Volume 28

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Author: A.N. Roberts, F.W. Moeller

PP: 32

Timing the taking of cuttings of woody species to coincide with their achieving maximum rooting potential is still one of the goals of propagation research. Determining the physiological status of the stock plant and/or its cuttings at these optimum periods for root regeneration and developing means of physiologically conditioning the shoot before and during the rooting process are providing refinements in vegetative propagation techniques.

The rooting potential of Douglas fir stem cuttings has been correlated with distinct phases of development, both in source tree aging (11) and in annual shoot periodicity (9). Even phases of adventitious root initiation and development after cutting excision respond to specific stimuli (12).


Author: R. Lee Campbell

PP: 79

I want to stress the importance of knowing which root weevil is causing problems, because the steps to take to alleviate the situation vary, depending on the species of weevil involved and the stage of development of the plant. Many nurserymen and some trade journal articles discuss the "strawberry root weevil" Otiorynchus ovatus as if that were the problem. In fact, I have never seen it seriously injuring, or even commonly associated with, woody plants.

There are many, perhaps a hundred, "root weevils", larvae of the family Curculionidae, which feed on roots of plants. Some have very few hosts; others are nearly omnivourous. Some root weevils are widespread and some have a limited range. Nationally, the one of greatest concern to those who produce or maintain woody plants is Otiorynchus sulcatus, the black vine weevil (BVW).


Author: Dennis A. Hearne

PP: 474

It is now 150 years since the first documented evidence of incipient horticultural activity in the Northern Territory and, in that time, it has suffered from the vagaries of numerous officials. Horticultural activities have been dampened by a lack of sympathetic government action and a severe lack of technical knowledge of suitable crops.

During the past 12 years, I have become more and more aware of the tropical fruits and their potential in the Northern Territory. With the advent of drip irrigation and a better understanding of tropical techniques (instead of "modifying" southern Australian techniques) even those plants condemned for having origins in wet zone tropics become distinct probabilities for local cultivation.

Table 1 list some 40 species encompassing almost 200 fruit cultivars currently growing in Darwin. Most of these have been either introduced, or reintroduced, by the author and his92 associates in the past 6 years.

Obviously enough, the selection of seeds or


Author: Brian Humphrey

PP: 482

Approximately 60,000 plants are grafted under glass each year at our nursery. The species involved cover 126 genera and to achieve compatible stock-scion combinations, approximately 140 different species of rootstock must be established in pots before grafting can commence. The number of plants used in a species varies from as few as 15 to several hundred. This production cycle involves a degree of administrative organisation which may be of interest.

Author: G.H. Saul, L. Zsuffa

PP: 490

Semi-lignified green stem cuttings of several elm clones were successfully rooted in containers under specially prepared tented frames, without a misting system and chemical treatments. The cuttings were collected from vigorous sprouts produced on grafted stools. Clonal variation in rooting was observed.

Author: Edmund V. Mezitt

PP: 494

At Weston Nurseries we have been rooting cuttings of lilacs for over 40 years — even before mist systems, polyethylene or rooting hormones were introduced. Our early lilac propagation was done in a pit greenhouse shaded with lath several feet above the glass. With careful supervision and occasional hand watering the cuttings rooted quite satisfactorily, particularly the deeper colored cultivars. In more recent years, we have been rooting lilacs in poly tents or with mist. None of these methods have proven reliably satisfactory for many cultivars, particularly the white ones. Today I would like to explain our sub-irrigation method. This is simply applying water to the cuttings from beneath the rooting medium. Metal pans are the only equipment we use at the end of a greenhouse shaded with 60% saran cloth and shielded from direct sunlight with white polyethylene. The pans (8 ft. × 3 ft. × 6 in.) are filled with ¾ inch stone to a depth of 2 inches and the rest with horticultural-grade

Author: Michael Dodge

PP: 496

In Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, 2nd ed., Hartmann and Kester say that "Delphiniums can be propagated easily by softwood cuttings taken in the spring." Unfortunately, they omit to say how. After struggling for five years with a variety of techniques, we finally came up with a system which is a combination of several ideas gleaned from the Journal of Delphinium Society.

Stock plants are dug out of the fields in the fall and all leaf and stem remains cleaned off. They are packed in wooden crates with slightly moistened shingle-tow around their roots and crowns, leaving their tops exposed. The crates are stored at 36°F and brought into a cool greenhouse in mid-January to promote new growth. The greenhouse night temperature is set at 45°F and the house is well ventilated on sunny days to prevent the shoots from becoming too soft. They are left in the shingle-tow to facilitate easy removal of the cuttings. Shoots appear in about two weeks and the first cuttings are ready for


Author: Rick R. Allred

PP: 498

In my talk I hope to show how we, at Spring Hill Nursery, use Kyes Kubes to advantage in the propagation of quality perennials for mail order shipment. The process of producing perennials with Kyes Kubes is not difficult and increases profits through reduced labor costs.

The K-4 Kyes Kubes is a blend of natural peat moss with minor trace elements, wetting agent and starter fertilizer. It measures approximately 1¾ in diameter and 2 inches in height with a prepunched hole of ¼ in. diameter and ½ in. deep.

We start by setting out the desired number of Kyes Kubes to be seeded and then water them in. During the process of watering we inject Banrot at 200 ppm. to kill any soil-borne diseases; wetting agent is added to speed up the process. It normally takes 3 hours to water in 10,000 kubes. To fill in void areas between the kubes and aid in expanding root growth we peat down the kubes with Canadian peat so that the kubes have approximately ¼ inch of peat between them. The kubes are again watered to wet the


Author: T.R. Davidson

PP: 501

Virus diseases of fruit crops are worldwide in distribution. Some of these diseases cause great reduction in yield and/or fruit quality. Others result in a rapid decline and death of plants; still others are much less dramatic in their effects but the major fruit producing countries in the world now have virus-tested stock programs.

In Ontario the first attempts at setting up a special block of virus-tested trees for budwood purposes was made in the late 1940's by Dr. G.H. Berkeley of the Plant Pathology Laboratory in St. Catharines and Dr. W.H. Upshall of the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario at Vineland. They were interested in sweet and sour cherries that were free of Necrotic Ringspot and Sour Cherry Yellows. These were the first virus diseases observed in Prunus in Ontario. The first budwood was distributed to Ontario growers about 1952.


Author: Dale M. Maronek, James W. Hendrix

PP: 506

The symbiotic association between a plant root and a mycorrhizal fungus is termed mycorrhiza. The specific types of mycorrhiza associations have been described in previous issues of the IPPS Proceedings (2,4). Mycorrhizal fungi are naturally occurring organisms in over 80% of the plant taxa. The vast majority of vascular plants have evolved to a dependency on mycorrhizae either for survival or to flourish. In many instances, mycorrhizal fungi facilitate increased growth and/or selective nutrient uptake and accumulation; tolerance to environmental stresses, such as drought, temperature extremes and soil acidity, and function in protecting roots from pathogenic infection. In addition, mycorrhizal fungi are also known to produce enzymes, vitamins and growth hormones that increase root size and longevity as well as rooting of cuttings.

Because the mycorrhizal state is a universal, natural association, its importance in nursery crop production may only become apparent when we disrupt the


Author: Everett Van Hof

PP: 514

We first started propagation Taxus with no heat in the 1950's, but like all nurserymen, we had to build a greenhouse to root our Taxus cuttings. This gave us something to worry about in the winter — the snow, cold, wind, and filling the oil tank. Three years ago we returned to our original method for two reasons: the rising cost of fuel, and expanding our production would mean another greenhouse.

Author: Adrian J. Knuttel

PP: 516

Five years ago, when the price of heating oil was only 17.9 cents per gal., fuel costs were not a major consideration in designing propagation facilities. Now that the cost of oil is almost 50 cents per gal., and is expected to go much higher, it seems appropriate to optimize designs for fuel economy. At our nursery, we have had good results with a pithouse. Ours is an H-shaped building constructed of cement blocks at a cost of approximately $9000. The legs of the H are 96 × 11 ft. and 16 ft. apart. The connector between the legs is 12 × 16 ft. The walls of the connector and the inner walls of the legs are 7½ ft. high, and the outer walls are 6 ft. high. Soil is backfilled to about 10 in. from the top of the walls. The rafters are 2 × 6 spruce 3 ft. on center. There are 3 layers of plastic on the roof. We have 0.004 clear plastic on the underside of the rafters, 0.006 "602" on top cleated with 2 × 3's, and another layer of 0.006 "602" over the 2 × 3's. The connector contains a propagation

Author: Beverley R. Greenwell

PP: 83

Root weevils, the black vine and strawberry, continue to be a serious problem of nursery stock in British Columbia. Since the loss of pesticides such as chlordane and aldrin from our market, weevils have been increasing in population. Weevils infest almost every species and cultivar of plant from rhododendrons to maple and arborvitae.

Leaf notching caused by adult feeding is unsightly and renders an infested plant unsaleable. The larvae feed on roots of both established plants and liners, restricting uptake of nutrients and water. High mortality in liners results from girdling at the crown by larvae.

There is usually only one generation of weevils per year. The adults emerge from pupae in late May to early June and begin laying eggs in 2 to 3 weeks. Eggs are laid throughout July, August and September. The insect overwinters as a larvae and pupates in May.

We are now finding that with container growing, the use of heated propagating benches and polyethylene covered houses, more than


Author: Harvey Gray

PP: 517

After making and observing the rooting of Rhododendron cuttings for 30 years, it appears that cuttings made during the November-December period produce a better percentage of good rooted cuttings than to those taken at other times. It now also appears that soaking the cuttings in a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at a pH of 10.5 for 20 to 30 minutes before sticking in the rooting medium, gives much better rooting and higher percentages. This concept was developed by C.I. Lee, J.L. Paul, and W.P. Hackett and presented at the Western Region IPPS meeting in 1975 (1).

After reading this paper, I decided to run a few tests on the value of soaking wounded cuttings of Rhododendron and Ilex in NaOH solutions at pH 10.5. Trials with Rhododendron cuttings were made November 11, 1977 using cuttings formed during the August growth period of 1977. The Rhododendron cuttings were double wounded and soaked for 20 minutes in the


Author: Ray Maleike

PP: 519

Pelargonium peltatum ‘Galilee’ and a cultivar of Coleus blumei were treated with ethephon at 0, 100, 400, and 800 ppm. Treatment effects on number and length of roots and changes in endogenous levels of root promoting and root inhibiting substances were determined. Rooting was stimulated in both species at most ethephon levels, but 400 ppm seemed to be best. Increased rooting corresponded with increased levels of endogenous rooting promoters and/or decreased levels of inhibitors.

Author: Ralph Shugert, Ben Minamoto

PP: 525

The question box session was convened at 8:00 pm with Mr. Ralph Shugert and Mr. Ben Minamoto serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Has anyone propagated Viburnum nudum from seed? If so, what seed treatments were used?

DON SHADOW: The seed, unless picked a little green, will take 2 years to germinate. If picked green and planted in the fall it will often germinate the following spring.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: What is the most successful method of growing Taxus cuspidata (Syn.: T. cuspidata 'Capitata') from seed and how important is the seed source?

ED MEZITT: I collect and clean my own seed, plant them out the same fall, and cover the beds with hay. The seed germinates the second year. We have been using lead arsenate for rodent control.

CASE HOOGENDOORN: Put the seed in sane for one year and then sow it. The seed will germinate the next year. If it is dead it will never come up.

RALPH SHUGERT: Mr. Hoogendoorn hit a very salient point in this matter.


