Volume 24

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Author: Seward T. Besemer

PP: 27

Prior to 1950 most of the county's flower production consisted of field-grown items such as gladiolus. Column stock and bird-of-paradise. These products were marketed locally in Los Angeles or San Diego.

Greenhouse production of cut flowers and pot plants began after 1950. At this time air transportation capability made it possible to grow flowers in "natural" climates and transport to markets throughout the U.S. Also, the advent of extruded plastic films enabled mild climate producers to construct economical structures to protect flower, crops from winter rains.

The San Diego coastal climate is characterized by mild winders and cool summers. The average annual sunshine is over 80 percent with excellent light energy during the winter and spring months. The prevailing onshore wind from the Pacific ocean helps to ventilate the flower crops.

In 1974 the estimated greenhouse area in San Diego County is 400 acres. There are also 2500 acres of field flowers and foliage. At least 250


Author: William C. Barr

PP: 57

The major areas I will discuss concerning propagation activities at Monrovia Nursery are cuttings, budding, grafting, and fern propagation. The potting will be explained also.

Approximately 80% of our production is from cuttings. All of it is done in flats. We have a special crew whose sole job is collecting the cutting wood. About 90% of the cuttings come from the container material. The other 10% comes from plants we have planted on the banks as parent stock. There is about one person collecting cutting wood in the field every five persons making and sticking the cuttings. After taking the cutting material it is kept in walk-in coolers at 40°F until they are made. We usually make the cuttings within 3 days from the time of collection.

The basic propagation medium we use is 90% of ¼" perlite and 10% fine peatmoss. Calcium is added during mixing to provide sufficient amounts of this element for proper root growth. A flat is filling machine places the medium into the flats at the rate of


Author: Peter Orum

PP: 427

We operate in Chicagoland, with rough and cold winters, with or without snow, and long, hot summers, with or without rain. We are propagating, growing and selling ground covers to the landscape contractors and garden centers in this area.

In order that we understand the same thing from the same words I shall define containerization as growing and selling ground covers in some type of container — be it plastic, peat, metal, paper or other. Bed production is growing the ground covers in some type of earthern beds or fields and selling the ground covers bare root or as clumps.

The first and foremost purpose of the undertaking in which we are involved is to make a profit, and we make profit by solving people's ground cover problems. It gives us the satisfaction of having a utility (of helping to keep the country from eroding away) and doing so on a sound business basis. Ground cover problems can not be solved by handling ground cover plants over a counter or out of a sales yard. Ground cover


Author: Dale M. Chapman

PP: 430

We mainly produce forms of the following plants: Pachysandra terminalis, Hedera helix, Vinca minor, Euonymus fortunei and Ajuga reptans. Pachysandra constitutes more than half our annual production. All production is container-grown and container-propagated. Soil ingredients are mixed and placed in flats which are wetted and summer cuttings inserted. The flats of cuttings are misted for 6 weeks, hardened off and sold in the fall or stored for spring sale.

All plants originated as cuttings (or rootless in the case of Ajuga). All flats are 14 × 18 inches and may hold 30 3-inch square plastic pots.


Author: Steven M. Still

PP: 433

Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) cuttings were cultured in water extracts of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh.) barks. Extracts of fresh silver maple inhibited adventitious rooting of mung beans whereas rooting in other bark extracts was similar to the control. Composting the silver maple back prior to preparing the water extracts reduced the inhibition. Pretreatment of the silver maple extracts with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) reduced inhibition and indicated that the compound was phenolic in nature. Chromatography and spectral analysis of common phenolic compounds and silver maple extracts revealed the toxic substance was tannic acid-like.

Author: Richard Martyr

PP: 440

Sandwich courses are now an established part of the higher education scene in the U.K. — formerly mainly concerned with courses of science and technology, but now developed over a much wider field, as for example in business and social studies, administration and several of the professions. It has only spread into agriculture and horticulture in the past few years and it is certainly here to stay.

What is a sandwich course? It is a full-time course containing as an essential part of that course one or more periods of full-time training with an employer; training which is supervised jointly by the employer and the educational establishment. And it must be emphasised that a full-time course with vacational employment is not a sandwich course — neither does a year before or after a course — nor any year between courses — provide the requirements for a sandwich course.

The pattern of sandwich courses can vary. It may be a "thick sandwich" in which case a long period of industrial work is


Author: George Tereshkovich

PP: 443


Horticulture, both a science and an art, has proven to be therapeutic to many people. Working with plants has a healing quality that is relaxing and satisfying. "There is nothing new about Horticultural Therapy; it is not proposed as a new therapy but merely as a supplement to the already recognized forms of occupational therapy" (19).

Man's early interest in plants was centered on their healing properties and many of our earliest horticulturists were physicians who sought to grow plants of medicinal value. This early work was initiated at Oxford University. Their Botanic Garden was the first of its kind in the British Isles, established in 1621 — primarily to strengthen the faculty of medicine (9). People have long practiced garden therapy as preventive medicine. Before the science of psychiatry, physicians prescribed work in the garden for ills of the mind and nervous system (17).

Progress during the 20th century centered around the development of horticultural


Author: Lawrence L. Carville

PP: 449

Those of us associated with the field of horticulture are aware of the acute storage of qualified employees in the labor market. We are aware that even though we have one of the highest standards of living among the nations of the world, we have not been entirely successful in motivating our young people towards a greater appreciation of horticulture. Our institutions of higher learning are turning out students who have satisfied the requirements for a baccalaureate degree but who are failing to satisfy the requirements of today's horticultural industry. The educational segment of our society is not at fault for this shortcoming: the industry itself has failed in properly identifying its needs — and transmitting these needs down through the educational strata. The potential employee, professional or practical, must be exposed to the programs and requirements in the field of horticulture and I feel the members of the industry must help.

To place this presentation in its proper


Author: J.Q. Aylsworth, J.T. Scott Jr

PP: 452

Woody ornamental plants generally represent a long term investment of land, labor, capitol and management inputs of production. Unlike orchard development costs which can be capitalized and depreciated over the productive life of the orchard, ornamental plants can be harvested but once and all development costs must be charged against current revenue.

Woody ornamental plants are harvested in many sizes corresponding roughly to the number of years of production. The revenue accruing to the crop at various ages of development provides the basis of determining the optimal time to harvest the crop to maximize income, over time, to the producer. Demands for current, over future expected income, cause the optimal harvest date to fluctuate among producers. A strong preference for current income reduces the profitability of holding long term appreciating assets for additional time. Thus, the time to harvest the crop must be earlier than if there is no time preference for current income. To


Author: Glen P. Lumis

PP: 458

A high rate composting process was used successfully to produce a compost from paper mill wood waste and poultry manure that was very acceptable for a container mix amendment. The composting process was complete within 7 days. Three species of nursery stock were grown in several wood waste compost amended mixes fertilized with a water soluble and an incorporated slow-release fertilizer. The quantity and quality of growth was good in the compost media with the exception of euonymus in one mix-fertilizer combination.

Author: Roger D. Uhlinger

PP: 463

The carnation breeding program at the University of Nebraska, North Platte Station, is entering its 5th year. Our long term goal is to develop garden carnations with the following characteristics:
  1. Sufficient hardiness to survive and perform well in the environment of the Great Plains.
  2. Florist quality blooms.
  3. "Open" inflorescence that will not require disbudding.
  4. Erect stems that will not require support.
  5. Sufficient field resistance to soil-borne pathogens to remain attractive throughout the growing season.
  6. Everblooming habit of flowering.
  7. Frost tolerant buds.
  8. Evergreen foliage.

This ideal will not be reached quickly. However, these characteristics are all present in the breeding complex we are using and I believe we can eventually get them all together.

The material that forms the basis for our breeding and development program originated from three sources. The first is advanced generation offspring from crosses between the Grass Pink (Dianthus plumarius) and


Author: Lawrence Aubin

PP: 466

The type of evergreen storage with which we have experimented over the past year is not new to members of this Society. The objective was to see if it would be possible to successfully store evergreens in a poly structure without the aid of auxillary heat in a winter climate as severe as ours. It is not uncommon for the temperature to dip to -40°F. Quite often it will remain at between -25 and -35°F for 2 or 3 weeks at a time.

We knew that poly structures were being using in other parts of Canada and the U.S. To my knowledge no one had tried them on the prairies of Canada, where temperatures and winter conditions are much more severe than in the other areas mentioned.

With the cooperation and assistance of the Morden Research Station, Morden, Manitoba, we decided to erect a structure in which to store evergreens and to record temperatures on a weekly basis throughout the winter of 1973–74.

Evergreens were dug with a ball of soil in late August and early September and placed in


Author: Dennis A. McLain

PP: 59

An hour's drive south of Los Angeles is located Hines Wholesale Nurseries — growers and distributors of ornamental nursery stock. From a small ten-acre operation nestled among the orange groves of the immense Irvine Ranch of Orange County, the nursery has prospered and grown over the years. Today, Hines Nurseries encompass over 300 acres of container-grown stock. So ideal is the year-around climate that seven other wholesale growers of ornamentals have located on the Irvine ranch. To provide one-stop shopping, Hines has expanded its product line to well over 1800 items, ranging in size from the small liner to the 24-inch boxed specimen. Last year, over six million containers were distributed within the continental United States. In an operation of this size, plant propagation is an extremely important facet of the business.

Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 469

Nutrition is just as important as other cultural practices in the production of high quality lining-out and finished nursery stock. Adequate amounts of fertilizer in the beds helps to assure a healthy, vigorous liner for field planting and subsequent proper shortest possible time.

To ascertain the amount of fertilizer necessary to produce optimum growth of plants in lining-out beds and the nursery, numerous studies have been conducted in cooperation with commercial nurseries during the past several years in Ohio.

Typically, the rates of fertilizer in most studies ranged from 0 to 10 lb. of actual N/1000 sq ft/yr. In all studies, the P and K were brought to a satisfactory level, according to soil tests, prior to adding the N or were applied with the N. The time of fertilizer application varied between fall, early spring and early summer. In most cases, the fertilizer was applied with a rotary granular distributor. The lining-out stock, and field grown shrubs and evergreens were measured


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 472

When plants are raised from seeds, seedling growth patterns usually duplicate one another with monotonous uniformity. This similarity is brought about the action of natural growth regulators termed auxins, which are produced in each plant. The following slides illustrate how strictly the growth and development of plants is programmed by hormones and also why some conifers depart from normal when the controls do not function or fail to function properly.

The growth of a typical Scots pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) illustrates the normal process of control by hormones. With the advent of spring, the clusters of buds located at the tips of the previous year's growth become active and develop into new shoots. During their elongation period such growths are commonly termed "candles." The time of this activity depends upon location and season. At Boston, Massachusetts, it commences about May 1 and, in a scant 3 weeks, elongation is completed and a new cluster of buds has formed.


