Volume 22

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.


Author: Wesley A. Humphrey

PP: 67

Nursery production in Australia and New Zealand is undergoing change. Container nursery production of woody plants for landscape is rapidly coming into use and replacing field growing. One of the first items that catches a person's eye is the type of container used. Frequently seen is a heavy gauge flexible plastic one-gallon size container, in contrast to the rigid container which is typically used in nurseries in the United States. The "down under" nurseryman finds this satisfactory as he is less concerned with the problem of moving large numbers of plants considerable distances.

The advent of container production has seen the use of light-weight soil mixes being adopted as a regular practice. Arrangement of the nurseries often appears quite similar to those viewed in the western United States. Overhead sprinkler systems are installed and utilized by the nurserymen. Liquid fertilizer programs are used, but particularly in New Zealand with the major part of the production concentrated

Teaching Techniques in Plant Propagation

Author: O.A. Batcheller

PP: 98

The foundation projects, which Howard Brown spoke of, we have also. We have similar facilities, and we work with our students in a similar manner. I think the difference in geographical location has to do a little bit with the difference in programs.

In southern California, as I think you realize, there are approximately a thousand nurseries within a fifty mile radius of us, so there is an opportunity for many of our students to get practical work and to work in nurseries. The demand for plants, as I think all of you realize, is very large. As a result, we, I think, do a little bit more commercial growing and selling wholesale to nurseries than does Howard: but likewise we do not advertise off the campus. We do sell to our students and to the faculty on the campus and we average about $1000 per month. Now this means a tremendous amount of production. We have about 13,000 square feet of glass; we have a five-acre growing ground; we have, I think, about 3,000 sq. ft. of lath or saran,


Author: Frank J. Schmidt Jr

PP: 111

Most of the trees we propagate are cultivars, a few are selections but both groups are clones propagated by budding or grafting. Two or three, such as oaks, are grown from seed and continued on their own roots. Our annual routine starts with land preparation. One year of constantly worked bare fallow eliminates weeds. A year of repeated cover cropping with appropriate fertilizer restores the organic matter and nutrient level in the soil. In early fall we apply lime and dolomite and plough down the last cover crop. In March the following spring we disc or plough the ground, whichever is appropriate, for the particular soil type or season — apply fertilizer as dictated by soil test, and work the soil up to a nice crumbly condition. In early April we plant seedlings of: green ash, birch, cherry, apple, hawthorne, honeylocust, linden, laburnum, Norway and red maple, mountain ash and plum. These become the root stocks on which we bud or graft. The oaks, grown from specially selected seed are

Author: Leslie K.C. Clay

PP: 116

Dogwoods may be propagated in a number of ways. As my prime interest lies in the propagation of dogwood by cuttings, I will briefly touch on the other methods first.

Seeding. Species such as Cornus nuttallii and Cornus florida are best raised from seed which should be gathered in early fall just as the colour begins to change. Best results are generally obtained if seed is sown in early fall in rows or prepared beds outdoors and covered with a thin layer of sand. No further winter protection is required. The seed should germinate evenly in the early spring, producing a good stand of 15 to 24 inch seedlings by the end of the first season. If the seed cannot be planted in the fall and must be stored for spring planting, stratification is required to break dormancy. With spring-sown seed, germination is patchy; in some cases the seed may lay dormant and come up the following year.

Layering. Cornus alba and varieties, Cornus florida varieties, Cornus kousa, and Cornus stolonifera and


Author: Ivan Arneson

PP: 119

My first experience in growing trees in the nursery involved the use of seedlings as practiced by most nurserymen at that time. Back in the 1940's Dr. Al Roberts brought in some of the East Malling apple understocks from England and naturally I became interested in them. I started with the East Malling and later on used the Malling Merton apple stocks, the quince ‘A’, and the Mazzard ‘F-12–1’ cherry. Since, we have added St. Julien plum, filbert and Provence quince, as well as cherries, and pear stocks.

The suggested way to propagate these was by layering in stool beds. A lot of experimenting was done in the years following to determine the best way to propagate these. I will try to elaborate on some of the procedures.

To get a bed fast we planted the stools about 1½ feet apart then staked them down at about a 45° angle with wire. As the side limbs grew they were covered with dirt or sand. Later sawdust was found to be a better medium that dirt. A mistake that was sometimes made was to graft


Author: Myrtle Fish

PP: 123

I have been asked to tell of my experiences in propagation and what I have learned through the years. I have had very good teachers in starting out. Ray and Irene Burden were very patient as I was learning. It has been a lot of fun and hard work. I have found, though, that there is more to propagation than just powdering the cuttings and sticking them. Along with bottom heat in the bench and watering, it all makes for good rooting; at least that is what I keep telling myself. We do have our losses, which makes us try harder the next year. Most cuttings root quite readily, but we do have some stubborn ones, at least they have been for me. We do a lot of experimenting with Jiffy Grow and the combination of Jiffy Grow and Hormodin powder.

Camellias usually root quite readily, although there are a few that are quite hard to root, as we root between 80 and 90 different varieties; there are always a few that are either slow to root or will not root at all. After putting them in with No.


Author: Linda Rumgay

PP: 126

The topic, "Hormone Powder Modification" includes the very effective "H.P.M. Formula" which is the basic point for the information that is to be presented. At Wil-Chris Acres we have been using the following formula for rooting cuttings:
   Hormodin No. 3       —  10 ounces
   Benlate                     —  1 ounce
   Indolebutyric acid     —  5 grams (2 heaping tsp.)

