoot back down the branch will emerge and root will develop from axillary shoot. When this root is at least ¼ long the cutting can


Author: Adrian G. Bowden

PP: 623

The title of this paper will become clear to you as we proceed. Firstly, Templetonia retusa is a very hardy shrub that does best in an exposed position and high alkaline soils; it is known to grown in soils at pH 8.5. It actually does best growing in broken limestone. As I am not about to use that as a soil mix, we then come to other problems. The water that is used by our nursery has a pH of 5.5 and 13 grains per gallon total dissolved salts, contains hydrogen sulphide gas, and looks like gingerale. Coupled with a well-drained soil mix and excessive summer temperatures necessitating watering up to 3 times a day, you can see what is going to occur when one decides to grow a plant that is on the opposite end of the pH scale, compared to the the water. Definitely not a "dollar plant" under our conditions Not impossible to grow, but highly unprofitable.

However, on the other hand, we grow a number of banksias, approximately 25 species, and we can manage to do them very well. Our soil mix is


Author: John V. Pohlman

PP: 624

The avocado (Persea americana Mill.), family Lauraceae, is a native of Central America and the West Indies. The avocado industry commenced in America about 1910. Prior to this it was only known as backyard fruit. There are records in Queensland of two trees being planted at Buderim Mountain in 1908. Both trees bore fruit. A few Queensland growers planted trees around 1920 and attempted to market the fruit. I say attempted, because fruit had to be given away to get people to eat them. These early plantings consisted of seedling trees and were established in North Queensland and in the coastal regions of South Queensland.

There are three horticultural races of avocados, namely Mexican, Guatemalan, and west Indian. There are also hybrids derived from crosses between these races.

Avocado trees can be propagated either by seed or vegetatively by grafting, budding, cuttings or marcottage. The avocado, in common with many other species of plants, is cross pollinated and seedlings rarely, if


Author: Peggy S. McLaughlin

PP: 100

Several years ago, the western part of the U.S. experienced a drought of serious magnitude, and of a severity and duration not uncommon in our natural history. Even as the rains returned to normal, we continued to remind ourselves that a drought can and will occur again. One of the most severely affected portions of our lifestyle was our landscape — lawns died and were replaced by drought resistant groundcovers or dry rockscapes. Water loving plant materials were difficult to sell to the homeowner. And one horticultural trend gained momentum — the use of California native plants in the landscape.

We felt we were very clever, using these inhabitants of our state that were already adapted to low water availability. Yet many gardens in the west planted 20, 30 and even 50 years ago reveal examples of these natives in well established situations. Even more surprising — Kew Gardens in England has some of the finest examples of California native plants being grown in a man-made


Author: W.C. Lin, J.M. Molnar

PP: 104

Injection of CO2 to the mist water (CO2 mist) promoted rooting of Magnolia soulangiana, Magnolia sieboldu, Juniperus sabina, and Rhododendron ‘Anah Kruschke’ Daily high intensity lighting with high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps for 16 hours promoted rooting of Magnolia soulangiana and Rhododendron ‘Anah Kruschke’ and inhibited rooting of Juniperus sabina, Juniperus squamata and Rhododendron ‘May Day’. These results are discussed in terms of photosynthesis, CO2, light and water.

Author: Steve Fazio

PP: 112

The recipient of the Western Region's 1980 Award of Merit received his B.S. degree from the University of California in 1940 and a Ph.D. in Genetics from the same institution in 1952.

His professional career started as a plant breeder for the Grant Merrill Orchards, Red Bluff, California, shortly after he attained the Ph.D. degree. He was involved with this organization in the breeding of new peach and nectarine cultivars.

After 3 years of this work he returned to the University of California in 1953 where he became a staff member in the Department of Viticulture and Enology. In his early studies he was involved in virus problems with grapes, working with plant pathologists at the University of California. He soon became interested in the propagation of grapes and conducted many studies dealing with propagation by cuttings, budding, and grafting and in studying grape rootstocks. He also worked with his colleagues in the Department of Viticulture and Enology on the evaluation of wine


Author: Conrad A Skimina

PP: 113

Three series of tests were conducted from 1977 through 1979 on a number of container ornamentals to determine their tolerance to salt fortified irrigation water at four different levels of salinity, 140, 300, 600 and 1200 mhos × 10-5 electrical conductivity (E C.). Plants were evaluated after at least five months of irrigation for their salt tolerance determined by <50% retardation, no mortality and no visual foliar burn Of the 118 cultivars tested, 29 were very tolerant, 38 were moderately tolerant, 43 were sensitive, and 8 were very sensitive.

Author: Wesley A. Humphrey

PP: 37

Nursery production has grown to a high level in Orange and Los Angeles counties, California, despite the rapid urbanization. In contrast, many other types of agricultural production have been greatly reduced.

The dollar ornamental plant production figures for each county went over the 100 million dollar mark in 1979. Several major types of ornamental production are included in the 100 million figures, however, the major part of the production is outdoor container?grown woody ornamentals. This production in the two counties represents a major share of the container-grown woody ornamentals in California.

Both local use and out-of-state sales are important in the marketing of these products. The continued strong urban development in California and superior climate for outdoor production in comparison with many other areas in the United States has been a factor in the expansion of the industry. The ready availability of transportation, an adequate supply of labor and materials


Author: Walter A. Wisura

PP: 119

In a comparative study of laterally wounded and non-wounded cuttings of three species of Arctostaphylos Adans (Ericaceae) under mist house conditions, it has been found that in two hairy species, A. andersonu Gray and A. tomentosa (Pursh) Lindl var tomentosiformis (Adams) Munz, lateral wounding increases root formation to a very high degree. This is less so in A manzanita Parry.

Author: Frederick Roth

PP: 121

Most fungi which cause canker diseases are weak pathogens and cannot infect undamaged tissue. They must have a wound for effective penetration of the plant. The wound at the base of a cutting or at a graft presents a fine infection court for these fungi, and not surprisingly, several canker diseases appear frequently under conditions of commercial propagation. General symptoms of canker diseases, when they occur on above-ground plant parts, are death of the cambium and overlying bark, and discoloration of the wood below from its usual greenish-white color to a black or brown. On small plants the cankers usually girdle rapidly and spread above and below the point of infection, resulting in death of branches beyond the canker even where no pathogen can be found. If the branch is not killed quickly, a depressed area develops which may or may not have a raised callus edge. The pathogens produce fruiting bodies within which spores are found in the bark over the canker. These fruiting bodies

Author: Pat Morishita

PP: 123

Lately one only has to pick up the trade journals and find articles discussing integrated pest management (IPM) in the ornamentals industry. Scientists have many interpretations of IPM; it is described as a philosophy, discipline, system, or program. The researchers in agricultural endeavors welcome this as it elevates pest control to a more professional and technological level. The environmentalists look upon it as reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides. The legislators like it as everybody discusses and seems to like it and nobody is vigorously opposed to it. However, when everything has been said and outlined the growers are the people who must decide whether they want it or not. I would like to discuss some of these ideas as I see how and where they would fit into your industry. Every facet of the industry, beginning with the propagators to growers and even the retailers are actually using some of the principles of integrated pest management. First of all, let me give a

Author: Lauren Fins

PP: 127

Several years ago, in a paper on the advantages of reforestation with vegetatively propagated trees, Bill Libby wrote: "The genetic leverage available with vegetative propagation makes reforestation using rooted cuttings … (an) attractive new management technique …". Since that time, the use of vegetative propagation in forestry has increased, and several countries, including Canada, Finland, and West Germany currently have large scale operations for rooting cuttings for reforestation. It is my contention that the same option is open to us with some of our local species, including the one I will discuss today — the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buch.)

Many people are familiar with this spectacular California endemic. It is grown widely in Europe and this country as an ornamental. The species is native in modern times only to the west slope of the Sierras, but we know that in earlier geologic periods its ancestors grew in Europe, Greenland, and Spitzbergen. Changing


Author: Colin R. Norton

PP: 132

For many years growers have soaked seeds prior to sowing in the belief that germination will often be improved. However in many cases exactly the opposite effect is achieved; that is, germination will be reduced or seedling growth will be abnormal. A further reason to study soaking injury is highlighted by new changes in cultural practices. Recent work has focused more attention on seed soaking prior to sowing as a means of improving field or greenhouse seedling emergence and uniformity. Two striking examples highlight this:
  1. The use of pre-germination chambers to prepare materials for fluid drilling. This interesting technique is now used by growers of high value vegetable crops in many countries and is the result of recent research work at The National Vegetable Research Station in England (12). The method is also suitable for small scale use (7). It seems highly likely that this technique will prove useful for woody ornamental plants as well as other ornamentals. Indeed,

Author: Margaret E. Norton, Colin R. Norton

PP: 135

We have now reached an impasse in the use of micropropagation and tissue culture techniques. We know that these techniques are useful to us as growers and yet we still cannot take a given genus and immediately propagate it without extensive research work. However, we have gained sufficient knowledge of these practices that we should be able to make predictive models. We have been working at The University of Idaho on the problem of prediction of behavior of plants and plant parts when cultured in vitro.