Author: Brian Humphrey

PP: 534

At present some 1,200,000 cuttings are inserted annually but expansion is being planned which will significantly increase this figure. Preparation and insertion of cuttings occurs every month of the year. March and April are the least important for woody plants but at this time propagation space is utilized for the production of herbaceous perennials. Nearly every genus listed by Hillier Nurseries has at least one species which may be propagated by stem cuttings, Where possible, propagation by cuttings has replaced grafting.

Organization and Planning. In general, this follows the same pattern as for grafting. Output is monitored weekly with occasional daily checks. Weekly meetings are held between executive and departmental management to review progress and highlight special problems such as shortage of material, etc. Progress is monitored by the use of graphs for quick appraisal.

Stock Plants. For many years the Hillier Arboterum, supplemented by local sources and stock


Author: Richard H. Zimmerman

PP: 539

The uses of tissue culture in plant propagation have been amply reviewed in the IPPS Proceedings of the past several years. In the Fruit Laboratory, we are interested in (a) rapid propagation of new selections from our breeding programs, (b) rapid increase of plants that have been indexed for freedom from known viruses, (c) preservation of germplasm, and, in the future, (d) production of haploids for plant breeding. The crops with which we are working are apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), thornless blackberry (Rubus sp.), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). We also have four peach (Prunus sp.) understocks in culture but in the future Dr. Hammerschlag of the Cell Culture and Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory will be doing most of the work on peaches at Beltsville.

Tissue culture of fruit crops is underway at numerous locations around the world. In the United States, most such work is in state or federal research stations although several nurseries are now


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 546

The Japanese umbrella pine, Sciadopitys verticillata, has long been considered extremely difficult to propagate by cuttings (4). Lowry (2), reported rooting less than 14 cuttings out of a total of 1100 taken. DeFrance (1) was more successful and obtained 50% rooting in 1938. Waxman (4) reported a relationship between the stage of plant development and the ease of root initiation. Cuttings taken after the chilling requirements were partially or completely satisfied had the highest rooting percentage. The recommended period for taking cuttings was from January through March.

Subsequent attempts to root Sciadopitys cuttings have given highly variable results even though the cuttings were taken during the recommended period. A considerable number of tests were carried out using a wide range of rooting hormones, concentrations and methods of applying them. The treatments found to be most effective were those in which the bases of the cuttings were submerged in dilute IBA aqueous solutions for


Author: A.W. Smith

PP: 550

The program for the development of hardy rhododendrons for southern Ontario had its beginning in 1958 at the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, Vineland Station, Ontario. Seed was obtained various sources, as well as plants of various species and cultivars. As hybridizing took place it naturally followed that propagation by seed and cuttings of selected plant material was of prime importance.

Seed Propagation. Propagation by seed using various peat and peat-perlite mixtures has met with a varied degree of success. The use of long fibered sphagnum moss has given the best results during the past three seasons.

Seed is gathered the last week in August or early September depending on the season. The seed pods are dried in an oven at 100°F (37.8°C) for 3 days and prepared for sowing about the 5th to the 10th of September. Long fibered sphagnum moss is thoroughly soaked in pails of water, wrung out as you would a sponge, and firmly packed in plastic trays or seed flats. Holes for


Author: R.A. Fleming

PP: 553

Good, broadleaved evergreens for northern gardens are not plentiful and selection of suitable species which will survive even the reasonably mild winters of Southern Ontario is difficult. The area of interest in establishing additional broadleaved evergreens is that bordering the Great Lakes from roughly, Toronto west to Windsor and Sarnia in the area of Detroit. This is within the area defined as Zone 6B or 7A on the Canadian Hardiness Zone Map.

The small leaved hollies, Ilex crenata and its cultivars, have been grown with moderate success for many years, but have never become popular. No studies have been undertaken by Canadian institutions to determine the adaptability of any or all of the species of Ilex which might succeed under the climatic extremes suggested.

In 1958 the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario undertook a breeding, selection and cultivar trials project with the genus Ilex. This project was to include all known species, hybrids and cultivars which might show


Author: D.A. Skeates, V.H.H. Williamson

PP: 557

A high degree of utilization is essential when genetically improved seed is used for nursery stock production. This can be achieved in systems which provide improved environmental conditions for germination and early growth. Steps in the development of a pregermination technique are described, utilizing sphagnum moss cigarette plugs for germination and the handling of black spruce germinants. After initial growth in heated greenhouses, seedlings were transplanted into standard nursery beds. Two-year-old transplants were grown, comparable to conventional three to four-year-old bare root nursery stock. Concepts are presented for automating the technique as a possible basis for development of a viable modified stock production system.

Author: David E. Vanstone

PP: 566

Basswood seed has held the interest and caused the frustration of plant propagators for many years (1,2,4). This presentation is limited to American baswood (Tilia americana L.) seed. The seed is borne within a tough indehiscent pericarp and has a crustaceous testa, a fleshy, a yellowish endosperm, and a well-developed embryo. The seed normally matures in mid to late September, but may hang on the tree into winter. Since basswood seed persists on the tree, seed collection is often postponed until long after maturity.

It was reported about basswood seed nearly 50 years ago (3) that "the germ must have a year at least on the ground among the leaves and damp mold to ripen. In planting them it is, therefore, necessary to wait until the second spring for their germination." More recently, the summary of basswood germination in Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States (5) stated that "seed treatments that consistently result in good germination have not been developed." Certainly these


Author: George F. Ryan

PP: 85

The herbicide glyphosate is well established as an important chemical for controlling many kinds of perennial weeds. These include Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), mugwort (Artemesia vulgaris), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus), and many perennial grasses such as quackgrass (Agropyron repens), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halapense), and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon).

This report will not attempt to review in detail the great amount of work that has been done with glyphosate for weed control in ornamentals. Instead it will call attention to certain aspects that may influence successful use of this herbicide when it becomes available for use on ornamentals, and may account for some variability that is observed in weed control and crop response.

Timing of applications. To properly evaluate the effectiveness of a translocated herbicide


Author: Richard A. Fenicchia

PP: 570

Magnolias can be propagated from soft, succulent shoots and from semihardened cuttings providing rigid sanitation procedures are followed. We have used the method described below on a small scale at our park. The outdoor propagating frames are constructed in a shady area and covered with sash. We do not use mist in the outdoor beds; however, one could use mist in a greenhouse. Sand and sand-peat mixtures are satisfactory rooting media. Following bed preparation, I apply a Benlate drench at the rate of 1 teaspoon per gallon of water.

Cuttings should be 3 to 6 inches long with the soft terminal bud removed and the leaves cut in half. The cuttings should be wounded on one side. I have observed that when magnolias are wounded, many roots will be initiated along the side opposite the wound.

Before sticking, the cuttings are dipped in Hormodin 3, containing Benlate. The cuttings should then be stuck 2 inches deep. A groove is made in the medium before sticking, so as not to brush


Author: John H. Alexander, III

PP: 571

Prior to becoming an Arnold Arboretum staff member, I worked for a small family owned nursery. I occasionally visited the Arboretum and, once in a while, I requested and received propagating material from them. But not until I became an Arboretum staff member did I become fully aware of the many ways a commercial propagator might make use of an arboretum. Some of the resources available from an arboretum are plants, seeds, cuttings and a myriad of information relating to them. One can also obtain help in identifying, locating and propagating plants. One can even get help in selling plants.

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Handbook, American Gardens - A Traveler's Guide, lists the names and addresses of over 100 arboreta and botanic gardens in North America. It also includes many other gardens that are open to the public. Many botanic gardens regularly publish booklets that are helpful and educational. Another BBG handbook that I often find useful is the Nursery Source Guide. It lists


Author: William Vanderkruk

PP: 574

The purpose of this paper is to show that floor heat in propagating ornamentals can be advantageous in several ways. First of all, let me point out that nearly all our propagation is done indoors in fiberglass quonset greenhouses. The reason for this is that during the early summer months, and again in the fall, the temperature fluctuates rapidly and can cause damage to the young crops. We use quonset fiberglass houses because these endure more severe weather than either glass or plastic. In the quonset houses we grow two crops per year: a summer crop consisting of deciduous shrub and perennial cuttings and a winter crop of coniferous evergreen cuttings.

Until last year these crops were rooted on raised benches. We, too, have been looking for ways to cut our fuel consumption and construction costs so we decided to use floor heat in our next house. Let me emphasize that this project is not a new thing in horticulture but I think that we have gained a few insights that I would like to


Author: Barry A. Eisenberg, George L. Staby, Thomas A. Fretz

PP: 576

Rooted and unrooted cuttings of geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum, Bailey ‘Irene’), poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, Wild. ‘Annette Hegg Dark Red’), tallhedge buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula L. ‘Columnaris’), Regel's privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. var. regelianum (Koehne) Rehd.), and compact European cranberry bush viburnum (Viburnum opulus L. ‘Compactum’), were stored up to 9 weeks using low pressure (LP) and refrigerated (RF) storage systems. Low pressure storage extended the storage systems. Low pressure storage extended the storage life of rooted geranium and poinsettia cutting 2 weeks beyond that achieved with RF storage. Unrooted geranium and poinsettia cuttings had 2 week and 4 day longer storage periods with LP than RF storage, respectively. Unrooted compact European cranberrybush viburnum, Regel's privet, and tallhedge buckthorn cuttings stored 6 weeks using LP storage were superior to RF storage. Regardless of treatment, quality of all plant materials stored decreased with each progressive removal date.

Author: Alfred Fordham

PP: 587

Alfred Fordham served as moderator.

MODERATOR FORDHAM: Our first speaker on this portion of the program will be Tom McCloud who has four plants which he would like to discuss.


Author: Bruce A. Briggs

PP: 89

A continuously on-going program is necessary to get the most out of herbicides. Products are constantly being removed from or added to the market. Research projects are underway in many geographical areas and on many different products and combinations of products. I cannot begin to cover even our own experience in the allotted time, so I shall try to give some of the highlights in graphic form with slides and an attached table showing the products which have been most effective for us.

We started our chemical weed program in the 1950's with a few basic chemicals. In the years since then, we have added to the numbers of chemicals to develop an on-going program of application to a wide range of ornamental plant material on our 80 acres, including field plantings and some half a million containers. In the past, because of the risks and liability involved, I tried to do the major part of the application myself. Now, with a backlog of information and better new chemicals, this


Author: J.D. Vertrees

PP: 93

Much has been written and spoken over the past two decades on the propagation of "Japanese Maples." The indices of the IPPS Proceedings and of the American Nurseryman will reveal this. Even so, we continually receive requests for information on recent propagation procedures for production by seed and by asexual methods. As I accrue information from successful propagators across the U.S. and in other countries, I am increasingly impressed by the variations in methods and procedures.

This fact of procedural variation should be stressed, along with the fact that completely differing procedures do not indicate that one propagator is more correct than another. It simply means that there are several successful variations, and that these should be adapted to the particular needs of each propagator as to his particular time, facility, and condition of plant handling.


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 98

The plant propagator, in our nursery community, is confronted with daily challenges and for those of us who grow plants from seed, added challenges present themselves. The so-called "new plant" is quite often there before us, but due to lack of motivation, lack of interest and too often the overemphasis on numbers, we do not take the time to explore seed beds for the unique and unusual seedling that could indeed give us the "new" plant.

When one reviews the past issues of the Proceedings of our beloved Society, we read papers discussing plant discoveries and new woody ornamental cultivars. In 1971 Donald Egolf (1) told us that a new cultivar may arise as a selection from a seedling population derived from introduced seed, a naturally occurring or induced mutant, or a hybrid resultant from a controlled pollination. I shall limit my discussion to the former — selections from seedling populations. I will try to point out the unlimited possibilities in the selection of outstanding plant


Author: R.L. Ticknor, M.H. Chaplin

PP: 101

Eight slow-release fertilizers supplying the same amount of N were applied twice during the growing season to ‘Vulcan’ rhododendrons growing in bark mixes with two ratios of calcium to magnesium, with and without trace elements. Poorest growth and flower bud set occurred in 3 nitrogen-only treatments. One nitrogen-only treatment (Organiform 23-0-0) had the highest number of well-budded plants. There was greater response to trace elements in the high magnesium treatment.

