Volume 23

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Author: Richard M. Bullock

PP: 31

The Hawaiian Islands consist of many individual islands located in the Pacific Ocean, extending from 154°45' to 179°15' west longitude, a distance of over 1600 miles, and from 16°30' to 28°30' north latitude, a distance of over 850 miles. This circumscribes an area of over 1 1/3 million square miles — the only trouble is that there is so much of it underwater.

Scientists tell us that the Hawaiian Islands are of volcanic origin but the formation of the islands above the surface of the ocean is still unknown. For centuries limestone and coral deposits accumulated to from the islands as we known them today, extending from Kure Island just northwest of Midway to Hawaii Island on the east and Johnston Island on the southern extremity. The mineral content of the volcanic material has made the soil of the islands tremendously fertile and productive.

Hawaii, as most of us think of it, is comprised of six major volcanic islands between 19 and 22°15' north latitude and 2,700 miles from the nearest


Author: William Barr

PP: 77

The Monterey pine, Pinus radiata, is normally grown from seed. As a result the progeny are quite variable. Monrovia Nursery, in cooperation with Dick Maire of the Los Angeles County Extension Service, Dick Puffer, of the San Bernardino County Extension Service, and Fred Dorman, of Highland, California, have been experimenting with vegetative propagation of this pine. We are also observing these cutting-propagated plants in one and five gallon containers.

Our objective is to find a Pinus radiata clone, with good characteristics, that will root in a high percentage. Of major interest is smog resistance, color, shape, and compactness. These vegetatively propagated trees could be very desirable as Christmas trees and as general landscape plants in southern California.

The Monterey pines were rooted using these procedures: The cuttings were made five to six inches long with the needles on the bottom half of the cutting cut off. Tip and second cuttings were used. They were dipped into 3000


Author: Richard A. Criley

PP: 80

Are you worried about the population explosion? Our national population is growing by about 2,000,000 persons a year. Our 1970 census tabulated 204.7 million people. About 74% of our people now live in urban territory — towns of 2,500 or more to densely settled suburbs of large cities. To some, it seems that the United States will need perhaps 400 or more new towns and cities accommodating 25,000 to 250,000 with space to grow.

The next 30 years will bring an explosion of urban growth in areas now largely rural. Cities will continue to grow upward. How congested we feel will depend on how we design and use our space.

The 1972 Yearbook of Agriculture, "Landscape for Living," tells us that an estimated 80 million people garden as a hobby in the United States, and that 59 out of every 100 people believe that "green grass and trees around me" are most important to their happiness. Everyone seems to enjoy plants and the effects that they create.

We are all familiar with the diverse uses to which


Author: Bettie E. Lauchis

PP: 84

Musaceae is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by four genera and many species, all of which are ornamental, as well as some being useful in other ways. The four genera are Musa, Heliconia, Strelitzia, and Ravenala.

Probably the most useful and fascinating genus is Musa with its many types of edible bananas and fiber products. The Polynesians brought bananas with them when they migrated to Hawaii over 1,000 years ago; it was one of their main staples and generally eaten cooked. Until the kapu was broken about 1820, however, Hawaiian women were forbidden to eat most bananas under penalty of death. Probably more legends and proverbs evolved around the banana than any other plant. In sacrifices to the Gods sometimes a banana stalk was used as a substitute for a human sacrifice. Many bananas do not produce edible fruit but have such a strikingly colorful inflorescence that they are grown ornamentally or as oddities. One of the oddest is the mai'a hapai which is Hawaiian for pregnant


Author: George F. Ryan

PP: 88

The use of growth retardants to induce flowering of ornamental plants, especially azaleas and rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp.), is reviewed Examples of recent data show approximately 200% increases in number of flower buds on outdoor container grown ‘Anna Rose Whitney’ rhododendrons treated with Alar, Phosfon or Cycocel in their second season of growth.

The relationship between nutrition and response to growth retardants is discussed Nitrogen levels probably are as important for the growth retardant response as reported for P levels. Data presented show a significant reduction in number of flower buds where N fertilization was reduced or omitted, with only a reduction in leaf N from 1 9 to 1.7%

Results are presented of the use of chemicals to prune and induce branching of Photinia × fraseri. The number of side branches was increased from 0.6 to 8 4 per plant by treatment with a combination of the pruning agent Off-Shoot-O and the cytokinin SD 8339.


Author: Clyde L. Elmore

PP: 95

Plants are a necessary complement of our environment and lend much beauty and pleasure to man. Plants may also be detrimental in many ways to the health, wealth and well being of man and animals.

Much physical harm and discomfort arise from man and animals contacting thorny bushes and trees such as thistles, starthistle, gorse, or Opuntia sp., cactus, as well as plants with lesser armament. Others of this type include members of the families Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae, generally of the desert regions of America, Africa and Asia. Plants also are poisonous to man and animals. In the western United States sheep losses from feeding on halogeton are great. In one reported case in Idaho 1,620 sheep were lost in a single day.

The expenditure of funds and lack of crop return for the control of weeds cost the people of California over 374 million dollars for a year (over 1 million/day). In the U.S. a staggering 2.5 billion figure was suggested in 1968.

Although the total costs of weed


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 102

During the spring quarter this year I had a sabbatical leave from my teaching assignment at Cal Poly. My wife and I made a horticultural tour of the Southern United States and spent an enjoyable six weeks in Great Britain.

When we started planning the British junket over a year ago we contacted Richard Martyr, a member of IPPS, G.B. & I. Region, and Director of the Horticulture College in Pershore. Richard was most helpful in setting up a tour of British horticulture.

Two of our most worthwhile and interesting experiences in Britain were the IPPS Day at Exbury Estate and the Chelsea Flower Show. I want to tell you today about Exbury.

This famous estate, the home of the Rothschilds, is located a short distance from Southampton in Southern England. Our visit was on May 9 and we were hosted by the IPPS Region of Great Britain and Ireland. The estate consists of over a thousand acres. In addition to the home grounds there is an arboretum of over 250 acres devoted to rhododendrons and


Author: Carl Zangger

PP: 104

When I was asked to speak on this subject, ‘Polyethylene, Fiberglass or Glass — Which Would I Prefer’, I had never seriously considered whether I really had any deep preferences. Probably like most growers we had gone along solving problems as they came up in the most suitable manner, dictated by economic necessities. I think it is safe to say there are a far greater number of growers in the United States today who have had to consider the necessities of economics in this decision than those fortunate enough to have ample funds available so that the decision could be one of a purely technical or scientific decision. Not being a student or a researcher I am not going to attempt to delve into all the various considerations of depreciation, taxes, investment costs, etc. that should be considered as I am sure that each one of us is going to have to make these decisions for himself depending upon his local situation with regard to taxes and building codes and his own requirements for

Author: Margaret E. Marston

PP: 108


When the main objective is the rapid multiplication of a selected individual, in vitro culture techniques may prove to be the answer. Ever since Morel showed that thousands of potential plants could be produced from one meristem of a Cymbidium in a year, it has been the dream of tissue culture workers to repeat ‘meristem culture of orchids’ with other plants. Plant breeders are particularly interested, as years may elapse between hybridizing and obtaining flowers. When selections are made, selected individuals must be bulked up as rapidly as possible into clones so that cultivar trials may then be carried out. Although plant breeders are only too aware that genetical variation may occur in culture and that precautions must be taken, nevertheless Eucarpia, the European Plant Breeding Association, spent much of its five-day conference, in Leeds, in July, 1973, discussing aseptic methods of vegetative propagation.

The range of material which responds to in vitro culture techniques is


Author: P.B.H. Tinker

PP: 115

I think most people would agree that root studies have been relatively neglected in the past. The internal anatomy of roots has been studied often, but the study of their distribution and function in soil has suffered from the simple fact that they are concealed. Excavating roots is a tedious matter, and even successful excavation destroys the experimental material. Nevertheless, studies on roots seem to be increasing rapidly, and they received a large impetus from the 15th Easter School at Nottingham University in 1968 which dealt with root growth. Further, the development of the Agricultural Research Councils Letcombe Laboratory has led to some exciting work.

I cannot summarise all recent work in one paper but for convenience we can classify such studies under these headings:

  1. Root detection and measurement.
  2. Root system morphology and distribution.
  3. Root system function in nutrient uptake.
  4. Root system function in water uptake.
  5. Roots and soil biology.

I want to discuss some


Author: J.C. Kelly, P. Bowbrick

PP: 121

Trends and developments. There is a modern tendency to use ground-cover plants for areas where low maintenance costs are necessary. As a result, the mass market for such subjects is rapidly increasing and the nurseryman had the opportunity of filling this need by growing large numbers of ground-cover plants, reasonably priced. The especially suitable growth habit of these plants and the sensible use of modern herbicides will reduce maintenance to a minimum.

Heaths and heathers are examples of subjects being more commonly used for such purposes, and whilst generally in good supply are often too expensive to be considered for this role on a large scale. The costs and system of production dictate the selling prices and, as a result, these aspects were investigated at Kingsealy to ascertain how best to produce saleable plants that: (a) require the minimum handling during the various stages of production, and (b) spend the shortest time in the nursery after propagation.

Production systems.