These component parts are put together and shaken for 20 minutes to insure thorough mixing. For absolute mixing that has been used effectively place the ingredients in a container that can be put on a paint shaker. Expansion is involved in this blending, however, so be prepared with extra space in the container for fluffing. It is understood that Hormodin No. 3 does have a high IBA level already but our "H.P.M. Formula" gives yet another boost of indolebutyric acid.

Below is a summary of our research results:

  1. Deciduous plants, such as, Euonymus alatus "Compacta"
    1. In 1970, out of a flat of 150 cuttings, 75 rooted giving 50% rooting.
    2. In 1971, H.P.M. was used;

Author: Robert L. Ticknor

PP: 129

Cuttings of Calluna vulgaris ‘Aurea’, Cytisus purgens, Ilex crenata ‘Howard,’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘fastigiata’ (T. o. Pyramidalis) obtained from container grown stock plants which had received ten herbicide treatments were propagated. Only the Calluna showed a statistically significant difference in rooting.

Author: Bill Webb

PP: 139

Weyerhaeuser Company has embarked upon a program of tree improvement aimed at increasing wood yield per acre on its lands through forest tree breeding. In a classic breeding program this means choosing a number of superior trees of seed-bearing age within our wild stands of timber, and genetically duplicating them by grafting to develop seed orchards designed to provide seed improved over that now collected from average trees in the wild. These seed orchards must produce consistently over a period of 30 years or more in order to meet reforestation schedules that call for planting new trees within one year of logging.

As you are aware, certain of our major tree species, notably Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are inconsistent grafters, showing strong clonal variation in stock-scion compatibility.

Incompatibility not only kills a number of our grafts, but will obviously interrupt and delay seed production unless steps are taken to overcome or circumvent it. If we


Author: D. Kim Black

PP: 142

The influence of collection date on the rooting of Douglas-fir was reported by Roberts (14) at an earlier meeting of this group.

Results reported here show the importance of additional factors in the selection of cutting material. Depending on genotype, cuttings of juvenile trees under nine years of age had the potential for rooting 100%, declining rapidly after this age to less than 5% between ages 14 and 24 years. Genotypic differences in cutting rootability were greatest among the physiologically older trees. Rejuvenation of rooting in old trees and clones was achieved by shearing and successive propagations. Comparisons of sheared and non-sheared portions of old trees showed the rejuvenation effect to be localized in the sheared portion. Cutting ramets established from old clones produced cuttings which rooted 40% compared to 6% from grafted ramets and 3% from the ortet Crown position (cyclophysis) had little influence on the rootability of shoots from trees under 24 years of age. Branch order positions (topophysis), however, were important in cutting selection, with first order lateral (large), and second order terminal positions rooting better than first order terminal, first order lateral (small), or second order lateral cuttings.


Author: M.N. Westwood

PP: 160

Rooting of cuttings is dependent upon interrelated genetic, environmental and chemical factors. Genetics controls such factors as the presence of pre-formed root initials and potential kinds and levels of endogenous rooting substances. Chemical balance is regulated internally by the interaction of genetics and environment but is subject to change by exogenously applied chemicals. The infinite number of possible combinations of genetic, environmental and chemical factors affecting cuttings, both pre- and post-severance, has led to some confusion regarding the importance of specific factors for rooting. This review considers briefly the role of growth regulators in rooting but with the interactive effects of genetic type and environment considered concomitantly. Only sample references are given along with books and review papers which include many additional references (2, 11, 12, 20).

Historical. In 1880 a rhizogenic substance was postulated to be produced in leaves and translocated


Author: Richard H. Converse

PP: 73

Small fruits are important in Pacific Coast agriculture. In 1971 strawberries ranked seventh among the crops grown in Oregon, eighteenth in California, and twenty-sixth in Washington. The strawberry industry, of course, depends on vegetative propagation of its cultivars. It is my purpose here to describe some of the procedures and problems of commercial strawberry-plant propagation on the West Coast.

Strawberry plants for the commercial industry on the Pacific Coast are grown by a few specialized nurserymen in four areas in Washington and California. There are 13 nurserymen involved, raising 1,200 acres of strawberry plants worth about $ 6,000,000 annually.

The Washington and California State Departments of Agriculture each administer their own strawberry certification programs. In both cases, the programs are designed to provide the public with adequate supplies of strawberry cultivars that are true to name, of good horticultural quality, and free from serious pests and diseases,


Author: Dorothy Dickson

PP: 168

The propagation of primula is a big subject, impossible to cover even in an hour presentation, since there are about 700 known species and 350 species have been in cultivation at one time or another.

I will talk only about a few of the more common kinds and give you a glimpse of a few of the others. Here, we call all primula, primroses but only the acaulis type, one flower to a stem, is a primrose. The polyanthus, with a cluster of flowers on top of a stem, is the most common commercial primula in the United States.

The easiest to grow are the Juliae hybrids which are crosses of the species, P. juliae, a low creeping plant which is not a prolific bloomer, with species of the acaulis or polyanthus type. These crosses produce mainly magenta-colored flowers. It takes two or three generations and the infusion of some of the bright colored primroses and polyanthus to achieve the color range of our modern “Julies”. The further away from the species to obtain new colors, the more we lose the


Author: Robert Whalley

PP: 170

Sanitation. Where does it begin? When should it stop? I feel it is essential to consider the journey of one cutting from a stock plant to a landscape planting. See if its attitude is that sanitation should be hospital conditions or garbage heap. Should present conditions at your nursery be compromised?