Author: Esther M. Lawyer

PP: 106

There are nearly 200 species of Prunus or stone fruits and they include plums, apricots, peaches, cherries, cherry-laurels (which are evergreen) and almonds. They appear in nature mostly in the north temperate zone. All can be cultivated and most kinds are hardy in the north and are not particular as to soil. They are usually propagated by seeds. Named cultivars of stone fruits can often be propagated by hardwood cuttings but usually they are budded on closely related stock. Seed germination of these rootstocks is the focus of this paper.

In nature the ripe stone fruit is eaten by an animal, depulped in digestion and worked on by the stomach acids. However, for reasons that are not clear, scarifying stone fruit seeds with abrasives or sulfuric acid (as is done with numerous other seeds) does not seem to help and may harm. On the other hand, thorough leaching with water does help, especially with seeds that have dried out. Occasionally there can be a seed lot ready to germinate which


Author: Michael J. Poynter

PP: 109

Intensive use of greenhouse space to maximize one's turnover rate is a key factor in having a profitable bedding plant season. In this situation, the propagator must often compromise ideal germination and growing conditions in an attempt to produce the seed flats in the space available. Valuable time is spent in their maintenance if they are placed in different areas of the range to provide different conditions for germination. At Skagit Gardens we produce over 60,000 flats of plants in the spring representing approximately a two times turnover rate of all available greenhouse space. About 3,000 seed flats are sown to provide the transplants for this operation. Our usually dark weather in western Washington increases the possibility of grower error in cultural techniques and creates problems with stretching of seedlings. To alleviate these difficulties the idea of a growing room was proposed.

In the corner of our service building we have a 20 × 20 foot insulated room with a drain in the floor


Author: Larry Carville

PP: 114

Production requirements for any seed bed operation must be a determination by top management. This decision should be periodically reviewed and kept current with market demands and production costs. If a production facility can economically purchase seedlings to fill its market needs, it should not consider seedling propagation. Certain specific needs must be considered by each management staff in reaching its decision. Some of the relevant areas are: 1) Propagation needs of the firm; 2) Seasonal planting requirements; and 3) Reliability of delivery capabilities.

The Rhode Island Nurseries, Inc., Newport, Rhode Island has always maintained a seedling production capability to meet both its propagation and production requirements. This policy is reviewed annually to reflect current needs and market trends. Great importance is attached to the needs of the propagation division in having a ready supply of understocks for grafting and for lining out.

Production output of the seedbeds is not


Author: L.H. Fuchigami, F.W. Moeller

PP: 39

The root regeneration potential of 6 species of bare-rooted conifers and broadleaf evergreens was studied in raised sawdust beds under natural conditions at Corvallis, Oregon. All plants were successfully rooted; however, a definite seasonal periodicity in rooting was found for all species studied except for Prunus laurocerasus ‘Otto Luyken’ which rooted relatively well throughout the sampling periods. All species rooted well during the July harvest period, and all but Rhododendron ‘Mrs. G.W. Leak’ and Picea jezoensis rooted well at the December harvest date. Generally, poor rooting was found among most species between the August through November harvest periods. Auxin and night interrupt with incandescent light treatments did not influence the rooting pattern. Root regeneration was significantly reduced in the 6- and 8-year-old versus the 4-year-old Abies procera plants, but no difference in rooting was found among 4- and 6-year-old Picea pungens plants.

Author: Edward W. Schultz

PP: 118

Since manufacture of indolebutyric acid and Dip-and-Grow rooting aids were banned in 1978 by the Environmental Protection Agency it was imperative that we save our dwindling supply of these compounds and go back to using naphthaleneacetic acid. Oregon plant propagators did a lot of squirming and screaming; as a result we have some good news and some bad news. IBA has been released in Oregon for five years; that is the good news. The bad news is — most of the supply of this material in this country was sent to Europe.

Cuttings can be treated by dipping the base in a hormone power, or in a concentrated solution or by total immersion. I will address my remarks to the latter method. This is a report on the use of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) as the active ingredient.

There are four logical reasons for its use:

  1. Faster sticking of cuttings, it saves one operation.
  2. Cheaper than IBA.
  3. IBA may be hard to purchase.
  4. More uniform rooting; it probably does not wash off leaf bases.

The procedure for making


Author: Robert Boddy

PP: 120

Maintaining a block of rhododendron stock plants for production of cutting wood requires more thought and attention than some of us believed was necessary. Certainly, this was the case with our firm.

We produce container-grown rhododendrons. In earlier years we relied on our stock of container plants to provide cutting wood for all of our needs. But as demand for finished plants increased we realized that more thought and planning would be required if we were to be successful in providing a good grade of cutting wood for our operations.

Our initial problems concerned the removal of wood from plants we planned to sell. We were constantly making compromises on either the quality of cutting wood or the quality of the plants we were shipping. While we were able to live with these problems we soon learned that not all of the cultivars of rhododendrons we wanted to grow responded favorably to container culture. Some had very weak roots in containers. Others were very sensitive to cultural


Author: Kendall W. Gambrill

PP: 123

The inadequacies of rhododendron species propagation throughout much of the past century created the situation which necessitated the formation of the Rhododendron Species Foundation (RSF). The 6 or 7 hundred different species of rhododendrons is a diverse group of wild plants — inhabiting regions from the North Polar land areas to tropical equatorial New Guinea, comprising plants ranging in size from mere ground creepers to trees over 50 feet tall, with leaf size from ½ inch to over 30 inches, and with flowers in all colors except blue. While the diversity, charm, and natural beauty of species rhododendrons increased demand, the supply of these plants remained limited and, too often, unreliable. Natural reproduction from seed, by which most wild rhododendrons have been introduced into cultivation, yields a varied progeny-especially seed collected from garden plants which often have been fertilized with pollen from a different species or hybrid. Vegetative propagation, which reproduces

Author: R.G. Linderman

PP: 128

It has been stated by Zahner (1965), and probably by others before, that "In the natural environment, there exists no organism that lives like a hermit." Ponder that statement for a moment, and then let's consider plants and their associations with other organisms as a example. Certainly no plant in nature lives alone, but instead is surrounded, both above and below ground, by a myriad of microorganisms covering their roots, branches, leaves, and flowers. Some live in close association with the plants because of the chemical exudations from roots and leaves that support the microbe's life processes. Consider if you will, however, the intimate association that exist between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi. Such associations are nearly universal, such that mycorrhizal associations are the rule not the exception. Healthy rootlets of most vascular plants growing in natural soil are inhabited by these beneficial fungi in a state of symbiosis. We are just now beginning to understand the

Author: Verl L. Holden

PP: 132

Mycorrhizae have long been known to influence the growth of plants. The fruiting body of this interesting family of fungi has also been known to Europeans as truffles. I first became interested in the use of mycorrhizae when Dr. James Trappe of Oregon State University presented a lecture on the use of mycorrhizae at an Oregon State University Ornamental Short Course. He suggested that mycorrhizae fungi exist on most plants when they are growing out-of-doors in native soils. He also showed some very convincing slides that illustrated what happened to plants that did not have the benefit of the mycorrhizae fungi.

Taking the hint, I dug up a kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) plant from one of my mother blocks and took the soil and roots and put them in a small cement mixer, added water and let it run for about an hour. Then I strained the muddy water through a window screen sized sieve and sprayed the diluted solution over 50,000 rooted cuttings of kinnikinnick which had recently


Author: John E. Eichelser

PP: 133

Collected plants of Kalmia latifolia, sometimes known as mountain laurel, have been used as ornamentals for many years, yet, little has been done to propagate selected cultivars in nurseries until recently. Even now most kalmias grown in nurseries are propagated from seed since their cuttings are believed by many to be nearly impossible to root.

After working with kalmia for many years we have improved our method to the point where we can produce cuttings of kalmia cultivars in quantity and can expect an acceptable percentage of rooting, usually 60% to 75%.

In our attempts to root kalmia we have used many different rooting media, including sand, peat moss, perlite, pumice sand, decomposed sawdust and fresh sawdust, both of cedar and Douglas fir. We tried every commercial rooting hormone available and even took a try at mixing our own. We have tried rooting cuttings nearly every month of the year. Some cuttings are taken in late October, but most of them are taken in January at which


Author: Wilbur C. Anderson

PP: 135

Rooting of tissue cultured rhododendrons directly from stage 2 can be successful, however, small changes in the growing environment cause variable survival rates. Uneven crop growth also has been a problem. My research has been redirected towards a stage 3 rooting step in culture in an effort to increase rooting percentages and reduce plant growth variations observed.

Author: Tsai-Ying Cheng

PP: 139

Significant progress has been made in development of tissue culture techniques to meet the requirements for mass clonal propagation of selected woody species. Regeneration of plantlets from Douglas fir cotyledons has been accomplished under defined conditions. Differentiation originated from cells residing in the hypodermal layer. Biochemical studies have shown that newly synthesized proteins with molecular weights ranging from 16,000 to 20,000 daltons are associated with developmental events. A workable Douglas fir protoplast system has been established for obtaining calluses from protoplasts isolated from cotyledon. In studies with deciduous species, in vitro requirements for mass clonal propagation on a scale of more than one million plantlets per year has been accomplished for pear rootstock, ‘Old home × Farmingdale 51’, plum rootstocks, ‘Pixy’ and ‘St. Julien X’ and ornamental Prunus cerasifera ‘Newport.’ Research with apples, cherries and other ornamentals is less advanced but is indicative that high frequency plantlet regeneration will be obtained.

Author: Roger G. Skolmen, Marion O. Mapes

PP: 156

A system of treatments was developed which permitted frequent rooting of Acacia koa shoots grown aseptically from shoot tip callus, successful transplanting of the plantlets from aseptic to normal growing conditions, and eventual field establishment of the tissue-culture propagated plants. Rooting was promoted by removing the shoots from a source of benzyladenine for a month or more before providing them a rooting stimulant. To induce roots to become functional, rooted plantlets were grown in a hydroponic medium (Hoagland's solution) for a month or more after their removal from an agar-gelled medium. To date, 82 plants of one clone have been established in the field.

Author: W. Stephen Svedin

PP: 164

Most foliage house plants come from the tropics. These plants require a temperature around 60 to 70° F to grow; they will stop growing at 50° F and will be badly damaged at 45° F. Other species come from the temperate zone and can tolerate temperatures to almost freezing and, if hardened off, can survive being frozen.

Our customers learn about the different foliage plants through a magazine or a book or advertisement where they see a perfect plant — no broken leaves, no leaf spots, and the plant has perfect shape. So, of course, that is what they want to buy.

There is our challenge, or half of it, to produce a perfect plant. The other half of our challenge is to grow those perfect plants and make a profit for the company even with the price of pots going up all the time and wages of our employees going up. This all means that of the 100 plants you start you had better sell 100 or you will not make it. There are several things that help. As you think about the kinds of house plants


Author: William C. Carlson

PP: 49

Periodic moisture stress of up to -16 bars prior to irrigation was not effective in inducing vegetative bud set in Douglas fir seedlings. Increasing stress decreased terminal bud dimensions, root weight and shoot weight and caused slight increases in shoot/root ratio but did not result in reduced shoot growth after outplanting.

An additional -8 bar stress treatment with 8-hr photoperiod and low nitrogen nutritional regime showed the smallest bud size, root and shoot weight, and collar diameter in the experiment; however, no practical effect on shoot growth was observed.