Current commercial micropropagation practice involves the use of shoot culturing techniques, with subcultures taken regularly (perhaps every 4 to 6 weeks). Sometimes we are advised to obtain fresh culture material regularly and yet it is much easier to repeatedly work with our already cultured, and therefore, sterile material. Our work has shown some interesting changes in shoots of Rosaceous plants after repeated subculture.

The test plants were species from the genera Chaenomeles,


Author: D. Cohen, S.S. Bhojwani

PP: 142

Over the last few years, there has been significant progress in the micropropagation of a number of tree fruits including apples, pears and peaches and plums.

Commercial nurseries have been established in Oregon and British Columbia to produce both rootstocks and scions. A number of advantages of micropropagation have been suggested:

  1. to assist the passage of new plants through quarantine
  2. .
  3. to build-up plant numbers rapidly following quarantine
  4. .
  5. to respond more quickly to orchardists' demands for specific types of trees
  6. .
  7. to enable hard-to-root cultivars to be grown on their own roots
  8. .

Despite the enthusiasm for micropropagation of tree fruits, very few plants have been grown in the field to check for uniformity of fruit. Furthermore, the economics of production have yet to be compared with the costs of conventional procedures. The research and development costs incurred to date have largely been born by government research stations or by universities. Operating costs


Author: D. Cohen

PP: 144

At last year's annual meeting I presented a paper (1) outlining procedures for the micropropagation of high bush blueberries and tamarillo (tree tomato). Over the past year, we have applied these methods to a range of cultivars and several commercial laboratories are now using the methods. In this paper I wish to bring you up-to-date with our progress.

Author: J.O. Taylor

PP: 146

Historical development. An understanding in a concise manner of the origins and purpose of the Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture is important in reviewing the Institute's role in horticultural education.

As early as the turn of the century the Department of Agriculture was training four young orchard instructors at the State Horticultural station, Waerenga (now Te Kauwhata). Because this station began supplying fruit trees, trees, shrubs and hedge plants to growers, the nurserymen of the time banded together to protest this movement by the State. The outcome was the formation in 1904 of the New Zealand Nurserymen's and Seedsmen's Association.

It was at the conference of the Nurserymen's Association in Wellington in 1916 that Mr. A.H. Shrubshall gave a paper on the subject of "Education in Horticulture." From this beginning the idea of horticultural training began and the need evolved for an organisation to put the idea into action.

Between 1916 and 1922 further forays into


Author: J.R. Heveldt

PP: 151

We all appreciate the fact that ground or soil is an animate mixture. If cropped ad infinitum it gradually loses its productiveness, maybe not particularly noticeable, but it does happen in fact. Consequently, injections of fertilizers and maybe fallows are necessary to improve the nutrient status and "breathing space" or soil structure

So too, with plant propagation. Too often we go about our work as it has been done for years previous seemingly apathetic of the fact that we too are very much part of the cost-price squeeze. Maybe it would do us good to have a "fallow" — to stand back, look at ourselves and inject a new stimulus into our operation.

At this stage it would be useful for us to bear in mind the concept that an individual plant has an inherent capacity to grow, flower or fruit, which is limited by its genetical make-up. We do not know what this limit is, because almost certainly we have never realized it. There are indications, however, that growth rates far above


Author: Martin J. Crehan

PP: 38

My wife, Elyse, and I considered starting a plant tissue culture lab when my previous employer, Sherman Orchid Gardens in Glendora closed its business of growing cymbidium orchids for the wholesale cut-flower trade. During my 25 years there we had followed the work of Dr. Morel of France on the tissue culture of cymbidiums. Within ten years of the first meristeming of cymbidiums, Mr. Sherman sold out for, with the advent of fan and pad cooling of greenhouses, and the availability of good hybrids the market became oversupplied.

My whole career has been in the horticultural field, including, two years at an agricultural school on Long Island, New York, student gardener training at the New York Botanical garden, plus some work at Kew Gardens in England; therefore tissue culture seemed like the next logical step

Therefore, after a year's study of literature at the California Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, we took a three-day intensive tissue culture course at the University


Author: Michael B. Thomas, Alfred Leong

PP: 156

The effects of five levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and B-Nine (B9) on Brompton stocks (Matthiola incana) grown in peat/sand 1 1 (V V) were studied Nitrogen strongly promoted growth which was further enhanced by high K Deficiency symptoms occurred at low K whereas there was little demand for P, and it tended to depress the response to N. A foliar spray of B9 strongly reduced height and was temporarily phytotoxic at 5000 and 6000 ppm. The two concentrations offset the response to N particularly at 450 and 600g N/m3 where there was a mild N × B9 negative interaction for foliar dry weight.

Author: Eddie Johns

PP: 164

My horticultural scholarship took me to Australia where I studied budding and grafting; of particular interest was the production of 1-year trees from seed which is grown from spring planting, worked or budded in early summer and cut back to inserted bud to allow growth to a required height in approximately 10 to 12 months.

First of all the budwood from selected cultivars must be first grade. Second cause loss and in order to obtain first grade material one either has to chase the countryside or provide a stock bed for the required needs. Healthy stock plants must be selected and planted out in prepared site with:

  1. Sound drainage system.
  2. Excellent windbreak, preferably disease-free.
  3. Adequate irrigation, either trickle or automatic.

A high standard is a must in order to produce the first grade scion or budwood required. Maintenance is essential, e.g.:

  1. Pruning programme — promotion of new growth and removal of dead or old wood.
  2. Routine spray programme — a must.
  3. Routine fertiliser programme — granule

Author: Peter Enticott

PP: 168

Since the 1800's misspellings and confusion among genera and species has led to confusion in the culture of palms. I think it is important that these corrections are noted in New Zealand as many seedlings are now being raised, especially in the Auckland region. Firstly, I will summarize the genera and then the species with corrections as necessary.

Archontophoenix. A comparatively fast growing palm of which both species are fairly hardy. This genus bears some broad resemblance to Veitchia, Ptychosperma, and Dictyosperma. A. alexandrae has leaflets which will help to distinguish it from these genera; A. cunninghamiana does not have this distinguishing feature.

     A. alexandrae — King palm or bangalow palm. Origin Australia. The trunk grows to a height of 60 to 70 feet, with a 6" crown shaft. It has often been confused with Seaforthia elegans which now is an obsolete genus.
     A. cunninghamiana — Magestic palm — Origin Australia. Similar to A. alexandrae except for these differences. The

Author: Ian Fankhauser

PP: 174

The golden elm, Ulmus procera ‘Van Houttei’ is native to southern England and has been used in their landscape being a good contrast planted amongst other types of trees. An established tree is resistant to wind, drought and excessive moisture. This tree is a difficult subject to produce but is worthwhile as it is a popular garden plant. Up until 1971 we used to root-graft elms with an 80% success rate. They were grafted by the whip and tongue method onto roots of 2 year old Ulmus parviflora seedlings. They were tied with raffia and planted in situ in the field where it was important to bury the graft union below ground level to prevent dehydration. Plants were saleable in 1 to 2 years from grafting.

In 1971 trials were made producing them from softwood and hardwood cuttings. For softwood cuttings half-ripe tips and firmer stems were used dipped in various hormones. The results were: with 0.37% NAA, 60% rooting; 0.6% IBA, 70% rooting; a 50/50 mixture of 0.37% NAA and 0.8% IBA, 75% rooting;


Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 177

Weighing in at approximately 2,500 tons, with a height of 269 ft. the world's largest trees — Sequoiadendron giganteum, are magnificent giants. Some excellent specimens are to be seen in parks, gardens and on farms in this country, from Auckland in the north to Southland and Otago. These trees do well in most soil types, except heavy clays or soil with poor drainage. The best specimens are to be seen in the colder parts of the country in free-draining soils. Some are growing to perfection on shingly soils in the south.

Our first efforts to propagate these trees from seeds were totally unsuccessful. All seed obtained from our local trees or the Forest Service proved to be sterile. We then decided to try vegetative propagation. Cuttings were obtained in mid-winter from a young tree approximately 15 ft. high. All cuttings were obtained from the lower branches as I had no desire to destroy the natural character of this tree by removing the upper terminal shoots. Most cuttings were between 5"


Author: K.L. Davey

PP: 178

Marram (Ammophila arenaria) is a strong growing coastal grass, used extensively throughout the temperate regions in attempts to stabilize coastal sand dunes. At present marram propagation is a wet weather job; our aim is to produce well rooted plants in tubes suitable for direct planting for dune stabilization. It grows rather like an extra strong couch grass (Agropyron repens) in that it produces long rhizomes up to 1cm thick that terminate in clusters of leafy shoots. This provided us with two types of propagation material.
  1. The rhizomes that can be used as:
    1. One to two node cuttings inserted vertically in the rooting medium.
    2. Cut into lengths to suit a seed tray, and laid on the rooting medium or just covered. Bud growth is rapid (2 to 3 days) and root initials show after about 5 to 7 days; development is quite rapid and well-rooted cuttings can be potted in 14 to 18 days. The longer sections of rhizome laid horizontally produce shoots from nearly every node; the shoot

Author: F.W.G. Scott

PP: 179

The main purpose of our trip was to sell plants and to advise on how to handle and grow New Zealand plants. We travelled in U.S.A., England and France.