Author: H. Kamemoto

PP: 33

Prior to the Second World War, the ornamental industries of Hawaii were limited to the local trade. The standard cut flowers — roses, carnations and gladioli — regularly graced our flower shops. Some chrysanthemums were grown but were insignificant because control of flowering was still unknown. Flowers such as asters, gerberas, marguerite daisy and zinnias were also available. Relatively few anthuriums, orchids, heliconias and other tropical ornamental were seen. Landscape nurseries were few in number.

From around 1941, interest in tropical ornamentals expanded rapidly, both among hobbyists and commercial growers. The exposure of many of these ornamentals to servicemen stationed here, and the improvements in air transportation provided the initial impetus for the expansion of the export of ornamentals to continental United States.

In 1951, the University of Hawaii and the Floral Association of Hawaii co-sponsored the First Floral Clinic. Some mainland experts were invited including


Author: G.V. Purcell

PP: 129

The successful budding of quality plants like Hamamelis is naturally more important to me as a Specialist Propagator, than the routine budding of standard nursery stock like roses and other main varieties. From a commercial aspect it should also be very important to all nursey owners.

Everyone knows the quotation that, "big oaks from little acorns grow." May I therefore suggest that "big profits from little Hamamelis could grow." By this method of production you can obtain a good saleable end product in the same time it takes to produce a rose. The main difference being that you can sell the Hamamelis at 6 to 10 times the price which you could obtain for the rose (currently Hamamelis sells for approximately £3.00 to £5.50 and the rose for around 50p).

I should emphasise that the budding itself is not a new way of producing these plants, as I understand it was done in the prewar period. I will now endeavour to explain the whole operation with the aid of slides to illustrate the


Author: H.J. Eaton

PP: 132

The "twin scale" method of narcissus propagation is described and the results of a number of experiments dealing with different sizes of segments, cultivars and storage temperatures are reported, with details of the number and weight of bulbs obtained by natural increase and by twin scaling after two growing seasons.

Author: Henry Jackson

PP: 135

With the continuing shortage of labour new techniques in producing forest trees has to be found. In May, 1970, I did an extensive tour of Finland to study nursery techniques. I looked firstly at the Japanese paper pot system, which is now widely used there. The main species to be reproduced by his method are Scots pine and birch, but this method has a good future for many species; most important I think is Corsican pine. Transportation to the forest will be a problem as the pots would have to be transported in trays.

At Rovaniemi Nursery, which is a State Nursery in the Arctic Circle, I was told that several million Scots pine had been produced by the paper pot system, and that field results were very encouraging. On closer questioning I learned that in Finland only three main tree species are used in the forest, namely Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch. The manager at Rovaniemi told me that although Scots pine is successful in paper pots he was not able to produce a large enough


Author: J.L.W. Deen

PP: 137

There is considerable evidence that nutrients are leached from cuttings under mist (1) and that cuttings deteriorate during propagation due to the dilution of existing nutrients in the cutting when new growth occurs on the propagation bench. Various methods of replacing lost nutrients and maintaining the nutrient supply for new growth have been investigated. The use of nutrient mist is reported by John Wott in this volume (p. 000) and elsewhere (3). McGuire and Bunce have reported on an alternative method using slow release fertilizers incorporated into the rooting medium (2). It is this aspect that has been the subject of trials at G.C.R.I. using the slow release fertilizer, Osmocote.

For these trials a mist unit under glass was used with mist application controlled by an "electronic leaf". Base temperature was controlled at 20°C and the cuttings were rooted in small trays using a basic rooting medium of 50% peat, 50% grit.

Trial 1. 1972 Cuttings 12 cm long of Cotoneaster dammeri ‘skogholm‘


Author: John A. Wott, H.B. Tukey Jr

PP: 141

Cuttings, especially softwood and herbaceous, grew tremendously in new roots, shoots, and leaves during propagation Those propagated under nutrient mist had a higher N. P. and K content than those propagated under water mist Cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Ram rooted in special containers showed that almost all of the P absorbed by the cuttings during propagation was absorbed by the stems and foliage from the nutrient mist and either utilized in new growth or translocated into the developing roots.

Author: N. Nahlawi

PP: 147

Treatments known to influence the rooting of plum rootstock hardwood cuttings when propagated in heated cuttings bins in England have been shown to influence the rooting of two local plum cultivars, Ajami Janirek, and Tephahi janirek (P cerasifera), when planted directly into the soil in Syria.

For the greatest level of success, 60 cm long cuttings should be prepared from the proximal portion of the shoot, treated with indolyl butyric acid at 5000 ppm in 50% alcohol to the basal cut surface avoiding, where possible, contact with the epidermis and planted during the months of November, December and January. For a summary of results see Tables 1,2,3 and 4.


Author: John Edmonds

PP: 149

Each nursery produces a different product mix. For any particular plant there are several ways of propagation and any one of them can be correct within the disciplines that the layout, resources and skills impose on a particular nursery. So today you are not going to get definite solutions to your own problems — rather I hope to stimulate thought and discussion which may help you with your own particular problems.

There is talk within the industry in the U.K. of over-production in some items. There is truth in this for some particular plants. Thus it becomes vital to produce plants which can be sold. Remember that if you produce 100 plants and you are expecting to make 15% profit you will only cover your costs when you sold 85 of those plants all the profit lies in selling the last 15.

So our first requirement in planning our propagation is an accurate sales record. At Bransford we only have 3 years records but already it is beginning to show trends. We are selling proportionally less of


Author: B.C.M. Van Elk

PP: 154

Briefly, the propagation of rhododendron cuttings in Boskoop is described A soil temperature of 20°C (68°F) proved to be the best When the pH of the cutting medium, pure blond peat, is too low this can be raised by adding 1-3 g/1 of a chalky compound With only small losses one can make cuttings at the beginning of October The best time proved to be the second half of November or the beginning of December

After quick-dip treatment of 2,500 to 30,000 ppm, rooting was poor in comparison to the rooting of cuttings treated with a powder of 8% IBA + captan (83% spray material)


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 161

The topic at hand is a fascinating one and I suppose plant propagators do not vary in their daily activities a great deal in most of the nursery community enterprises. Mail-order is some what different in that most mail-order propagators are requested to supply a range of plant material from houseplants through all the woody ornamentals indigenous either to their geographic location, or to a profit and loss statement in a mail-order catalog. Mail-order, be it nursery stock or any other commodity, is a game of arithmetic. The only interest is, of course, complete customer satisfaction, which is the only way you can obtain a reasonable profit on a fantastic advertising investment. There are nursery mail-order concerns throughout the world whose advertising percentage costs will range from 30 to 55% of their sales dollar. Those of us in a wholesale growing operation, or a garden center endeavor could, of course, not live with this horrendous advertising cost.

I will have to limit my remarks


Author: George C. Thorburn

PP: 167

The following is based on horticultural experiences gained when I worked in Holland and Germany during the period 1970 to 1972. I was initially employed by a Boskoop export nursery — William de Jong & Sons, and worked there during the despatch and packing season. I then worked with a specialist propagator for one year — Mr. Leo van Lint. I was then engaged by Firma, Wilhelm Eberts, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Mr. Eberts' nursery specialized in the production of pot liners of a wide range of evergreen and deciduous shrubs and conifers.

In many ways I was luckier than most British students because I became involved with the growers who supply the better known Export Nurseries. I was, therefore, able to understand the business functions and dealings reciprocating between nurserymen and exporters alike. Although cultural methods are different in Holland as compared to those in Germany, the business methods used in both countries are very similar and, in turn, quite different to our present


Author: Gordon T. Shigeura

PP: 38


Most visitors to the Islands do not realize the Hawaiian Islands are made up of a seriés of islands in the North Pacific anchored in the southwest by our Big Island (Hawaii) and extending 2000 miles in the northwesterly direction toward Japan with Wake Island at the very tip of the chain. Excepting for the 12 major islands in the southwestern end of this chain and in the vicinity of Honolulu, the other islands are coral atolls, reefs or sands bars on top of volcanic mountain peaks arising from the ocean floor.

Unlike the shifting land masses of Europe, Africa, and the Eastern Americas drifting apart in the Atlantic Ocean, the ocean floor of the Pacific has been relatively stable for millions of years. Thus, the volcanically created Hawaiian Islands have been isolated from the greater land masses of Asia and the Americas for millions of years. This isolation resulted in an endemic plant population in Hawaii found nowhere else in the world. More than 85% of the plant species found in


Author: J.G.D. Lamb

PP: 170

The considerations that prompted the initiation of a research programme on hardy nursery stock at Kinsealy in 1967 included a rising import bill, the possibility of building up an export trade, and consideration of the very favourable conditions of soil and climatic factors as evidenced by the existence of famous gardens in all parts of the island. These gardens are of international repute for the extent of their collections and for the size and luxuriance of growth of many of the trees and shrubs cultivated in them. Another positive factor was the comparative freedom from pests and diseases of plants and animals which hinder trade in trees and shrubs in other countries.