Author: Edward A. McRae

PP: 166

The past 15 years has seen a revolution in lily cultivation; this is especially true in Holland where the acreage has increased dramatically from 600 to over 3,000 acres annually. The propagation of these plants is achieved through both sexual and asexual methods and these procedures will continue to hold their place in crop production as both have their distinct advantages, depending on the market served.

Author: Ralph S. Moore

PP: 170

"Secrecy — about what you have discovered, never prevents the other fellow from making the same discovery." Fred Hoyle. (From Science and Society in Modern Times) as quoted in STONEHENGE, p. 4

This is a basis upon which this Society was founded and it is in that spirit that I wish to share some of my ideas and discoveries in cutting propagation of roses.

For many years I have been interested in the propagation of roses from cuttings. In our nursery we grow thousands of miniature roses from cuttings and I have also proposed that most garden cultivars of roses be commercially grown on their own roots. I have tried to promote the idea to nurserymen, home gardeners, American Rose Society members, etc., whenever and wherever I can get an audience.

The idea is not new but for various reasons the propagation and growing of roses on their own roots has been overlooked, ignored or opposed. In a conversation with Dr. Walter Lammerts, the Dean of American rose hybridizers (‘Charlotte Armstrong


Author: S.E. Sorenson

PP: 175

We are pleased with the used of CO2 in our softwood cutting propagation program. For two seasons we have sent CO2 through our mist lines to assist in rooting. Efficient rooting practices are necessary for us since this is a relatively large part of our business. Leaching and Botrytis infection were but a few of the problems that cut down our productivity in spite of our many sanitary practices.

In early 1977, while revising our propagation program, we discovered an article in the 1968 I.P.P.S. Proceedings entitled, "Carbonized Mist in Plant Propagation" by J.M. Molnar and W.A. Cummings, C.D. of A. Research Station, Morden, Manitoba, Canada. This showed that CO2 promoted rooting when sent through mist lines. Using this article as a model, we replumbled our mist lines in a poly propagation house. The results were striking. We did not have replicated trials so we cannot prove this statement by detailed measurements and rooting times, but we can attest to the results by visual means. There


Author: Steven L. Schalla, Kerwin Doughton

PP: 177


Container production of reforestation stock in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is a relatively new technique that has been undergoing exponential growth during the first half of this decade, yet has diminished somewhat during the second half. In 1970, about 90 thousand plugs were produced in Oregon and Washington and by 1976 nearly 54 million were grown (1). After 1976, the enthusiastic growth for container production has actually decreased to 44 million seedlings. In relation to the bare-root tree production of 170 million, the container trees represent about 20% of the total production of reforestation stock in the Pacific Northwest.

The decline of container production in the Northwest is partly due to some reforestation failures on difficult sites where plugs had been used. These difficult sites are frequently areas with brush competition and mammal browsing. Small plugs have little chance of surviving, let alone growing, when brush forms an overstory above the seedling and provides


Author: Sam MacDonald

PP: 186

Two years ago after a tour of the Scottish nursery stock market I decided to start a container unit producing trees and shrubs in the Western Highlands. The decision was momentous. It led to a complete transition in my own life and that of my family; it brought a diversification to a traditional family run hill farm producing sheep and cattle for the store market; and it marked the first full commitment by the development agency in the Highland region to the development of nursery stock in the Western Highlands of Scotland.

My story begins and ends with Kinsealy Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland. Not only did I find the encouragement which eventually led to the establishment of Barguillean Nurseries but also at Kinsealy the ingredients of what was to be, two years later, my own business.

Though relatively small as a research station the work that has been produced from the Institute is well known throughout the world of horticulture. Considering the scarce resources and manpower the


Author: Philip McMillan Browse

PP: 191

These notes are concerned with only the initial part of the stratification process. Stratification involves the chilling of a seed and this involves two factors — cold and moisture. Before the cold temperature treatment can have any effect the seed must be fully imbibed. Thus the medium with which the seeds are to be extended must hold sufficient moisture to allow the full imbibition of the seed and maintain the moist environment to prevent any subsequent water loss. The chilling effect will not begin until this stage is reached and I suspect that many of the variations in chilling time fail to take account of this fact. In practice dry seeds are put into the cold treatment and the first period is taken up with imbibition — not with the action of the cold, so attenuating the apparent chilling time.

In addition, the extending medium must maintain the aeration of the seeds as the chemical changes appear to require a fairly high level of respiratory activity. Thus the stratifying medium


Author: John E.G. Good, J.A. Bellis, R.C. Munro

PP: 192

The Institute is investigating many aspects of inter- and intra-specific variation in woody plants, including that enabling individuals to grow successfully on derelict and reclaimed land. Clonal stocks are being assembled by rooting cuttings of a wide range of species whose subsequent performances are compared with those of unselected stock in glasshouse experiments and fields trials in difficult sites throughout Britain. All four criteria (i) proportion of cuttings which root, (ii) time taken to root, (iii) time of year when rooting is maximal and (iv) survival of rooted plants after potting, have been found to vary considerably both between species and between clones within a species — a feature that influences their possible commercial use. Average rooting of elder: Sambucus nigra L. throughout the season exceeded 90% for all clones tested whereas in goat willow: Salix caprea L. rooting varied with clone from only 19% to 83% and in silver birch: Betula pendula Roth. from 9% to 68%.

Author: H.J. Van De Laar

PP: 201

At the Research Station for Arboriculture at Boskoop is a trial ground where research work is being undertaken regularly on nursery stock, for example, collections and trials with new cultivars. Quite a lot of shrubs are brought together here to examine their use in gardens and plantations.

The judging committee of the Royal Boskoop Growers Association criticises plants at shows (for example Flora Nova). These plants may be awarded a prize of a gold or a silver medal. New selections have been planted at the owners' nursery, or at the trial ground. They will be criticized several times and eventually awarded with an Award of Merit or a First Class Certificate.

Another type of judging work is that of plant collections as complete as possible. These plants will be criticised several times and provided with merit stars as follows: — *** = excellent; ** = very good; * = good; s = for special purposes; o o = can be eliminated. This type of judging work is the most valuable one. (See Table 1).

Some of the


Author: Lord Skelmersdale

PP: 209

The plants we are concerned with fall into clearly defined groups. These are:
  1. Bulbs, which are modified swollen leaves, usually but not always containing the shoots, made up to the compressed flower stem and bud; e.g. narcissus.
  2. Corms, which are modified stems, with buds externally at the bottom; e.g. crocus.
  3. Stem tubers, which are modified stems, with buds or eyes at the top; e.g. cyclamen.
  4. Rhizomes, which are modified stems growing horizontally, either on the surface of or underneath the soil; e.g. some irises.
  5. Stolons, which are again modified stems growing horizontally, but which have the shoots appearing at the ends and not all the upper surfaces; e.g. Scilla adlamii

Bulbs are the easiest of all to propagate and do so naturally with usually a year between each stage. The sequence is offset; single nose; double nose; double nose with offsets, one — occasionally two; mother bulb, i.e. a single nose bulb (occasionally absent) with numerous offsets clinging loosely together


Author: Peter Catt

PP: 212

I first bought liner stock from New Zealand in 1974. The plants arrived at London Airport on Sunday, were cleared by customs on Monday, and I collected them on Tuesday morning. That same afternoon they were potted.

This was only a small order consisting of: 25 Abelia grandiflora ‘Fracis Mason’; 25 Yucca filimentosa ‘Variegata’; 10 Pieris japonica ‘Pink Delight’; 10 Pieris japonica ‘Scarlet O'Hara’; 10 Pieris japonica ‘White Caps’; and 10 Pieris japonica ‘White Cascade’.

It was the Pieris that most interested me at that time as I was specialising in ericaceous subjects. I bought the other plants out of interest. In fact, since that time, I have widened my field of production, and annually increase my production of Abelia and Yucca as they are beautiful plants and sell very well.

Abelia grandiflora ‘Francis Mason’ has a green and gold variegated foliage and should be grown in full sun to bring out the best colour.

We take cuttings in May or June using a peat/grit mix. They root in


Author: Richard W. Tinus

PP: 58

Circling roots can stunt growth or increase susceptibility to wind breakage and blowdown. The problem can be largely avoided by growing tree seedlings in containers with vertical ribs or grooves, without sharp horizontal corners, and with an egress hole at the bottom for air pruning roots. Root configuration control is standard forest nursery practice in 30– to 700-ml containers, but now has been demonstrated in 10-liter containers intended to produce potted trees for the retail market. Additional egress holes near the pot surface may correct insufficient root production of outplanted trees.

Author: Anton Thomsen

PP: 215


Propagation of conifers by cuttings is the most common method used, but there are usually several different ways of treating cuttings of the same cultivar. More than once I have seen another nursery propagating a cultivar which we find difficult; they tell me how they do it, I go home and do exactly what they told me using the same peat, same hormones, at the same time and everything, but still I don't achieve the results as they do.

We have almost all our cuttings in our propagating glasshouse which is 20 × 61 m and made of aluminum. All the cuttings are inserted in plastic flats 30 × 60 cm with holes in the bottom so the compost can be in direct contact with the sand on the floor of the glasshouse. That way the capillary system can work so the compost does not get too wet. This also means that the flats are the furthest practical distance from the mistlines so the mist can cover the cuttings with the required minimum of water, in just a few seconds.

Almost all cuttings are inserted


Author: J.B. Sweet, R. Anne Goodall, A.I. Campbell

PP: 220

Selection of plants with improved or new ornamental characters of horticultural value has been a feature of the nursery trade for many years. Nurserymen have been aware of the variation which occurs in plant material and have selected, propagated, named and sold improved cultivars and clones. However, the major attributes considered by propagators are ease of rooting and rapid growth, much less attention being paid to the eventual appearance of the plant. In consequence it is, e.g., the easiest rooting × Cupressocyparis leylandii clone, or the more rapid growing Cornus alba ‘Gouchaltii’ cultivar, that is chosen rather than the cultivars with the best appearance when mature.

Recently a more scientific approach to the selection of nursery stocks, coupled with an investigation of their virus diseases, has been initiated in several countries. At Long Ashton propagating material of several common trees and shrubs has


Author: C.D. Cook, B.L. Dunsby

PP: 224

There is one fact to remember, and that is — that the roots of plants absorb many times their volume of air. In addition to this, one of the plant growth regulators is biosynthesised, in part, in the roots and then translocated up the plant to the leaves. This being so, it is obvious that a good root system is very important to the well being of the plant.

There has been a lot said in the press, and by various people involved in the commercial aspects of compost manufacture, about the characteristics of the additives recommended. Many of the claims made for particular groups of additives have been exagerrated and I cannot help but feel that the horticultural industry and also the amateur grower, have been exposed to gimmickry.


Author: Christopher R. Sanders

PP: 228


Most textbooks advise using relatively thin growths, preferably without a flower bud and, indeed, for the more difficult to root cultivars this is sound advice. However, for easier rooting cultivars, such as ‘Pink Pearl’ ‘Sappho’, ‘Tortoiseshell Scarlet’ and ‘Cunningham's White’, we deliberately choose strong vigorous shoots because we find we can still obtain a high percentage of success with this type of cutting and, of course, we get a much stronger one-year-old plant for lining out. Incidentally, this is a philosophy which we use with all plants where enough material is available. The terminal bud, whether vegetative or flower, is removed to encourage bushy growth. A wound is made on each side of the base of the cutting and about four leaves are left on. In the case of large-leaved cultivars, or those which have a spreading habit, these are trimmed by as much as ½ to prevent overlapping and consequent decay in the cutting bench. A start is usually made on making cuttings during the


Author: F. Charles Brooker

PP: 232

The title of this talk is taken from the chapter heading of a book that I have just written but which has not, I am afraid, yet found a publisher. The book deals with inventors; not so much what they invent but the manner in which their minds work and how they come to have their inspirations. One of the points I try to make is that the inventor's mind is quite unlike that of, say, a designer or a research worker. A designer may be a very clever fellow indeed, as also are research workers such as biologists and chemists, but they suffer from one great fault which absolutely precludes them from being inventors … they cannot see the wood for the trees! Examples are given below to illustrate this allegation and it so happens that they are all about photoperiodism, hence the title.