In America we visited some nurseries in Miami, Florida, Phoenix, Arizona, and one in Texas, plus had an opportunity of setting up a booth at the Pacific Horticultural Trade Show, Long Beach, California.

The Pacific Horticultural Trade Show was staged at Long Beach Convention Centre, about an hour's drive from Los Angeles airport. There are 677 booths representing over 365 exhibitors. The displays of horticultural products range from nursery supplies, flowers, seed and fertilizer through to lawn and garden equipment, tractors and garden lightning, so it would take many hours to go through and see everything. During the show we found most people loved New Zealand plants because of the different types of foliage and the colours we have to offer.

In all nurseries they try to produce a plant with the minimal amount of effort and cost.


Author: Paul V. Banbrook

PP: 183

When I joined our nursery venture in late 1976, it consisted of a modest retail and an expanding wholesale division. At this time the propagation was confined to budding and grafting of assorted fruits and deciduous ornamentals in both open ground and containers.

With my interest in the broad area of plant propagation, we decided to gradually supplement our bought-in liner requirements with our own stock.

Initially we began with quick seed lines plus autumn-set cuttings but in 1979 we set up a primitive yet effective mist facility at the end of one of our polythene growing houses. A partition wall was built and covered with plastic and access to the mist room was through this.

The existing base of drainage metal was overlaid with pumice sand to a depth of about 5 cm. Mains water was ducted along an outside fence by 12 mm alkathene pipe and connected to a 12 mm solenoid valve, on the inside wall, above the mist line level.

The mist lines are 12 mm rigid PVC and the mist nozzles


Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 185

There is nothing more exasperating, as a professional horticulturist trying for years to grow a plant species without success, than to call around at a friend's place to find the plant growing to perfection in their garden. When you enquire as to how they achieved such results, you are rather off-handedly told, "Oh, that was something Mildred picked up at the Country Women's Institute"! The successful grower of the plant doesn't even know what it is.

Until the last few years, the Chatham Island forget-me-not (Myosotidium hortensia) has been a plant that has almost driven me to despair. We purchased numerous plants from other growers but no matter what we did with them they failed. We then obtained seed and tried to grow our own. The seeds germinated then came to nothing with most plants collapsing six months after germination.

The Chatham Island forget-me-not is an herbaceous plant that grows naturally only in the Chatham Islands. It was once abundant around the foreshore of these islands but


Author: Terry C. Hatch

PP: 186

It is strange that a large proportion of New Zealand plants are: (a) white-flowered, and (b) unisexual.

These two factors are well illustrated by the genus Clematis ‘N.Z.’ Of the ten species, two have white flowers and the rest have green-yellowish ones; all are evergreen. Bearing this in mind, we come to the reason for producing them from cuttings. The species most commonly grown is the showy Clematis paniculata, bush clematis, or Pua-whananga. In spring the bush is lit with festoons of starry white flowers on woody vines climbing over the trees and shrubs; the large 10 cm. flowers in panicles of one hundred or more.

For years it has been the practice to dig seedlings from the bush; these do not always grow and then, more often than not, very slowly. Over the past seven years I have been selecting cutting material from the wild to produce a small number of large flowered-plants. The male plants have the largest flowers, often twice the size of the female.

The plant


Author: Jiro Matsuyama

PP: 40

We, at K M. Nursery, have been involved in tissue culture since 1969. We have met and talked with many researchers and commercial producers from almost every country in the world about the problems we have encountered.

The foreign countries are working on mostly vegetative crops, such as those grown for paper pulp and number, especially in the smaller countries, while in the United States it seems we are producing mostly ornamentals commercially, although much research is going on in tissue culture of herbaceous crops So it will not be very long before many of the important herbaceous plants will be produced through tissue culture

Many nurserymen do not understand propagation by tissue culture although many articles have been written and talks have been given by speakers on this subject. Many people think tissue culture is as simple as mixing some media formula for all cultures, then placing shoot tips in a test tube and culturing it in an ideal room temperature and in a few weeks


Author: J.G.D. Lamb, J.C. Kelly

PP: 190

One difficulty in discussing the subject of reducing costs is that we are dealing with so many species and cultivars, propagated in so many ways, on so many nurseries. Every nursery is a unique situation. Every nursery has a different programme. Contrast this to the situation in the glasshouse industry where the yearly programme may only involve one or two crops, so that very precise control is possible. The hardy nursery stock industry is, in contrast, highly flexible; this makes it much more difficult to suggest where costs can be reduced. Every nurseryman must, therefore, examine his own situation and decide for himself on how he can make his production more efficient in terms of costs and returns.

Glasshouse food crops have reached fantastic levels in input costs. To counterbalance this the cultural parameters, such as temperature regimes, nutrition, and so on are quite clearly defined so that culture can proceed to blueprint specifications. The propagator of hardy nursery stock,


Author: Arthur R. Carter

PP: 199

There has been a big increase in crop protection over the past few years on nurseries all over the country for both propagating and growing-on purposes. In most cases, the protection has been provided by comparatively cheap polythene clad tunnels, although many growers express a preference for glass if they could afford it. The main benefits are produced by the ability to gain better control of growth under protected conditions.

Shelter is provided to protect the plants against excesses of cold, heat, wetness, desiccation, and to a lesser extent, light. It is obvious that these factors interact; light, for instance, when provided by sunshine is normally associated with an increase in temperature but there are occasions when absence of light might be beneficial.


Author: A.I. Campbell, R. Anne Goodall

PP: 204

Much has been done to improve the health and quality of planting material of many horticultural crops, especially fruit and vegetables. However, much less has been done to improve the health of the wide range of trees and shrubs widely grown as ornamentals in this country. In Europe efforts made to monitor the health standard of several species have improved their quality. Nevertheless some of the stocks imported to the U.K. have been virus infected. The best known example is strawberry latent ringspot virus in Rosa rugosa rootstocks. Although the growth of the stock was often unaffected by the virus and showed no symptoms, many hybrid tea rose cultivars either died or produced stunted growth when budded onto infected rootstocks.

In fruit trees the importance of each virus complex differs considerably, depending on the sensitivity of the scions and the rootstocks, the severity of each strain and the number of viruses involved. The same virus can be present in a range of fruit trees but


Author: B.E. Humphrey

PP: 211

  1. What is the Scheme? It is a voluntary system whereby growers and other interested parties are invited to contribute to the Scheme material of certain selected plants. The material is then propagated and grown on at certain specific independent Centres. When appropriate, assessments are made by a panel of growers, advisors and specialists. The assessors, over a period, try to appraise the plants from the different sources to ascertain whether: —
    1. They are true to name (untrue plants are removed from further appraisal.)
    2. There is sufficient variation among the true plants to warrant further appraisal.
    3. If there is sufficient variation, the Panel then tries to decide if one plant is superior to the rest when judged over a number of specified factors.
    4. If an individual plant is judged superior, it is then given an identity code L.A. (after Long Ashton who are responsible for the Scheme) and further identified by a number representing the year of identification, e.g. L.A. 79

Author: A. Bruce Macdonald

PP: 216

During August, 1979, my family and I were on holiday in Hampton, Virginia, situated on the south-eastern seaboard of the United States, where we stayed with James D. Ashley (I.P.P.S. Southern Region) and his wife, Beatrice. We had the privilege to meet a number of fellow I.P.P.S. members and friends which included, firstly, Robert McCartney of the Williamsburg Foundation which contains many interesting native plants. Secondly, Ken and Sandra McDonald of Le Mac Nurseries in Hampton, a foremost grower of field and container-grown azaleas. Thirdly, Charles Parkerson of Lancaster Farms in Suffolk, a quality container grower, in particular for junipers and hollies. Fourthly, Pam Harper of Robanna Shores, Seaford, a most enthusiastic plantsman who has an interesting and successful business — "The Harper Horticultural Slide Library".

When in their company one is naturally encouraged by their enthusiasm to obtain plant material. One subsequently realized that this was not plant collecting in its


Author: Maurice Prichard

PP: 219

Firstly I would like to refer to heat input in the propagation of herbaceous plants. Unlike many branches of the nursery trade who have found that heated mist units have revolutionized their propagation, it must be said basically herbaceous propagation techniques have changed very little in nearly 50 years, when I first remember seeing herbaceous propagation done at our family business at Christchurch, Dorset.