Yet despite this obviously favourable background Irish nurseries are mostly small scale family businesses, catering for a local trade; few are large enough to become companies. Here then was an identifiable opportunity to encourage growth from a small base with, in the short term, a home market and further ahead, a large


Author: David Ridgway

PP: 177

With increasing demand for this plant within the trade, it was decided to adjust our production programme so that a saleable plant of acceptable size could be produced in one season instead of the traditional time of 18 months. To do this, we analysed the plant from the first principles; its propagation, subsequent production, and growth behaviours.

Author: Arthur Turner

PP: 180


In September, 1970, Mr. J. R. Aaron of the Forestry Commission visited Wisley and asked if we could use pulverised pine bark experimentally for various purposes around the garden and offered a generous consignment of the material to enable us to assess its merits. Some of the uses were fairly obvious and these included mulching, plunging material and inclusion in growing composts for orchids and bromeliads; its use as a rooting medium was less obvious although it has the physical properties needed in cutting composts. It is capable of retaining moisture, although absorbing somewhat less than peat, and it drains off any surplus water rapidly, thus remaining well aerated.

Pine bark is available in large quantities from felled timber and not many years ago was regarded as a waste product not easily disposed of; now, in its pulverised state, it is proving a very useful commodity in horticulture. It lacks any readily available plant food and can create nitrogen deficiency if mixed in the raw


Author: R.J. Hares

PP: 183

During the past three years, we, at the Pershore College of Horticulture, have been evaluating various types of commercially available synthetic propagation blocks for the rooting of cuttings exposed to intermittent mist. To date all the types we have tested suffer from serious limitations. Most of the commercially available blocks have since been withdrawn from the market.

Many propagators feel that the principle of using synthetic blocks is a sound one, and it is my intention to try and assess what we have learned during our investigations, and with our knowledge of the known variables, to attempt to predict where we should go from here.

Perhaps the main advantage of using propagation blocks lies in the ability to pot up plants without root disturbance and therefore growth checks. In practically every trial we have undertaken, establishment using the blocks was better, and plants were often larger and more well established at the end of the growing season. A few plants were planted out


Author: R.J. Garner

PP: 187


Throughout the world fewer and fewer sweet cherries are being grown. Only a few countries are more or less maintaining their output, notably Germany, Italy, and the United States; the rest produce far less than they did. In ten years, English production has declined some 50 per cent — the Netherlands even more. Yet the demand for dessert sweet cherries remains high and is, apparently, insatiable. Then, why is not production not only maintained but increased? There are two main reasons, depredation by birds and high cost of picking. There are other contributing factors, such as delayed onset of cropping, diseases and pests; e.g. bacterial canker in cool climates and cherry fruit fly in others, splitting of fruit due to rain, and short storage life of the fruit. However, these contributory factors, whilst important, are all present subjects for research and may eventually prove solvable.


Author: C.D. Dempster

PP: 191

The use of double glass frames is not new. Before misting techniques came into favour some 20 years ago, double glass frames were in fairly general use for the propagation of a wide range of plants, notably conifers, broad-leaved evergreens, deciduous shrubs and herbaceous subjects.

It was altogether by chance, while rooting certain conifers under double glass, that I discovered the conditions and the routine methods adopted were favourable to the rooting of the common English holly and its many cultivars. Since it needs no expensive electrical equipment, electricity, or water and requires a minimum of attention. I still prefer this method to mist propagation. It is foolproof and labour saving. Once the cuttings are rooted, they can be left in situ for several weeks without fear of nutrient starvation.

Success in rooting under double glass depends on a number of favourable factors. (1) properly constructed frames, (2) a suitable rooting medium, (3) growths at the right stage, (4) use of


Author: B.H. Howard

PP: 193

Nurserymen have difficulty in obtaining a high proportion of successful unions when budding ornamental cultivars of Norway maple on to seedling rootstocks by the traditional shield or T-budding method, and low percentage stands are not uncommon even after re-budding when earlier buds have died. In the past, this problem has not been pressing because where buds have failed, rootstocks have been grown-on to produce the common Norway maple which has been used for general amenity purposes. The current demand from new development corporations and other large-scale buyers for large numbers of high quality trees of specified cultivars has, however, shown the need to improve techniques of tree production.

Chip budding. Potential for improvement lies in the replacement of traditional shield budding by chip budding, which involves the substitution of a wedge-shaped piece of scionwood bearing the bud for a similar shaped piece of rootstock tissue, rather than the addition of the but shield to the


Author: O.A. Jolly Batcheller

PP: 195

The beauty of the red-flowering eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ficifolia) has led many horticulturists and nurserymen to seek means of propagating selected trees vegetatively, because production by seed is totally unreliable. (4, 13, 17). A very few species of eucalyptus propagate easily from cuttings or air layers, but E ficifolia does not. Reports by horticulturists of an occasional success in grafting these plants has led the author to try different techniques over the past 25 years, with no success. A meeting with I. J Thulin1 in 1970 rekindled the author's interest, for Thulin had developed in New Zealand a technique for grafting eucalyptus on very young vigorous stock. (16)

In January, 1971, attempts were made using the information obtained from Thulin and, although these grafts were not successful, the scions lived long enough to indicate that if the techniques and procedures were refined and improved, successful grafting might result.

California State Polytechnic University provides no


Author: Richard W Bosley

PP: 201

The future for the grower of ornamental plant material in eastern United States looks very exciting if some of the things that are now on the wings come into center stage. It seems clear that from the standpoint of the plant propagator and grower, that the plant breeder will have to consider many new factors in selecting his offspring for introduction.

Some of the things that we should expect are selection for greater disease resistance, for earlier blooming and fruiting in the life of the plant, and for developing plants that lend themselves more readily to production. The plant breeder must help the grower increase productivity by such methods as selecting types that are more self-branching, respond well to optimum growing conditions, hold up well under the stress of the market place and perform well for the consumer. New leaf types and shapes are needed to lend interest to the landscape planting when the material is not in bloom or fruit. Greater cold and winter wind resistance


Author: B.H. Howard

PP: 203

Twenty-three experiments on the propagation of conifers and other woody plants by stem cuttings were done on nurseries by members of the Society. The experiments fell into three groups and within each group the same member repeated the experiment in second year under the same conditions as on the first occasion. Treatments investigated the effects of basal wounding in association with other factors which could influence the wounding response. Group 1 experiments examined the effect of wounding and the influence of an incision or slice wound on rooting. In Group 2 the effect of auxin applied before or after making the wound was investigated. In Group 3 wounding was examined in association with the user of a liquid or powder formulation of root-promoting auxin, with subsequent rooting in a ‘wet’ or ‘dry’ regime.

Within each group, wounding consistently improved rooting but the response to all other factors was variable and inconsistent. Significant interactions of wounding and other treatments with nurseries and with years revealed unidentified factors which influenced the rooting response of cuttings to these treatments


Author: William S. Stewart

PP: 40

As you will discover here in Hawaii, the "tropics" are not always just hot, humid, lands that abound in luxuriant vegetation, as in lowland equatorial rain forests, but may have a wide range of climates. For example, there are large areas within the tropics that are deserts with desert plants or, at higher elevations with temperate climates and dry forests; and, going still higher, areas with winter snow, alpine plants and, here in Hawaii, even skiing on Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii.

In Hawaii, the 50th state of our United States, all of these conditions are represented and all are conveniently accessible. For these reasons it is important to recognize the climatic zone within the tropics where a plant is growing to evaluate where on the mainland it might be adaptable. On the mainland under indoor or conservatory conditions almost any tropical species can be grown if ingenuity is used to modify the environment. An excellent reference for this field of work is Exotica 3, "A Guide To


Author: P.F. WAREING

PP: 212


That plant hormones have a marked effect on the rooting of cuttings has been recognized for some 40 years, since it was first demonstrated that application of the auxin-type hormone, indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), will stimulate rooting in stem cuttings of various species. For many years the auxins (which chemically are indole derivatives) were the only known natural plant hormones, but in the last 15 to 20 years it has become recognized that there are several other groups of natural plant hormones, including the gibberellins and cytokinins, which are growth promoting substances, abscisic acid, which often behaves as a growth inhibitor, and ethylene, the first known growth regulating substance which is a gas. These various types of hormone are very different from each other chemically. Thus, the gibberellins are terpenoid-like compounds with a fairly complex structure, while the cytokinins are purines, being substituted adenines or closely related substances. There are now about 40 known


Author: J.B. Gartner, S.M. Still, J.E. Klett

PP: 222

Growers of ornamental crops in the Southeast and the West Coast of the United States have used bark as a soil amendment or as a growth medium in container growing. In the Southeast the southern pine species are used and on the West Coast the Douglas-fir, redwood, and western red cedar, are predominant trees harvested for lumber and pulp. Growers in the Northeast and Midwest have only recently utilized bark as a soil amendment. In this area the trees harvested are hardwood species such as oak, hickory, maple, walnut, and ash. In the past there was considerable speculation that bark and sawdust of hardwood species was toxic and growers were afraid to use these materials as soil amendments.

Recently, new laws were enacted and producers of bark waste could no longer dump or burn these residues. Therefore, they were interested in finding other ways of disposing of them. Growers of ornamental crops have become more interested in artificial growth media and are switching to container growing as


Author: Fred K. Buscher, David Van Doren

PP: 232

Restricted soil aeration in soil mixes for container grown plants can 1) be the greatest limiting factor in the development of an extensive root system, 2) can impair the essential process of respiration of an established root system that retards both water and nutrient absorption, 3) prevent the orderly functioning of essential biological processes associated with good soil fertility, and 4) increases the probability of root disease problems.