My name is ‘Nova Zembla’. Genus Rhododendron. Because of my growth habit, my hardiness factor, and my red flower color, I am an exploited variety. It seems I grow well in many locations in the Eastern and Midwest regions of the U.S.A. because of my flower bud survival rate. I propagate comparatively easy and my color is demanded as a highlight for gardens and landscapes in the spring. Northwest nurseries grow me into a semi-mature shrub in 3 years. Then I am shipped in cool fruit or beef carrying refrigerator trucks to Eastern cities — but I am getting ahead of my journey —

In breezy fields of the Willamette Valley I grow lush and bushy. Then July arrives and I get trimmed — reduced — thinned


Author: Richard J. Smith

PP: 174

The orchid industry has been a pioneer in commercially applying in vitro culturing of plants as a means of rapid propagation. Since Knudson's (1) work in the 1920's nearly all new hybrids are products of laboratory culturing of rudimentary embryos. Hundreds of millions of orchid seeds are germinated aseptically in growing flasks each year in our laboratory alone. Continual selection of seedlings throughout the years to flowering eliminates plants with undesirable growth or flowering characteristics.

Rapid clonal propagation was impossible until George Morel (2), while attempting to free a cymbidium of virus by culturing the shoot tip, noticed that the isolated piece of tissue seemed to revert to the seedling protocorm stage and proceeded to divide into a clump of 3 or 4 identical structures which eventually became plants. He continued his research on the so-called method of "meristem culture," applying it to many other orchid genera, so that during the 1960's many orchid labs around the


Author: Jiro Matsuyama

PP: 178

Phaedranthus buccinatorius (Bignonia cherere) is an evergreen vine that climbs by tendrils, with leaves of two oval or oblong leaflets, 2 to 4 inches long. Clusters of large 4 inch long trumpet-shaped flowers stand well out from the vine. The color of the flower is orange-red with a yellow throat, which turns bluish-red with age. The flowers appear in bursts throughout the year whenever the weather is warm.

Phaedranthus buccinatorius is a subtropical vine which withstands temperatures as low as 20°F. In the interior valleys of California it should be planted in a protected place. Along the south coast area of Santa Barbara county it is used extensively on high walls and along fences; it blooms most of the year with lots of bright color.

To propagate Phaedranthus buccinatorius, I used two types of cutting wood from outdoor and indoor grown mother stock plants. The outdoor mother plant has thick, dark, leathery leaves. The indoor mother plant has thin, tender leaves which are lighter


Author: Robert M. Warner

PP: 181


SUGARCANE, Saccharum officinarum L., is a member of the grass family and, except when breeding for new varieties, is propagated vegetatively. Cane sections about 22" long with 4 nodes are cut by hand or mechanically from mature plants, soaked in a fungicide and placed horizontally in furrows and covered lightly with soil Shoots and roots are produced at the nodes. In Hawaii the plant crop (the first after planting) matures in about 22 to 24 months. The cane is cured by withholding water and nitrogen during the last 3 to 6 months.

When ready for harvest, the field is burned to reduce the amount of dead leaves and trash. The stalks are bulldozed into windrows, loaded onto trucks and transported to the mill for grinding. The irrigation furrows are reestablished and the ratoon crops grow from the underground parts which remain after harvest. There are usually three ratoon crops harvested before the field is replanted, a total 8 years. Temperatures above 70° F are required


Author: John E. Eichelser

PP: 190

The Kalmia latifolia I am talking about today is the Dexter strain and the red form of this strain, which is known as ‘Ostbo Red’. Perhaps not all are familiar with this red clone or with the Dexter strain so I would like to show a few slides at this time to familiarize you with the kalmia that I am talking about. As you can see from these pictures, Dexter strain is quite a different thing from the wild native kalmia. The pinks are much brighter, the foliage is thicker and heavier and the brilliant red is never found in the wild state.

I became interested in kalmia about 18 years ago when I first saw this red strain which is now known as ‘Ostbo Red’. In the past it has been variously known as ‘Dexter No. 5’. ‘Ostbo No. 5’, ‘Red Bud Kalmia’, and ‘Westcoast Kalmia’. The first time I saw it was while visiting the nursery of the late Endre Ostbo in Seattle, Washington. I acquired a plant of ‘Ostbo Red’ at this time and was told by Mr. Ostbo that it was useless to try to root it as it had been tried and


Author: J.D. Vertrees

PP: 192

In studying Asiatic maples for the past nine years, we have been able to collect much information from commercial nurseries, Arboreta, propagators, and collectors from all over the U.S. as well as Europe and Japan. We offer here some procedures and variations we have observed, or carried out ourselves. We emphasize that there are about as many method variations of propagating these maples as there are nurseries or propagators. Each has his own method, and most of them are quite successful.

What was a hobby-study a few years back is now a full time effort of working with the smaller maples, particularly Acer palmatum, and A. japonicum, and their numerous variations.

Remarks on propagation of this group must be preceded with a few words on nomenclature. The abundance of synonyms in A. palmatum is massive. Evidently this species is prone to sporting, or producing atypical seedlings. We know of over two hundred names clones or cultivars of this species. We have over one hundred sixty named


Author: Basil S. Fox

PP: 213

Cotoneasters being rosaceous plants closely related to Sorbus and Crataegus, it is fortunate that they pose far fewer problems for the propagator than either of the other two genera. We have no great difficulty in propagating them and are, therefore, concerned with the most effective method to use. It may seem too elementary to start by impressing the importance of securing material from correctly named plants. Cotoneasters are notorious for bad labeling, and it applies most especially to cultivars in the Watereri group; also hybrids are frequently seen bearing the label, C. frididus.