Author: Gary Long

PP: 478

The performance of any plant is made up of two components: environmental and genetic. Most woody ornamental research and nursery practice has been directed toward improving the environmental or cultural component. Relatively little attention has been given to genetic improvement. Some of the reasons for this are obvious, others are not.

More rapid progress can generally be obtained by improving cultural conditions rather than by plant breeding. The relatively large size and long span between generations require relatively large investments of both time and money for genetic studies of woody plants. To be economically successful; cultivars of woody ornamental plants must be adapted to broad geographic regions. This complicates testing of new cultivars and many receive only limited testing before they are introduced. In some cases most of the actual testing is done by the consumer.

Most plant breeders working with crop plants have definite indexes to measure their accomplishments such


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 483

The Friday evening sessions convened at 8 p.m. with Mr. Jim Wells, Mr. Edward Bunker, and Mr. Richard Martyr serving as moderators.

MODERATOR WELLS: We have a large number of questions to go through this evening and, in addition, some people have requested time to show some slides. We will begin this evening's program with a few general questions. Dr. Elton Smith, in your paper, was the fertilizer applied broadcase or band-placed?

DR. SMITH: The work I reported at these meetings was a broadcast application, but we have done it both ways.

BEN DAVIS: Dr. Smith, from your paper I understood that you're recommending only 3 lb. N/yr, but for shrubs you're going to 5 to 7 lb. N/yr. Why the lower rate for trees?

DR. SMITH: This is somewhat difficult to answer. At the higher rates, we had taller trees with darker green foliage and other "plus factors" but what really counts is caliper. The 3 lb. rate is based on caliper but I believe there is more to this than just caliper and we h


Author: Austin F. Kenyon

PP: 64

The propagation structures and techniques utilized at Greenleaf Nursery are based upon the concepts of being simple, functional and economical.

Propagation Facilities. The basic propagation structure is of a quonset-type construction that is 97' long, 12' wide, with two ground beds 5' 4" wide divided by a center walk 16" wide. The first, and certainly one of the most important, factors in utilizing ground beds for propagation, is the grading for drainage during construction. These beds should have a 12" vertical drop in the 97' length. Less than 12" vertical drop will not allow adequate drainage potential, and more than 12" vertical drop makes proper leveling of mist lines to avoid dripping very difficult. The beds are crowned to allow an 8" vertical drop from the center aisle to the outside edge of the quonset on both sides.

The basic construction and dimensions were dictated to utilize standard and readily available materials. The length was made 97' to utilize the standard 100' length


Author: Paul Fukasawa

PP: 68

The rapidly growing ornamental horticulture industry is presently looking for mid-management personnel. The industry is hiring horticultural graduates to fill a wide diversity of positions. There is considerable value in hiring college graduates, rather than filling needed positions through an apprenticeship training system. A college graduate obtains the basic language of the industry. With the language and tools he has obtained in his schooling he is able to seek out new approaches from a varying number of sources. A college graduate may not have the technical background necessary in present job applications, but he does have the basis for understanding why, along with how, a task is performed. The nursery and floriculture industry is constantly undergoing change and progression. Future management must be able to be innovative and adaptable. A college graduate will be far more adaptable to change, and more innovative than a non-college graduate.

A common complaint amongst employers


Author: Martin Reid

PP: 70

I am presently a senior at Cal Poly, Pomona, majoring in ornamental horticulture. In July, 1973, I was fortunate enough to receive a one-year technical scholarship offered by the British horticulture magazine, "The Grower". The scholarship paid for my lodging and some spending money during my first year at Pershore, Worcestershire, England. In return, I completed a program of experiments in nursery propagation and attended classes and field trips with English students also studying nursery work. The year gave me a broad look at the English nursery industry as well as English students in general.

I decided to narrow the subject of my talk to what impressed me most as a student during my stay — and that is the method of teaching horticulture used at Pershore College.

In England, more so than America, there is a shortage of properly trained horticulturists in the industry. This is due primarily to the public's misconception that horticulture is a second-class career with little need for


Author: Dan Lassanske

PP: 74

I will say a few words concerning what is being taught at the high school level in general terms of Ornamental Horticulture and more specifically propagation. I would like to make a few comments about the overall programs statewide and then zero in on my particular program.

High school O.H. courses are focused upon two major objectives. One includes the very important task of helping students start to understand basic concepts, principles, practices, and mechanics of O.H. This should include an opportunity for introduction to not only the growing plants, their processing and distribution, but also a thorough understanding of the business aspect. Some students use this initial preparation as a basis for job entry, while others base future occupational education upon it. The second objective is preparation focused upon direct entry into an occupation — either a specific job, or possibly more appropriately a cluster of jobs.

This is quite a different educational philosophy than what it


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 76

Our emphasis at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, and I believe the other state colleges and universities, is to provide the students with certain horticultural skills and knowledge that will prepare them for employment in commercial horticulture.

I believe that it is important for the students to start their major courses within the first year. Otherwise, many of them lose interest and drop by the wayside.

We have three courses that give the student practical experience in the propagation and production of woody ornamental plants. The first of these is Nursery and Garden Practice, which is usually taken during the fall quarter of their first year. This deals with soil preparation and treatment, potting, canning and the production of plants from seed to saleable size.

Their second course in this series, Plant Propagation, is taken in the spring of the sophomore year and deals with layering, cutting propagation, and budding as well as field-growing operation.

The third course which we call


Author: Dale E. Kester

PP: 78

Horticulture at UCD is typical of teaching at many State and Land Grant Universities. Actually it is taught under various guises and names. We need to consider undergraduates, M.S., Ph.D., and University Extension programs. In addition, we should not forget the Cooperative Extension Service as part of a widespread continuing education system which is available to the farmers, nurserymen, handlers, and manufacturers of the state. Farm Advisors and Extension Specialist may, in many instances, contribute significantly to the education of individual horticulturist.

However, let us concentrate for the purposes of this talk on residence instruction at UCD. Undergraduate students interested in horticulture will major in Plant Science. This major was produced several years ago by combining instruction provided by numerous faculty in subject matter departments of Pomology (fruit), Viticulture (grape), Vegetable Crops, Agronomy, and Environmental Horticulture. Each of the departments includes 10 to 15 or more faculty members, each of which not only has a


Author: Richard Martyr

PP: 81

I have taken this title from two articles in the "American Nurseryman" which reported the considerations of the Point Committee on ‘Focus on the Future — Education’. Here a number of prominent nurserymen and two academics discussed many aspects of education and training for the industry and, in particular looked at the lines of communication between the industry and the training establishments.

All agreed that there is a gap between what the grower expects of his employee and what the institutions are apparently prepared to teach their students. The sum total of all these deficiencies — whether of inadequate knowledge, lack of practical skills, poor motivation, no basic preparation for management or just plain technical inadequacy and lack of confidence — all these shortcomings which the grower feels the college ought to have prevented form, I assume, the educational gap.

There will be some academics who will says, "so be it". The College educates and the nurseryman trains; of course to some extent


Author: Robert G. Linderman

PP: 86

Healthy rootlets of most vascular plants grown in natural soil are inhabited by non-pathogenic, probably beneficial, fungi, living in a state of symbiosis with the plant root. Roots so inhabited are called mycorrhizae, "myco" meaning fungus, and "rhiza" meaning root. Such mycorrhizal associations in nature are the rule, not the exceptions and further, in ornamental horticulture, we have not paid attention to these associations which most mycorrhizologist feel are indispensible for the survival and well-being of the host plant (not to mention that of the fungus).

The first objective in this discussion is to present a brief explanation of what mycorrhizae are. Then we will consider how mycorrhizae function and what they can do for a plant. Lastly, we will consider mycorrhizae in terms of the propagation and growth of ornamental plants.

What are mycorrhizae? A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a non-pathogenic (or weakly pathogenic) fungus and living, primarily cortical cells of


Author: James R. Breece

PP: 29

San Diego County covers approximately 4,255 square miles, and nearly 51 percent of this area is owned by federal, state, or county government. The remaining land held by private ownership is nearly the size of the state of Delaware. It would appear that in this vast amount of space there would be plenty of room for greenhouses, growing grounds and shade houses. However, much of the area is undesirable for nurseries, and there is high competition for the desirable area.

Desert Area — In the desert area during the months from May through September, the temperatures are frequently over 100°F., and humidity is very low. These high temperatures are too hot for propagation of many ornamentals. The area is rather isolated from the market and lacks a good means of transportation. Desert palms and ornamental olive trees are raised Borrego Spring. One an area where they grow naturally, but most of the cactus nurseries are located over the mountains, west of the desert, in a strip of land 7 to 15 miles from


Author: Conrad Skimina

PP: 92

We began thinking about pollutants in water about 5 years ago. In 1971 we initiated a series of experiments designed to investigate the efficiency of nitrogen utilization and nitrogen in the environment. As the California State Water Quality Control Board became more particular about pollutants in drainage waters, we decided to install a water re-cycling and treatment plant on our new 26-acre parcel. This facility is designed to collect all of the run-off water from the property and treat it for re-cycling at about 250 gpm. The anticipated date of operation in November 1974.

Author: Tok Furuta

PP: 99

Present day concern for our environment has had many profitable benefits for the environmental horticultural community. Plants of all types are used indoors and out-of-doors, not as mere decoration or object d'art, but as a subject to create moods within our surroundings, moods to soothe and refresh our inner self.

Present day concern for our environment has necessitated that we examine our ways as producers. Degradation of the environment in the name of profit or growth is no longer acceptable. Utilization of all resources in an inefficient manner is not acceptable. Painful though the process may be, it is necessary to adapt to the present day real world. As some have stated, we, who are the prime providers of better environments through the use of living plants, certainly should not contribute towards the degradation of that same environment.

Efficient and effective use of water for the production of container-grown ornamental plants is a many-faceted opportunity. Some


Author: Fred W. Dorman

PP: 105

Highland Holiday Trees is a choose-and-cut Christmas tree plantation in the Higland area of San Bernardino County, There are spaces for about 12,000 trees on approximately 10 acres of land, including parking lots and service roads. The first Monterey pines (Pinus radiata) were planted in 1966. The plantation was enlarged as air pollution made the citrus business progressively poorer.