Cold frames were used then for any type of propagation where protection was required, and I can honestly say this is still our only requirement. In stating this I have one reservation. Here at Blooms Nurseries during the last two years we have used a 50'×10' polythene tunnel, fitted with mist without any form of artificial heat. This has proved successful with late-spring soft-type cuttings which wilt badly in frames, where although shaded — and the cuttings damped as often as possible — the higher temperatures proved too much. They soon lost their turgidity, finally giving only a


Author: John Jobling

PP: 225

In 1958 and 1959, after a year of exploratory tests, 90 clones of poplar, Populus, and 25 clones of elm, Ulmus, were propagated from softwood cuttings in trials at the Forest Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge. The cuttings were rooted in a heated frame equipped with automatic overhead mist irrigation.

Until then, stocks of most of the clones had been produced by grafting, since propagation by other techniques, including hardwood cutting methods, had proved difficult or impossible. The trials provided hopeful signs that many trees which hitherto had not been easily raised by conventional means might be readily reproduced in future by the softwood cutting method using a mist system of watering. Thus, many trees could now be grown on their own roots for the first time, an advantage to foresters and arboriculturists.

Several species and cultivars included in the trials were then in short supply in the nursery trade or were not produced at all. Some of them, such as gray poplar, Populus


Author: John Ward

PP: 230

Phytophthora cinnamomi has been isolated from plants found throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world and has been described as "one of the world's major plant killers". It has severely restricted the numbers of Castanea species in large areas of the USA and is largely responsible for the recession of the eucalyptus forests in Australasia. It is surprising, therefore, to find that it was first described (on cinnamon) as late as 1922. The development of this disease in the hardy nursery stock industry of Western Europe escalated after the Second World War until the disease was endemic in many areas. Throughout the United Kingdom, and especially certain areas of England, the incidence of the disease early in the 1970's reached alarming proportions.

In Northern Ireland in 1974 serious losses of hardy nursery stock caused concern and a survey was carried out on all nurseries where the disease had been isolated. The results were disconcerting, indicating that as much as 10% of


Author: S.J. Haines

PP: 237

The numbers attending this session showed the great interest there is in low cost propagation techniques.

On our pre-conference visit to Boulton Brothers nursery we had seen a full frame of conifers rooted under double glass, cuttings inserted in August and now ready for moving on.

Several members were using combinations of polythene and lights on their frames. Lila Dick favoured the polythene over the frame lights, thus sealing the lights and preventing pools of water accumulating on the polythene laid over the cuttings.

It was agreed that cuttings were often inserted at too great a density, and that better results were achieved by giving more space, this being particularly true of larger-leaved species such as hydrangeas. Roger Platts favoured potting these on in later summer, but care must be taken with many subjects due to overwintering problems.

John Ward and others spoke of their experience in using large tunnels as cover protection over low "inner" tunnels in which were rooted a


Author: R. Thurlow

PP: 239

Subjects discussed were Acer platanoides, Japanese cherries, and lilacs. The chairman summarised results obtained in these genera.

Acer platanoides. Stocks were potted into 4 in. whalehides the year before grafting took place and put into frames. The following autumn they were brought inside the greenhouse to dry out before grafting. Grafting took place in January and February, a side graft being used, and tied with ½ in. polythene tape. The grafts were then placed inside a cold tunnel house. The take was about 50% in both cultivars. They will be close lined out in mid-summer following grating.

Japanese cherries. Stocks of Prunus avium were potted into 4 in. whalehides the year before grafting took place and put into cold frames. They were brought inside the greenhouse the following autumn to dry out before grafting. Grafting took place in January and February, a side graft being used and tied with ½ in polythene tape, then placed inside a cold tunnel house. Five cultivars were grafted —


Author: W.H. Brokaw

PP: 48


Of all the recently introduced subtropical crops, none has caught fire like the kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry, Actinidia chinensis. Not an old warmed-over crop, or one that's been hidden in the corner, this one is a real newcomer. Since its commercial introduction by New Zealand, it has been grown commercially in the Western and Eastern United States, other American countries, Israel, Greece, Italy, France, South Africa, and Japan.

Actinidia chinensis is native to borders of the Yangtze Valley of China where it is not subject to serious frosts, but receives enough winter chill to stimulate profuse blossoms. The wild plant of these regions is a large vine that may climb to a height of 30 feet (10 m). Until recently, its popular name was Chinese gooseberry.

The Chinese gooseberry was brought to New Zealand about 1900, and planted as a curiosity. It remained in obscurity for years, until the New Zealanders developed certain prolific cultivars which bore abundant


Author: J. Clayton

PP: 240

J. EDMUNDS: A comment on knives and sterilisation. I don't know if Brian Howard or Ian Campbell are still here but we were talking to them afterwards about this.

I. CAMPBELL: I did say, in fact, that the majority of the viruses in woody plants would not transfer by knife.

D. CLARK: We still T-bud Acer ‘Royal Red’ and ‘Goldsworth Crimson’. It may be worth just going back to why we T-bud. For a number of years we tried T and chip buds in parallel and we found we got better takes with T-budding.

J. CLAYTON: When do you do your budding?

D. CLARK: We are budding a lot later this year, as the wood is so soft; in fact, it will probably be next week (August 1). Normally we would aim to have completed the job by now. I would persevere with field propagation. I think the cost of production of ‘Crimson King’ from pot-grown stocks would be very high. It is interesting that we have had little comment at this conference on the cost of labour. We have talked about saving energy but I'm sure our major costs in the



PP: 241

The President of the G.B.&I. Region, P.A. Hutchinson, presented the Region's 1980 Rose Bowl Award to P.D.A. McMillan Browse. In outlining the recipient's outstanding contributions the President referred to his services as Hon. Treasurer (1969–72), Hon. Editor (1973–76), his terms as Vice President and Conference Organiser (1977), as President (1978) and as Past President and Committee Member (1979). As well as holder of the above offices he made contributions as Administrative Organiser for the 1969 Hadlow Conference, as lecturer in 1969, 1970, 1974, 1977, 1978 and as Discussion Group Leader in 1972 and 1979.

During the whole period since the formation of the G.B.&I. Region in 1968, P. McMillan Browse has been a regular attender at Area and One-Day Meetings, almost without fail participating in the discussion sessions at these meetings. Recently has he written two books: "Hardy Woody Plants from Seed" (Grower Books) and "Plant Propagation" (Mitchell Beazley).


Author: Roy Randall

PP: 242

An instrument is a device that is used in performing an action — a tool or an implement. It, therefore, follows that the term instrumentation refers to the operation or arrangement of one or more instruments. Instruments of an electronic or scientific nature when used in horticulture should be considered as tools or implements and are there as such to perform or assist with a wide range of actions. The question is whether we can identify those actions that can benefit from the use of modern instrumentation techniques. The actions being carried out daily within horticulture are no less frequent, diverse, or precise than those found in many other process industries. Indeed, it can be stated with some certainty that many actions related to plant growth continue for 24 hours of every day. Why should it be necessary to consider or seek new aids for the long established industry of horticulture? It is worth remembering that even the simplest tool such as the spade was evolved as a result of

Author: Derek C. Attenburrow

PP: 249

The propagation of tree and shrub cuttings in peat blocks made from fertilized peat (Levington Blocking Compost) has been investigated. It was shown that peat blocks can offer a viable alternative rooting method for many species. The use of peat blocks gives a significantly lower density of cuttings in the propagation house. However, this early disadvantage may be balanced by the advantages of faster rooting plus a better and higher percentage establishment due to lack of root disturbance or damage. Additionally, some subjects when rooted into fertilized peat blocks can be potted directly into one or two litre pots thus saving on potting and handling time. The benefits of faster establishment can result in a reduced period from propagation to a saleable product compared with traditional methods.

Author: Martin J. Stokes

PP: 255

The Location of Micropropagation Laboratories. Commercial micropropagation units that have arisen during the last ten years have developed either in association with or in close proximity to sites academic research in the plant tissue culture field. This is no accident. The successful application of new technologies requires continual access to research facilities and information exchange (Figure 1). Twyford Laboratories is an exception to this only in that it provides such facilities within the company to stimulate further developments in the micropropagation and disease indexing fields.

On a worldwide basis the principal micropropagation units are found in close proximity to Pieriks' laboratory in The Netherlands, to that of Boxus in Belgium, the late Professor Morel, Beauchesne, Tran Than Van and Nitsch in France, Zuccherelli and Rosati in Italy, and Murashige in the United states. These units have naturally concentrated on crops of local or national importance — lilies and gerberas (11) in


Author: Lila W. Dick

PP: 268

Teaching micropropagation can come into various categories. It is listed in the syllabus for Higher Grade Horticultural Science in the Scottish Certificate of Education for Schools.

At the West of Scotland College it is taught to all Ordinary National Diploma students in their first year in a laboratory class and, in the third year, students from time to time have chosen some aspect of micropropagation for their third year individual projects. It also comes into the crop option of the M.I. Biology course, the B.Sc. students have a laboratory class to introduce the subject to them and as a group may tackle a micropropagation problem. When it comes to the Honours year thesis, two students have chosen some aspect of micropropagation as their remit.