Undesirable Methods of Propagation. I can think of no excuse whatever for the practice of grafting or budding these plants when raising them for general planting, and the use of Sorbus or Crataegus stocks is indefensible It is very likely also that, in the past, seedlings of the early cultivars have been distributed under the cultivar names — adding to the confusion, but people may more innocently


Author: D.W. Robinson

PP: 219

Because Japan extends over many degrees of latitude (the four major islands stretch for 31° to 46° N) and experiences a great range of climate, tree and shrub production methods vary in different regions. As in western Europe, plant nurseries occur in many parts of the country but three very concentrated areas of production are: Angyo, Saitama Prefecture, 15 km north of Tokyo, Yamamoto near Kawanishi City, Hyogo Prefecture and Kurume, Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu. All three areas are composed of a large number of small nurseries providing trees and shrubs, firstly for the local markets (Tokyo and Osaka respectively in the case of the first two areas) but more recently for all of Japan. Farm size is very small. In 1965, 69% of holdings had less than 1 ha of cultivated land. Most of the nurseries visited were less than 1 ha in size and were intensively cultivated.

In some important respects Japanese nurseries differ from those in the West. A smaller number of plant species are propagated


Author: Brian H. Howard

PP: 229

In 1970, experiments carried out by members showed that wounding improved rooting in conifer and other cuttings (see IPPS Combined Proceedings, Vol. 21 p. 267). At least two factors appeared to be involved, one being that the effect of auxin applied to the wounded stem was enhanced.

At the 1971 Annual Conference it was decided to examine whether the mechanism of the wounding response could be attributed to the enhanced absorption of IBA and/ or water. Seventeen members did an experiment in which cuttings of × Cupressocyparis leylandii clone 2, (supplied where necessary from the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, by D. Whalley) were wounded and then treated with a readily absorbed solution of IBA in 50% alcohol, or a less readily absorbed powder formulation, both at 4,000 ppm. Cuttings treated by each method were inserted in relatively dry or wet rooting beds, the latter obtained by supplementary watering in addition to the normal mist. The purpose of this approach was to investigate


Author: C. J. Allison

PP: 77

In 1967, the Weyerhaeuser Company established the Washington Forest Seedling Nursery. This was the first in a series of six major nursery units to support the company high-yield forest regeneration requirements. The Washington Nursery is 160 acres in size and is located about 15 miles southwest of Olympia at the south end of an open prairie. The site slopes gently to the south and has a mean elevation of 140 feet.

By 1969 the nursery had over 53 million seedlings in three age classes; 1–0, 2–0, and 2–1. In October of that year, an unexpectedly severe freeze occurred that killed or seriously damaged about 12 million seedlings, mostly in the 1–0 age class.

In September of 1970, another early freeze occurred. The 1–0 blocks were protected by sprinkling, and losses were minimal. Well capacity was not adequate to sprinkle the 2–0 beds and they were extensively damaged. Although the incidence of mortality in the 2–0 stock was low, the quality was poor and subsequent field performance of


Author: C. G. Thomas

PP: 230

At the Long Ashton Research Station large quantities of budwood of virus-tested apples, pears, plums, cherries and ornamental Malus are distributed to the nursery industry each year. The preparation of this material takes considerable time and the leaves must be removed immediately to reduce water loss by transpiration. The need arose for a De-Leafing Machine which would reduce this time to a minimum.

Machines have been constructed before using razor-blades and a few are in use in Europe, particularly in Holland. It proved impossible to purchase a machine and it was decided that one should be designed and built to our own specifications by the Long Ashton Instrument Workshop (Fig. 1).

The machine is powered by a 12v motor which can be run off the electrical system of a Land Rover vehicle in the field or with the aid of a small transformer by mains electricity. A belt drive from the motor rotates a cylindrical stainless steel cutting blade mounted on a nylon core at a speed of


Author: D.C. Harris

PP: 233

In many spheres of horticulture the use of chemical soil sterilants is well established. They are widely used for glasshouse crop production and, to a lesser extent, for vegetable crops in the open ground against a wide range of soil-borne pests and diseases. Comparatively recently they have been used on a field scale for the control of certain soil-borne virus vecting nematodes (eelworms) affecting strawberries and the "Specific Replant Disorder" of cherries and apples. This broad spectrum of activity has stimulated the interest of many nursery stock producers and, in the wake of increasing costs, seedling plant raisers are looking towards sterilants for an answer to problems associated with pest, disease and weed control, soil "sickness", and general growth improvement.

During recent years the materials which can be broadly termed soil sterilants have increased in number and some of the more representative types are described below.


Author: James C. Kelly

PP: 238

The suitability of dwarf spruces for the modern small garden, their unavailability in the general nursery trade and the ban on their importation into Britain and Ireland prompted preliminary work into their propagation and culture. Observational trials in 1969 indicated satisfactory rooting with the use of 0.8% IBA powder. There were also indications that mid-summer cuttings of current season's growth responded better than one year old shoots taken as cuttings in March. In 1970 further observational trials were carried out, in which 30 cuttings of 14 dwarf Picea cultivars were taken at two week intervals from July 21 to September 1. The rooting medium used was two parts peat moss to one part granitic sand. All cuttings were treated with a proprietary 0.8% IBA rooting powder and placed under mist, with a base temperature of 21–23° C.

Each batch of cuttings was lifted after three months. Table 1 shows the rooting percentages of the cultivars rooted on the dates indicated. Generally


Author: J.G.D. Lamb

PP: 240

In earlier trials on the propagation of Acer palmatum cultivars the methods similar to those described by Wells (1) and Anstey (2) gave satisfactory rooting percentages. Young, actively growing, shoots from outdoor trees wounded and treated with Seradix 3, rooted well in a mist unit but it soon became apparent that overwintering losses were high. Subsequent trials, therefore, dealt with cultivar difference in rooting ability and treatments to ensure better winter survival.