Since photoperiodism was discovered in 1911, thousands of researchers have studied the effect in detail, making painstaking observations on hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of plants to determine whether


Author: K.G. Stott

PP: 235

The post of Willows Officer was created in 1922 to conduct research and give advice on basket willow growing and was located at Long Ashton to be near the main basket willow growing area in Somerset. In the 1930s, H. P. Hutchinson also began to study cricket bat willows. I inherited both interests on appointment in 1949 and from the mid 1950s became more interested in the use of tree willows for paper pulp, windbreaks and land reclamation. Until recently the amenity value of this large and fascinating genus was relatively neglected. Now willows are being used increasingly for all kinds of amenity planting and it is important that those associated with propagation and the nursery trade should be aware of future requirements for propagating material, rooted plants and standard trees, and particularly of the Long Ashton Willows Collection as a source of reliable propagating material.

Author: David Hutchinson

PP: 239

Objective. To install facilities to propagate 50,000 cuttings with relatively low running cost and moderate capital investment. The system to be on high working efficiency with some flexibility to improve the design if necessary at a later date. Cutting basal temperature required: 70°F.

Design. An oil-fired boiler installation was chosen as the source of heat, as 35 second oil is cheaper than electricity by a factor of 2. A polythene tunnel 100' × 17' was already erected on the nursery to a high standard. To accommodate 50,000 cuttings an area of over 1,000 sq. ft. of warmed bed is required. Normally the energy requirement for soil-warmed beds is calculated on the basis of 15 watts of electrical loading per square foot. This is equivalent to 50 BTUs per square foot.

A second-hand 60,000 BTU boiler and a 600-gallon oil tank was purchased cheaply due to the fact that numerous domestic consumers were changing over from oil to natural gas.

Warm water at a temperature of 104°F was fed by a


Author: H. Tuthill

PP: 243

My experience of potting with machines has been gained over the past six years on my own nursery where we use both rigid and polythene bags and also through my contact with other nurserymen who have hired one of the eight machines I have at present available for that use. These are all Javo potting machines.

In the U.K. container production has increased from 19,000,000 plants in 1974 to 31,000,000 in 1977. The number of machines in use is somewhere between 150 and 200.

It is a difficult decision whether to go over to mechanised potting, not least because of the capital outlay (a minimum of £4,000 is required if you are to buy your own machine). This is where the hire service, which I offer, comes in useful as small nurseries, without enough work to justify the high capital outlay, can hire a machine for as little as one day. The big nurseries who have too much work for their existing machinery at peak times can also make use of the machinery over several weeks and sometimes months.


Author: A.Q.M. Blain, P.J. Dudney

PP: 245

An antidesiccant polythene wrapping was shown to enhance the rooting of ‘Malling Quince A’ hardwood cuttings. This increase in rooting was associated with a higher water content in the cuttings. The effect of the antidesiccant was shown to interact with the effect of applied auxin on the rooting of hardwood cuttings.

Author: M.S. Van Reenen, A.G. Wilkinson

PP: 250

The National Plant Materials Centre is part of the Aokautere Science Centre, Ministry of Works and Development, Palmerston North. It is responsible to the National Water and Soil Conservation Organisation for the breeding and selection of plants suitable for erosion control in rural and urban situations. Many plant genera are currently being imported and several of these possess clones or species with characteristics suitable for farm or horticultural shelter. The two genera with which the Centre has had the most experience to date are Populus and Salix.

Author: Richard Bush

PP: 63

Where we have had success in rooting, I think the key is the taking of a butter-soft cutting in summer and propagating in an air-conditioned environment.

We will consider specifically mahaleb Mazzard crosses — called M×M. The mahaleb × Mazzard (M×M) stocks are assumed to be natural hybrids resulting from open pollination (1). The optimum time for taking cuttings in Canby, Oregon is in July to the middle of August. The percentage of success drops after the third week in August and in September. As the cuttings are so soft, we like to take them early in the morning. The wood is cut 12 to 14 inches in length, the bottom 3 inches is stripped of leaves, and a ½" diagonal bottom cut is used with a short back cut to keep the end from being too pointed. We soak the cuttings in a solution of Diazinon and Benlate for 15 minutes; when damp dry the cutting is dusted with Hormodin #3. We have tried many types and combinations of rooting media but for dependability and ease of use, we use straight


Author: C.B. Christie

PP: 255

In New Zealand poplars are extensively used for soil conservation, farm forestry and for orchard shelter. In 1972 nearly 1 million poplars were planted.

In 1973, however, two species of poplar rust, Melampsora medusae and M. larici-populina became established in New Zealand. These fungi cause severe premature defoliation, which can result in branch dieback and even in death of the very susceptible poplar clones. Many of the most common poplar clones were affected and their continued cultivation became impossible. As a result poplar planting decreased dramatically in the following years until the first resistant clones selected by the National Plant Materials Centre (now part of the Aokautere Science Centre) became available in 1976.

It also had become apparent that a small number of the existing poplar clones were resistant to the rusts, notably Populus alba (silver poplar), P. tremula (European aspen), and P. tremuloides (American aspen). These poplars, besides being disease resistant,


Author: C.B. Christie

PP: 261

The omission of soil from growing media has reduced many management problems and improved plant growth but it has introduced some problems that require further investigation.

When evaluating factors that affect the propagation and growth of plants in soilless growing media, the physical characteristics of the medium are well known (4). However, the chemical activity of the medium is often overlooked or underestimated.

This situation has arisen partly because of the early work with container growing media in California where it was suggested that soilless media components should be of low fertility and not release or fix any plant nutrients (1). Where the growing medium is inert and of nil fertility it should be relatively easy to provide the required level of plant nutrition. If, however, the media components were supplying or withholding some nutrients then it would be difficult to maintain a particular nutritional status, unless the media


Author: Allan White

PP: 267

With the trend towards higher density planting of peach trees, low cost methods of rapidly producing large numbers of trees are desirable. Earlier this year I visited the Irrigation Research Institute, Tatura, Victoria, Australia. where they have developed two techniques for commercial production of saleable trees from cuttings in one season. Both techniques are simple; however there are several critical requirements which must be fulfilled if they are to be used with success.

Hardwood Cuttings. Pencil thick basal cuttings 25 to 30 cms long are taken from one-year-old laterals borne on branches that carried fruit the previous summer. The cuttings are typified by short internodes and are only harvested from healthy, vigorous trees less than six years old. Care in selection of cutting material is important to ensure a good strike and rapid growth in the nursery. Cuttings are taken from late June to mid-July (mid-winter).


Author: Ellaby Martin

PP: 269

When we started our nursery we grew a moderate range of plants, some in fairly large quantities, and sold a substantial amount of our total production wholesale using the income derived from this to purchase other lines for our retail requirements. As sales in our new garden centre expanded from 1970 we started to experience real difficulties in obtaining sufficient stock in adequate variety for our retail sales. About mid-1974 we decided to change our production process and try to grow the maximum number of cultivars and quantities possible for our own garden centre sales. This policy has proved well worthwhile for us particularly over the last two years as we have managed to get our re-organised production system functioning in something approaching high gear. We still buy in substantial quantities of some lines but now grow a very large range of several hundred species and cultivars.

This method of running a business works for us with, I believe, real benefits, but I'm not


Author: R.A.J. White

PP: 273


The acceptance of plastic materials for greenhouse construction has been much slower in New Zealand than elsewhere. Worldwide statistics on greenhouses suggest that generally the area of plastic greenhouses is three times the area of glasshouses. The reasons for this lag behind worldwide trends are undoubtedly very complex, but nurserymen and propagators in New Zealand are using a higher ratio of plastics to glass than greenhouse growers generally. The current emphasis on expansion of horticultural production in New Zealand and the general shortage of planting stock is causing many propagators to consider expanding their businesses. This involves difficult decisions on how best to do so. These decisions are not made easier by the wide range of alternative greenhouse covers already offered in New Zealand and the range of new material coming onto the market here and already available overseas (see Table 1).


Author: Brian J. Walker

PP: 279

Our aim in grafting eucalypts is to eliminate variability in flower colour and tree type. Grafting will enable us to produce trees true to colour and probably trees in full flower in containers. With Eucalyptus ficifolia, for example, we have trees with red, orange, scarlet and pink flowers. Another advantage of grafting is that, because the scions are from mature trees, plants immediately grow into round-headed, multi-branched bushes which are ideal for container sales.

For successful grafting, significant factors seem to be to use fast-growing seedlings for rootstocks and to obtain scions from current season's growth free of diseases and insect injury. Seedlings from October-November (spring) sowing are ready for grafting in late January or early February (late summer). At this time the scionwood is at a suitable stage of growth. Scionwood should be mature with no bud development in the axils of the leaves. Scions with two leaves are best. The leaves are removed


Author: Vernon Harrison

PP: 280

For over 25 years I have been struggling with the production of named cultivars of walnuts by budding and grafting. This was taken on more by the way of a challenge than any particular interest in the crop.

Results from patch budding varied dramatically from season to season. All attempts at variation in techniques gave no conclusive answers. For several seasons there would be almost complete failure but the next season the percentage would be high and the resultant growth of the buds was always very satisfying, generally growing an average of 1.5 meters in a single season.

I then realised that temperature subsequent to budding was an elusive factor and that, in seasons when the success was high, budding would have been followed by hot sunny calm weather for at least 10 days. This seems to be verified by the fact that successful commercial propagators of walnuts were located in climates where the weather at the time of budding or grafting could be relied on to be hot and settled.


Author: Sidney B. Meadows Jr

PP: 284

The nursery business has been around for a long time, but we can say it has matured into an industry in the last thirty years.

A changing way of life in the nursery business. Anytime we break away from the familiar path of proven practices and procedures and embark upon the unknown trail of new systems, a certain amount of initiative, ingenuity and risk are involved. The comfortable thing for the short run would be to remain status quo. In the long run nothing could be more disastrous. The changing world we live in has dictated that we make changes, and from all appearances this will continue.

Thirty years ago the starting wage for a southern nursery worker was $3.00 for a nine hour day; there was no social security payment, unemployment compensation, or minimum wage.

Today in Alabama we have, for all practical purposes, a $3.00 per hour starting wage, a 6.13% social security tax on annual income up to $22,900.00, and an unemployment tax of 2.7% on $6,600.00 of a worker's annual wage.


Author: J. Bradford May

PP: 288

May Nursery began operations in September, 1971, with the purchase of 14 three gallon Pittosporum tobira ‘Wheeler's Dwarf’ to be used for stock plants. After we built our first propagating houses, we immediately saw the need to cut production cost. We went from a house constructed of cedar with a concrete foundation, to a galvanized pipe quonset type house, then to a larger PVC framed house. We use ½ to 1 inch heavy PVC strapped on to a fence post. We strap a 45 degree angle PVC guard to the post and slide it over a galvanized support. We space the PVC supports somewhat closer than galvanized ones. There are five galvanized purlins — one down the middle and two on each side. The houses hold up well except in severe storms such as tornadoes.