The original plantings were made with seedlings, most of them obtained from the California Division of Forestry Nursery. As many of the replacements as possible are from rooted cuttings from selected trees. These selected trees are called "Mama Trees", as this term is more meaningful to customers at sales time than "seed trees," or "clone trees". Overhead for taxes and interest on investment is over $700 per acre per year. This makes it imperative that every tree space be kept filled with a tree that will sell in three or four years. The high culling rate necessary with seedlings does not make this


Author: Richard E. Puffer, Richard G. Maire

PP: 107

The Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) seedling tree is used extensively in Southern California landscaping and is also the major species used for choose-and-cut Christmas tree farms in this area. These seedlings differ considerably in their growth habits, appearance, and resistance to air pollution. After a severe air pollution attack, the trees will vary from no apparent damage to slightly yellow tips on the needles to branches and entire trees which have turned yellow. Trees have occasionally turned completely brown and died. Apparently, seedling trees have different degrees of susceptibility to different types of air pollution. The search for trees with good vigorous growth habits and a beautiful appearance that are resistant to air pollution led to the interest in producing Monterey pine trees from cuttings.

Fred Dorman, whose Christmas tree farm is located in Highland, California, has been a leading grower in the


Author: W. D. Christie

PP: 113

As in North America, there has been great interest in the Scandinavian countries in the various systems of producing container-grown seedlings for reforestation. Various types of plastic containers have been tried as well as the peat sausage type "Nissula" system.

Of all systems tried, the most popular seems to be the Paperpot system. These Paperpots are actually individual tubes which are glued together with a water-soluble glue. The size used for forest seedlings is 4 cm. in diameter and 8 cm. deep (about 1 1/3 inches × 3½ inches). A strip of these tubes is stretched out to fill a flat approximately 13 inches wide and 3 feet long, containing 336 cavities.

Probably one of the reasons which has made these containers so practical is that the Finns have developed and manufacture an automatic filling and seeding line which can seed up to one-half millions pots per day.

Species being grown are mostly Scotch pine and Norway spruce. The growing medium is a fairly granular grade of


Author: Ed Wood

PP: 114

Until about three years ago, Wood Nursery was primarily involved in growing of ground covers and some larger containerized ornamental plants. We then started working with containerized growing of species for reforestation. After working with their problems for a couple of years, it seemed that those problems were in many cases synonymous with those of ornamental growers. Within the last two years, we have trial-grown many ornamental species from seed hoping to produce not only a better liner for containerized-growing but also liners for field planting. This path automatically led to the production of liners for budding and grafting.

Our seedlings are grown in a high density polyethelyne container, holding 100 tubes. Each tube is approximately six inches long, ¾ inch wide and holds about three cubic inches of germination medium. From past experience, we expect to grow a minimum of five crops in each container.

The reasons we settle on such an unconventional size and shape for a


Author: Jeanne B. Jones and Toshio Murashige

PP: 117

The Bromeliaceae is composed of largely tropical American genera, many of which are herbaceous epiphytes. It includes the pineapple and some commercially important ornamentals. One flowering ornamental, Aechmea fasciata Baker, known in the trade as Aechmea, has been popular as a house plant for many years (Fig. 1). In standard practice Aechmea is propagated through seed. This procedure yields plants that are quite variable and a significant proportion may be of unsalable quality. There have been other problems associated with seed propagation, such as a limited supply, seasonal availability, and poor germination. Vegetative propagation of Aechmea can be accomplished by division or suckers, as is done with pineapple, but this method is too slow to be practical. We now describe a tissue culture method of rapid clonal multiplication. The method appears applicable also to some other bromeliads. However, it should be used cautiously, in as-much as sometimes there is difficulty in

Author: Mildred E. Mathias

PP: 127

California has been receiving ornamental plants from the far corners of the world since the Spanish padres arrived in 1769 with seeds and cuttings. The forty-niners brought plants overland from the east and their Chinese associates likewise brought in seeds from their homeland. Introductions continued in a modest way until the turn of the century when many new plants were introduced by the Southern California Acclimatizing Association, a comparatively short-lived but most effective organization guided by Francesco Franceschi and Peter Riedel. Among the ornamentals dating from that period are the now rare Genista aethnensis (introduced in 1900 from Sicily) Dais cotinifolia (1900, South Africa), Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (1900, India), Stigmaphyllon littorale (1908, Brazil), Filicium decipiens (1900, tropical Asia), Telopea speciossima (1900, Australia) and the more common and well known Santolina chamaecyparissus (pre 1900 and perhaps even an earlier introduction from Mediterranean) and Gunnera

Author: M. Clift

PP: 130

Of all hardy plant crops grown in this country, probably few would argue that the genus Rhododendron must be one of the most valuable. In fact, some may even contend that it is the most valuable. In view of it's economic importance to the nursery industry of this country, one must comment in presenting this paper that as yet very little research work has been done on this unique genus of plants. One can only hope that this situation will be rectified before long. One of the few, to my knowledge, to have done any research work into rhododendrons was the late Dr. Henry Tod. He looked at three aspects: 1) chlorosis, 2) forms of calcium nutrients and 3) forms of nitrogen nutrients.

Chlorosis in the foliage was usually considered to be due to a deficiency of iron in the soil, induced by alkaline conditions. Dr. Tod collected many specimens from around the country of chlorotic foliage together with a sample of the soil in which the plant was growing. A high percentage were obtained from acid conditions


Author: R.A. Watson

PP: 134

At Reuthe's we propagate rhododendrons by seed, cuttings, layering and grafting. Grafting is possibly still the most important method and I would, therefore, like to concentrate on this aspect of our production. However, by way of an introduction I will briefly mention the other methods used.

Seed Seed is considered an essential method of propagation for some of the more difficult species and plants are self-pollinated under controlled conditions for this purpose.

Cuttings As many cultivars as possible are propagated by cuttings, especially R. griersonianum hybrids, R. repens hybrids, dwarf species, deciduous species, etc. Cuttings are rooted under conventional mist with soil-warming cables and in cold frames. Plants particularly difficult to propagate by this method seem to be R. campylocarpum, R wardii, R. thomsonii and their various hybrids.

Layering This is still an important method of propagation at Reuthe's especially where a true plant is essential, where there is uncertainty of seed propagation


Author: Charles L. Kline

PP: 32

Coming from a background of botanical work, retail nursery, and landscape contracting, I have found many of the problems and challenges at Sea World to be unique.

Sea World is a marine-oriented park which entertains approximately two million people every year in its San Diego operation. We also have a park in Ohio and one in Florida. Both our Florida and San Diego Parks operate 365 days of the year and are often open for night parties and special events

The entire San Diego Mission Bay area is built on a reclaimed estuary. Dumping of every sort of material has gone into the creation of the land area that Sea World is on, although the major part of the fill came from mud that was pumped out to create the land areas. As the years have gone by, most of the salts have leached out of the soil leaving mostly a sand base requiring constant fertilizing. We do have a few large areas where a clay layer exists that is impervious to water. On top of these areas has been pumped bay fill that is rich


Author: Dennis P. Carey

PP: 137

The stock plants are kept outside until late December, then collected up and re-potted or topped up with compost. The plants are then left in the glass-house at a temperature of 15°C. The cuttings are made when the material needed is 12 to 18 cm. long, with at least two sets of leaves. Cutting material can also be produced in a cold-protected house, but is available much later.

Cuttings are taken off the parent plant with a heel, the lower leaves removed and the cutting is then wounded down one side to the cambium layer. All cuttings are treated with a slow-dip hormone treatment by placing in the hormone IBA at the rate of 22 ppm to a depth of 2 cm. Cuttings are left to soak for 15 hours, surplus hormone is removed with clean water, they are then ready to insert. The cuttings are inserted 2½ cm. deep into honeycomb type paper pots size 7.5 cm. × 5 cm. The medium for these is 50:50 fine peat and sharp sand; the cuttings are well watered-in. Bed temperature 18° to 20°C is maintained.



Author: R.L. Wain

PP: 138

The discovery that the growth of plants can be modified by the application of extremely small quantities of certain chemicals has given rise to developments of great agricultural importance. The events which led to this discovery began with observations of Charles Darwin in 1880 whose experiments led him to conclude the some "influence" was transmitted from the tips of roots and shoots which controlled their direction of growth.

Since then, many research workers have added to our knowledge and it is now known that plant growth is under the control of highly active chemicals known as growth hormones which occur within the plant itself. The most important is the auxin-type hormone — IAA. This substance is produced in the growing tip, and as it moves down the stem its makes the tiny cells below get bigger, so promoting growth. It is of interests to note that IAA was known as chemical for fifty years before it was found to be a plant growth hormone in 1934. This discovery led to big


Author: B. H. Howard

PP: 142

Hormones applied to plants to influence their development are important horticultural tools and have become widely used in stimulating cuttings to root. Since the initial discovery of the role of hormones in rooting and the production of synthetic hormones such as [4 (indolyl-3) butyric acid](IBA) 40 years ago little work has been done to identify the factors which determine the effectiveness of hormones when applied to cuttings. This is part of an on-going study at East Malling in a programme of research into the use of hardwood cuttings for propagation of fruit and ornamental trees. Interim results have been published (2) and the purpose of this contribution is to summarise these findings in relation to practical propagation.

This work has been done with leafless hardwood cuttings of fruit rootstocks collected between autumn and spring and rooted in heated bins of peat/grit compost (1). Hormone treatment was by the "quick-dip" method using IBA dissolved in 50% alcohol. Evidence is


Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 145

Night-break lighting during the late summer, early autumn was shown to delay the onset of dormancy with Cornus alba ‘Argenteo-marginata’, Weigela florida and Viburnum opulus, provided the temperature was not too low; however, this was accompanied by a corresponding delay in the breaking of dormancy the following season. This delay could be reduced by growing plants under cold conditions after lighting was finished. The potential of short periods of photoperiodic lighting as a commercial technique are discussed.

Author: Brian H. Howard

PP: 151

Budding was generally favoured to other forms of grafting because it was economical of time and material. Spring grafting was particularly inconvenient due to the seasonal work load but bench grafting was recognised as a useful technique providing work in bad weather, capable of being mechanised and reducing the duration of land use. Benefits of faster production by bench grafting were often offset by inferior maiden trees in all but the most vigorous subjects. The use of a single bud obviated the need to select a leader from among a number of shoots as in grafting. A recent study in fruit and ornamental tree production showed budding to be a major cost factor, being second only to tree lifting and sometimes stock planting (2). It was clear, therefore, that a better understanding of the principles of good budding was needed to ensure maximum success and, to a large extent, recent studies on chip budding had met this need (1).

Species in which problems were few and in which failure could


Author: Bruce MacDonald

PP: 152

The Group was fortunate in that amongst its contributors there were some authorities, not only on propagation, but on nomenclature and the merits and limitations of the camellia cultivars generally grown in commerce. Discussion was mainly directed towards the propagation of Camellia japonica cultivars. The Chairman opened the proceedings by outlining the different propagation techniques used, and then proceeded to take, in turn, the various aspects for discussion.