Over the three season, 1970–1972, the cultivar, Atropurpureum, has been one of the easiest to root. In April, 1970, cuttings were taken from mother bushes forced under glass. After potting the rooted cuttings, subsequent development was observed under three treatments:

  1. Pots plunged in a sheltered and shaded bed out of doors.
  2. Kept under glass, minimum temperature 15°C, ventilating at 27° C (sun heat)
  3. Same as for (2), but given a 17 hour day by means of 75 watt tungsten filament bulbs from August 19 to October 14



Author: Clive Deeble

PP: 243

Propagation time. About 50,000 to 60,000 rhododendron cuttings are taken each year from August through November with October usually as the ideal month. (Of course this can vary with different years).

The cuttings are taken in bulk early in the morning when they are fairly turgid. These are then brought in and dipped in a solution of Benlate (3 oz/50 gallons water). This washes and cleans the cuttings. They are then drained, labelled, and stored under polythene sheeting to keep them fresh and turgid.

These cuttings are taken from healthy, well grown stock plants, which are grown in a wooded area; they are of current year's growth, with thin growth being preferred to thick.

Preparing the cuttings.

  1. Cuttings are approximately 4 in. long.
  2. The lower leaves are removed leaving 4 or more leaves at the top of the cutting.
  3. A heavy wound is given on both sides of the cutting, approximately 1½ in. in length.
  4. The terminal bud is removed.
  5. Large leaves are trimmed by half.
  6. The

Author: A.E. Canham

PP: 246

The task of the propagator is to produce a good quality plant in the shortest possible time, either from seed or from cuttings, and to do this as economically as possible. In this he is very much dependent on the facilities at his disposal for manipulating the environment of his material.

Over the years techniques have been developed to enable him to optimise a number of environmental factors either by a process of trial and error or as a result of research — for example the control of bed temperature, the use of mist propagation techniques, etc. However, one very important factor has received relatively little attention, and that is the light on which the seedling or cutting is so dependent. For a large part of the year light may be regarded as the most important factor, in that it is the one which is limiting growth or development in one way or another.

Growers are now beginning to realise the magnitude of this limitation and an increasing number have sought to effect some form


Author: Odd Bøvre

PP: 256

Miniature roses and most floribunda roses may be produced in six weeks, from cutting until flowering. Three one-internode cuttings are planted directly in a block of rockwool and are put under intermittent mist with bottom heat. The cuttings are treated with growth substance, 500 ppm IBA, and are fertilized right from planting After 10 to 12 days the cuttings have formed roots, and the mist is gradually removed. After three weeks the cuttings are spaced on benches or beds with sub-irrigation. No pruning is made and, after three weeks in glasshouse, the plants are ready to be sold.

Author: D.M Donovan

PP: 260

Rosa bracteata ‘Mermaid’ is usually grafted in winter as it fails to summer bud with a physically sound union in the field, while R. banksiae ‘Lutea’ is too tender for field exposure R. moyesii ‘Geranium’ and R holodonta ‘Maidwell’ have low bud takes in the field

Grafting. Seedling Rosa canina of broad caliper and with long hypocotyls suitably straight, are selected from imported rootstocks on arrival, and potted into 3½ inch pots with the full length of the hypocotyl exposed The pots are plunged in a sand bed for the rootstocks to establish for a year, when management is confined to some watering and weeding The thickening of the hypocotyl during the growing period is minimal

In early January the rootstocks are removed from the bed and the roots and tops are trimmed, and then they are placed in a grafting pit, using some bottom heat to dry them off for working in late January.

Scion wood of ‘Mermaid’ and ‘Lutea’ is collected mid-December from stock plants in a cold house, the others from


Author: B.H. Elliott

PP: 262

The short talk I wish to give this afternoon is based on work I did whilst Practical Instructor in Nursery Practice at Hadlow College of Agriculture and Horticulture. It relates to a 2 year production system of containerised conifers. This project was made possible through the help of Bruce MacDonald, and of the students I was instructing at the time.
  1. Propagation. Propagation was carried out during the winter months under conventional mist. The cuttings were 4 in long, preferably with a ripened base of ½ in. All cuttings were treated with Seradix No. 3 Seed trays were used to give greater flexibility of handling and in which 60 cuttings were inserted. The compost used was 3 parts sphagnum peat to 1 part sharp sand and then the cuttings were placed under the mist with a basal temperature of 75° F.
  2. Two main batches of cuttings were rooted. The first during October–November consisted of Chamaecyparis and Thuja cultivars — the great majority of cultivars being easy to root, Those which


Author: J.L.W. DEEN

PP: 264

This subject was not an easy one to discuss because of the lack of information and experience of using this technique in Great Britain. The only written information on the subject is in the CAB Digest No. 2, Mist Propagation of Cuttings, by Patricia Rowe-Dutton, 1959, and in the short paper by the Chairman of this group in Vol. 21 Combined Proceedings of the IPPS (p. 248). The section in Miss Rowe-Dutton's book on 'Plastic Tents' (p.23-25) contains descriptions of systems of ploythene tunnels for plant propagation. In particular the Phytotektor unit introduced by Templeton in Tennessee in 1953 has similarities to the systems being introduced in several nurseries in Great Britain.

The various systems in use in Great Britain were reviewed starting with that developed at GCRI and described in the 1971 Proceedings. Simple wire hoops are used to support white translucent polythene over a prepared bed three feet wide, the polythene being secured by polypropylene baler twine. The pro


Author: William A. Smith

PP: 83

The use of pallets in the nursery industry isn't new. In fact, shipping of most nursery stock is handled on pallets at one point or another. In propagation this hasn't been the case because cuttings have been handled in solid beds or small flats. The need to develop ways of palletizing cuttings has become increasingly important as rooting costs per square foot of greenhouse space have increased greatly. The faster cuttings can be rooted and moved from the propagation bench, the lower the costs per square foot becomes. I believe a pallet system can speed up the moving process. There are many factors to consider when rooting cuttings in pallets. The size of pallet, rooting media, watering, and moving are a few. These will be outlined below in more detail. One problem that did develop, and we are still working on, is how to keep the pallets at the right height to be comfortable for the women to work at, and still be moveable.