The water content in container plant production remains near field capacity under irrigation. The air-filled pore space following drainage to field capacity is an important aspect of soil mixes. It is through air-filled pores that gases are exchanged between the soil mixes and the atmosphere. This pore space is influenced by the amount and type of amendments used in the soil mix. Since we cannot yet predict water and air-filled pore conditions for different mixes, each grower must measure air-filled pore space for his own mix.

A way to determine


Author: John P. Sparmann

PP: 235

Climatic conditions in our area make impossible to grow a wide variety of plants which are hardy in northern temperate zones. A longer growing season and the need for very little protection make it economical to ship these plants to northern markets. We generally have mild winters, temperatures drop to the low teens occasionally, and I have seen the ground remain frozen for as long as 5 days at a time. Average annual rainfall in Quincy is 54 inches, with extremes of 30 or 84 inches.

Propagation by cuttings is done from May through February. The cuttings are taken from 1 or 2 yr old container stock, and we like to let the time the cuttings are taken coincide with the time the plants need pruning.

Cuttings are taken from healthy and well watered plants. They are washed in fungicide solution, wounded by means of stripping and cut to a uniform length. Each worker gets a small wooden stick, previously cut to insure this uniformity. Cuttings must be short and stocky, in order to produce a


Author: James Slezinski, Harold Davidson

PP: 238


Over the last 30 years propagators have successfully used mist to control water loss from cuttings during the period of root regeneration. There are many excellent references on the subject (5, 6, 8, 9, 13). Emphasis has been on the use of mist to cool the leaves of the cuttings. This results in lowering the vapor pressure within the cutting, thus reducing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the ambient atmosphere which, in turn, reduces loss of moisture by transpiration. However, another method of reducing the VPD is to increase the relative humidity of the ambient atmosphere. At a relative humidity of 100%, the VPD (mmHg) at any temperature is zero. Humidity control received some attention by propagators (1, 3, 7, 10) over the years, but most propagators have relied on mist.

Since 1953 many propagators have utilized polyethylene film in plant propagation. Coggeshall (2) propagated difficult-to-root plants in a plastic case. Warner (12), Van Hoff (11) and others have


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 242

This is not an experimental project, but the reporting of the changes and upgrading of our propagating facilities over of 15 yr period at the Kalmia Farms Nursery at Clarksville, Md.

Low cost does not mean only construction costs, but also general maintenance costs, operating costs such as heating fuel and general labor operating costs.

Our firm operates a 328 acre wholesale nursery, growing mostly winter hardy woody plant materials in medium and large sizes. We cater to the landscape contracting business in the Mid-Atlantic area, with 90% of our business in a 50 mile radius that covers the Washington and Baltimore markets.

Our firm was originally in a rural area, in what is now the suburban Maryland-Metropolitan Washington area. During the late 1950 period, we moved to the rural area 20 miles west of Baltimore and 25 miles north of Washington. Again Washington and also Baltimore are moving in on us very fast.

In the late 1950 period, we had to start a new propagating facility at our new


Author: James H. Kyle

PP: 247

The past few years have shown a need for additional propagation space at Spring Hill Nurseries. One specific crop which we are wanted to expand was evergreen liners.

Over the years we have rooted Taxus, Juniperus, and Thuja species in many ways. Cuttings have been stuck in outdoor frames, greenhouse benches, flats on greenhouse benches moved outdoors when rooted, and even some under outdoor mist. We wanted to expand using the best of what we had done in the past. A good production area was to be built with reliable control of heat and other environmental conditions. The space would have to be flexible to use for other crops.

The 180 × 15 ft poly tunnel was constructed like other houses in the area. The floor, however, was submerged 2 ft underground. A hole was excavated 3 ft deep, sloping to a 12 inch drain tile at one end. Pipes were driven into the ground to support the structural hoops. A concrete footer was poured to support precast concrete slabs, with 2 inches of styrofoam


Author: Gied Stroombeek

PP: 251

When I was approached last May to give a short talk on the subject of a "Controlled Temperature Over-Wintering Program", it seemed like a perfectly good topic for the 1973 Propagators' meeting. Little did I realize at the time that we were heading for a full-fledged energy crises come winter.

Before I comment on how this crisis might affect the overwintering program, I would like to describe it to you. The program concerns mainly vulnerable container-stock and this refers to: (A) broadleaf material that is somewhat tender, e.g. evergreen azaleas; (B) broadleaf and deciduous stock that is root-tender at low temperatures; Japanese and American holly, cotoneaster varieties and pyracantha.

This stock is pushed together tightly in Quonset structures during early November. The huts receive a thorough spray of 3 lbs. Captan plus 1 lb. Terraclor per 100 gal with a quality sticker like Vapor-guard or Nufilm added; this spray is applied just prior to covering. The huts are covered with two


Author: Francis R. Gouin

PP: 255

Over the years nurserymen have used numerous methods for overwintering container-grown woody ornamental plants. In areas where snow is plentiful and early, ornamentals are overwintered by laying the plants on their sides before the first snow-fall. Where winters vary from moderate to severe and where early winter snows are unpredictable, nurserymen have had to adopt other methods of winter protection. Deep coldframes have been used by a limited number of growers with a high degree of success. A modified version of the deep cold frame being used by some growers is a wide open trench, dug 18 to 24 inches deep in a well drained soil on a gentle slope facing north. The plants are packed tightly in the trench and mulched with sawdust, shavings, ground-bark, or wood chips.

Few growers have had 100% success over-wintering plants by packing them together on level ground and covering the containers with mulch. Peripheral containers generally become uncovered before and during the most severe


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 259

We are fortunate to have five members who will share their expertise with us in the vast and complex field of seedling propagation. To illustrate the point, in Vol. 20 of the Proceedings, G.B.&I. member McMillan-Browse said, "Little information has been forthcoming on the propagation of viburnums from seed and all that comes to light from surveying the literature is confusion!" I can well appreciate his statement because all of us who have attempted sexual propagation of various species will understand the "confusion". In reviewing the literature for a background of a Seedling Propagation Symposium, there is data available virtually all of the 21 volumes of our Proceedings. As I mentioned to the Manitoba nurserymen on Thanksgiving of this year, we must read all available data — and then learn from practical experiences.

For the information of our new members and guests, I hold the office of Historian on the I.P.P.S. Board, and in my files I have the Proceedings of the National Association of Propagating Nurserymen for their June 23, 1926


Author: Marion O. Mapes

PP: 47

Numerous pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. variety Smooth Cayennne] plantlets and protocorm-like bodies were produced from shoot tips when a combination of orchid shoot tip technique and callus method for organo-genesis was applied sequentially and in correct order. Initially, explants from shoot tip, stem and root tips failed to grow in 42 different media. Meristematic protocorm-like bodies and plantlets were produced from pre-shaken shoot tip cultures in Murashige and Skoog's basal medium plus adenosine, 30 ppm, or adenine, 20 ppm. Ornamental bromeliads were more recalcitrant in culture, but with slight modifications of cultural media, the same procedures appeared applicable. Portea petropolipana and Guzmania sp. have shown positive response and a wild pineapple, Ananas erectifolius, L.B. Smith has produced several lateral shoots and protocorm-like bodies.

Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 262

In nature's scheme of things many remarkable adaptations have evolved which prevent germination of seeds at times unfavorable to seedling survival. While many kinds of seeds germinate on being provided with conditions such as moisture, air and warmth, other seeds refuse to do so even when given these favorable conditions. Such seeds are not prepared to develop and are termed dormant. This word stems from the Latin word dormio which means to slumber or sleep. Until the inhibiting conditions of dormancy are overcome, the seed is prevented from development.

Dormancies, often irksome to propagators, are functional in design. They are safeguards which nature has furnished to insure continuance of the species. If these protections did not exist and germination occurred during a warm spell in autumn or winter, the seedlings would perish during subsequent cold. Dormancies which cause germination to be erratic and extended over long periods of time lead to a reserve of seeds which stand ready to


Author: Harold Pellett

PP: 266

The term stratification was coined as a description of the common means of handling seeds during the period in which their dormancy conditions were satisfied. This is the practice of alternately placing layers of seeds between layers of moist sand or peat or other suitable media. The term is used today to describe all methods of storing seeds in a moist condition such as mixing the seed with the medium or fall sowing directly in the seed bed. When we think of stratification we commonly think of cold stratification to satisfy some internal dormancy problem, but storage of seeds in a moist medium under warm temperatures is also quite helpful in overcoming some types of dormancy, so we should say warm or cold to preface the word stratification depending on the conditions desired. A warm stratification period preceding a cold stratification is very helpful with some seeds that have a double dormancy such a Tilia Americana, those with immature embryos such as Fraxinus nigra, and those with

Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 276

Since the previous two speakers have discussed seed dormancy and stratification, this paper will assume that properly selected quality seed is on hand ready to plant. Furthermore, seed dormancy has either been overcome by stratification or will be in the field. This paper will deal with the system we use in seedbed management.

Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 281

One aspect of particular and growing concern to the seedling propagator is the matter of seed provenance and selection. As a background to this topic I should mention that at Forest Keeling Nursery we grow a range of hardy deciduous trees and shrubs from seed — almost 100 species. These are grown in open field beds without shade but otherwise under intensive culture as regards irrigation, nutrition, disease, insect and weed control. A considerable portion of these seedlings are used by other nurseries as understocks. A somewhat larger proportion are used as liners for growing on into finished plants, either in the field or container. Still others (particularly our so-called "top-of-the crop") are purchased for re-sale to customers who plant them in their permanent or ultimate location. Mail-order firms, highway departments, conservation agencies and others are avid consumers of these larger seedlings.

Regardless of outlet or usage, we are ever more impressed with the importance of seed


Author: C.W.M. Hess Jr

PP: 284

This topic is somewhat evasive in that we have no definition of what is a "difficult" species; what is difficult for one person may be very simple for another. I believe that it all terminates with enough experience to arrive at a successful conclusion — in this case a good stand of healthy seedlings. As an example, one of our members inquired some months back about the proper handling of Myrica pensylvanica seed. He explained that he had purchased seed, planted it the same fall he received it and had no success; this happened for several years. I inquired as to his handling of the seed and he explained that it was planted immediately upon receipt from the supplier. This will not do when planting bayberry seed. Bayberry seed has a waxy gray coating which is used in the manufacture of bayberry candles. This waxy covering must be removed prior to planting in order to obtain germination the spring after planting.

Some very popular species at present are the amelanchiers — known as June berry, shadblow, sarvis tree and other common names. These plants


Author: Paul E. Read, Vincent L. Herman, Paiboolya Gavinlertvatana

PP: 289

"Controlled release" chlormequant (2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride) has been demonstrated to effectively modify plant growth This encapsulated growth substance when incorporated into the growing medium, both effectively stimulated earlier flowering in tomatoes and petunias and retarded growth of tomatoes, petunias, snapdragons, marigolds, and other bedding plant species When utilized in a rooting medium, stimulation of early rooting occurred However, subsequent root initiation and development were greatly retarded in geranium cuttings.

Author: Heung, Shi-Luh, Rosa, John J. McGuire

PP: 296

Talc formulations of IAA prepared by dissolving the auxin in alcohol were superior to talc formulations prepared by grinding IAA crystals with talc. Similar concentrations of IAA in aqueous solution were taken up faster and produced more roots per cutting. Maximum uptake in aqueous solution took place in 24 hours but talc formulations required 72 hours.

When talc and ethanol formulations were compared on the basis of adventitious root production in Ilex cuttings, it required four and a half times as much IAA in talc to get the same amount of roots as obtained in ethanol formulations


Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 305

The Twenty-third Annual Banquet was held in Salon Four of the Marriott Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. On behalf of the Society, Dr. John Wott presented a certificate of appreciation to Captain George Toop, captain of the IPPS 1973 charter flight to England, for his efforts in making the trip a memorable occasion.

The award for the best undergraduate paper was presented to Mr. Richard Randall of Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Dr. William Synder, Secretary of the International Board of Directors, made the following presentation:

DR. SYNDER: President Tukey, members of the Eastern Region and guests. Mr. Leslie Hancock, Chairman of the Award and Merit Committee, could not be with us this year and I have been asked to act in his stead to present the Award of Merit for 1973.

The recipient of the Award this year joined the Society in 1952 which missed by one year being an honorary charter member of the organization. At an early age, he indicated an interest in plant materials by


Author: Thomas A. Fretz, Elton M. Smith

PP: 306

Most herbicide failures we hear of are not herbicide failures. The conditions under which these materials have been used are usually responsible for the so-called "failures", so often quoted. When you consider all the external forces that can ultimately affect herbicidal action, it's a miracle they work at all.

The ultimate fate of an herbicide once introduced into the environment can be seen in Figure 1. Three major degradation processes and six transfer processes play a role in determining the fate of these chemicals. Biological decomposition or break-down by living organisms; chemical decomposition, the break-down by chemical processes in the absence of living organisms; and photodecomposition, the degradation by chemical processes involving radiant energy, are the three processes by which herbicides are degraded and their chemical composition changed.

The major transfer processes which affect herbicides in the environment include absorption by plants and animals, retention in


Author: Thomas A. Fretz

PP: 315

Herbicide combinations were effective in reducing weed growth in container-grown nursery stock. Trifluralin at 4 lb. ai/A and alachlor at 1 5 lb ai/A gave excellent grass weed control, but poor control of broadleaf weeds Linuron at 1 0 lb, ai/A exhibited excellent broadleaf weed control but poor control of annual grass weeds When linuron at 1.0 lb ai/A and trifluralin at 4 0 lb ai/A were applied in combination, excellent control of both annual broadleaf and grass weeds was observed.

Author: Leslie K.C. Clay

PP: 56

Last year, as many of you may remember, I spoke generally on the propagation of dogwood. This year I intend to limit my comments solely to the propagation of dogwood by cuttings.

With all species of dogwood, we take the cuttings in late June and early July. The cuttings are placed in flats in a medium of 1/3 sand, 1/3 peat moss, 1/3 coarse perlite. Several flats of cuttings were prepared with medium of pure washed concrete sand. These, however, did not root nearly as well as those in our standard mixture. The cuttings are taken only from the current season's growth. In the case of Cornus alba, and varieties, if the growth is long enough, cuttings from secondary growth may be used. With Cornus florida and its cultivars and Cornus kousa only tip cuttings are used. The cutting length is four to six inches and the lower leaves are removed. Following removal of leaves, cuttings of Cornus florida, and varieties, and Cornus kousa are given a wound of ½ to ¾ inch in length. The cuttings are then given


Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 320

We, like all businessmen and — in particular — those that deal with nature, are faced with many problems — weather, labor, finances, and one universal bug-a-boo for the agricultural entrepreneur, WEEDS.

Weeds are a problem because they effect plant growth, cause unsightliness of our nursery, and present a labor and financial burden. It is hard to say what single factor really pushed us to turn to the bags of chemicals that we had sitting in the back of the shed but never used. We had an experience with a herbicide about 5 years ago. Before the use of the herbicide, we had 50 weed species, and after its use we had 5 species of weeds present. These 5 together were more of a problem than the 50 we started with. I think the one thing that pushed us to the breaking point was our desire to use one of the slow-release fertilizers that cost somewhere around $15.00 per bag. We could not justify sending labor into the field to pull weeds and at the same time pull and eventually throw away this


Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 323


We control in lining-out beds has always been expensive, since weeds have been controlled for the most part by manual labor. With beds usually composed of small plants, weeds must be removed frequently to reduce the competition primarily for light, but for moisture and nutrients as well. Although, women and teen-agers have been used extensively for weeding the labor costs have steadily increased to well over the $600/A/yr for weeding field stock as reported by Johnson in 1962 (1).

In recent years, pre-emergence herbicides have been used extensively by nurserymen in field stock but not in lining-out beds. Among the reasons for limited use in liner beds are: 1) fear of herbicide damage to small plants with a limited root system; 2) with large numbers of plants in a small area, concern that a mistake will eliminate a future crop; 3) often, lining-out beds contain numerous cultivars of plants and herbicide selection becomes more difficult; and 4) certain herbicides such as Treflan are not as


Author: William J. Bennett

PP: 326

Chemical weed control programs for nursery crops have been adopted at an increasing rate over the past several years. Effective herbicides have been developed and tested and nursery operators have shown cost reductions for weed control when compared to mechanical methods. Injury to nursery crops has been negligible when recommended herbicides are used at the correct time and at suggested rates of application.

Field trials of many herbicides and combinations of two or more chemicals have been conducted in Massachusetts by the Cooperative Extension Service for several years. Growers and chemical companies have been very cooperative in making these possible. In designing various field trials several considerations were basic to the decision making process. These are as follows:

  1. The first flush of weed growth following transplanting is probably the most important to control effectively
  2. Granular formulations are much more practical for the smaller grower or the treatment of smaller blocks of

Author: Paul L. Smeal

PP: 331

Efficiency may be defined as the quality or degree of being efficient or, in production terms, a comparison of output with cost in energy, time, money, materials, labor, etc. Efficiency defined in its simplest term is to accomplish the task with the least amount of time and effort. Nursery efficiency and industrial management are similar in that both refer to the highly organized modern method of carrying on production of industrial operations.

As one looks at industrial management, the growth of manufacturing requires special supervision of machinery and the elimination of inefficiency. The first sustained effort in this direction was made in the 1880's by F.W. Taylor of the Midvale Steel Company. The motions of workers were studied to speed up production by cutting out excess movements. Such time and motion studies of the flow of materials through the plant became a major item of inquiry, as did product design. Relations with workers became the subject of industrial psychology. Soon


Author: John B. Roller

PP: 333

Our original method for production of crabapples was by budding. This program was dropped for two reasons; first, we had to rely on school boys who had no experience in budding and, since we rarely got the same boys back 2 years in succession, this meant continuous teaching of budders year after year. The second reason was the percentage of "dog-legs" that we got from budded trees. Many of them seemed to grow straight out — then up; at best they were second-rate trees.