The houses were first used as winter storage for the plants, which were propagated either in trays or in the ground and then transplanted into 3 inch round cups. One of the biggest savings we made was to eliminate the step of propagating in trays on


Author: Edsel Yager

PP: 292

We are all familiar with the increased costs in the production of nursery stock. Labor is our largest production expense. This fact has prompted us to try new techniques in liner production. As an example we found that if we reduced our labor force by 10 people, we could maintain our expenses at the same level as operating costs increased. Using the smaller work force did not allow us to increase productivity but did help us to maintain our production costs rather than increase them. Following is a description of our liner production system.

First of all, we use sand as a rooting medium because we can obtain this material within 15 minutes after we have ordered it. We use a mixture of 50 percent sphagnum and 50 percent Michigan peat for a potting mix. The liners are potted in rose pots and bedded in our lath house with about ¼ to ½ inch of sand over the top. The sand helps to keep them from freezing out of the pot and also helps to hold moisture. These liners are grown here for one year


Author: Richard G. Maire

PP: 64

At the request of the California State Department of Food and Agriculture a study was made of commercial potting mixes available on nursery shelves for purchase by the general public. This request was made because of complaints from consumers based on the performance of some of the mixes.

Twenty-nine potting mixes were purchased off the shelves of all type nursery outlets. The following are the mixes that were tested and these include the U.C. mix which was used as a standard or check, since knowledge of its performance was well known.


Author: Henry H. Chase Jr

PP: 293

The objective of having a clean nursery must be important to management for it to be achieved. It must be top priority and it cannot be accomplished without work. By a "clean" nursery we mean one with a minimum of weeds. Plans are important and it is much easier to carry out those that are committed in writing.

Identification of the weeds to be eliminated is the first step. We have found the Growers' Weed Identification Handbook (1) published by the Agricultural Extension Service, University of California, to be very helpful. It has full color photographs and descriptions of most weeds. It also shows the weeds in both juvenile and mature stages.

Second, it is important to decide what course of action to take in the various areas of the nursery, including crop; areas fallow areas; and peripheral areas, such as turnrows, ends, roadsides, meadows, and ditches.

Third, the tools that are available should be reviewed. These can be mechanical or chemical. Mechanical tools include cultivators


Author: Vivian Munday

PP: 295

What is the role of schools in training plant propagators? Unfortunately, there is no authority to say, "This should be taught. That should not." Even when curriculum guides are followed, there is question as to what should be emphasized. Each propagation situation is different, and the most used knowledge or skill in one will not often be the same as that most helpful in a different nursery, greenhouse, outdoor field, or inside lab. However, there should be certain basic concepts and skills that would be important to an individual learning specific requirements for a particular environment. What are these basic?

A representative sampling of propagators was asked to rate certain basic principles, technical knowledge, and applied skills as to their importance. A form, given as Figure 1, was sent to the propagators with the request that each one circle the 10 items most important for an individual interested in becoming a


Author: F.T. Davies Jr, J.N. Joiner

PP: 306

Adventitious root formation was studied in juvenile and mature Ficus pumila L. (Creeping fig) using stem, leaf-bud and leaf cuttings to find the optimal type for root developmental sequencing research. Leaf-bud cuttings were superior to other types since mature leaf-bud cuttings responded positively to auxin treatment, adventitious rooting occurred de novo from internodal areas and rapid rooting was obtained to minimize environmental-physiological variables. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was more effective than indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in stimulating rooting of leaf bud cuttings.

Author: Richard J. Stadtherr

PP: 313

A very informative paper by Dr. Robert Wright on the physiology of plant tops during winter appears in the 1977 IPPS Proceedings (Southern Region) (4). Following is a summary of certain concepts presented by Dr. Wright that are pertinent to a consideration of the effects of fast or slow freezing and thawing in plants.

Acclimation is the seasonal transition of plants from a tender growing condition to a hardly overwintering condition in species that go into a rest period. During rest internal factors prevent growth until certain biochemical and physiological requirements have been satisfied. After these changes have occurred, it is possible for growth to resume when there are good environmental conditions. Shortened days in fall and winter with decreased temperatures trigger various biochemical, biophysical and physiological changes in plants. Cells also undergo dehydration at this time. Plants can resist freezing either by avoidance or tolerance of low temperatures. Annuals live over


Author: Gerald Smith

PP: 319

Only a small percentage of southern nurserymen producing plants in containers use a solubridge to test for soluble salts (salinity). This unfortunate since a solubridge is one of the most important diagnostic tools that a nurseryman can use in making intelligent fertility decisions. A solubridge works on the simple principle that a water solution containing high concentrations of dissolved minerals (ions) is a better conductor of electricity than one with low amounts of minerals. The solubridge is calibrated to measure this conductance of electricity.

Lack of acceptance of this tool in the container nursery industry is basically due to three factors: (1) lack of experience by nurserymen in its use, (2) lack of confidence in interpreting the results due to the wide variations in testing procedures, and (3) cost. Most reliable instruments are in the $200 to $300 range.

Commercial and State University labs will make soluble salts determinations for nurserymen; however, this usually


Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 324

Converting chemical soil test measurements into recommended amounts of lime and other fertilizer treatments should involve more than simple mathematical calculations. The goal of a fertility program should be to optimize economically the ability of a specific soil to supply essential nutrients for a specific crop.

Many factors affect soil fertility and productivity. Some of these factors are subject to control or change and some are not. We shall not attempt to consider all factors here. However, it should be remembered that when considering the nutritional needs of plants, the controllable, as well as the uncontrollable factors will have a bearing on the fertility program plan and the resulting quality of plants produced.

Crops vary in their nutritional requirements. Soils vary in their ability to supply those nutrients needed to satisfy those requirements. Climatic factors affect crop growth and fertility response as well as management and cultural practices. Standardization of


Author: R.E. "Ed" Brown

PP: 332

All of our container-grown plants are fertilized with dry fertilizer applied by hand. Water soluble fertilizer is used on our liners.

We machine pot all of our 1 gallon and 3 gallon containers and hand pot 7 and 15 gallon containers.

We buy our potting mix already prepared. This consists of three parts local peat, one part builders' sand, and two parts cypress shavings; 110 lbs Hy-cal lime, 70 lbs dolomite, 72 lbs Perk minor element mix and 5 lbs chlordane are added to an 18 yard load of the potting mix. Fertilizer is applied to one gallon containers by using a plastic teaspoon, which holds ½ ounce of 6-6-6 or Osmocote. The first application is made within a few days after potting, using a 6-6-6 formulation containing minor elements. The nitrogen is all derived from organic material. The 6-6-6 is used as a starter because no fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus or potash is added to our potting mix. This application is made after plants are placed in the beds.

The second fertilizer


Author: Tom Dodd III

PP: 334

The objective of our fertilization program is to provide the proper nutrients at the proper levels in the least expensive manner. There are several problems with containers that make it necessary to modify standard fertilization methods. One major problem is the soil medium itself. We normally use two parts milled pine bark and one part German peat moss for the majority of our ericaceous plants and add sand for other container ornamentals. The nutrients available initially in the peat and bark medium are not adequate for optimum plant growth. We, therefore, must add nutrients as required. The other major problem is leaching. With containerized stock, irrigation practices are different because more water is used to wet this self-contained environment properly, and we observe considerable leaching. Thus, we have a loss of many nutrients and depression of soil pH.

In attempting to overcome these problems economically, we divide our program into three basic methods: 1. Premix the medium and


Author: Curtis W. Wilkins

PP: 336

The nursery industry is continually faced with maintaining a balanced fertilization program for optimum plant growth and low production costs. The nurseryman must compare the maximum beneficial effects of fertilizers with the cost of application of the fertilizer. After making this comparison then one can consider which method of application is most suited for a particular operation. Let us consider the options for applying fertilizers to container-grown stock: 1) balanced fertilizer added to the soil medium prior to the canning of stock; 2) granular or slow-release bulk fertilizer applied as top-dressing; 3) liquid-feed (fertigation), generally provided to the plant material at continuous levels, All of these methods have their distinct advantages and disadvantages. However, the nurseryman must decide which mode of application or combination of applications is best suited for the individual operation.

Greenleaf Nursery has adopted a modified combination of top-dress application and a


Author: Raymond P. Oglesby, Randall E. Strode

PP: 341

Ornamental plant tissue culture successes in California have stimulated Florida growers' interest. Because of refinements in laboratory technique and the availability of commercially produced and packaged tissue culture media, tissue culturing commercially has become practical and profitable. This report will describe steps in rapid propagation of certain ornamental plants, including Ficus elastica ‘Decora Burgandy.’ Methods, technique, conditions and duration are described in detail from the initial shoot tip explant to outdoor planting and growing in 6-inch containers.

The tissue culture lab at Oglesby Nursery is just into its fourth year. Our present facility occupies 2,000 square feet and has a capacity of over 60,000 culture tubes, or a productions level of over four million plants per year. We employ 13 people. High school students are used to wash the glassware. The development of the lab has been a tremendous expense; its operation is also expensive. Its function is to utilize


Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm

PP: 66

Peat has been a standard component of propagation and growing media for many years. Bunt (3) describes peat as by far the most widely used material for making plant growing media. Its water-holding capacity is valued in propagation. In growing media, its nutrient holding capacity, "buffering" capacity against rapid pH changes and excessive soluble salts accumulation, and ability to improve aeration are additionally useful.

Peat is far from being a uniform product (3,11). Nursery and greenhouse growers experience variable performances with use of different peat sources.

Varying physical and chemical properties of peat depend primarily on the nature and origin of the plant remains of which it is composed and their degree of decomposition (14). Commonly used peats consist mostly of decayed sedges, mosses, reeds, and grasses. Different types of peat, in varying states of decomposition, occur at specific locations throughout the world, mostly in the boreal climates of the Northern Hemisphere


Author: George Oki

PP: 344

Plant tissue culture is the placing of excised plant cells, tissues or organs in artificial environment for the purpose of controlling the development of the explant. Plant tissue culture is pertinent to those in commercial horticulture as a method of achieving rapid vegetative multiplication. Shoot tip or shoot apex culture is the usual method; however, other tissues such as bulb scales, leaf parts, petioles, and embryos are also often used.

Plant tissue culture is not a new science as Haberlandt was the first to place leaf tissues into a nutrient solution for observation in 1902. Successful embryo cultures were achieved in 1904 by Manning. In 1934 White succeeded in culturing tomato roots, which display unlimited growth. These cultures are still being maintained; 1934 was also important due to the discovery of the auxin, indoleacetic acid. Gautheret and Nobecourt in France, and White in the United States, all reported the indefinite culture of callus on an artificial medium. Van


Author: Nicholas P. Hand

PP: 348

Cultivars: At Ozark Nurseries we propagate the following lilac cultivars: Syringa vulgaris, produced from seed on raised beds, Syringa rothomagensis (Chinese lilac), Syringa vulgaris ‘Charles Jolly’, Syringa vulgaris ‘President Grevy’, Syringa vulgaris ‘Mme. A. Buckner’, Syringa vulgaris ‘Mme. Lemoine’.

The average combined number of cuttings stuck each year is 240,000. Of this number, 160,000 are French lilacs.

Cutting beds: Our cutting beds are 60 feet by 40 inches mini-Quonset structures. Retaining walls are constructed of 2 by 6 inch lumber. A 2 by 4 inch board is used to frame the beds. In our older beds a clay drain tile is run down the center of each, and in our newer beds French drains are used. A French drain is a ditch filled with gravel and is not too satisfactory. We use a medium of native soil (light clay loam) with peat moss added each year to increase the organic matter. The amount of peat added varies with each individual bed. Osmocote 18–6–12 is then added at the


Author: Bill Curtis

PP: 351

In Oregon, we use two successful methods for increasing the several named clones of Acer palmatum. The older method is the side graft, used in the grafting of many ornamentals. This operation is done in the greenhouse during late winter — January and February. For a number of years several nurserymen have been using a modified budding method called "The Bud Stick" method. Those who are doing it this way are getting excellent results. I will cover both methods in this paper.