Size of Pallet: The size of pallets for propagation is usually



PP: 266

The Group was mostly composed of memebers with considerable experience in the practice of budding. We were, therefore, able to be fairly specific in our discussion, having a useful blend of commercial, research and advisory experience to draw upon, and it is proof of the interest in this subject that such a knowledgeable group wished to exchange views and information.

On 20th of July several members had attended the Open Day at East Malling Research Station, when field budding problems had been discussed. Talking to various growers and to the East Malling staff during our visit, it was apparent that many had suffered low bud takes due either to frost damage or to other reasons which were not too obvious. Although at East Malling the frost damage was on apple buds, many growers were more concerned with bad bud-take on Prunus species, particularly on te ornamental cultivars.

The Chairman, having encouraged everyone to take part in the discussion, launched the debate in typically



PP: 268

The Chairman opened the discussion by giving a list of subjects for which bench grafting was particularly important, either because they were difficult to root by other means or because, when raised from seed, they might produce very poor forms. The list included -
  1. Acer, particularly A. palmatum 'Dissectum' forms
  2. Berbis x lologensis
  3. Betula spp.
  4. Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca'
  5. Cytisus battandierilac cuttings.
  6. Fagus spp.
  7. Hamamelis
  8. Juniperus
  9. Malus spp. (a useful way to build up stock).
  10. Picea pungens 'Koster'
  11. Pinua spp.
  12. Prunus spp.
  13. Rhododendron> spp.
  14. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia'
  15. Rosa spp. especially Rosa 'Mermaid'.
  16. Wisteria


PP: 271

The Chairman was hopeful that the subject could be discussed under three headings: (a) stock plants, (b) propagation methods, (c) overwintering. The contributions from member were so plentiful that the discussion was not completed. However, this summary contains, in addition to the points brought out in discussion, the chairman's notes which covered all three sections. The whole session was a joint effort and no individual contributions are identified.


A more uniform crop will result if sufficient cutting material is available to produce a reasonable size batch at any one time.

The "age" of the material is important. Stock plants should be "young". Taking cuttings retains juvenility. Three year old stock plants pretty well stripped every year for five years produced about 250 cuttings per plant over the propagation season. It was suggested that if 30 cuttings were available from a small plant, 5 shoots should be left intact. Flower buds were produced and then a flush of useful growth developed.

Stocks plants under protective cover produce earlier cuttings.


Author: I.P. Scarborough

PP: 275

Grafting Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, has only recently become a commercial practice. This paper describes two methods, based on the cleft and stub grafts, which have proved successful.

Author: D. Knuckey

PP: 279

The title might suggest that the economic gain of this method is in the grafting of Robinia pseudoacacia ‘Frisia’; however, from the start may I say that the cost reduction lies in the treatment of the grafts

We usually begin our bench grafting at the end of January onto stocks of Robinia pseudoacacia of pencil thickness and upwards. These are drawn from outside where they have been heeled in for the winter, and are then headed back to approximately 6 inches. The scion wood taken from the previous year?s growth is also chopped into 6 to 9 inch lengths

The graft itself is a shallow, simple side veneer about 2 to 3 in long, bound with grafting cotton, and sealed with paraffin wax The grafts when completed are bundled in 25 or 50 with damp moss between and around their roots. These bundles are then placed in polythene bags with their tops left open.

Although different nurseries seem to use different methods for after-treatment of bench grafts, some store their grafts in damp peat and keep


Author: Arie Altman

PP: 280

Root formation in bean cuttings was investigated in terms of its pattern in various tissues, the presence of leaves, and accumulation and transport of sugars with regard to auxin treatments It was found that root-forming ability of various types of cuttings was different, and that the presence of leaves was of prime importance in the expression of the auxin effect IAA enhanced sugar accumulation at the base of the cutting con-currently with root formation, and increased the transport of 14C-labelled assimilates from the leaves in a basipetal direction. A general scheme for root formation is discussed and it is suggested that one of the roles of IAA in promoting rooting of bean cuttings is to increase sugar availability at the site of root formation.

Author: A.B. Macdonald

PP: 295

Over eighty members and their guests attended the one-day meeting at Blooms Nurseries of Bressingham, near Diss in Norfolk. Blooms is one of the five nurseries within the well-known Anglia Group. The nursery produces 1½ million alpines, 1 million herbaceous plants, 200,000 dwarf conifers, 200,000 ground cover plants and 150,000 heathers; besides these, other lines include a varied range of taller growing conifers and ornamental grasses.

A warm welcome was first given to members by Adrian Bloom, and everyone received the new well-designed Anglia Group catalogue which was just ‘hot-off’ the press. The next stage was a tour of the nursery, and three groups were efficiently guided by Adrian Bloom, Maurice Prichard, manager of their herbaceous department, and Lawrence Flatman, manager of alpine and container departments.

The alpine section was very impressive and we were able to see many operations in progress, including some of the propagation techniques used. Plants, such as Lithospermum


Author: D.J. Cook

PP: 297

The most important factors which have stimulated the development of propagation blocks manufactured from synthetic materials are:—
  1. It is possible to develop propagation blocks with properties which are reproducible.
  2. It is possible to develop blocks with known air-water ratios, which wet readily, and which hold their water content.
  3. It is possible to develop blocks which have been conditioned to stimulate root development, and which contain plant nutrients.
  4. Once rooting has started in the blocks, it is possible either to transfer them into larger blocks, or to potting-on composts with minimum root disturbance.