The poor stands from inexperienced budders and the percentage of "dog-legs", plus the fact that cutting off the understocks came at a time when we were very busy with other work, combined to make this a poor method of producing crabapples, so it was discontinued. Then for two seasons we bought crabapple whips from outside sources. This solved all of our problems except the "dog-legs," as our source budded their trees and we still had "dog-leg" trees.

We decided to go back to the old-fashioned method of whip grafting,


Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 335


The types of plants I graft are usually dwarf or weeping cultivars of the various species on which they are grafted as rootstocks. The unusual shapes and forms are the result of the subsequent growth of the grafted plant. Most of the plants are top grafted, from 1 to 6 ft. high although some are grafted in tiers, using side grafts, depending upon the effect desired. Most propagators are familiar with simple top-grafting techniques. Those who have toured nurseries have undoubtedly seen Cotoneaster cultivars, Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum,’ and Syringa velutina (S. palibiniana) as well as other plants grafted on standard rootstocks. My report is an extension of these procedures, drawing from my experience over the past few years.


Author: Richard P. Wolff

PP: 339

The title translated means — I have some good news and some bad news. Although I lack much formal training most of my training came from the trial and error method of doing and reading; failing; regrouping and failing again — and when limited and ultimate success did come — as Gleason would say — "How sweet it is". I could spend all of my allotted time speaking of failures, but any success is replete with failures so let us look on the bright and positive side.

I will define the term "grafting" to bring this talk into sharper focus. Grafting is the art of joining parts of a plant together in such a manner than they will unite and continue to grow as one plant. In the plant industry, grafting must be fast, efficient and precise if good economy is to be effected. Our end result should produce a vigorously healthy tree of superior quality.

Briefly, let me review with you the pre-grafting, grafting and post-grafting procedures and, along the way, I will discuss specific points that have a


Author: Ben Davis II, Lonnie Lankford

PP: 345

Ozark Nurseries is located in the Cookson Hills (a part of the Ozark Mountain range) in northeastern Oklahoma. This places us in USDA plant hardiness zone 7a. Although the average minimum temperature for this zone is given as 0 to 10°F, we nearly always experience 2 or 3 days of -5°F or lower at sometime during the winter.

This climate makes it difficult to grow crapemyrtle [Lagerstroemia indica] by the conventional method of propagating from unrooted hardwood cuttings lined out directly in the field. Because of the cold winter temperatures, cuttings lined out before mid-April are many times freeze-damaged. Late planted cuttings do not make enough growth in one season for most of the plants to reach salable size. It is very risky to leave them in the field 2 years because in most years the 1 year old plants will nearly all be winter-killed. We have tried digging all of the plants at 1 year before extremely cold weather, grading out the plants large enough to sell, and lining back out the smaller plants. As a rule this did not work well because,


Author: Michael J. Medeiros

PP: 347

Most nurseries which propagate rhododendrons take the cuttings when a new flush of growth matures. In my area this is in early July and in September. Although these times generally produce the optimum rooting, it is possible to root rhododendrons very successfully at other times of the year.

If you propagate rhododendrons almost exclusively, as we do, after the fall crop is rooted you will have an empty cutting house. Starting another crop at this time spreads out the work load and keeps our facilities operating year round.

Before giving a month-by-month accounting of our cutting activity, I would like to describe our propagating structures and materials.

Our propagating house is a Quonset-type structure covered with polyethylene. It has a bench on either side with a path in the middle. Each bench is constructed to support three rows of flats. The bench is a pipe structure covered by a length of copper naphthenate-treated snow fence. This allows the bottom of the flats to be heated by a


Author: Arie Radder

PP: 351

At Imperial Nurseries we have switched from field growing of rhododendrons to 100% container growing. In our Connecticut winter climate we have to protect the containers; this is done by placing them in plastic hoop houses where we stack them together in November and leave them under plastic protection until the end of March.

About the third week of March we start to remove the plants from the hoop houses and space them on black plastic in the growing area so that we can put some good growth on them without any further spacing during the season. At the same time we will shape up all the plants to obtain compact, full rhododendrons. In the past we threw the clippings on the compost heap, but I noticed that there was a considerable amount of nice propagating wood among the clippings so we decided to try to root them. We had space open in our propagating houses and on April 4, 1973 we placed cuttings of four cultivars of rhododendrons in our cutting benches. The rooting medium consisted of


Author: Bruce A. Briggs

PP: 58

At the 1969 Eastern meeting, I gave a paper entitled, "Research at the Nursery Level"(1) My talk today pursues some of these ideas further and will be in a similar format (mostly slides with some discussion and, hopefully, some questions at the end).

Author: Lawrence Carville

PP: 356

The Friday evening session convened at 8:05 p.m. Larry Carville served as moderator.

MODERATOR CARVILLE: The Potpourri is a little different concept than our usual Question Box in that I've asked two of our members to begin this evening's program with slide presentations showing some new and innovative methods and techniques. Some of these new ideas you saw last night when the tour leaders were discussing the different tours which we went on in England. Some of you were not able to go with us on the "Propagator's Tour of a Lifetime" and I felt it would be a good idea to try to show you some of the things they are doing over there. I've asked Hugh Steavenson to lead off this evening's program by showing you some slides of a new technique that we saw on the tour in England.

EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. Steavenson showed slides and discussed a jacketed cold storage unit for nursery stock; conifer seedlings and transplant can be stored in these units for as long as 18 months and then taken out to the


Author: Ellaby Martin

PP: 364

An account of the inaugural meeting of the International Plant Propagator's Society, New Zealand Chapter-at-Large. Tuesday, September 26, 1972.

A gathering of plant propagators was held at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, to discuss the formation of a Chapter of the Society here in New Zealand.

The move to start a chapter here was initiated by Mr. J. S. Wells of Redbank, New Jersey, in correspondence with Mr. Ella by Martin of Martin's Nurseries, Hamilton. Although this was not the first time the development had been considered, Mr. Martin felt that the time was right for exploring the possibilities in greater depth. He contacted Mr. R. E. Lycette of the University of Waikato and other horticulturist he knew to have an interest in plant propagation as well as some of the existing members of the society living in New Zealand.

The preparation for the inaugural meeting was carried out largely by Ellaby Martin and Ron Lycette and the date was fixed to coincide with Mr. Jim Wells' visit to


Author: E.E Toleman

PP: 366

In this case the term "hardy" refers to those Nymphaea which grow in temperate zones but not necessarily to those known generally as tender or tropical. The technique to be described was evolved to meet the requirements for several hundreds of small plants of a standard size and age. In this case the cultivar, Gonnere (syn. Crystal White), was used as sufficient material of it was readily available.

Normally, when only a few plants are required, side shoots from the main rootstocks are removed but natural increase thus is very slow. It has long been known that Nymphaea will survive in wet soil only with no water above the rootstock but in such cases smaller leaves and far more growing shoots are produced. It was also known that a dormant shoot bud is present on the rootstock at the axil of it and the leaf stem, even if the latter is no longer present. With this knowledge, the rootstocks were placed in containers and grown in water 30 centimetres deep. This water depth was decreased over a period of eight weeks so that finally the rootstocks had no water over them but were in wet


Author: R.E Lycette

PP: 369

The most general plan of propagation of ferns is by spores but with many species it is difficult and with some it seems impossible. In a country where ferns form a dominant part of the vegetation and the range of species is considerable there is often little inducement to plant propagators to widen the range of ferns available. Many private citizens and too often nurserymen also ‘raid the bush’ to obtain stocks of ferns — their method of propagation in this case is roots or rhizomes dug bodily from the soil. Too often this ends in tragedy with the whole fern dying. Exotic species and cultivars are often propagated asexually from the divisions or rhizomes from the nurserymen's own stocks.

The purpose of this paper is. very briefly, to discuss the success we have had here at the University of Waikato with the propagation of ferns from spores.

The ferns species we have tried are chiefly exotic, many of them subtropical. Although more elaborate techniques have been tried we have finally


Author: R.M C. Scott

PP: 371

Why leaf-bud cuttings? The main purpose of leaf-bud cuttings is to produce as many new plants as possible from a limited stock material. They are slower than stem tip cuttings in that they take longer to produce a mature plant but they can be produced in large numbers.

A leaf-bud cutting, as its name suggests, consist of leaf blade, petiole or leaf stem, an axillary bud plus a small portion of the stem. In actual fact a leaf-bud cutting is a miniature softwood cutting.

It is important when taking these cuttings, as with any cuttings, to select healthy disease-free stock plants. A cutting from a poor quality stock plant will produce an inferior quality new plant. It is also important to select mature tissue, i.e leaves and petioles which have a mature axillary bud or axillary shoot primordia capable of producing shoots in a relatively short time. However, although they should be mature, the cuttings should be made from relatively young, healthy growth, as cuttings from old growth will


Author: B. Haggo

PP: 372

In the R.H.S. Dictinary over 35 species of Dapne, both evergreen and deciduous are describe. I will concentrate my remark on one of these species; in fact, to a cultivar known as Daphne odora ‘Rubra.’