We use Acer palmatum for understock, shifting a heavy seedling or rooted cutting from a 2¾ inch rose pot to a standard 1 gallon container. This is done in the early spring to assure growth by the dormant season of the following fall. This understock is grown in a covered plastic structure and reaches a height of 3 to 4 feet with a caliper of a lead pencil size or larger by the time it is budded. In the Southeast the shade house would do the same job.

Side graft. About two weeks before we are ready to graft, we shift


Author: Carl Bauer

PP: 353

We began experimental production of Picea glauca ‘Conica,’ dwarf alberta or dwarf white spruce, about 3 years ago in search of some new items to add to our production. It was our opinion that we could propagate this plant without too much difficulty, but we were not sure that we could adapt it to our operation. Our production is such that it is not feasible for us to root any plant that we cannot propagate in quantity.

We began by sticking a limited number of cuttings in December in the manner that we stick Taxus cuttings. The cuttings were stuck in ground beds in a poly house. The medium consisted of soil, finely ground pine bark and coarse sand. Since there was no heat in the house, the cuttings did not root until early summer after the soil had warmed to about 70°F. During the winter, the cuttings were kept turgid by light intermittent mist. The mist was removed after rooting had been accomplished. The plants were grown under 50 percent shade and responded well to fairly heavy


Author: Harry W. Hopperton

PP: 355

Mr. William Straw is the originator and patent owner of the Aristocrat pear, Pyrus calleryana ‘Aristocrat.’ This new thornfree cultivar was found in 1969 growing among seedlings of Pyrus calleryana at the Carlisle Nursery, Independence, Kentucky. Mother Nature created and holds the mystery of the ancestry.

In our budding procedure of this plant. we start out with a good balanced, pliable soil with a pH close to 6.1. We apply 275 to 300 pounds potash and phosphate per acre. We then line out seedling understock of Pyrus calleryana, pencil caliper with a good fibrous root system. We had trouble with our seedlings but finally found a selection out of Whiterock Nursery, Crockett, Texas, which is one of the best. It has good root system and we have had excellent success. For example, in one row of 510 seedlings, we may have only 30 misses. We consider this a good stand. We like to plant our understock especially deep to help prevent drying. In addition herbicides that are used have a harder


Author: John (Ed) Kinsey

PP: 357

Kinsey Gardens is located near Knoxville, Tennessee, where we get competition from the far south but also have the cold climate. We have many disadvantages of the north and some advantages of the south. We have two nursery locations. Although the management is different, the company is the same. We started out as a retail landscape nursery and have slowly changed into a wholesale operation. Since 1971 our primary crops are azaleas and rhododendrons with emphasis on azaleas. Since we are relatively small nursery, we are trying to maximize use of our present facilities. We feel we can do so by growing items that are difficult to produce in the far south such as rhododendrons.

Recently, there has been a demand for hardy landscape plants that do not grow rapidly, require little maintenance, and have good foliage and form contrast. We have been surprised by the interest in new and unusual dwarf conifers. Color is receiving the most attention. Any plant that is blue, gold, or variegated is


Author: Carl Bauer

PP: 360

Last year at the IPPS, Southern Region, meeting I gave a paper on producing dogwood, Cornus florida, by cuttings, which dealt mainly with producing dogwood by softwood cuttings. This paper is published in the Proceedings (1). Since that time we have had another year's experience with propagating dogwood by cuttings.

Although most of our work has been with softwood cuttings, I think we should get into the Proceedings our experience with dormant cuttings since we have seen no papers on this subject. Dormant Cuttings have one distinct advantage over softwood cuttings in that no special protection is required during the winter. However, after our experience during 3 years' work, we have decided to give up on this approach. At best we were able to get only about 30% of the cuttings to root as compared to 85% from softwood cuttings.

Our procedures were as follows:

  1. Cuttings were taken in mid winter when completely dormant. This is a must. Cuttings taken a little early or a little late produced leaved in the spring and then died.
  2. Cuttings

Author: Raymond L. Self

PP: 363

Pine bark (phloem and cork cells) is produced by vascular cambium and cork cambium. Vascular cambium is the 2 to 4 cell layer which separates the phloem from the wood (xylem). The living part of the phloem consists primarily of food transporting cells called sieve tubes, which live one to two years before dying the outer bark. Cork cambium is the outer portion of the living phloem and produces the protective layer of cork cells. The inner bark, or living phloem, is often erroneously referred to as the cambium.

The literature on pine bark usages and problems id becoming voluminous but with several years of usage in many geographic areas, a clearer picture is now arising as to desirable grades, effect of aging, effect of composting and problems of disease and fertility.

Grades. Grades refers to particle size and composition. Both particle size and composition from a single species of tree


Author: Gregory L. Ammon

PP: 368

In our container growing operation we have tried various soilless media. Since cost was the biggest factor to be considered, we had to search for the most available raw material that could be used. We have no source of peat moss or softwood bark within 400 miles. Hardwood bark is available about 100 miles distant. Information based on research work done by Dr. Jack Gartner at the University of Illinois led us to decide this would be our most practical medium. Due to the tannic acid content and heat build up, raw bark must go through a composting period before it can be used as a growing medium. We purchase raw hardwood bark from the Mead Paper Company in Chillicothe, Ohio, and do the composting at our nursery. They also have available composted bark.

The already composted hardwood bark delivered to our nursery is $20.50 per cubic yard in 55 cubic yard loads. To this we add coarse sand and Kenlite


Author: Richard D. Van Landingham

PP: 370

The growing medium for plant production in a container nursery must be considered with utmost care. Many leaders in the industry feel that the growing medium is the single most important element in a container growing operation. Many of the production problems faced by nurseries today are directly affected by the growing medium used. Some of these problems are: root and stem diseases, fertilizer deficiencies or buildups, and moisture retention.

The importance of a good growing medium has been recognized at Wight Nurseries. Several changes have been made since our original mix of two parts peat moss and one part sand. Today we use a mixture of three parts pine bark, one part sand and one part shale for all plants. For years growing media using peat moss, or peat moss and sand, were the most widely accepted. Other soil media were evaluated only when the increasing cost of peat and the spiraling freight cost of transporting high quality German peat made its cost prohibitive. It was in


Author: Duane L. Coyier

PP: 70

The use of peat moss as a constituent of media for growing and propagating plants is an old and well accepted practice. Although its properties may vary slightly, depending on its origin, peat moss generally has a high moisture-holding capacity, a low pH and contains a small amount of nitrogen (3). Its primary function as an additive to propagation media is to increase moisture-holding capacity.

Introduction of plant pathogens in peat moss has received little attention among plant propagators. Kim, et al. (4) isolated several pathogenic fungi from foreign and domestic sources of peat moss and stated that peat may serve as a vehicle for the entry of plant pathogens from foreign countries. Their observations also suggest that plant propagators might introduce pathogenic organisms into cutting beds, seed flats, etc. through the use of contaminated peat moss.

An example of such contamination occurred several years ago in Oregon when Penicillium spp. infected the basal portion of


Author: John F. Brailsford

PP: 372

Agriculture is a risky business. The extremes of weather are, perhaps, the worst of the many hazards faced. Most weather-related hazards are uncontrollable. However, any action that can be taken to alleviate the extremes helps to reduce the risk and increase crop production.

Our initial problem was one of drainage. While attempting to solve this problem, we devised a system of water table control, with the help of the Soil Conservation Service, that presently serves 108 acres. This system has provided us with drainage as well as protection from drought. It has enabled us to transplant successfully during the growing season. A water table control system with modifications to fit other situations may be of benefit.

We own two farms that are located just east of the city of Orangeburg, South Carolina, in an area that is commonly known as the "Flat Woods." The nursery is located on the farm nearest to town. The other we refer to as the "Lower Farm". We had a serous drainage problem during



PP: 381

LES CLAY: I would like to know more about icing plants for winter protection.

JAKE TINGA: Dr. Charles Hendershott, who is now at the University of Georgia, made his fame on studying freezing and thawing in plants. He prevented freezing in several crops of Florida oranges. When water freezes, it releases a tremendous number of calories. This is called heat of fusion. When liquid water is put on from an irrigation system and it freezes on impact, heat is released. I prefer to say cold is absorbed. As long as liquid water is put on, temperature will stay right at 32°F. If the water is turned off and ice forms, that ice will go to 31°, 30°, 29° and on down. When the temperature drops as far as 15 degrees below freezing, it is very difficult to put the water on fast enough to keep the temperature at 32°. I have iced out a field and saved that field just by turning on the irrigation. It must be turned on before freezing starts and left on until after all the ice is melted. Do not turn it


Author: S.H. James

PP: 389

Many of our most beautiful and horticulturally desirable native plants are remarkably seed sterile. The empty cones of so many Banksia species and the scarcity of seeds amongst Verticordia fruit collections bear witness to this. The phenomenon is not necessarily one imposed to test the patience of plant propagators; it is more probable that natural selection has incorporated sterility into the genetic systems of these plants as part, or as a consequence of, a reproductive strategy that has hitherto proved to be quite successful. Detailed analyses and real understanding of the genetic systems is available in a very limited number of native plant groups. Isotoma petraea and Stylidium spp. are rather horticulturally unimportant, but they are fascinating plants, and lessons learnt from their genetic systems may well be useful in understanding biological strategies in other plant groups which may be less amenable to investigation.

The sexual cycle in plants. Seed formation is the result of


Author: K.G. Stevens

PP: 399

Growing cutting-propagated callistemons in containers has almost made production from seed impractical. Several cultivars are now available and the ones I prefer for nursery production are:
     ‘Park Special’ — originated in W.A. and has proved to be a magnificent red cultivars.
     ‘Gawler Hybrid’ — a large red-flowering form from South Australia.
     ‘Endeavour’ — one of the best and one of the most popular.
     ‘Dawson River’ — a lovely vivid red with a weeping habit.
     ‘Viminalis Prolific’ — very compact flowered form.
     ‘Hannah Rae’ — a pleasant red, most useful for tub specimens.
     ‘Captain Cook’ — a most imposing dwarf form with deep red flowers and very useful in mass plantings.
     ‘Western Glory’ — a splendid delicate pink.

Cuttings are taken around November at the beginning of the summer months, although when I have been very pressed for stock I have taken cuttings during the winter months and had quite good results. There are two types of wood used depending on the cultivar. Half-ripened tips are used for


Author: Olga M. Goss

PP: 400

Before going deeply into this subject it is essential that you realise a fundamental truth in relation to plant disease. For a plant disease to develop, whether it be during propagation or following planting out, three things are essential. There must be:
  1. a susceptible plant
  2. the disease-causing organism, and
  3. a favourable environment for the pathogen.

Unless all three are present at the same time disease will not develop.

  1. The susceptible plant. All plants are not susceptible to the same diseases. Even within the same broad group of plants, some are resistant while others are susceptible. With the resistant plants they can be susceptible at the very early stages of growth, but with susceptible plants they are more liable to attack by disease causing organisms only at certain growth stages, e.g. just after emergence as tender seedlings.
  2. The disease organisms (pathogens). These may be bacteria, fungi, nematodes or viruses. Some organisms, e.g. Botrytis, are almost ubiquitous in their

Author: Horst Dargel

PP: 406

The pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) is a close relative of the walnut; both are members of the family Juglandaceae. The pecan is native to the eastern half of the U.S.A., embracing the states of Illinois down to Texas and east to the Atlantic Ocean. Since the European settlers were first introduced to it by the Indians, the pecan has enjoyed a tremendous popularity in the U.S.A. Huge pecan groves have been established in California, Texas and New Mexico. Some forty years ago trial plots were planted in Australia and in a number of other countries which have a suitable climate.