A number of manufactured propagation blocks have been marketed. They can be categorized into four main groups:—

  1. Those based on polyurethane foam:—
    1. Nutri-Foam was manufactured by the Dow Chemical Co. of America. It contained plant nutrients in the form of ion exchange complexes. It has now been withdrawn from the market because of difficulties experienced in use.
    2. Baystrat is a development of


PP: 300

JOHN GAGGINI: Could Mr. Purcell elaborate on Hamamelis mollis budding? What percentage take did he get?

G.B. PURCELL: The stocks were H. virginiana which came from the U.S.A. Budded in August with traditional "T" cut with the wood removed from the bud. THe time of budding varies with the availability of the budwood which can be as late as October; you will still get a good take so long as the sap is still rising in the stock. The percentage in 1970 with 250 stocks was about 90%. THe varieties were 'Jelena' Hamamelis x intermedia 'Jelena') H. mollis 'Pallida', 'Gold Crest' and a variety we call 'New Red'. In 1971 we budded about 150 stocks with about the same take, and this year we hope to do about 200. I would like to obtain 20 or so Distylium racemosum stocks in the next month or so to try budding them and to compare the results.

G.B. PURCELL: Is it not true that there is a big demand for stand Japanese maples in variety, but that trade has not


Author: D.N. Whalley

PP: 304

The heated bin technique for propagating fruit tree rootstocks may be applied to ornamental and forest subjects.

When used for this purpose, modifications are required to the conditions used for fruit rootstocks. These include the use of lower temperature, lower growth regulator concentrations, and more frequent irrigation in the bins.


Author: Richard Bosley

PP: 86

Lake County, Ohio, is located along the south shore of Lake Erie and about 25 miles east of Cleveland. There are several conditions which cause a concentration of over 200 nurseries in this smallest county in Ohio. The lake has a strong influence on our weather, the great glaciers deposited a variety of soils and we are in the middle of a giant market area.

Since many of you are interested in the rhododendron, I must mention that Lake County produces 500,000 new rhododendron plants a year, according to an estimate by Dr. Hoitink of the Ohio Agriculture Research Center. Dr. Hoitink has taken quite a personal interest in the rhododendron and has done a lot of research in the area of disease prevention, for which we are all grateful. He has also been largely responsible for the development of extensive test and display gardens at the Wooster, Ohio, Center.

The Holden Arboretum, also in Lake County, is the largest arboretum in the world by a large margin and they have recently spent



PP: 318

When raising ornamental trees from seed on a commercial scale, the object must be to produce the seedlings as economically as possible. in general terms this entails the production of the maximum number of acceptable seedlings from a minimum area of seedbed and the occupation of this seedbed for as short a period of time as may be considered reasonable.

However the important aspects of the situation revolve around the definition of what is acceptable. In real terms this is represented by the particular quality expected, i.e. the size and grade of the seedlings. Nevertheless, before embarking on a project to grow seedling trees it is important to define, in reasonably exact terms, what is required as an end product in any particular instance. To achieve this aim in the following factors are revelant when raising seedling trees. It is necessary to know from where seed can be obtained, how it should be stored, how it should be dealt with to ensure satisfactory germination and how the seed


Author: Richard G. Maire

PP: 340

The question is often asked of me, "What does a farm advisor do in urban Los Angeles County?" To clarify the term "farm advisor;" this corresponds to the county extension agent in most states. As a member of the staff of the Cooperative Extension in Los Angeles County, it is my major responsibility to assist the wholesale nursery growers in any way possible. What does this mean? Los Angeles County is the largest wholesale nursery-producing county in the world with over 600 wholesale nurseries ranging in size from a city lot to 400 acres. Their annual gross value according to the Agricultural Commissioners' crop report is $41 million, and increasing. How are they increasing? By becoming more efficient in their production techniques and by the leasing of land beneath the power lines, the only open land within economic reach for agricultural production. With my connection with plant production, it is only natural that landscape architects, contractors, pest control operators, professional

Author: James E. Cross

PP: 345

This morning I want to talk a bit about that phase of programmed production which immediately follows propagation. It is the process of producing the so-called "liner" which will then go into the field, or a container of some sort, to be grown on to whatever size your particular market or needs require. My comments will be partial to container growing but the same process would apply if the plants were to be grown on in mother earth.

This initial phase of growing cannot and should not be separated from propagation — it should be a continuation, without interruption of the process begun in the propagation bench. Whatever you wish to call this phase, it should be associated in your mind with Growing — for all too often this phase is begun and even continued more as a holding process than as a fully managed growing operation.

We put in all that effort to get new plants started, so why lose the momentum achieved in the propagation house. I assure you that there is a form of momentum


Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 352

For most of the major fruit crops in California, the plants are propagated by budding or grafting on rootstocks. Very large acreages and high crop values are involved; the proper selection of scion-rootstock combinations is necessary or tremendous financial losses can occur.

The bulk of the deciduous fruit acreage in California is in the Central Valley — the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys — where considerable emphasis is on the stone fruits — peaches and nectarines (110,000 acres); almonds (254,000 acres); apricots (35,000 acres); prunes (100,000 acres); and plums (27,000 acres). The English walnut is also grown in the Central Valley with smaller amounts in coastal valleys and Southern California, giving a total acreage of 198,000. The vinifera grape is a major and dramatically increasing crop in the San Joaquin valley with lesser amounts in the coastal valleys, making a total of almost 500,000 acres now planted. The San Joaquin valley and, to a lesser extent, Southern California, is


Author: Makoto Kawase

PP: 360

In 1933, Zimmerman and Hitchcock (5) of the Boyce Thompson Institute reported that unsaturated hydrocarbon gases, including ethylene, stimulated initiation of roots in 15 species of herbaceous and woody plants. In willow, the gases also stimulated the growth of latent root primordia. Cuttings were exposed to different concentrations of the gases ranging from 10-4 to 1% under airtight containers.