Author: M.G. Adcock

PP: 154

Nearly everything today consists, in some part, of plastic in its various forms. We walk on it, the interior of our cars is almost made of it, we wear it, even wrap our food in it — one could go on almost indefinitely. The only thing we find difficult about the stuff is getting rid of it. It will not burn, but just disintegrates into something like boiling oil. Nevertheless, we would find life quite different without it. Indeed, in horticulture we rely on it no less than many other industries. Incidentally, polythene was introduced in 1993, but, due to the war, most of the polythene was produced to that end.

As one can see, this is a very diverse and complex subject, possibly too ambitious for one short session. We had a very interesting and useful discussion. I gathered from most of the members that for many of their production methods, a substitute for plastic would be very hard to find. The polythene sheet has the unique advantage of being very quickly erected on a suitable area to


Author: John Bond, Christopher Lloyd

PP: 156

Clematis ‘Etoile Rose’ - Christopher Lloyd. Introduced 1903, a C. texensis hybrid; propagation by cutting from stock plants, cut hard back in winter, cuttings taken in May using laterals.

CLEMATIS ‘AURORA’ ‘DAWN’ - Ray Evison. Very free flowering in May/June grows 8–10 feet. Propagation by normal system of clematis cuttings.

CLEMATIS FARGESII VAR. SOULIEI - Ray Evision. Very free flowering June/Sept., grows 10–15 feet. Propagation by seed or normal cuttings.

AESCULUS NEGLECTA ‘ERTHROBLASTOS’ - Norman Villis, Spring foliage for 3–4 weeks in shrimp pink. A slow growing tree at least in eastern England. Propagated successfully using a spring greenwood graft, by wedge grafting into the hypocotyl of a recently germinated Ae. flava or Ee. hippocastanum.

QUERCUS RUBRA ‘AUREA’ - John Bond. A beutiful yellow foliage tree requiring some shade for best leaf colour. Propagation by conventional late summer grafting on Q. rubra rootstocks with closed case treatment.

SORBUS REDUCTA - Jim Sutherland. A


Author: P.D.A. McMillan Browse

PP: 158

In the pattern of nursery stock production in the United Kingdom the propagation of plants from seed is a subject which has received scant attention from a practical standpoint during recent decades. Although much has been achieved in furthering our knowledge of most aspects of vegetative propagation and our forefathers would marvel at the sophistication of our techniques in this field, our normal practical methods of seed propagation show little change from their day.

Many of us grow hardwoods from seed and probably give the matter little thought except perhaps in terms of mechanisation. We accept too thick a stand this year - too thin a stand next year, we use rule-of-thumb measures for achieving sowing rates, which are based on figures culled from forestry publications or out-of-date and unreliable horticultural textbooks. What I hope to do is to present a few new facts, correlate existing information, and apply some scientific background to produce a logical sequence of events to


Author: C. G. Thomas

PP: 174

At long Ashton Research Station we have become interested in growing top fruit cultivars on their own roots for two main reasons:
  1. Highly intensive systems of plantings such as the &quotmeadow&quot orchard use of up to 30,000 trees per acre and, if such a system is to be economically viable, then the cost of establishment must be reduced.
  2. It has recently been found that many of the apple rootstock cultivars in use produce heavy crops of apples suitable for use by the cider industry. A project is at present screening fruits from rootstocks for their juice characteristics and there has been much interest from the major cider companies, who have been quick to realise the potential savings from growing trees that do not require budding or grafting.

Several techniques have been used to obtain cultivars on their own roots:

Layerbed technique. Seeds of the apomictic Malus toringoides collected in autumn and stratified in cold storage were sown under glass to obtain strong seedlings. The following


Author: James L. Degen

PP: 35

Growing of house plants has been popular for hundreds of years. In recent years it has become even more popular to grow plants inside buildings, whether they are homes, offices, or public buildings. Many plants such as the philodendron, ivy, some palms, and other tropical plants have been traditionally popular.

My topic concerns plants recently introduced into the California nursery trade mainly for use indoors. However, many of them are adapted for use in malls of shopping centers, covered patios, or very protected places outside in the warmer regions in the landscape.

I have arbitrarily divided these plants into the main uses for which they are suited:

  1. Plants used mostly in hanging baskets or as table plants cascading over container sides: Cyanotis somaliensis — kitten ears; Gibasis geniculata (Tradescantia multiflora of (California trade) — Tahitian bridal veil; Asparagus meyerii — Meyer's asparagus-fern; Senecio rowleyanus — string of pearls, basket of peas; Plectranthus australis

Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 178

In considering the propagation of plants, sometimes it may be useful to back away from the details in which we often become trapped and get a broad, overall view of where we have been, where we are now, and then take a look ahead to see what is on the horizon that may lead to significant changes in the field of plant propagation.

There have been certain specific major developments in plant propagation history that, one by one, have greatly increased the kinds of plants that can be commercially propagated and have changed the economic picture of the nursery industry.

Prehistoric man may have discovered hardwood cutting propagation when he jabbed his spear cut from a living tree into the ground and found it starting to grow. Later, early man may have developed the rudiments of the technique we now call grafting. Presumably he could have thrown his spear at a wild beast and missed, with the spear jabbing into a tree. If, by chance, the combination of spear and tree was compatible, and if,


Author: H.R.J. BYFORD

PP: 187

Increased productivity and an opportunity to trace troubles are some of the benefits which can accrue from keeping nursery records. They depend on accurate labelling and up-to-date stock record.

Labels are of first importance. It is no good growing the plant unless you can sell it, and you cannot sell a plant without a label. In fact — no name — no value. Labels, therefore, deserve our consideration. Reviewing the suitability of the wider range of labelling materials available ten years ago, Dullforce, (1963) found nothing more durable than zinc and lead types, which are expensive both to purchase and prepare. As a temporary label, manila tags have served the nurseryman well for many years and, up to now, they have been the best choice for a label to attach to the tree or a batch of plants on lifting. When the plants reach their destination the labels may need to be replace by some more permanent means of identification. Unfortunately, "waterproof" manila is no longer obtainable, and


Author: P. Howarth

PP: 189

Most crops may be propagated in Jiffy 7's, from minute tip cuttings of ericas to large 10"–12" cuttings of conifers and shrubs, also from small seeds in the vegetable sector of horticulture to specimen tree seeds in the nursery stock industry. In other words, where seeds and cuttings are, then Jiffy 7's may be used successfully.

We at Winster have used them very successfully and extensively on conifers, maples, pernettias, skimmias, and hope to use them in rooting leaf-bud cuttings of camellias this season. Where late summer and autumn propagation takes place and root disturbance prior to overwintering is undesirable then the Jiffy 7 is most useful; e.g., last season Exbury and Japanese azaleas were rooted in late July, placed under 75 w tungsten bulbs, then potted in January. These plants produced a useful batch of saleable plants this season.


Author: Raymond J. Evison

PP: 192

There are several methods by which clematis can be propagated: from seed, division of root crown, layering, grafting and, lastly, by internodal cuttings.

Seed. Most species come virtually true from seed; however, some do give variations.Clematis tangutica, C. flammula, C. serratifolia, C. fargesii var. soulei, C. intergrifolia, C. recta, C. campaniflora and C. armandii are some of the species which grow readily from seed, Large-flowered cultivars will also reproduce easily from seed, giving many interesting variations and forms. Many of the. new cultivars being introduced by nurseries at present are the result of such chance seedlings. Seed can be sown in the normal John Innes Seed Compost and germinate between six weeks and six months, depending on cultivar and method used.

Layering. Layering is used mainly by amateurs; plants establish after nine months.

Division. Division of herbaceous cultivars takes place during dormancy. ‘Heracleifolia’, ‘Davidiana’ and ‘Wyevale’ and


Author: Derrick R. Pope

PP: 194

Hydrangea petiolaris is probably the most popular of the climbing hydrangeas. It will thrive in any aspect, except south, is self-clinging, and once attached to a wall holds fast. With its white, flat flowers in June and July, six or more inches across, it is a plant which ought to be more popular; it is able to succeed in positions where other plants cannot.

When I first became a propagator I tried, in vain, for a couple of years to get Hydrangea petiolaris cuttings to root, It was at the I.P.P.S. 1969 Annual Conference at Hadlow, during ‘Question Box’ time, that a gentleman asked if anybody had succeeded in rooting Hydrangea petiolaris cuttings, to which another gentleman answered that it was not difficult to root soft tips early in the season, when made into cuttings about three inches long; the difficulty was in getting these rooted cuttings to grow. So, it occurred to me that, perhaps, I had not been taking my cuttings early enough in the season. My mind was made up to watch


Author: Martin J. Stokes

PP: 196

This discussion is to point out some of the commercial applications of aseptic methods of plant propagation. Many of you will have heard or read of the astounding rates of reproduction claimed for plants propagated using this technique, but it would be unrealistic of you not to express some scepticism of these theoretical figures of attainment. I aim to show that some of these high rates of vegetative reproduction are possible under commercial conditions. A whole new technology is arising from arising from the application of these techniques but it is a long way from raising a dozen lilies or saintpaulias in test tubes to the successful commercial production of 5,000 or 100,000 plants of one clone in an aseptic environment.

According to the Oxford dictionary, the definition of the term "aseptic" is "not liable to putrefy" which, I am taking to imply, indicates a lack of all micro-organisms — except viruses. The conditions and techniques that I am going to outline, can almost always be so defined. Any micro-organisms that do manage to penetrate


Author: John B. Gaggini

PP: 207

With a total population of only a little over 20 million people the four nordic countries of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland have a limited range of propagation techniques and, with the exception of Denmark, these are largely related to forestry practice. In May and June, 1974, I was fortunate to travel to this geographic region on a Nuffield Foundation Farming Scholarship awarded to me 1973. Although in this paper I will be discussing some of the propagation methods encountered, the object of my visit was very much broader. I studied forestry techniques which had an application to the Nursery Stock Industry, as well as mechanisation, the use of soil-less substrates as related to nutrition, plastic structures, and modern production of nursery crops. To these ends I met Forestry and Horticultural Professors, Consultants, Advisors, Research Workers and commercial representatives associated with the numerous nurseries, research establishments, and a few manufacturing firms where their

Author: N. Le Poidevin

PP: 213

I have been associated with the Riverside Group in Guernsey for 4 years — first as a States Horticultural Adviser and more recently as their Technical Director. They are the second largest horticultural company in Guernsey — with 20 acres under glass, 130 employees, and 70 years of history.

Being principally tomato and cut flower growers, they began to examine the possibility of nursery stock production under glass in Guernsey two years ago and also out-of-doors in Country Kerry.