Stock Plants — I consider the key to D. odora ‘Rubra’ production is healthy vigorous stock. Selected plants are set out in the best piece of nursery land and grown for two years before being used for cuttings. These stocks are maintained from 5 to 7 years before removal and replacement by fresh plants. Below a soil pH of 6, growth is restricted. Good results are achieved with a pH of between 6 and 6.4. A balanced fertilizer applied in early spring and again after the cuttings are removed (late summer) maintains growth.


Author: A.W. Palmer

PP: 374

Tropical hibiscus are generally from Hawaii, differing vastly from the Fijian varities in that they tend to have larger flowers, be more frost tender have a more ‘sprawly’ growing habit and will not stand winds of any force. Hence they must be grafted and in turn this produces:
  1. A stronger root system which will handle stronger winds.
  2. A more vigorous plant, flowering earlier and better, with longer life.
  3. A hardier scion variety in reference to frost.
  4. A saleable plant in approximately 6 months.
  5. A larger quantity when stocks are limited.

Grafting. Spring seems to be a successful time, and plants grafted at this time can be retailed in February [late summer]. If grafted in late summer and wintered in a glasshouse they produce good saleable plants for early spring.

Method 1: Grafted onto a growing stock — in a tube — is ideal. The stock must be vigorous, hardy and produce roots very quickly. Some good examples are ‘Suva Queen,’ ‘Simmond's Red’, ‘Fifi Flame’, ‘Agnes Gault’. If hardwood cuttings


Author: Judith Cowan

PP: 376

Duncan & Davies: A tour of the Research and Development Department was first on the agenda, with Mr. Trevor Davies (Managing Director) outlining the conception and function of this area which is to grow new introductions (both local cultivars and imports) to a stage where their merits in this locality can be ascertained as to hardiness, merits of flower, foliage or growth habit, etc. Stock is thus built allowing immediate propagation of worthwhile subjects.

Propagation Department: The emphasis here was that all visitors be allowed to wander about as they pleased, migrating to the area of particular interest to the individual. Static displays were mounted of heating equipment (kindly loaned by the local City Council), mist nozzles and ancillary equipment, and these stimulated much discussion and exchange of ideas. Much doubt was expressed about the types of misting nozzles at present available.

Media trial work on rhododendron and magnolia cultivars was displayed in chart form with samples


Author: B.L. McKenzie

PP: 380

Cuttings of Protea,Leucadendron and Leucospermum are taken from mid-summer to early winter. These are approximately 4–5" in length (depending a little on the cultivar) and the lower two thirds is stripped of leaves. Cuttings are then treated with IBA 0.3%, quick dip, this giving better results than the Seradix No. 2 powder, formerly used.

The rooting medium I use consist of peat and sand, 1:1 and, as our nursery produces liner crops only, 90% of the plants are rooted directly in tubes. This also reduces root disturbance which is particularly important with Proteaceus plants. Certain small-leaved cultivars are rooted in small tubes and, when rooted, transferred into larger tubes. The potting mix here comprises 2 parts soil, 1 part peat, and 1 part sand, sterilized with M.B.C. and contains the following fertilizer per cubic yard: lb. Uramite, ¾ lb. superphosphate, 1 oz. potassium nitrate, 1 oz. potassium sulfate. No lime is used but supplementary liquid feeding is given.

Our aim through


Author: N. Parr

PP: 380

I would like to speak of my experience with the grafting of three cedar cultivars — Cedrus deodara ‘Aurea’, C. atlantica &lsquoGlauca’ and C. atlantica ‘Aurea’.

The understock used is C. deodara seedlings about 18 months old and grown in small containers where a vigorous root growth is maintained through liquid feeding. The plants are brought into the glasshouse for several weeks prior to grafting to stimulate root activity. This is usually about mid-March (early autumn) or when the scion wood is considered mature.

I use the oblique wedge method, matching the scion on one side only . The scion is a 2–3 terminal shoot of well-matured current seasons growth, if possible taken from the upper parts of the tree where maximum growth has taken place. The scions should be about 1/8" in diameter, thinner wood being avoided if possible. I have found the scion wood is best used fresh, although it may be safely stored in polythene bags in cool conditions for several days if necessary.

The graft is tied with


Author: Fenton E. Larsen

PP: 62

Work on chemical stimulation of leaf abscission of nursery stock started at Washington State University in 1962. Some work had been done elsewhere in the United States prior to that time (1,2,12,13,14). Since 1962, sporadic attention has been given to this problem by others in the United States and Western Europe. Apparently somewhat more consistent attention has been given in Eastern Europe. Much work in Europe, however, has been with materials which are more desiccants than defoliants.

In 1967, a report to the International Plant Propagator's Society (IPPS) covered the findings of the early work in Washington (4). Since 1967, several additional reports have been published concerning the most successful treatments (5,6,7,9,10) under central Washington conditions. Other materials have been tried which might be useful elsewhere. It is the purpose of this report to briefly present information gathered since the above mentioned report to IPPS (4) and to describe the currently most


Author: B. Blackman

PP: 382

Annual production in our nursery is in excess of 30,000 dwarf conifers in containers. I consider, by specialisation, we have been able to concentrate all our efforts on aspects of production and problems associated with the various species and cultivars.

I have been told that dwarf conifers are nature's freaks and it would appear, by the inability of most forms to set seed, that nature tends to conserve her species. We have found on rare occasions when a dwarf conifer does produce cones, the resulting seed is usually not viable or, if viable, plants true-to-type cannot be produced, e.g. Pinus mugo and Thuja orientalis ‘Aurea Nana’.

Having observed the result of imported grafted dwarf conifers, I am convinced that grafting should not be practised unless cultivars are impossible to propagate economically by cuttings. In the same way an apple tree will respond to rootstock vigour, a dwarf conifer grafted onto a strong-growing seedling will lose its character.

All of our conifer cuttings


Author: Judith M. Cowan

PP: 384

While the properties of peat have been well researched and are known to all nurserymen, sawdust as a propagating medium has received surprisingly little attention. As far as I can ascertain the only New Zealand literature on the subject was produced by Mr. Charles Challenger of Lincoln College some ten years ago, I find it amazing that a material so readily available and with such obvious potential should have escaped critical analysis.

History. At Duncan and Davies we have been using sawdust as an integral part of the propagating medium for the last 14 years during which time a change was made from "pit" to "container" propagation. Sawdust was considered suitable because it had the following advantages:

  1. Availability — Most materials had to be imported from outside the Taranaki region, e.g. sand and pumice from the Waikato area. Sawdust was available from a number of local mills and a regular supply could be maintained.
  2. Cost — For a medium which is being used once only, it becomes

Author: T. Hatch

PP: 388

These ground cover plants are, as far as I know, endemic to New Zealand and some are still awaiting identification. On the whole they are riverbed or high mountain plants and they grow in very exposed and poor conditions. The majority are mat plants some extending to six or eight feet across. Most are grey in colour and felty in texture owing to the fine hair covering. They can be divided into two types: one, the "Vegetable Sheep" type, comes from the mountainous regions, mainly in the South Island. These grow in big silvery hummocks, hence the name, but are somewhat difficult to grow in the North Island owing to climatic variation. The second type, known as "scabweeds", inhabit riverbeds down to sea level and are thus more suitable for growing in the Noth Island. Two of the most popular types are the silvery-coloured, Raoulia hookeri, and R. eximia, which is grown extensively overseas. In New Zealand most cultivars

Author: B.T. Bulloch

PP: 389

A botanist's approach to plant propagation is fundamentally one of rueful diffidence. An eminent plant physiologist confessed that, despite his erudition on the mechanics of plant function, he found it impossible to persuade plants to function in his backyard vegetable garden. It's no mystery really for in large part botany consists of taking something the plant does without any trouble and making it seem difficult — in fact, to make it seem impossible is a major break-through. Perhaps it's the difference between science and reality.

Biological science today has two prime backdrops: the interaction of organisms with their environment, including other organisms — that is the broad field of ecology; and how organisms function — that is the broad field of physiology.

In the course of their practical work at this University, botany students investigate common hormone-mediated plant responses. For example, a property of GIBBERELLINS is to induce dwarf cultivars of peas, beans and maize to


Author: A.S. Edmonds

PP: 391

Many chemical substances are now used in horticulture and agriculture to affect the growth and development of flowering plants. Some of these substances are very familiar, for example:
   2,4-D          2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
   2,4,5,-T      2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

These chemical substances intervene and exert recognisable effects on plant growth and development but in a characteristic, non-nutrient way. Small amounts are effective, and these quantities are not incorporated into the substance of the plant.

Among the many regulatory substances in common use are the two above-named selective herbicides which kill plants of broadleaved species but not of grasses. As well there are total-kill herbicides, e.g. CMU, 3-p-chlorphenyl 1–1 dimethylurea, and Ammate, ammonium sulphamate. There are chemicals which stimulate the rooting of cuttings, e.g. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). There are chemicals which cause leaves or fruit to drop, e.g. Endothal, disodium, 3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalate. There are


Author: Jack Pike

PP: 396

It gives me a great deal of pleasure on behalf of the Federation of Australian Nurserymen to officially open what is a very auspicious occasion in the history of the nursery industry in Australia.