At universities and polytechnics, where post-graduate courses are available, micropropagation can be part, if not all, of the investigations carried out. Under these circumstances more time is available to devote to the culture and the problems


Author: Roger Platts

PP: 272

During 1977/1978 I worked for Eggert Pedersen's nurseries on the island of Lolland in Southern Denmark doing a variety of tasks, mainly concerned with plant handling. A lack of knowledge of the Danish language obviously limited the jobs I could be asked to do.

I was interested in their system of plant handling because of the vast area covered with container plants. Approximately 80% of the staff of up to 200 were employed to move plants, and this meant that a very efficient handling system was necessary.

The plants were potted into rigid pots in a large potting shed housing four large potting benches for 16 people. During the winter the potting was done by hand; in the summer a potting machine was used.

As the plants were potted they were placed in small wooden boxes; eight 3½ litre pots were put in each box and the boxes were then loaded onto four-wheeled trailers, 33 boxes per trailer.

The trailers were then towed to the standing ground which comprised beds two metres wide,


Author: Alan J. Hargreaves

PP: 274

From September, 1976, until September, 1977, I worked on the James Wells Nursery, New Jersey, U.S.A., on their English Student Programme.

Firstly, I would like to give a brief history of the nursery for those who are not familiar with it. Jim Wells left England for the U.S.A. at the end of the last war and, after spending a few years on other nurseries, he took 20 acres near the coast in New Jersey in the late 1950's. After a few years of growing quite a wide range of nursery stock the range was cut down to mainly rhododendrons and azaleas.

In 1967 the English Student Programme was started when two students from Pershore College went over to New Jersey. And so it was in 1976 that David Hill and I, having both completed our N.C.H. at Hadlow College, applied for a job at Wells Nursery. After an interview at Pershore we were selected, together with two Pershore students to go over there for a year. The flight over and back was paid for by Jim Wells and this was repaid during our 12 month


Author: B. Macdonald

PP: 278

  1. When growing holly cuttings in double glass frames, would leaf drop be caused by a) too high a temperature, b) too high a light intensity, or c) any other factor? The cuttings were taken in late September and dipped in Seradix 3.
  2. VOICE: I got leaf fall when the cuttings were too close in the bed.

    DOUG HARRIS: I always assumed it was the high temperatures.

    B. MACDONALD: Could it be too high an air temperature? My experience particularly with Ilex aquifolium types is that they are prone to this, taken in late August or early September.

  3. Have any members tried the new range Vitax Q.S fertilizers? If so with what results?
  4. VOICE: We have just completed a small trial but it is still too early for the results?

  5. Have any members evidence of a build up of Specific Replant Disease in older layer or stool beds?
  6. D. HARRIS: There is no evidence of this in rhododendron layer beds that have been used for 40 years now. I thought there was a replant problem on roses at


Author: John J. McGuire

PP: 282

Initiation of adventitious roots results from the interaction of numerous interrelated physiological and anatomical factors. In a summary of the subject in 1974, Snyder (32) reported that such an event depends upon the presence of cells capable of dividing and differentiating as root initials as well as the presence of favorable internal and external environments. In other words, a cell must be living and undifferentiated.

It has been known for many years that auxin (IAA) or one of its derivatives is a major controlling factor, but we still do not know specifically how auxin exerts this control over cell function. We know it stimulates root initiation in a manner similar to cytokinin, polyphenols, gibberellins, carbohydrate, boron, nitrogen and a host of other compounds. We know also that it is not the absolute amount of plant hormone that exerts this action rather the relative amounts of each in proportion to the other. Most recently it has been suggested auxin may be just another cofactor


Author: Ralph S. Moore

PP: 54

The propagation and sale of miniature rose plants has been our business at Sequoia Nursery for many years. During these years many changes have taken place, as has happened throughout the nursery industry. First of all has been the phenomenal increase in popularity of the miniature rose.

Beginning with miniatures in a small way, as a side line to our general nursery some forty years ago, we changed to the production of miniatures exclusively about 23 years ago. Since then our production has increased to the point where we now grow some 600,000 to 700,000 plants annually.

All of this production is from cuttings. We grow around a hundred different cultivars in all colors. In addition we produce around 10,000 miniature tree roses. For the trees we use an understock of our own, developed at the nursery. I will discuss the tree rose production in detail later.

But before we get into the propagation of miniatures as such, I wish to state that I am very much of the opinion that successful and


Author: Nina L. Bassuk, Brian H. Howard

PP: 289

Vacuum-extracted root promoting cofactors from M.26 apple hardwood cuttings were found to correlate positively with M.26 seasonal rooting fluctuations. These substances were present throughout the stock plant as well as in previously disbudded cuttings. An abundant phenolic — phloridzin, and a polyphenol oxidase enzyme, also found in the extracted sap appeared to fluctuate in a way which implicated them as precursors of the root promoting co-factors. When the products of this phenolic reaction were added to IBA, rooting was significantly increased in mung bean and apple hardwood cuttings.

Author: J. Ben-Jaacov

PP: 294

Israel is a very small country — its area is somewhat smaller than the state of Massachusetts (7800 sq. miles), and its population somewhat less than the Boston metropolitan area (3.8 million). More than half of the land is desert. The rest of the country has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. Rainfall varies from 30 inches in the north to 1 inch or less in the south.

Rapid development of the country's agriculture led to full usage of the available irrigation water by 1960. In the last 20 years (1960–1980), agricultural production has tripled without increasing the amount of water and land used (2). This intensification of agriculture was brought about by active endeavor through research and development as well as by the dynamic farming community.

Floriculture plays a leading role in the country's intensive horticulture. In 1979/80, 5800 farming families produced about 80 million dollars worth of flowers for export to Europe and the United States.

Although the main kinds of flowers produced are miniature carnations and roses, there has been a large increase in the last few years in the production of other floriculture crops (Table 1).


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 297

The principle of using vacuum ventilation for propagating structures has been used for several decades and is not a new innovation. When one sees the inefficiency of some of the ventilating systems being used and the incorrect use of some vacuum systems now in use, it would seem a review of the merits of this system would be in order.

The vacuum system is of most value to early summer softwood cuttings of deciduous shrubs and trees, plus certain broadleaf evergreens. It may be efficiently employed for all types of plants at all times of the year.

This is a low cost installation consisting of a thermostatic controlled input louver for the admission of outside ambient air into a large diameter punched plastic tube for the entire length of the structure. The flow of air into the louver and tube is created by a vacuum made by a thermostatic controlled large slow speed exhaust fan on the same end of the structure as the input louver.

Many structures ventilated by vacuum systems use fans of


Author: Clayton W. Fuller

PP: 298

I believe that we must continually strive to find ways to find ways in which to conserve our natural and human energy resources. Therefore I present to you these few ideas which may or may not be useful in your operations.

How many times over the years have we been guilty of this little trick? Kinking the hose single or in a double kink. This is This is not only a waste of natural energy because we will have to replace the hose before its time, but also a human energy waste in that we will have to use it to repair or replace the hose. For the past several years we have eliminated this waste by simply using a ¼ turn valve attached to the end of the hose. This conserves on human energy by not having to walk back and forth to the faucet to adjust the water flow, but also by extending the life of the hose. When a person can make the necessary water adjustment where he is watering, it not only conserves on water, but we find that the watering job is much more efficient in that the person will


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 300

This year Zelenka Nurseries shipped over 2,000 truck loads of plants into 34 states and regions of Canada. We presently ship from 3 loading and staging areas and during the peak shipping season we will load up to 40 trucks per day.

We have developed an aluminum 3-deck racking system to maximize loading area and minimize damages. This system consists of 12 racks and 96 boards for a 40 foot trailer. The racking system weighs 2,322 lbs. and the cost is $3,894 (Tables 1 and 2). We will have 80 sets available for spring 1981 shipping.

Variable speed electronic conveyors are used to load plants into a truck. We presently have 16 conveyors ranging from 35 to 45 feet in length. Currently conveyors are costing about $4,000. Electronic eye counters are mounted on the conveyors to improve loading accuracy. Counters can be set for subtotals as well as totals. It takes 4 to 8 man-hours to load a full trailer and we are able to load over 1,700 spreading junipers 12 to 15 inches on a truck. The


Author: Francis R. Gouin

PP: 301

Polyethylene film covered propagating chambers have been demonstrated to be effective for rooting cuttings of many species of woody ornamentals (1). These chambers can easily be constructed within existing greenhouses, and when filled to capacity with cuttings, will maintain near 100% humidity with minimum care.

Nurserymen have long recognized the advantages of direct sticking cuttings into individual containers. In addition to saving time, cuttings rooted by direct sticking grow faster and losses from transplanting are eliminated. Plants from direct stuck rooted cuttings develop faster because their roots are never disturbed. However, direct sticking requires 5 to 50 times more space than conventional high-density-sticking methods. The amount of additional space depends on the size of containers being used.