We entered the field without any preconceived ideas as to hot to grow nursery stock but with a long experience in problems of management and of plantsmanship. I want to explain how we have tackled things so far and brought this experience to develop what I believe to be a unique system of production. To avoid any difficulties within the company we had to apply our existing system of labour management to our plant propagation work, I shall try to outline this system.

We do not have foremen. Our tomato and


Author: John De Putron

PP: 217

It seems to me that it may well be appropriate today, after the welter of expertise that we have enjoyed; that we look back for a few minutes at the methods and schedules of a nursery which, in its prime 42 years ago, was the notable Pot Plant Nursery in the United Kingdom.

Strictly speaking, Philip Ladds of Swanley, were not hardy plant producers, but the whole set up was so exceptional in all aspects, that I hope you can bear with me for a while. It is true, that very little was produced that was unusual, nor were the methods especially unusual; in fact, I suppose traditional would be the best word to describe the whole enterprise.

Yet I have always been fascinated by the process of knitting together on six nurseries of 150 acres in North Kent, the output for Covent Garden of about 1¼ to 1½ million pot plants each year and about 80 acres of this total was employed in open ground cut flower production, which I will only enumerate; 45 acres of outside chrysanthemums, 10 acres of


Author: Hollis M. Barron

PP: 221

A large amount of research has been carried out in recent years by a number of organizations throughout the world in the development and testing of various slow-release fertilizer materials. A substantial amount of experience and knowledge has been gained from this work and progress continues in this field. Such interest by many people in slow-release sources of plant nutrients is based on the recognition that conventional fertilizer programs in current use are generally not very efficient and slow-release fertilizers are considered as a potential means of optimizing crop results with improved fertilizer efficiencies. If conventional fertilizer materials could be efficiently there would be little interest in slow-release fertilizer. I will make several comments regarding conventional fertilizer practices and the fertilizer efficiencies involved.

What is meant by "fertilizer efficiency"? Fertilizer efficiency is simply that proportion of the plant nutrients


Author: Dieter W. Lodder

PP: 36

La Verne nursery is a business that produces grafted and budded plant material in containers. We grow primarily woody ornamentals, plus some citrus and avocado plants. For many years we had the intention to start a nursery business but we had to decide on line of plant material that has a place in the local market, and also could be produced economically. After studying this problem we found that, especially here in Southern California, there are many propagations nurseries set up to supply lining out material to firms that either do not propagate their own plants or are in need of additional plants to supplement their own production. These plants are usually produced from seeds or cuttings. Although there are nurseries in this area that produce grafted plants for their own needs, we decided to specialize in this form of propagation and try to supply the industry with most grafted plants which are currently in demand.

During the first years of our business a comparatively high volume of


Author: R.W. PETRIE

PP: 230

The Seed Seed is an important item in commerce, agriculture and the generation of natural processes and may be defined as a mature ovule, as distinguished from a fruit which is a mature ovary. The seed consists of an embryo with reserve food, as endosperm and nucellar tissue surrounded by one or two integuments (seed coats). However, either or both the endosperm and nucellar tissue may be lacking, in which case the reserve food is contained in the cotyledons of the embryo. Generally, a seed is accepted as a unit sowing, irrespective of its development on the power plant.

The Resting Seed. The resting seed of most of the economic plants contain a well-developed embryo and reserve foods stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons of the embryo, all of which are enclosed in a seed coat. Respiration is very low in many dry resting seeds which contain such chemical substances as suberin and cutin. These substances slow down the absorption of moisture by the seed and the exchange of


Author: Ray Aitken

PP: 234

When discussing salt tolerance in native plants, it is necessary to understand that without a careful analysis of the nature of salinity in any given area it is seldom possible to predict, without the use of field trials, the success rate of any given species in new situations. However, despite this proviso, it is true that certain species have a considerable tolerance to wide ranges of salinity.

Again, it is necessary to arrange salt tolerant plants in two categories:

  1. Plants to be grown in soils with high salinity — for example, reclamation work around salt lakes and on farms.
  2. Plants to be grown in soils of rather lower salinity where sensible soil husbandry may produce a more favourable pH reading by admixtures of peat, compost, etc., but situations in which the plants are subject to wind-blown salt, and hence saline windburn. Category 2 refers, therefore, to plants to be grown on our sea coast in Belt 1 (after Menninger). These notes concentrate on plants which might be grouped in category 2

Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 241

It has been obvious in recent years that the trend towards indoor-growing of plants is progressing at an ever increasing pace. With well over 90% of the population in city areas this is the obvious market, and to avoid transport costs, and with increasing prices for land in these areas, intensive cultural arrangements are an obvious move. There still exists however, a considerable need and, in fact, a demand for the production of open-ground nursery stock, particularly for fruit-growers.

I would like to address my remarks particularly towards the production of trees for commercial growers. Some of the problems faced by all nurserymen are spiralling costs of labour, lack of suitable labour, and control of this essential element in production in open-ground situations. Our nursery reached a cross-roads a few years ago in making decisions for determining our future directions of operation. One of the first steps we took was to analyse the use to which we put our labour and facilities


Author: H.A.M. Van Der Staay

PP: 245

The Poinsettia Manual, by Paul Ecke, is complete and easy to understand, written by the world's leading poinsettia specialist. What I have for you today is an extract from this book, the part which deals with propagation by softwood cuttings. You will find the same rules will be most useful for other species.

The term "softwood cuttings" applies to vegetative branch tips carrying one or more mature leaves. This is different from hardwood cuttings, which are taken from mature stems, with or without leaves, and usually stripped of leaves if they exist.

There are basic criteria which must be satisfied if success in propagation is to be assured. These include:

  1. Absolute freedom from disease.
  2. Elimination of moisture stress once cuttings have been removed from the mother plant.
  3. Adequate bottom heat (70–72°F) during rooting.

Conditions during propagation are highly favourable to spread of and infection by disease organisms. The program of sanitation must be directed towards


Author: Patricia Broadbent

PP: 249

The application of biological control of root rot diseases in nurseries is discussed. In Australia, isolates of the bacterium Bacillus have controlled damping-off of bedding plants caused by Pythium and Rhizoctonia. Some Bacillus isolates have increased the growth rate of bedding plants and given increased yields of field crops such as carrots, sweet corn and grains. Biological control of crown gall is now used commercially in Australia.

Author: R.W. Boden

PP: 254

One of the problems which faced the Department of the environment and conservation on its inception in December, 1972, was to establish the "metes and bounds" of its responsibility.

The term "conservation," defined to include the protection of soil, water, plants and animals presented few problems, however the term "environment" raised, and continues to raise, difficulties. Many people equate environmental care with pollution control, rejecting the broader concept. It is the view of Dr. Moss Cass, the Minister for Environment and Conservation, that the term environment must be considered in the widest sense to cover all social, physical and biological aspects of man and his surroundings.

This view is also taken here in discussing the responsibility of the plant propagator in environmental management. Similarly plant propagation is considered broadly to cover the collection, dissemination and cultivation of all forms of plant life, either for commercial use or creative pleasure.



Author: D.K. McIntyre, G.J. Whitehorne

PP: 262

One of the most exciting fields of plant propagation is tissue culture. This is the process whereby very small pieces of plant tissue such as apical meristems (4,8), and leaf tips (1), are taken and induced to proliferate into a mass of undifferentiated callus tissue. This undifferentiated callus tissue is then cut up into small pieces, placed on a suitable medium and new plants are formed. Each new plant has the genetic make up and characteristics of the plant the original piece of tissue was taken from. All these processes are carried out in sterile conditions on sterile media in controlled laboratory situations.

A great deal of research is being carried on throughout the world in this field as it has enormous potential as a propagation method. It is particularly important as a rapid method of vegetatively reproducing monocots, which cannot be propagated quickly in great numbers by conventional methods. The method is also very applicable to the rapid clonal multiplication of hybrids,


Author: L.D. Pryor and R.R. Willing

PP: 265

A method of breaking interspecific incompatibility barriers between pairs of species in different sections of the genus Populus has been found to function in a similar way between pairs of species in some groups of Eucalyptus.

Author: A.G. Sonter

PP: 269

The New Environment, The progress of modern civilisation has little feeling or sentiment for plants that lack compatibility with the new environment it creates. Among the most severe casualties are the indiginous or "native" ferns. In Australia, without positive action, many exquisitely beautiful and uniquely different native fern forms forms are virtually doomed to extinction.

Not only is their natural habitat being physically eliminated by man's machines, drowned under feet of water by his dams, buried under the concrete tanks of his sewage treatment works, swamped by the excessive floods that follow his urban and rural development, and poisoned by his polluted creeks and rivers, but the natural habitats themselves are being invaded by foreign and devastating forms of life.

Lantanas and privets are ravaging our secluded gullies and gorges; imported snails and slugs are chumping their way through millions of fern prothalli every night; imported strains of grasses and weeds are


Author: A.L. Bertus

PP: 274

The occurrence of azalea petal blight caused by the fungus Ovulinia azaleae is discussed with a description of the symptoms, host range, and life cycle of the pathogen and suggestions for control of the disease.

Author: Philip E. Parvin

PP: 40

In 1965, seed of various South African Proteaceae were planted at the Maui Agricultural Research Center as part of miscellaneous "New Crop Evaluation" project of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Hawaii. In 1970, 63 species of 9 genera, plus 14 selected clones of 8 species obtained from Hawaii, California and New Zealand were planted to evaluate possible commercial use of proteaceous plants as cut flowers, cut foliages, and for landscape use.

Test shipments of cut flowers and foliages were initiated when it was determined that one species, Leucospermum cordifolium, bloomed earlier in Hawaii than on the mainland. The enthusiastic reception these flowers received, and the prices paid in the test markets of Texas, Michigan, Pennsylvania and New York was responsible for the creation and approval of a new research project dealing exclusively with ornamental species of the family Proteaceae.

The new project, "Protea Selection, Management and Marketing," now serves as


Author: Lance Smee

PP: 280

Like all other sections of primary industry, pressures are being applied to the greenhouse producer, particularly from increased costs. To meet these pressures, all aspects of the industry have to be looked at critically. The capital cost of the structures and equipment to be used in the business and the running and maintenance of the business form a large part of the cost, and these costs are all interrelated. There is not much point to attempting to use old greenhouses, or to use low cost houses, if these incur a large penalty in operation cost, e.g. labour and fuel. Protected cropping requires a good deal of capital, particularly in automatic environmental control and watering equipment. Thus, there should be considerable care taken in selecting the type of house to be used.

There are three basic types of greenhouse — narrow span or venlo, medium span, and widespan. A low cost alternative is to use plastic film over a simple framework of wood or pipes; these will be discussed later.