I was reminiscing only last week about how maybe this Australian inaugural meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society would have been if it had come along five or six years ago, when people in the industry were saying there was over production; we needed more merchandising; we needed more outlets and anyone more mentioned propagation or new techniques to produce more efficiently, well, they were sort of frowned upon. How thing have changed.

There is one of the greatest shortages of plant material in Australia today than there has ever been in the history of the country and how timely it is that here at Leura, we should be holding an inaugural meeting to form the Australian chapter of the I.P.P.S. It is a very timely thing and I think it is going to, or it has, there's no


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 397

It has been my good fortune to have been able to travel fairly extensively during the past few years and this travel has of course been associated with my interest in plant propagation and the nursery industry, wherever it may be. I have been able to meet and talk with nurserymen in America, England, Europe, last year in New Zealand and now in your country, discussing with them problems of plants, production, propagation, business, all the items that together make the nursery world tick. Now one thing stands right out from all this and that is that the speed of change — whether in our business or in the world around us — is accelerating to such a degree that even if we are aware of what is taking place, we feel quite unable to cope. In fact a book has been written on the subject and in many of the highly industrialized areas of the world, the problem of "future shock" is a very real one, for the future is arriving so fast and in such solid doses that many of us feel we don't understand

Author: Michael G. Mullins

PP: 404

The subject I have today is one in which I have considerable interest, but must admit, is one in which I have no great personal experience. I would not like it to be thought that I was an authority in the field of plant virology at the University of Sydney. It belongs more properly to my colleague, Professor Brian Deveral, Professor of Plant Pathology, a micrologist.

I hope to show in this lecture that the fields of Virology and physiology and biochemistry have many affinities and it will be certain that new research programmes will be forthcoming which will be of some interest, I hope, to the nursery industry and plant propagators in general. So if we can just turn to the subject at hand, and that is virus-free plant propagation material. Many people are not too keen on the use of the term "virus-free material." That is because it implies that the plant is free of all known viruses and that it has been tested and shown to be free. The "in" term is virus symptom-free material, but we


Author: Roy Rumsey

PP: 411

Off and on, over the years, we had grown miniature roses from cuttings, but it was not until about 1968 that we stopped budding miniature roses, with the exception of "Standards", and grew them entirely from cuttings. It is quite satisfactory to take cuttings from either softwood or hardwood material and, according to the time of the year, a salable plant can be produced in quite a short time. We root the cuttings under constant daytime mist, harden them off outside, then pot them up as needed.

None of this really news, as everyone knows by now, that miniature roses from rooted cuttings are, by far, better than budded plants; sales also have increased greatly since they were available for the public in this manner.

However, this started us wondering if it would be possible to produce the larger type rose as budded plants, completely container-grown, with the rootstock placed in the soil mix and, at no time would the plants be field-grown. Of course, we had already seen the advantages of


Author: A.J. Teese

PP: 415

"Rhododendrons cannot be grown from cuttings with the exception of R. fragrantissimum." This statement was commonly quoted in books and gardening journals prior to 1940. It is difficult to understand why many of the smaller types were not generally propagated from cuttings prior to this time but it would seem that the discovery of "hormones" (more correctly, synthetic auxin stimulants for root production) really started commercial production by cuttings. Rimingtons, the well-known nursery firm in Victoria had some success with heat treatments and plant preparation techniques prior to the use of hormones, using bell jars. Olover Streeton (son of famed artist Sir Arthur Streeton) was one of the early experiments with hormones.

The genus Rhododendron is divided into 43 series — Excluding the Malesian group — 22 of the series are "Lepidote" (with scales). Azalea is one of the "Elepidote" series. There are approximately 900 species. For the purposes of this paper we will discuss only the


Author: Donald P. Watson

PP: 70

About a thousand years ago when the Polynesians first settled in Hawaii they were greeted with a forbidding shoreline, a blue ocean, and attractive beaches, but absolutely no plants. There was just no vegetation whatsoever. Anything that is growing on these islands has been brought in since. When they arrived in their outrigger canoes they gradually climbed into the areas where they might be able to grow things and they brought with them quite a number of the plants to which they were accustomed. In some areas there was so little rainfall that it was practically impossible to grow anything and in other areas there was so much rainfall that it was an absolute paradise that would later grow into a jungle.

Now the most common and perhaps the most necessary plant as far as the Polynesians were concerned was the taro [Calocasia esculenta]. Taro was basic in their diet. They had to have a good source of carbohydrate and today at the Lyon Arboretum there is a collection of many, many kinds.


Author: R.J.E. Davidson

PP: 417

With the gradual acceptance in the late 1950's and 1960's by the Australian community of the necessity of plant life for the community, it became obvious that for Queensland's sub-tropical and tropical conditions we could no longer rely on obtaining new plant material from the traditional temperate climate sources.

Some plants from colder climates — although we could produce them effectively as nurserymen — did not perform well in the State's gardens. We believed that either we introduce shrubs, trees, palms and ground covers to the public that would grow and thrive in the average person's garden, or continue to produce seasonally those species which flowered in containers but did not always grow well for the average gardener.

As we introduced indigenous species that gave satisfaction to the customer and could be planted from containers at any time of the year, the sales graph has changed. This has been achieved by the selection and introduction of selected forms of Australian flora


Author: V. Levey

PP: 420

Our nursery is close to the coast, approximately 5–6 miles inland at Northgate, which is a northeastern suburb of Brisbane. We are approximately 12' above sea level. We enjoy a mild climate, frosts in winter are rare and usually not severe, and summers are usually tempered with afternoon sea breezes. For those who like figures, our winter temperatures are usually from 10° to 20°C and summer from 18° to 30°C so we have an ideal climate which enables us to use very simple propagating facilities. We use very little glass.

Most of our propagation is done on raised benches which are covered with polythene; these are in the form of roll-up shades which, in turn, are covered by 30% shade approximately 7' from ground level. At present we use perlite and peat moss as the medium; this is cleaned with air-cooled steam. For grevilleas, cutting material is inserted directly in plastic tubes, smaller cuttings going into 1½" and the larger into 2".

At this stage I would like to trace a


Author: J. W. Wrigley

PP: 423

This is a follow-up of work (2) reported previously in The Plant Propagator by the present author and at the 1973 ANZAAS Conference by Keith McIntyre, also of Canberra Botanic Gardens (1). I will be drawing heavily from material from both of these papers for this present approach.

The Australian flora includes a great number of species of good horticultural potential. Many species have been introduced to cultivation only in the last few years and even now, large numbers of valuable plants remain untried. It is, therefore, only recently that some of the problems associated with the cultivation of Australian native plants have become apparent.

Canberra Botanic Gardens has concentrated its resources on the study of the Australian flora and has the largest living collection of Australian native plants in the world. In 1969, large scale deaths occurred in the Botanic Gardens nursery. These were traced to the root rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. On further investigation, it


Author: D.H. Simons

PP: 427

Most of the published information on the storage of propagation material concerns species with a well defined dormant period. Deciduous perennial species are relatively easy to store. Dormant, bare root material can be kept in cold storage for up to two years. Desiccation is a potential problem and jacketed rooms are used to control this (7). There is also much information available on storage and manipulation of dormant bulbs. However, there is little information on the storage of actively growing vegetative material. Development of techniques to store this material could be of great benefit and will be the major consideration in this paper. The propagation industry is becoming increasingly sophisticated and uses involved techniques such as tissue and meristem culture and propagation from "virus free" clones. As a result there is an increasing need to be able to store and to transport actively growing plant material. It is essential to get this material from the specialised

Author: Jack Pike

PP: 435

When I started my nursery career, I was a bright-eyed lad of 15 and it was at the nursery that we are going to visit this afternoon. Among my first jobs was sterilizing or "cooking" the soil, as we called it in those days, and I can vividly remember putting many a load of soil and cow manure through the cooker. This cooker consisted of a waterproof steel tank roughly 6' long, 3' wide and 3' deep. It had some house bricks in the bottom of it, and it was built up so you could place a fire underneath. On top of the bricks it had a perforated steel plate. You filled this tank up with water to the top of the plate, then you filled it up with soil. To get the soil in you used to have a plank which came back about 15 feet. Then you loaded the barrow — they were big barrows in those days and I was only a little bloke then — and you used to make a terrific run up the plank and tip it in; the tank held about 3 yards of soil. You filled it and lit the fire, generating steam that moved upward

Author: Alan Newport

PP: 441

There has been a lot of controversy on seed-borne pathogens and there are a lot of seed merchants who get up in arms when one mentions them. They say that this doesnt happen very often, but the more one delves into the seed business the more one realizes it's a lucky thing to get a seed that has no pathogen either on it or in it.

If one is going to have plant production, the propagating material, whether it be a plant material or seeds, has to be treated against pathogens. We have found that steam-air treatment has been the most satisfactory. I am going to talk on flower and vegetable seedlings, but the same procedures would apply to tree and shrub seedlings.

The problem associated with flower and vegetable seeds is similar to those for trees and shrubs — what stands for one will hold for the other. Our first experiences as seedling (bedding plant) growers came when we were using 212°F soil sterilizing in 1956. When seeds are sown into a mix thus treated one experiences a great