Nurserymen in southern regions have made extensive use of direct sticking because of their longer growing seasons and milder winters, while growers in colder regions must rely on


Author: D.C. Milbocker

PP: 306

Ventilated high humidity propagation is a system in which ambient air is continuously humidified and circulated over cuttings to prevent their wilting. Rooting of cuttings with this system has been observed to be approximately equivalent to intermittent mist with bottom heating. The objective of this report is to show that the energy requirements of ventilated high humidity propagation are smaller than for intermittent mist with bottom heating. Two types of energy are considered, the efforts of the propagator as well as the energy required to operate the equipment.

Intermittent mist systems require misting nozzles spaced to provide overlapping mist patterns over the propagation bed. The better quality systems operate at pressures approaching 100 lbs psi (690 kPa) and require 5 to 10 nozzles per 100 sq ft (9.3 m2) of bed area. Satisfactory nozzles must have small holes or deflectors to permit use of slightly larger holes. These nozzles require considerable vigilance for opening plugged


Author: William Devine

PP: 307

The least expensive method of propagating cultivars would be the direct sticking of unrooted cuttings into beds or field grows. With cooperative weather conditions, this will work well with some plants, usually quick-to-root species handled as dormant hardwood cuttings. With the majority of Angelica's production done as softwood or summer cuttings, the procedure becomes a bit more difficult, because success would necessitate some type of watering system to keep the plant tissues turgid during the rooting period. A deep, well drained especially sandy soil might present the proper medium, but since our area has a heavy loam soil, which becomes waterlogged quickly under continuous watering, soil propagation under mist proves unsatisfactory.

Angelica Nurseries took the next most logical step, which was to create raised beds of sand, while providing more than adequate subdrainage, into which cuttings are stuck for rooting from March until September, as proper timing and scheduling permits.


Author: James H. Kyle

PP: 309

In 1972 a poly tunnel 15 × 180 feet was constructed at Spring Hill Nurseries to propagate evergreen cuttings. The house was designed and built to accommodate CPVC plastic pipe for bottom heat. A pit was dug and the house was placed two feet into the ground to cut down on heat loss.

The ½ inch CPVC pipe was placed on 6" centers and buried halfway in 8 inches of sand. A boiler was installed midway in the house so each end could be controlled separately. Circulating pumps run continuously to give even heating throughout the house. We circulate 140°F water for bottom heat in the house. The boiler water temperature is controlled by thermostats. Details of construction are available in the 1973 Proceedings (1).

We have used the greenhouse for 6 years to root evergreen cuttings. We have always had good results. In 1979 we discontinued rooting evergreens and switched the greenhouse to perennials production. At the present time, it is full of newly dibbled perennials. These plants respond well to


Author: Adrian J. Knuttel

PP: 310

In a paper presented at the 1978 IPPS meeting I described our pithouse propagation facility (1). The building is H-shaped and constructed below ground which I feel helps to moderate the temperature. Additional energy savings are obtained by using 3 layers of plastic on the roof.

Today I would like to discuss the economics of heating our pithouse. There is a choice of 5 energy sources: wood, coal, oil, gas, or electricity. Natural gas, if available, would be more economical than oil at this time; however, we don't know what the price will be in the future. Wood needs a lot of attention, especially during the night, so I do not find that practical for my propagation house.

Coal is for me the most practical heat for a propagation house. I use an upright burner, brick line of cast iron, which holds 100 lbs of coal. I use coal in combination with electric cables in the beds. I bought coal in bulk at $72.00 a ton. The price expressed in energy units is 1/3 the price of oil. I would suggest heating


Author: William A. Warriner

PP: 60

Rose hybridizing does not really fit into the usual concept of plant propagation; that is, making more plants of the same cultivar than what you start with. This kind of propagation is an important part of hybridization and will be touched on later, but the first requirement is to make or propagate plants quite different from what you start with.

Plant breeding is one of the really important aspects of agriculture having been one of the sciences contributing to the ever increasing production of food and fiber. There are many Ph.D's in universities and industry researching, teaching, and producing new products, plus all their support people. The size of individual crops is tremendous whether measured in acres, dollars, yield or any way you want to measure.

Rose breeding and rose growing are tiny parts of the agricultural industry, although one of the larger parts of the nursery industry. Rose breeding, along with other ornamental breeding departs, also, from a purely scientific


Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 312

Gro-Plugs® is the registered name we are using for our tube culture production. We have worked with a tube system for many years in our birch program. Several years ago we began experimenting with other woody seed-propagated ornamentals. Presently we have grown crops of Abies concolor, Picea pungens ‘Glauca’, P. glauca ‘Densata’, P. omorika, Pinus mugo (ENCI), P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, Tsuga canadensis and Thuja occidentalis. Usually 4 months is required to produce Gro-Plugs® seedlings ready for transplanting in our own fields or for sale.

Author: Russell Stansfield

PP: 318

In the early 1970's Northern States Power Company (NSP) began to explore methods of utilizing for beneficial purposes the large amounts of heat rejected by the condensers of electric generating plants. At that time all of NSP's plants had cooling systems which were designed for "once-through" cooling, that is, water was taken into the plant from a river, used to condense steam, and then was returned to the river. Minimum temperatures of condenser discharge water at plants designed for this type of cooling range from 50°F to 60°F.

Since it would be extremely costly to remove significant amounts of heat from water of this temperature, it was not until a "closed cycle" cooling system, such as the one designed for the Sherburne Country plant (SherCo), came into the picture that the Company could seriously consider developing beneficial uses of power plant cooling water. Minimum temperature of SherCo's condenser discharge water is 85.F. Sometimes the temperature during the heating season can be as


Author: Stanley M. Foster

PP: 321

Greenleaf Nursery Company is headquartered approximately 90 mile southeast of Tulsa, Oklahoma, at Park Hill. Our Texas division is located in south Texas approximately 70 miles southwest of Houston at El Campo. Both nurseries are exclusively producing container grown ornamentals, growing a broad selection of narrowleaved and broadleaved evergreens, trees, and shrubs.

At present time we at Greenleaf graft 16 cultivars of fruiting apples, crabapples, flowering pears, and fruiting pears. This year we will graft a little over 100,000 trees. Of these grafts, we expect 85 to 90% to be high enough quality to be planted in the field.

Our apple grafting season starts about January 2nd each year. We use the whip or tongue method of grafting on both apples and pears. Preferably, the scion and understock should be of equal diameter. The scion should contain 2 or 3 buds with the first graft cut made in the smooth internode area below the lower bud. This first cut should be a long smooth, sloping cut


Author: Patrick J. Kirschling

PP: 323

The principal reason for being in the propagation business is to make a satisfactory profit. A satisfactory profit level does not occur as a matter of chance but is a result of careful management of the activities of the firm. This, of course, includes the controlling of costs and the determination of realistic prices for products and services in line with competition in your market area. Production and sales should be undertaken with full recognition of all costs involved to maintain a profitable business operation.

As part of marketing strategy, you may decide to cover all costs on a specific product, but this is a different situation than propagators who do not recognize all costs associated with the product and consequently sell at a price which is not sufficient to cover all expenses. Even though this propagator can't survive in the long run, he can cause problems for his competitors while he is in business.

The purpose of this paper is to examine costs in the propagation business and


Author: Wayne Lovelace

PP: 331

The recipient of this years Propagator's Award of Merit has been a member of this Society for 18 years. Like many of his fellow plant propagators, he is a graduate of the Horticultural School of Hard-knocks. His early intentions were clearly not horticulture because he received formal training in business administration and had a natural ability for electronics. However, his experiences in a nursery and fruit orchard soon convinced him that propagating plants was both a science and a challenge that made him redirect his energies and talents. His success in the propagation of fruit trees convinced the owners that here was a man who possessed a natural ability. It wasn't long before the fruit nursery and orchard business converted to general nursery stock.

His love for plants and his sound basic understanding of business management made others realize the potentials of this individual. He was soon hired by another well established nursery as their propagator and also became involved in establishing


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 333

Because of their tolerance of city conditions, ease of transplanting, reasonably rapid growth, and fragrant flowers, lindens (Tilia spp.) continue to be among the most popular shade trees. There is a wealth of published data on linden propagation, so this short paper will be merely a review of the methods used.

Author: E.A. Dixon Jr

PP: 336

In general, all Chamaecyparis cuttings were stem cuttings stuck in sand with a bottom heat of 70 to 75°F. Air temperature was maintained generally at 55 to 65°F but reached 80°F on sunny days. Cuttings were kept under intermittent mist 12 seconds every 6 minutes controlled by a photo-electric switch set so that a misting occurred only when cuttings were subject to direct sunlight. All cuttings were taken after the first hard frost; that is, in November and December in Pennsylvania.

Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Nana Gracilis’. Cuttings were taken from tips of terminal or lateral stems and were approximately 10 cm long. As this cultivar has a tendency to revert to the species, care must be taken to insure that no cuttings are taken from shoots that are reverting In order to have cuttings of workable size, the basal portion of the cutting includes older growth. A 1ndash;1½ cm wound is made on one side of the cutting, which is then treated with 0.8% IBA talc (Hormodin No. 3).