Author: J.R. Rumbal

PP: 286

The initial timing and selection of cutting material plays a major part in how successful the subsequent propagating techniques will be. There is no rule of thumb that can be given for all conifers as to the best material to use but the following points are worthy of note:

Age of Stock Plants. This affects the rooting of many cuttings, not only conifers, and is a factor that can only be determined after several seasons of experimenting. While it is generally agreed that cuttings from young plants root more readily, I have noticed a number of exceptions where conifers are concerned. For example, cuttings of Thuja occidentalis cultivars definitely root better if taken from mature plants. On the other hand, plump lateral cuttings from young Cupressus stock of several types, give far better results than similar cuttings taken from older mature trees.

Juvenility factors can be most important when selecting cuttings of conifers. In Chamaecyparis lawsoniana cultivars, a marked difference


Author: R. Barry

PP: 288

There are many angles from which one can study sources and types of propagating wood and, as we know, several different stages of condition — from very soft tips to hardwood, all used for propagating various plants. However, another aspect, of which I have never read or head anything, is the differences in rooting results occasionally found in propagating taken from different mother plants of the same species and cultivar grown under the same conditions, often side by side. This is an interesting factor which I have come across on several occasions.

My interest in the possible difference found in different sister plants was roused many years ago when I discovered that cuttings from two mature ten-year-old specimens of Camellia japonica ‘Lady Loch’ in a private garden gave very different rooting results no matter how, when, or where the cuttings were dealt with. The plants were apparently identical in health, vigour and outward appearance and were planted eight feet apart and yet from


Author: Richard Ware

PP: 290

I will relate some of my experiences in propagating certain cuttings under outside mist. I have divided this into three sections: (1) Setting up; (2) Suitable material types and subsequent operations; (3) Results. Before I go on I must stress that outside mist propagating is rooting cuttings directly outside in full sunlight — maintaining turgidity by the use of water in the form of mist — using intermittent type.
  1. Setting up. Factors in setting up an outdoor mist unit. The main problem was finding a suitable site which would have:
    1. Maximum sunlight
    2. Good drainage
    3. Shelter from excessive winds
    4. No heavy frosts
    5. Abundant water

    N.B. Water must be available at all times as there can be no allowance from pump or power failure.

  2. Suitable material types; subsequent operations. We had our unit working reasonably well by January (mid-summer) and started to look for suitable material. A local firm producing seedless grapes for their canning factory brought in a large bundle of softwood grape

Author: P. Sheerin

PP: 292

More than 900 species of the genus Begonia are known, coming from the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Americas. Begonias were first discovered in Mexico in 1649 by Father Franz Hernandez and first collected in 1690 by Charles Plumier, a Franciscan monk botanizing in the West Indies. The genus was later named after Michael Began, governor of Santa Domingo, who sponsored Plumier's expedition.

For horticultural purposes the genus is divided into four main sections: Fibrous, Bulbous, Tuberous, Rhizomatous.


Author: Judith Cowan

PP: 294

Duncan & Davies started growing citrus by cutting-grafts on a trial basis in 1970. This followed a trip by Mr. Trevor Davies who saw this being done in U.S.A. The reason was that plants can become saleable in a much shorter time than when other methods are used.

Present methods of raising the understock from seed and then field budding produce a saleable plant after 4, 5 or even 6 years, whereas cutting-grafted plants attain a similar size in 18 months to 2 years. We commenced our cutting-grafting in autumn (March) but this can be carried on in to May, this being about the latest because of the semi-deciduous nature of the Poncirus trifoliata understock. I see no reason, however, why this method could not be extended to the spring and early summer.

Wherever possible, cuttings were used as understock, these being collected from several stock hedges. This has several advantages over young seedlings which give only a very small diameter in which to make the cleft graft. Cuttings can be up to


Author: O.E. Gibson

PP: 296

As my nursery is basically all open ground production, I like to be able to produce — even at the propagating stage — material which will virtually look after itself, at least for reasonable periods. After having watched successive crops of porteas suffer under glass I have come to realise it is not heat they require so much as cool foliage conditions. Winters is the time when rooting occurs — not summer or early autumn.

Consequently, planting in my nursery takes place in early winter (from April to July), although if the cutting is still ripe and not showing any signs of movement, rooting can still take place very satisfactorily and very quickly as late as August and early spring. In fact it has been found that rooting generally occurs better at either end of the season than in mid-winter.

We make up open ground beds of volcanic clay loam sub-soil which contains a fair amount of sand and has a low pH. The beds are 3' wide and the sub-soil is compacted somewhat before being covered with


Author: O.E. Gibson

PP: 297

We have grown daphne for many years but it wasn't until fairly recently that Dr. Ken Milne from Massey University pointed out that our plants were virtually virus-free. Dr. Milne has been working on the incidence of viruses on daphne in New Zealand and has collected samples from a wide source.

I knew our stock looked quite clean but thought the presence of viruses, e.g. cucumber mosaic were masked. We have no leaf drop in the propagation pit at all; leaf drop is quite apparent in virus-infected plants, Similarly, saleable infected plants tend to drop leaves shortly after being balled-up — here again we have no problems. How we achieved such clean stock is a bit of a puzzle but I have a few thoughts on the matter which I would like to expound.

Rogueing and burning of any plants immediately any visible signs of virus occur is important and we have been quite meticulous about this over the last ten years, now finding only 20 to 30 infected plants in a batch of 5,000. Control of aphids is of


Author: B. K. Powell

PP: 299

In these days of escalating costs, importing plant material can be an expensive undertaking. The overseas price of the plants may still not be high, but the additional charges soon mount up the largest being for air freight, and this factor may have some bearing on the size and type of material ordered.

During the years I have been dealing with imported plants at Duncan & Davies, I have come to the conclusion that one just cannot make any rules about their treatment, as no two consignments are ever identical, and there are so many factors over which the importer has no control. At times parcels have been delayed as much as three weeks from the date of despatch have been delayed as much as three weeks from the date of despatch, and the result can be either dried up leafless sticks, or an evil-smelling compost — according to the materials and methods used in packing. Of the two extremes, I prefer plants to arrive too dry — if they have already decayed, nothing can be done, but very dry


Author: B.A. Rapley

PP: 303

Preparation. A suitable number of stocks of each cultivar are potted into large propagating tubes and left in a shadehouse to grow on as normal. This was done in mid-winter. A cold frame measuring approximately 4 ft. × 4 ft. and 2 ft. high at the back, falling to 18" in front, was built of 0.005 grade white plastic film and 2" × 2" battens. This was sited in a sheltered area with overhanging trees providing a moderate amount of dappled shade. This frame had a roll top with sufficient overhang so that it could be battened down at the sides so as to be made reasonably airtight. A layer of sawdust about 6" deep was laid in the bottom of the frame.

Grafting. During late spring in 1971 (the first week of November) a consignment of scions arrived from Hilliers in England and these were grafted immediately. By this time the stock plants had put on a lot of new growth, and a large number had to be cut back at the time of grafting — mainly to conserve space. For the Acer negundo and A.palmatum


Author: William Teague

PP: 43

Proteas were first grown commercially in Southern California about ten years ago from seed imported from South Africa. Since then they have been found to flourish only in a few selected areas where the soil and climatic conditions are optimum.

Plant of the whole Proteaceae family require a very well drained soil of good porosity. Their climatic requirements are somewhat strict also. The average summer temperature should not be above 90°F for best flower production. Foliage burning and flower aborting can result from temperatures above 100°F. In general protea production is limited to areas with very little, if any, frost.

I am growing proteas on 20 acres near Vista, California, near San Diego. The growing site is approximately 11 miles from the ocean. It is located on high sloping ground. The ocean breezes keep the temperature cool in the summer afternoons (85°F).

We have about 30 different species of Proteaceae growing and flowering as good, or better in some respects, as their South


Author: R. Watkins

PP: 304

One of the greatest disappointments in a nurseryman's experience, both economically and personally, is a failure in seeds germinating satisfactorily, especially if this failure occurs in a new and potentially interesting cultivar. This is even more so when expectations of a new or improved strain, resulting from a crossing personally initiated, fail due to the seeds to even germinate.

There are 4 basic factors that could cause poor or non-germination of seeds:

  1. Was the seed viable prior to sowing?
  2. Were dormancy factors taken into account?
  3. Were the physical constituents of the seed bed at optimum levels?
  4. Was there any evidence of pathogens, either externally or internally on the seed, in the germinating medium, or contained in the various ingredients added or surrounding the germinating medium at a later stage; for example, in the water or air?

Seed viability. Obviously it would be uneconomic to sow seed that does not even have the ability to germinated. Thus the first requirement becomes


Author: D.S. Tustin

PP: 308

This paper is a progress report outlining research methods at Massey University being used in the study of the physiology of root initiation of cuttings. While this work is being conducted on apple rootstock hardwood cuttings, the methods used and perhaps the results obtained, will have relevance and application in the propagation of other plants by cuttings.

The prime objective of this research is to investigate why two cultivars of the same plant species, have a widely differing ability to form adventitious roots when treated and planted as cuttings. By using apple rootstocks to grow successfully, then it is a much easier and less laborious task than raising rootstocks by the traditional methods. Apple rootstocks are useful research plants for several reasons. Firstly, workers at East Malling have described a system of propagation of hardwood cuttings which has had some success, Also preliminary studies on rootstocks have resulted in obtaining two rootstocks, one which roots readily,


Author: M.B. Thomas

PP: 313

The nutrition of six species of plants was examined using peat: perlite (1:1) mixes and slow-release fertilisers in factorial experiments. Most plants responded strongly to nitrogen while there was little response to phosphorus. Medium phosphorus levels proved fatal for Protea repens and depressed the growth of Grevillea rosmarinifolia particularly when accompanied by high nitrogen. Tomatoes responded to very much higher fertiliser levels than proteaceoks and other shrubs and there was a very strong N × K interaction with tomatoes even though they were grown in winter.


Author: John P. Salinger

PP: 326

The main impressions of the nursery industry received when travelling overseas can be briefly stated as:
  1. The continuing or increasing demand for ornamental plants in all advanced areas of the world.
  2. Increasing specialisation in production, particularly the production of plants for cut flower growers,
  3. The reappraisal of existing techniques of propagation rather than the development of entirely new techniques.
  4. The increasing research being carried out in nursery production.

A brief survey of the re-evaluation of existing techniques is appropriate.

The use of plastic film. Increasingly plastic film is being used in the nursery industry in the U.K. and warmer areas. In several nurseries cuttings of softwooded plants, e.g. chrysanthemums or woody plants, both broadleaf and conifers are being propagated under white plastic tents in existing glasshouses. In one case at least the film was laid directly on the cuttings; additional light shading may be necessary. With the high humidity and high


Author: R. Barry

PP: 329

It was a boy of 16 that I was taught the first rudiments of what in those days were "up-to-date propagation methods". On looking back — recalling methods, media used, facilities available, lack of relative hygiene and, perhaps the greatest factor of all, what we now see and know was an amazingly limited knowledge of the art, I cannot but be surprised at the results we achieved. I would think that something like 25 to 30% of all cuttings made and processed eventually became rooted plants. Losses were rarely attributable to anything except collapse through the medium becoming too dry, too wet, or similar human or accidental factors.