The pecan tree can produce fruit for over 100 years and it can grow to an enormous size. To illustrate, there are old orchards in the U.S.A. where four trees occupy a full acre. The trend there and elsewhere is to select or breed cultivars and match them with rootstocks which will produce medium sized trees, rather than the giants of the past. Of course, as with all relatively uncommon crops such as avocadoes,


Author: George O. Gay

PP: 410

When bedding plant production commenced in Western Australia early this century soil used for seedling trays was basically composted plant material, the source being straw, weeds, expended plant material, stable manure and straw, or any decayed plant material available. As the demand for larger volumes of growing media outstripped the supply, various mixtures of loam, sand, cinders and stable manure were used.

The acceptance of the U.C. system for container grown plants saw, for the first time, a soil mix with actual measured amounts of the elements required for plant growth. Sphagnum peat and fine sand provided the basis of inert material. Problems continued with the volume of sand used. The local sand supply was abundant although the particles sizes were considered small. Variable pH meant a close watch was needed on this. The weight factor was a problem in loading up mixing machines, conveyors, conveyances and caused increased delivery costs.

In recent years, because of the high cost


Author: M. Richards

PP: 411

The importance of using the best possible techniques for watering plants is not always recognised in commercial nurseries, largely because plants have a very considerable ability to survive less than ideal conditions, without showing visible signs of the effects of those conditions. It is only when such plants are compared with plants grown under better conditions that the full effects of poor watering techniques can be appreciated.

Plants use very large quantities of water growth, yet comparatively little of this water is retained in the plant. In the lower surface of the leaves are the stomata; during daylight hours these are open to permit air to enter the leaf. Inside the leaf the air comes into contact with cells whose walls are bathed with water; carbon-dioxide is absorbed into this water, and passes into the cells, where it is used in photosynthesis. At the same time, water is evaporated from the cell wall and carried outside the leaf in the air current. This process, called


Author: J.A. McComb

PP: 413

A critical review of the published papers on plantlet regeneration of woody species shows that very few reported systems are ideal for clonal propagation. Some depend on use of embryonic, juvenile and endosperm tissues, or on tissues such as the nucellus of Citrus that show unusual properties. In others plantlets regenerated from callus have poor vascular connection between roots and shoots and die on transplanting to pots.

Culture methods that induce multiple shoot production form excised shoot tips or axillary buds, and the subsequent rooting of these shoots without the involvement of excessive callus offer greatest potential. One such method, that developed by Jones and coworkers (37) for apple, is described and is being applied to apple rootstocks in quarantine in Western Australia. The question of the role of the phenolic compound phloroglucinol is discussed.


Author: R.A. de Fossard, Mark T. Bennett, Janet R. Gorst, R.A. Bourne

PP: 427

Cultures of seedling material on a rooting-medium develop one type of root system in the absence of riboflavin and another type in the presence of this growth factor; these effects appear to depend on either the light intensity or quality during incubation.

The interactions of IBA, BAP, gibberellic acid (GA3), riboflavin, and sucrose in the culture medium and their effects on the multiplication and rooting of adult material are described. Riboflavin and GA3 inhibit callus and rooting; GA3 is antagonistic to BAP; IBA is essential for callus and rooting and these effects are enhanced by a low concentration of BAP. High concentrations of sucrose impair the health of cultures. More callus and rooting is induced on media with low concentrations of nitrate.


Author: Kenneth F. Baker

PP: 72

Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of avocado is biologically controlled in Queensland, Australia by intensive cover cropping and application of chicken manure and dolomite limestone. This is now standard practice there. Root rot of pineapple in Queensland, caused by the same fungus, is now commercially controlled by a preplanting application of sulfur to lower the soil pH below 3.8 Root rot of eucalyptus in Western Australia forests, caused by P. cinnamomi has been experimentally controlled by changing the understory from highly susceptible Banksia spp. to highly resistant Acacia spp. through controlled burning. All of these successful procedures involve both biological and ecological control by mechanisms not yet fully understood, but under further investigation.

Author: Janet R. Gorst, R.A. Bourne, Shirley E. Hardaker, A.E. Richards,

PP: 435

Favourable results have been achieved in the tissue culture propagation of Grevillea cv Robyn Gordon and Grevillea cv Crosbie Morrison. Multiplication rates have been fairly high, despite the fact that both hybrids have tended towards single rather than multiple shoot development. Success with rooting cultures has differed, ‘Crosbie Morrison’ giving 98% success and ‘Robyn Gordon’ about 60%.

The growing on of cultured plants in soil has presented some problems, and it is obvious that they require more careful attention than normal cuttings.

The methods of propagation are described and successful media for the multiplication and rooting stages are given.


Author: K.G. Lasscock

PP: 447

When assessing a new soil medium there are three broad areas to be considered: the chemical environment of the medium, the physical environment of the medium, and managerial aspects. Each of these areas can be analyzed logically.

Chemical Environment. There are four factors to be analyzed:

  1. What are the ideal nutrient levels;
  2. How does the applied fertilizer's output vary with time;
  3. What are the detrimental by-products within the fertilizers;
  4. What beneficial chemicals are present.

Firstly, the question of ideal nutrient levels. Below is a roughly ideal general soil analysis (ppm): nitrogen (total) 170; phosphorus 85; potassium 185; magnesium 320; iron 500; calcium 1750; copper 2; boron 2.5; manganese 50; molybdenum 2; zinc 25.

One may well have an analysis like this but those nutrients may not be available to the plant. Since nutrient availability is linked to soil pH, aeration, water supply, soil texture and symbiotic micro-organisms, these factors must be considered too.

A pH of 5.8 to 6.2 results in a happy trade off between the


Author: R.K. Ellyard, D.K. McIntyre

PP: 450

Western Australian species of the genus Banksia have, in general, proved very difficult to grow in Eastern Australian states. In many cases the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi has been blamed.

Webb (5) has, following extensive observation as to the soil environment of successfully grown Western Australian species and on the basis of field trials, concluded that the addition of high levels of lime to soils permitted the successful growing of many Western Australian Banksia species in Canberra.

At the National Botanic Gardens there has been considerable difficulty in propagating Western Australian Banksia species. In most cases death occurred soon after pricking out into the standard UC mix used at the Gardens. This mix contains a high level of phosphate (1200g superphosphate, 1200 g blood and bone/m3). Since most Australian species, and Western Australian species in particular, have evolved in an environment low in phosphate it was felt that the high levels of superphosphate in the mix might be


Author: W.H. Butler

PP: 453

By definition a native plant is one which occurs naturally in any given region. Thus Australian native plants are those which occurred prior to the invasion of the white man and his attendant introduced species. Therefore it can be truthfully said that native plants are the ultimate in evolution to the physical conditions of the Australian environment. Paraphrasing that, natural selection and thus resultant evolution under the pressures of the physical conditions of the Australian environment have led to vegetative survivors over a vast period of time being the modern native plants. These survivors are, perforce, those which are most able to persist in a given environment. This does not belittle the value of acclimatized species which often produce excellent prime growth. Because of their optimum value, Australian native plants are of tremendous importance for industrial projects which may change or modify or have an effect on the Australian environment. Let us make it quite clear

Author: I.W. Dawson

PP: 457

Roses are propagated throughout the world using the same basic techniques. What we are doing that is different from the bulk of the trade is carrying out the entire process in containers.

Roses do very well in Western Australia where dry summers that we have no fungal problems for at least half of the year. Our deep sandy soils have little water holding capacity so permanent irrigation systems are needed to provide regular and frequent waterings. Selection of rootstock to suit this soil type is most important. We use Rosa fortuniana rootstock for its vigour in our hot dry summers and its roots thrive in the high soil temperatures that we have.

We have changed from field growing of roses to fully containerized production largely to reduce the pressure of handling all the stock in the winter months. With containerization we have year-round sales. We do most of our promotion for autumn sales and are generally running low on stocks by the beginning of summer. Containerization also results in


Author: G. Lullfitz

PP: 458


The flora of Western Australia contains a very large number of species and includes some of the showiest plants in the world. The majority of West Australian wildflowers are no different from any other plants in terms of propagation. It may be argued that all plants can be propagated but considerable difficulty is experienced when attempting to propagate many of these species in commercial quantities and at acceptable prices. It does not necessarily apply that it is easier in quantity; for example, try making 10,000 Hemiandra pungens cuttings. Because of its uniqueness there is much to learn about the flora of Western Australia. It ranges from those species found deep in the Karri forest to those thrashed by the elements on the coastline and to inland species bordering the desert. As further progress is made more and more of these magnificent specimens will be marketed and displayed happily in home gardens.

Consider some of the reasons why more of our native plants do not appear in the


Author: Ray Aitken

PP: 463

It may be that many nurserymen regard the production of ferns from spores as a peculiarly specialist activity. It is true, of course, that some specialism is developing in Australian nursery practice and perhaps this is a sign of professional maturity. We have in Australia some specialism in ferns, conifers, palms and claims of specialism in native plants. In this latter field it should be noted that the expertise existing, while it may be considerable, is frequently over a somewhat restricted range of genera and species and, in general terms, may be said to disregard the native ferns, the native grasses and, in some respects, the native palms. Thus the degree of development of nursery specialisation in Australia is not yet great and most of us are still interested in growing a wide range of plants for sale. Were it not for the work of George Sonter and his family it is doubtful if the current interest in and enthusiasm for native ferns would have reached the present pitch. Impetus has

Author: N. Higgs

PP: 466

Successful propagation involves the integration of many interrelated factors such as the correct time and method of taking cuttings with the right temperature, light and water supply. However what a pointless exercise if, after gaining the knowledge and expertise of taking cuttings, we lose them to diseases and pests. The industry has become more and more specialised with larger quantities of the same plant being grown at any one time. In this way we have created very suitable environments for the disease organisms and pests which can cause such dramatic losses in cuttings and defeat the purpose of our work. We must take great care to prevent the spread of these organisms.

Hygiene is the most important factor we have to contend with. We must be certain our clothes, shoes, hands and even fingernails are clean and sterile in a hygienically controlled propagation system. Everything we use must be clean and free of infection, from the trolleys we use for transport, to the benches where we


Author: P. Wood

PP: 468

Most of the nurseries in Southern Africa propagate a range of plants similar to that grown here in Western Australia. The best of the nurseries are probably not as sophisticated as the best in this country mainly because, in general, Southern African labour is not brought up in technological surroundings, and nursery hygiene is a new subject, difficult to get across. But that does not mean that every nursery owner himself is behind the times. On the contrary several nursery owners have done a lot of trial work into crops which have an export potential. Cut flowers of the family Proteaceae are one example and I would like to outline some of the problems of the enthusiast nurseryman; enthusiast in the sense that he does not just grow bread and butter lines. In relation to proteas I define an enthusiast as one who regards this weird and fascinating family as an ever present challenge. How far any commercially oriented organisation can afford to go along this road of specialised and often

Author: R.W. Middleton

PP: 472

During the last 20 years the propagation of a general range of shrubs and trees has been undertaken using poor quality irrigation water. Some practical observations and methods we have developed over this period of time under these conditions are as follows:

The quality of underground water we use is approximately 800 ppm of total soluble solids; the majority of the salts being sodium chloride 350 ppm; iron 0.3 ppm; calcium 34 ppm; zinc 0.10 ppm. The pH is approximately 7.5.

While cuttings of most species can be struck successfully, the overall percentage is poorer than if superior quality water is used. A fairly wide range of species are propagated, including both natives and exotics. Some susceptible species, such as soft-leaved deciduous shrubs and trees and azaleas are no longer attempted as the results are too poor to warrant the perserverance.

The damage to plant tissue from poor water quality seems to follow a fixed pattern, namely:

  1. The first signs are damage to the leaf tips and