Author: Robert C. Simpson

PP: 338

Deciduous hollies should be of interest to growers because to date they have been overlooked as a valuable ornamental. The three species most commonly available are Ilex decidua, I. serata and I. verticillata. Publications of the Holly Society of America list 25 or more named selections of species or hybrids (Table 1), few of which are commercially available.

Most seedlings are slow to fruit well, approximately half are male and fruitless, and are quite variable. The named selections are vastly superior but few of these are listed in nursery catalogs or garden publications and rarely available. Few ornamental shrubs can surpass these deciduous hollies for effective fruit display. Properly promoted they could fill a need for fall and winter color in the landscape.

I have been interested because this group of plants has such great potential To date little has been done even to propagate


Author: Timothy C. Brotzman

PP: 342

The propagation of certain maples at Brotzman's Nursery began three years ago on a rather limited basis and remains so today. My initial efforts were stimulated by an interest in the genus and a desire to obtain some of the more uncommon and ornamentally desirable species. Though by no means complete or absolute, I would like to share with you results of my experiments.

Propagation facilities. The facility used is a 45 feet polyethylene covered hut with unheated ground beds 8 inches deep, filled with a propagation grade of silica sand. A 62% shade cloth covers the hut at all times. Inside summer temperatures and humidity can get very high, but neither seem to have an adverse effect on rooting.

Propagating procedures. Depending upon species and stage of growth, cuttings are taken from mature to semi-mature trees in late June through late July. Cuttings are of current season's wood, usually 4 to 8 inches long with the basal cut unrelated to node location. The bottom 1/3 to ½ of the


Author: Edward Losely

PP: 345

This presentation will restrict itself to those Pieris and Leucothoe species that are produced at our nursery. We propagate and grow L. fontanesiana (L. catesbaei); L. fontanesiana ‘Girard’s Rainbow, a form with multi-colored leaves; and the related L. axillaris, a plant with smaller leaves, smaller stature, and more compact habit of growth. We propagate and grow our own selection of Pieris japonica and also P. japonica ‘Variegata’. We tried and discarded several so-called pink selections of P. japonica as not hardy enough for field production in northeast Ohio.

All Leucothoe and Pieris are propagated from cuttings using a procedure developed by our propagator, John Ravenstein.

Cuttings are made in mid-October. To facilitate the taking of cuttings we usually dig up several plants from our field production. We find it more efficient to remove the cuttings at a work bench than bending down in the field. A further advantage of digging the stock plants is that, when


Author: Audrey Teasdale

PP: 65

The Huntington is known for many things: the paintings of Blue Boy and Pinkie, the Gutenberg Bible, and a renowned Library of American and English literature used by scholars from around the world.

As plant people, are we aware of the plants the Huntington Botanical Garden has introduced to the U.S. and of the annual plant sale which attempts to make these introductions and other rarities available to the public? The remnants of the first commercial avocado orchard are still in existence at the Huntington. The Huntington is one of the West Coast quarantine center for imported bamboo. Within its 13 different gardens are collections of many genera of plants including the largest world-wide collection of mature cactus and succulent specimens grown outdoors.

In 1901 Henry E. Huntington, the founder, purchased what was then the San Marino Ranch. Huntington had by this time created and developed the clean and convenient electric streetcar system throughout Los Angeles. Huntington's


Author: John C. Pair, Ray A Keen

PP: 348

Several clones of Osage orange were propagated using T-budding, softwood and hardwood cuttings from mature and from juvenile portions of male, thornless trees. Most clones produced thorny juvenile growth especially when budded hardwood cuttings rooted 100% at 5,000 ppm IBA and produced thornless plants at moderate fertility levels.

Author: Peter E. Girard Sr

PP: 353

(See-Proc. Inter. Plant Prop. Soc. 29:431–436 1979).

Author: Stephen D. Verkade, David F. Hamilton

PP: 353

Symbiotic associations between certain soil fungi and plant roots constitute relationships termed "mycorrhizae". Mycorrhizal roots are observed in nearly all native stands of plants, in all parts of the world (4, 14). In climates ranging from tropical to arctic, woody and herbaceous plants are normally involved in this form of symbiosis. Fungal symbionts in mycorrhizal associations include members of the Endogone, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes (4, 13).

There are two major types of mycorrhizae, distinguished by the way in which the fungus attaches itself to the root (4, 6, 10). The first classification is the ectomycorrhizal group, and the second is the endomycorrhizal group. In ectomycorrhizal associations, a fungal sheath forms around the exterior of the root and is a distinctive visible feature (10). The fungal sheath consists of divided fungal hyphae, but appears superficially as though it were made of plant cells (6). From this outer sheath, hyphae extend outward into the soil, and also inward


Author: Platt W. Hill, Brian Thomas

PP: 363

In the last 10 years, D. Hill Nursery has moved its growing operation which has blessed us with the opportunity to install new propagating facilities. In 1979, we constructed new greenhouses and growing frames with the idea in mind that we wanted to shift emphasis on production of conifers from inside energy intensive processes to outdoor less energy intensive techniques.

Author: J. Ben-Jaacov, A. Hagiladi, N. Levav, N. Zamir

PP: 366

A favorable growing and propagating environment was created in a hydrosolaric greenhouse. This closed greenhouse was composed of a solar energy harvesting system and hydroponics. Energy collected by the greenhouse air from the sun during the day was conserved in the growth solution which released the energy during the night.

Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 372

The question box session was convened at 4:00 p.m. with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Does anyone have any comments to make about gel seeding? Does anyone have an address for a gel source?

GLEN LUMIS: We are doing a little work with black spruce. If anyone would like to write me I can put them on to some sources that can help them. My address is Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: During the tour of Weston Nurseries we saw the rooting of Pinus mugo cuttings. Please explain your procedure and do you take spring cuttings?

KATHLEEN FREELAND: We have not tried spring rooting of cuttings. We take them in the winter with good success. We are going to try candles next spring. The cuttings are 3-4 inces long and from current seasons growth. We are using 1% hormone. We have also experimented with Jim Wells Synnergol from England. We will know better next year how it worked.


Author: Joseph Cesarini, Ben Minamoto

PP: 378

We used to propagate clones of Betula pendula by grafting them during the winter months on seedlings of the same species. We produced our own understock by collecting our own seed. We planted them in a greenhouse at 65°F in flats with a mixture of perlite and peatmoss. The seedling was done during September or October.

The seeds usually germinate very rapidly and with a little help from liquid fertilizer they grow very well all winter long. About May, when the danger of frost is over, we pick them off into 2¼" rose clay pots into our regular potting soil consisting of sand and peat moss with Osmocote, and place them outside in a growing area. By fall, they are the thickness of a pencil. Only a few weeks before grafting we bring them in the greenhouse. The greenhouse temperature is maintained at 65°F and we used a modified veneer graft. This we find is the best way to produce understock because an unestablished understock is a sure failure in grafting birches.

I never had


Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 380

Over the 30 years or so that our establishment, Forrest Keeling Nursery, has been in operation, the production of tree and shrub seedlings has been a mainstay accounting for about 50% of our gross sales. During this period we have employed a good many college graduates, perhaps a score or more, mostly with degrees in horticulture. In recent years we have enjoyed the stimulating experience of having groups of college-level trainees at our nursery during the summer and also spring and fall periods. Today our work force numbers about 100 of which 10 are college graduates, most with horticultural training. These college trained people have management, supervisory, sales and technical responsibilities.

Interestingly enough, I can never recall quizzing any of these people, prior to their employment, on their knowledge of or expertise in seed propagation. This might be considered a lapse in our interview procedures.

But is it really? We have spent a couple score years developing our seed


Author: Mark Cunningham

PP: 383

I feel our universities are offering a well-rounded academic curriculum in horticulture education and in most cases very good programs in plant propagation. The basic information is offered; the student who is most interested and studious becomes the leader of tomorrow.

The universities cannot be faulted in graduating students who are not talented, employable people, ready to assume immediately the management responsibility of general propagation, whether it be the sexual or asexual propagation of evergreen or herbaceous plant materials.

If there is a fault that prevails in preparing students for immediate takeover of a progressive propagation program, it lies in too little practical, hands-on training. At Purdue, ten weeks of summer work in industry is required to obtain the horticulture degree. There should be at least two twelve-week works summers required; even then, the student will only be partially trained for major responsibility.

Tissue culture, perhaps better titled


Author: Thomas A. Fretz

PP: 384

To be effective, plant propagation at the collegiate level must be designed as a lecture-laboratory course. The lecture-laboratory teaching mode enables students to acquire knowledge and become proficient with the fundamental skills and concepts involved in propagating horticultural crops.

Plant propagation in most universities is taught at the sophomore level, with few of the students having had the benefit of a practical nursery or propagation experience. In fact, more than 60% of today's undergraduate students are from urban backgrounds and may be experiencing propagation of plants for the first time. Consequently, laboratory projects must be designed to demonstrate the simplest concepts in regard to both asexual and sexual propagation.