Propagation was done in 5" clay pots filled with sand which had been sieved and then washed by swirling in a bucket until the finer sediment was suspended in the water and poured off. I was told this was a slight variation to the system and methods well tried and proven in England over a great many years.

Many years later (immediately after the war) I faced the


Author: J.J. Fawkner

PP: 331

Basic raw materials for the manufacture of steroid drugs, including reproductive hormones and cortisone types, are largely derived from botanical sources. At present the major source of raw material is barbasco, the root of a yam which is one of the species of Dioscorea which grows wild in the jungles of Central America. Although attempts have been made to grow the yam as a commercial crop it so far appears to be uneconomic as a 3 to 4 year growing cycle is required for the concentration of the steroid to build up in the root. Due to the depletion of naturally occurring barbasco root and an increasing demand for drugs of this type as a part of international birth control programmes interest has now turned to a number of alternative raw materials. These include cholesterol from sheep wool grease, bile acids obtained from animal slaughtering and an extract from African sisal.

Apart from direct synthesis, is one of the most promising sources of raw material appears to be the New Zealand


Author: Francis R. Gouin

PP: 337

Four cultivars of Rhododendron obtusum were propagated in equal parts of peatmoss and sand, top-dressed with Osmocote 19–6–12 at 0.7 and 14 g per 0.093 m2 immediately after sticking. All cuttings top-dressed with Osmocote developed heavier root systems, produced more top growth and flowered less than the cuttings that were not top-dressed.

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Gordon C. Hall, Lonnie T. Davis Jr, Gerald S.

PP: 342

Under Florida conditions, film-forming antitranspirants increased rooting of Podocarpus macrophylla and Juniperus chinensis ‘Hetzii’ cuttings without mist as compared to conventional mist controls. However, in Oklahoma, antitranspirants were of no benefit to cuttings without mist. Cuttings treated with antitranspirants lost water at about the same rate as untreated controls under low humidity conditions; however, under high humidity, antitranspirants were beneficial. Under low humidity conditions coatings began to peel after 3 days but with high humidity they remained intact for several weeks. Cuttings treated with antitranspirants and placed under mist lost K at a rate similar to untreated controls. These data cast serious doubts on the benefits of these film-forming antitranspirants under low humidity conditions.

Author: David C. Ruppert

PP: 349

Hormone1 concentration is an important consideration when propagating from softwood cuttings. Too little used can be ineffective and too much can cause injury or death of the cuttings. Different species of plants, of course, require differing amounts of hormone to best aid in the rooting process. For example, Euonymous cultivars require no added hormone to achieve fast and abundant rooting of softwood cuttings. Taxus cuttings, on the other hand, are greatly aided in their rooting by the use of hormones. The hormone helps to speed rooting and increases the number of roots. It also will increase the uniformity of rooting and the quality of the roots produced per cutting (1).

It should be recognized that the use of hormones does not replace good propagating practices in other areas. Hormones are just one of the many tools the plant propagator has disposal. If used effectively, they can be of great benefit, but if misused they can cause additional problems (1).

The most common root


Author: Bert T. Swanson Jr

PP: 351

Various concentrations and combinations of Ethrel, IBA, and NAA were applied to softwood cuttings of Prunus tomentosa, Amorpha fruticosa var. angustifolia, (A. fragrans). Rhamnus cathartica, Forestiera neomexicana, juniperus scopulorum and Cotoneaster racemiflora var. soongorica. The cuttings were placed in sand or a peat/perlite mixture for rooting. Ethrel alon at 480 ppm was the most effective rooting treatment for P. tomentosa and A.f. var. angustifolia (A. fragrans). Higher levels of Ethrel alone at 480–960 ppm and 1440–1920 ppm were most effective for rooting F. neomexicana and C.r. soongorica., R. cathartica and J. scopulorum rooted best when treated with a combination of 960 ppm Ethrel plus 2500 ppm IBA/NAA. Increases in root number were observed only with combinations of Ethrel, IBA and NAA, except with F. neomexicana where 240 ppm Ethrel provided greater root numbers than the control. Root length was increased by treatment with Ethrel alone and in combination. The effect of

Author: Albert E. Canham

PP: 44

The glossy green, waxy foliage of citrus, and the symmetry of the natural shape of the tree is pleasant to behold. Add to this the fragrant, exotic perfume of the blossoms, the color and taste of the fruit produced by the citrus tree and there is no dispute that it has a natural ornamental value difficult to match. Yet, citrus does not commonly find its way into landscape design. The fact that it is an attractive evergreen, it produces blossoms and fruit over long periods during the year and that it is not a massive tree should make this group of plants sought after for any garden scheme.

Perhaps citrus is too commonly thought of as an economic crop. It is, for orchards, planted in large blocks in neat, regularly spaced, rows; planted in this manner, the trees are very attractive.

Drive through any citrus growing area in California, Arizona Florida or Texas and depending on the season of the year, one is pleased by the perfume of the blossoms, or the contrast of various colors of the


Author: H.A.J. Hoitink, A.F. Schmitthenner, J.Q. Aylsworth

PP: 361

Rhododendron root rot has been a serious disease in both landscape planting and nurseries for decades. Several Phytophthora spp. can cause this disease; however, P. cinnamomi is encountered most frequently. The disease typically occurs on plants in poorly-drained soils or container media. Differences in susceptibility exist most cultivars, but only a few hybrids are resistant. Most popular hybrids are susceptible (3). Moderately resistant cultivars are available, however these become infected and die after prolonged exposure to high temperature in soils with poor drainage that are infested with the pathogen. After short periods of high moisture and temperature such infected plants recover by regenerating new roots from the crown.

Recently, the disease has disappeared in nurseries where proper sanitation procedures are used during propagation and where container mixes consist largely of composted hardwood bark. The disease still is present in nurseries that use container media consisting


Author: William W. Hamilton

PP: 364

Sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina L.) is a deciduous shrub 3 to 4 ft at maturity, with sweet-smelling fern-like leaves. It is found growing naturally from Nova Scotia westward to Michigan and south through New England to North Carolina. Once established in sand, gravel, or subsoil areas, regenerative shoots from its rapidly spreading root system will cover barren areas with vegetation in 3 to 4 yr without fertilization, even under extremely dry conditions. Although not a legume, sweet fern has the ability to fix nitrogen through root nodules and, contrary to legumes, grows better in an acid soil than at a high pH. In areas where it grows naturally, sweet fern is one of the first plants to establish itself.

This species has long been recognized as a very desirable roadside plant, both for aesthetic reasons and for control of erosion on steep banks. Many attempts over the years to establish sweet fern on Massachusetts roadsides by transplanting a square foot of sod containing sweet fern


Author: Donald J.P. Ziraldo

PP: 367

Grafting is important in the growing of high quality grapes. Grafting is especially important to adapt certain grape cultivars to adverse types of soil and/or soil conditions, such as nematode infestation. Also Vitis vinifera, the old world grape, and many of the newly developed hybrids must be grafted onto rootstocks resistant to Phylloxera, a common root louse in order to be grown successfully. The type of grafting demonstrated in this paper is bench grafting, also known as indoor grafting. The operation commences with the selection and preparation of rootstock and scion material. A foundation planting of understocks is grown under a training system developed to yield maximum, uniform sized and straight cuttings. The rootstock material should be selected only from virus-tested, certified stock. The wood should be cut only after it has fully matured, usually in December, but as easily as possible to place it in cold storage. All tendrils and laterals are removed without making large

Author: A.E. Einert

PP: 370

Studies were conducted with hardwood and softwood crapemyrtle cuttings to determine factors influencing rooting. At the end of a 50-day test period, hardwood cuttings in a cold frame did not root well enough to transplant and under mist in a greenhouse rooted only 40%. Best rooting resulted from subterminal leafy cuttings taken in June, treated with rooting compound and placed under mist.

Author: Lonnie L. Lankford

PP: 374

Our softwood propagation of apple rootstock, MM 106, has been going for 4 years and has become an important segment of our schedule. The first attempt was less than a success with 66,000 cuttings stuck and only 12,500 rooted cuttings packed ready for transplanting in the field. But the lessons learned from this experience laid the foundation for our present propagation procedures.

In our first attempt the cuttings got too wet and also tended to form a large amount of callus. They did not make good roots and when the hardening process started they could not make it. This meant the MM 106 needed special treatment in regard to the amount of mist received and a better system of hardening off.

The MM 106 cuttings were moved to a timer section by themselves and not allowed to become too wet, partially by reducing the number from 12,000 to 10,000 per bed. Previously the hardening scheme had started when ½ to 2/3 of the cuttings had begun rooting. But since this never happened because of the


Author: Booker T. Whatley

PP: 376

Thirty years ago the Muscadine grape was considered a difficult item to propagate by stem cuttings. In 1944, Cowart and Savage (1) reported that the Muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia, was propagated commercially only by layerage. These workers also reported rooting of Muscadine grape from cuttings to be impractical or impossible. The data they presented justified their conclusion since none of their cuttings rooted. These findings were in agreement with those of Harmon (2), who reported in 1943 from California that treating V. rotundifolia cuttings with various concentrations of IBA did not stimulate root formation.

This state of affairs remained until 1954 when Sharpe (3) reported the results of his work on rooting of Muscadine grape cuttings under mist. Cuttings of about 8 to 10 inches long were made from the terminal tips of canes, two or three basal leaves were removed and these cuttings were inserted about 3 inches into the medium. From the data (Table 1), Sharpe concluded that


Author: Arie J. Radder

PP: 378

There are several ways to propagate Kalmia: seed, layering, grafting, or cuttings can be used. Al Fordham, Dick Jaynes and others have told us about propagation from cuttings at previous meetings. As a matter of fact, Dr. Jaynes has given me a couple of plants of a pink flowering clone, which looks promising as far as rooting ability is concerned. I will discuss a method of propagation from seed, which I tried this year.

At one time we bought cut-back laurel plants, which were shipped in from the Carolinas. We gave this up after a few years, because we had a 15 to 20% loss in plants that never "broke," and there were always 20% or more culls in the ones that did break. Because of this we decided to start our own seeding program.