Initially, the students need to become acquainted not only with the plants to be propagated, but also with the equipment needed. Secondly, by conducting simple projects on the evaluation of rooting media or the effects of juvenility, wounding, or


Author: Dieter W Lodder

PP: 68

The propagation of avocado trees has been discussed before this group a number of times. I presented the details of avocado production, as practiced at La Verne Nursery, at the Western Region Meeting in San Diego in 1974 (2), and a very detailed account on the same subject was given by W.H. Brokaw in 1977 (1).

I should point out that the avocado trees which have been planted in California during the last 20 or 30 years were produced by specialized growers who produced several hundred thousand trees annually, while only a relatively small amount of avocado trees were used for the home garden. At La Verne Nursery, we have been propagating avocado trees since 1972, primarily for the retail trade.

During the last few years avocado tree producers in California had to reduce their volume due to decline in demand for avocado trees. The reason for this is that most of the available agricultural areas in the relatively frost free coastal zones of Southern California have been planted to


Author: Paul E. Read

PP: 387


In teaching plant propagation laboratories, or for that matter, teaching laboratories of any sort, the objectives of the exercise must be clearly stated. Does the exercise teach a practical propagation technique? Does the exercise teach important principles of propagation? It is important that these objectives be clearly stated and that evaluation of the results be assessed in relationship to these objectives at the conclusion of the experiment.

Another important consideration is the students' preparation prior to beginning the exercises in question. It is important that they have adequate opportunity to learn fundamentals of plant science, including plant structure and functions. They should also have a reasonable knowledge of the equipment and materials required for completion of the exercise. These fundamental concepts can be taught through the vehicle of prerequisite courses or through the preliminary parts of the propagation course that precede


Author: R. Daniel Lineberger

PP: 391

Tissue culturing of plants as a means of asexual propagation is an example of a tool which was developed and refined by the research community long before it gained acceptance as a technology for use in industry. This lack of concomitant development by industry and university researchers has led to communication gaps in the implementation of techniques and applications. Since most plant propagation teaching programs cover tissue culture briefly and from a theoretical perspective, most students are unaware of the impact which the emerging tissue culture technology is having and will have on the business of plant propagation.

The Department of Horticulture at Ohio State University has begun a program to address the nursery industry's needs for individuals who have an appreciation for and some knowledge of the techniques of plant tissue culture as a propagation tool. This teaching program encompasses courses taught at several levels. Included in the program are Horticulture 415, the undergraduate


Author: Chiko Haramaki, David Beattie

PP: 395

At The Pennsylvania State University there are three plant propagation courses, each at a different level. The first one is for our two year diploma students and it emphasizes the practical with some theory. The course for the four year baccalaureate students stresses the principles as well as the practices. The graduate level course is primarily theoretical in which reports are give on specific topics is followed by discussion.

Students who take these courses are primarily horticulture students but others come from agricultural education, forestry, plant pathology, agronomy, and other plant sciences as well as students who are just interested in the propagation of plants.

The main objectives of the baccalaureate course are to develop an understanding of the basic principles of plant propagation, to develop the ability to propagate plants, to develop the ability to evaluate experimental results and to determine and apply these techniques. Another important aspect is to encourage their


Author: Gerald Verkade

PP: 397

Today, I would like to talk about "out of the ordinary" grafting techniques. The first technique, grafting a scion onto a root piece, can be used with a plant when you do not have a suitable understock and the plant is difficult to root. We have used this technique with Sciadopitys verticillata. Long root pieces are cut into sections and the scion is grafted to a root piece utilizing a side veneer graft. The grafting operation is conducted at the same time when you would root the cuttings in February-March. We have achieved a 90% success rate with this method. With Sciadopitys verticillata we have noticed that the cion is often rooted after one growing season. This is often called, "nurse-root grafting".

Every so often in an organization like ours we make a mistake. Instead of having some potted understock ready for grafting we find ourselves ready to graft and lacking understock. We have found with red, Scotch, Australian and white pines that understock can be fresh dug and if


Author: James F. McConnell, Dale E. Herman

PP: 398

Gibberellic acid (GA3) and a cytokinin, N-6-benzyladenine (BA) were applied to softwood cuttings of Salix pentandra L (laurel willow) and Viburnum lantana L (wayfaring tree) in an attempt to promote shoot growth and subsequently increase overwinter survival of the cuttings through a buildup of photosynthetic carbohydrate reserves Gibberellic acid fewer but significantly longer shoots on laurel willow while reducing overwinter survival Wayfaring tree reacted to GA3 treatment by an increase in the number of bud breaks, no increase in shoot length and reduced overwintering ability. Benzyladenine stimulated bud initiation on laurel willow, reduced average shoot length, and increased overwinter survival. Benzyladenine had little measurable effect on wayfaring tree other than slightly increasing overwinter survival.

Author: Leonard Savella

PP: 405

One of the finest ornamental trees available to us for landscaping is the dogwood. The dogwood with its large flowers in the spring, glossy green foliage in the summer, bright red berries and spectacular color changes of the foliage in the fall, and interesting horizontal branch formations for the winter make this small tree enhancing to most every landscape. In my opinion there is no other ornamental tree that can equal this year round beauty.

Propagation of the shrub forms and some tree forms of the genus Cornus is easily done by seed, layering, and cuttings. However, cultivars of the species, Cornus florida, are more difficult. Cultivars of C. florida until now, have been propagated mostly by grafting and budding with some success by cuttings.

This paper today will be on propagating the cultivar C. florida ‘Rubra’ commercially from rooted cuttings.

Before any cuttings are taken in June and July the propagation medium is prepared by mixing perlite and peat (60:40), and wetting until


Author: James S. Coartney, Robert Wright

PP: 407

Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) is a handsome forest tree localized to high elevations (>4000 ft.) of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina. Its name was given in honor of Fraser who introduced it into England in 1811. The Fraser fir is very closely related to the balsam fir. (A. balsamea) and probably originated as a relic community of the balsam fir following glacial retreat (1)

The differences between the balsam fir and the Fraser fir are subtle. The botanical separation is based primarily upon differences in the cone structure Under close observation the Fraser fir appears to have greater needle density, better color, and more wax on the buds and leaves. It is these qualities that make it a highly prized Christmas tree species. The Fraser fir also begins growth later in the spring which makes it less likely to be injured by frost. These attributes make Fraser fir a highly prized Christmas tree species which will command higher prices than good quality pine or spruce. The


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 410

Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris is a large climbing plant native to Japan and China. In its native habitat it often attaches to trees and can ascend 80 ft to the treetops. Attachment is by rootlike holdfasts which are stimulated to develop when the new shoots touch objects offering surfaces on which they might climb.

In cultivation H. anomala subsp. petiolaris has a number of landscape applications. Among these are the ability to grow over boulders, stone walls, posts of any height or on tall trees. When grown on the walls of buildings the plants can cover large areas and provide spectacular displays when in flower. An 88 year old plant of H. anomala subsp. petiolaris growing on a northeast wall of Arnold Arboretum covers about 500 square feet and has trunks 8 inches in diameter 3 feet above the ground. A 60 year old specimen which has climbed 3 ½ stories on a stucco wall is depicted in figure 1. When bare of leaves and when contrasted against the light colored wall it is bizarre. An


Author: Leo J. Donahue

PP: 414

Article I of the Constitution of the United States grants Congress broad powers to enact legislation to "promote the progress of science and the useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries."

In 1793, the Congress enacted the Patent Act, which was authored by Thomas Jefferson. The Act, which was subsequently modified in 1836, 1870, 1874, and 1952, is essentially the same today as it was written by Jefferson.

In 1930, the Plant Patent Act was enacted to afford patent protection to certain asexually reproduced plants. Before this time there were two factors which were thought to exclude plants from patent protection. First was the general belief that plants were products of nature, even though artificially bred. The second factor was that it was not thought that new varieties of plants could be adequately described by the written word. In passing the Plant Patent Act, the Senate, in its report on the


Author: Gregory Lloyd, Brent McCown

PP: 421

The multiplication at rates feasible for commercial production of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by micropropagation using shoot-tip cultures has been demonstrated. Shoot-tip explants placed initially in liquid woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 4–16 µM N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)-adenine (2iP) produced axillary shoots by 1 to 2 months. These new shoots were excised from the original explant and placed on the same WPM solidified with agar. The resultant shoot mass was subcultured monthly. Actively multiplying shoot-tip cultures were produced within 6 months. A comparison of 7 concentrations of 2iP, varying from 0 to 64 µM, showed that a concentration of 8 µM 2iP produced the greatest number of utilizable shoots after 8 weeks in culture. Stock cultures were maintained or increased monthly by removing and subculturing shoots elongating from the basal mass. Thirty to forty utilizable shoots were harvested from each culture 6 to 8 weeks after the initial subculture. Multiplication rates of 8 to 10 times were readily achieved. Harvested shoots rooted with 73% success in 4 to 6 weeks when placed in a 100% peat medium in a high humidity chamber. After a period acclimation, these plants can be treated like young seedlings in commercial production.