In Connecticut there is no problem collecting seed from the laurel, which is indigenous to our state. We collect the seed pods sometime in October, extract the seed and put it in a sealed jar, which we keep in the refrigerator for 1 yr. We normally sow the seed


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 382

Welcome to a session on the fundamentals of plant propagation. You may ask why we are spending a large segment of our time on the basics, when so many here are familiar with them, and indeed, some could write perfectly acceptable textbooks on propagation. The answer is, first, that the topic was frequently called for in the critique sheets which the memberships turned in. Second, the virtuoso propagator, like a concert musician, should return regularly to the very fundamentals of his crafts, just as the world's greatest pianist starts each day's work with the simple scales on which he began.

All of us, in the pressure of daily work, tend to become absorbed in the narrow details of our special field, and follow by rote a familiar formula for success, often losing sight of the whole picture of what we are trying to do. Occasionally we are surprised and irritated by an unexpected failure with a plant which has long given us no problem. If we pause and mentally retrace the steps we


Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 384

The development of roots on cuttings is a growth process. Growth is the result of the many processes occurring within the plant which are directly and indirectly affected by factors within and outside the plant. Theoretically, it should be possible to develop new roots on any part of the plant — on stems, leaves roots and even on flower parts and fruits; however that level of success has not been reached on a reached on a practical basis. The plant propagator of new shoots and roots on leaf and root cuttings.

Successful root formation on stem cuttings depends upon:

  1. cells capable of dividing and differentiating root initials,
  2. favorable internal factors
  3. favorable environmental conditions.

First, there must be cells capable of dividing and differentiating into root initials. It is quite possible that all cells of the plant which contain a nucleus and cytoplasm, contain the necessary information needed to develop into a shoot, a root, or even an entire plant. There are three major


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 388

The scheduling presented here covers cutting propagation only. Our firm propagates by cutting many woody plants normally started by other methods, but these are in the minority. Our cutting program is operated on a 12 month schedule with our facilities at full capacity at all times.

To set up an effective schedule, detailed propagation information must be obtained for evaluation. This is normally the result of long continuing experience and study, as well as keen accurate observation. The following information is essential before considering the preparation of a propagation schedule:

  1. Determine the most efficient rooting period or periods and the effective length of these periods. As an example, hybrid lilacs, Syringa vulgaris cultivars, may have only a 7 to 10 day effective cutting period in late May for softwood cuttings. Euonymus species and cultivars may be rooted all year.
  2. Determine the required average rooting time. This is essential in calculating space and labor priorities. This may

Author: Fritz Toohey

PP: 54

New fruit cultivars appear on almost a daily basis in the developed areas of the world. Of these, probably less than two percent ever reach a level of commercial value. Discovery of a new cultivar does not necessarily bring any degree of success. There are many variables which affect the hopes for it of scientist, grower, or private developer.

During the period of 1920 through 1970, 3,897 cultivars of edible fruit bearing trees have been catalogued in the United States and Canada. These are the cultivars which have a known commercial value or those which have important or unusual characteristics for the plant breeder.

Since we cannot in 20 minutes, describe 50 years of new fruit introductions, we will only mention a few which have been introduced recently. There is always an outstanding reason or feature that brings about the popularity of new fruit cultivar.

APRICOT: ‘Autumn Royal’

This cultivar, which has a patent pending, has medium to large sized fruit, oval-shaped, with firm and juicy


Author: Jeremy Wells

PP: 393

The use of fungicides, either as a drench or as additives in rooting compounds, is a very important part of the nursery cycle during propagation. The favorable results obtained through their use can be very decisive to future crop successes or failures. However, the commercial horticulturist should be very careful to realize the fungicides are only a small part of an overall program of nursery sanitation. He should not rely on them to solve all disease problems.

In the book, "The UC System for Producing Healthy Container-Grown Plants,&quot there are two statements that I think are pertinent to fungicide use, and I quote: "Fungi may be suppressed under the controlled condition of the seed bed or flat only to appear again when the plant is in the pot, the five gallon can, or in the largely uncontrollable environment of the commercial or homeplanting. It is important that the stock produced be not merely disease-free — that is, healthy appearing — but that it be pathogen-free as well."


Author: J.G. Henrietta

PP: 396


Try to schedule your crops so that your propagating houses are empty for a week or two in spring or early summer. This time should be spent checking benches for structural weakness, replacing and repairing heating equipment, checking misting equipment and making major repairs to equipment and propagating facilities in general. The less you have to disturb cuttings after they are stuck the better, and taking care of these repairs in a vacant house reduces the chance of disturbing a crop for repairs at a later date.

After repairs are made, remove everything from the house that doesn't have a functional purpose, all plant material, such as scraps from previous crops and weeds under benches and in aisles. We grow our plant material up off the floor so we can use Pramitol PS for weed control on soil floors and in walkways. This material is a soil sterilant and is quite persistent in the soil so don't use it if you nee the ground you're putting it on in the next couple of years. We get


Author: Harold E. Stoner

PP: 401

Westminster Nurseries is an old firm that was founded in 1893 by my grandfather, Mr. J.E. Stoner, growing mainly fruit trees. Many changes have taken place since then. Once concept, formed back in the 1940's has not changed and we believed this to be the basic success of our nursery; i.e., we have tried to be diversified in the types of plants we grow to satisfy most of the needs of the landscape trade to the best of our ability. Since we wanted to raise many different types of plants, including some of the unusual ones, we started the grafting procedures which we are still using today.

Author: Noel Jackson

PP: 406

In perusing the looking glass each morning over shaving, one is presented with the same old face. In perusing the field of propagation, it seems one is presented with the same old problems — a reflection generally of the things the propagator ought to have done and those he ought not to have done.

I am assuming that if the cry for helps is to a plant pathologist then no physiological problems, such as dormancy, stage of maturity, herbicide residues, hormone excesses and deficiencies, excess salts or other adverse environmental conditions, are involved. Rather, the problems are those attribute to disease-causing organisms, particularly fungi and bacteria, the commonly termed molds and germs. Hence, a more apt title would have replaced the looking glass with the magnifying glass since it is at the microscopic level, as the phrase goes, "where the action is."

Soils and organic debris literally teem with microscopic life forms, the majority of which prey on each other or contribute to the


Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 410

During the past 10 years our firm, under the guidance of Gene W. Peotter, has developed a system of cost analysis for our nursery. The system encompasses all categories of plants we grow, but this paper will be limited to the application of the system to the production of seedlings. The basic concept of our system is that we distribute all expenses in developing our average cost per plant per year. The program is simple once the principles are understood. Following are some of the basic principles that will help you understand the program.

Categorization is the first step in the program. In our case, we divided our corporation into five categories: wholesale nursery, greenhouse, landscape, garden center and administrative overhead. The last item is a division in which, at the end of each month, we spread the expenses back across the other four divisions by a percentage of sales of each division. We further breakdown the wholesale division into the following categories which we entitled


Author: Earl H. Robinson Jr

PP: 413

I believe that we at Medford have developed a very simple and yet unique method of tracking costs that work. We have divided our costs into 8 areas: i.e. propagation (I), containering (II), growing (III), general (IV), selling (V), shipping (VI), administrative (VII), and capital (X).

All costs of materials and labor for any given year must be charged into one of these categories. After all costs are entered we break them down to a cost per plant or container produced. We keep a record of all plants planted during the year, and charged our costs as described below. It is virtually impossible to accurately account for cost by acre or plant cultivar as our acreage is too diversified and the record keeping is impossible to maintain. Many sizes, ages, rates of growth, etc. do not lend themselves to keeping cost in this manner.

We start by keeping our ledger sheets up to date, time cards posted daily, etc. Then at the end of the year we make the following computations: to the inventory of


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 415

My topic today is a most interesting one and has been discussed at several previous Society meetings. Our new Index to the Proceedings indicates that a minimum of six papers covering cost information have previously been published. The costing of propagating is extremely important and I firmly believe that a propagator has a direct obligation to furnish his employer cost information. There is no way that intelligent pricing of plant material can be conducted without accurate, detailed cost analyses. If the propagator is the owner, then I would surmise the pricing would be even more important so that profitability could be justified.

The costing information reported to the Society at our various meetings includes a wide range from generalities, to formulae, and finally culminated with a paper printed in Vol 23 showing the time study on costs in England pertaining to several grafting operations. As I mentioned in a paper presented to the G.B.&I. Region in 1973, the propagator must be


Author: Al Fordham

PP: 419

The twenty-fourth annual banquet was held in the El Grande Ballroom of the Hilton Inn, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

On behalf of the society, Mr. Richard Zondag presented the award for the best graduate student paper to Mr. Steven Still. Mr. Al Fordham made the following presentation:

MR. FORDHAM: Professor F.L.S. O'Rourke was scheduled to made this presentation but unfortunately was unable to be here and I have been requested to do so in his stead.

In 1934, the recipient of this year's award was instrumental in organizing and developing a two-year program of study in ornamental horticulture at a well known agricultural college. Class research projects under his guidance involved turf plot trials of grass seed mixtures and fertilizer formulations suitable for the sandy soil of Long Island. These studies led to a blend of grasses known as "Farmingdale Mixture". This, together with a fertilizer formulation, was accepted and marketed through commercial channels.

Under his guidance, propagation


Author: F.A. Giles

PP: 421

Selecting ground covers by the tops' appearance is satisfactory only if esthetics are the sole concern. In most cases, however, the interest is in plants that withstand wet or dry conditions and soil erosion. Erosion control is provided primarily by the root systems, which, with growth habit of the plant, are the keys to controlling water runoff.

The perfect ground cover plant would be an impossible ideal. It would have deep, fiberous root systems; be quick to cover the ground but not weedy; and be easily propagated and transplanted. It would have an attractive flower that blooms for three or more weeks. It would not climb shrubs or structures; it would tolerate a wide range of soil types and conditions, withstand sun or shade, be dense enough to eliminate weeds, easy to clean of leaves, disease and insect resistant and would require little or no care.

Ground covers are used for many reasons, erosion control being the most misunderstood. When selecting a ground cover a erosion control,


Author: Harvey Gray

PP: 423

This report summarizes my efforts over the past 7 months and discusses 16 different ground covers. The bulk of the plants observed are at Planting Fields Arboretum, Oyster Bay, New York. Mr. William Cunningham, Waldron, Indiana supplied plants for observation, and Mr. James Cross, Cutchogue, New York supplied data on bearberry production.

Ajuga reptans ‘Burgandy Glow’, Carpet Bugle. This plant develops stolons which produce rooted plantlets at the stolon terminals. The plantlets are well developed in July and August. These small plants develop well when potted in Cornell mix in peat pots and placed in a coldframe for growth and winter protection. A 40 to 50% shade is most helpful to these plants at all stages of growth.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry. This is a procumbent plant developing very few roots. In past years I have rooted this plant with varying degrees of success. The following statement is based on data from Jim Cross: "Small cuttings taken well back in from the long