According to our results, exposure of willow cuttings to ethylene gas stimulated root formation within an exposure time ranging from 0 to 30 min Treatment for longer than 30 min. was less effective (Fig. 1).

Ethephon, recently developed by Amchem Co., has been used in many fields of agriculture. After being absorbed by the plants, the compound undergoes decomposition and releases ethylene gas to the plant tissues. Figure 2 indicates the root-forming effect of Ethephon on willow cuttings. The most effective concentration was 880 ppm. The effect of Ethephon on root formation of tomato plant


Author: David F. Hamilton

PP: 368

Seeds of some woody plants were treated with (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (Ethrel) to determine if ethylene would replace the cold requirement for germination. In the first phase of the experiment, seeds were soaked without a cold treatment in Ethrel solutions and in the second phase seeds were soaked after a cold treatment.

Soaking seeds in Ethrel increased germination of most species, although the effective concentration and length of treatment varied among species. A cold treatment in addition to the soak in Ethrel did not further increase germination.


Author: John F. Ahrens

PP: 374

Sixteen herbicides were tested on cultivars of Rhododendron, Hydrangea and Chrysanthemum over a 3 year period. Cuttings were harvested and rooted from six field and container experiments following herbicide applications. In most cases, dosages of herbicide considered adequate for control of weeds but not injurious to the nursery plants had no significant effects on rooting of cuttings. However, twice normal dosages of herbicides sometimes reduced rooting of cuttings and , in one experiment, two successive annual applications of an herbicide combination reduced the quality of roots formed by cuttings. Plant species and cultivars differed greatly in their response to the herbicides. A reduction in rooting potential of cuttings from treated plants was not always associated with plant injury. The greatest effects of herbicides on rooting of cuttings from treated plants occurred in container culture with softwood cuttings. Although in most cases reductions in rooting potential of cuttings.

Author: Donald T. Krizek

PP: 390

The growth of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh ) and European white birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) plants was greatly accelerated by growing them for 4 to 8 weeks during the seedling stage under controlled-environment conditions By providing plants with a "head start" at the seedling stage, and then maintaining them on long days, it was possible to obtain white bark on trees in 2 years rather than after 3 or more years.

Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 396

The use by the nursery industry of plastic covered storage houses for overwintering both container-grown and fall-harvested field-grown evergreens has become a standard practice in Ohio and in much of the northern United States. In recent years, some nurserymen have explored the aspect of utilizing basically the same structures with the addition of heat to grow certain nursery crops during late winter and spring.

At The Ohio State University a preliminary study was initiated to produce salable 1 gallon container grown plants in the shortest possible time in heated plastic covered structures.


Author: Jan L. Jansen

PP: 398

Growing ornamental plants on organic soils is not something that is uniquely new, nor is it something that has been done only on the North American continent.

Nurseries growing ornamental crops on organic soils have long been established in the various areas of Europe, with perhaps the most well-known area being the Boskoop region in The Netherlands. In the United States, many of our cutflower production areas in Florida are on muck. Greenhouse forcing azaleas are also grown in Florida muck and are subsequently shipped throughout the country.

Most research and production work, however, seems to have been concentrated primarily on edible crops, principally vegetables. In recent years, work has been done with the growth of blueberries and with turfgrass production on organic soils. Work done with ornamental shrubs and trees, however, has largely been limited to their use as windbreaks or hedgerows with limited information being available as to the possibility of commercial production of


Author: Douglas J. Phillips

PP: 88

Postharvest, hot-air or hot-water treatment of geranium cuttings offers a high or eradicative level of control of geranium rust incited by Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis Doidge with only slight injury to the cuttings, (Grouet, 1965) (Phillips and McCain, 1972). Our initial work indicated that hot-water treatment at 122°F for 90 seconds also gave some control of other cutting-borne pathogens that are important during shipping. We, therefore, undertook a study to evaluate the effects of hot-water on cuttings of 4 different varieties of geranium, Pelargonium hortorum Bailey (P. zonale Ait. Probably × P. inquinans).

Trimmed, uncallused cuttings, freshly harvested from fields in San Diego County, California were treated in water at 122° F for 90 seconds, then cooled in air or in cool chlorinated water (50 ppm C10). Control cuttings were not treated. Following treatment, cuttings were packed in fiberboard shipping boxes and held 2–4 days at room temperature before they were evaluated for disease.


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 401

With most woody species, problems in propagating by cuttings lie in their ability to initiate roots. For some ornamental and forest species, however, the problem is that they have an extremely high rate of mortality after root initiation.

Mortality of rooted ‘Cornell Pink’ rhododendron cuttings is associated with anthesis. The greater the numbers of flowers blossoming on the cuttings, the greater the losses. Removal of the flower buds, at any time before blossoming, will enhance survival.

Cuttings taken early in the season had the lowest number of flower buds and, as a consequence, had the highest rate of survival. Eight-hour photoperiodic treatments inhibited flower bud initiation.


Author: John R. Donnelly, Harry W. Yawney

PP: 413

The Northeastern Forest Experiment Station project at Burlington, Vermont has, for several years, investigated methods of vegetatively propagating sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). These studies have been designed to produce a workable procedure for allowing propagators to vegetatively reproduce mature trees selected on the basis of high xylem sap sugar content. Although vegetative propagation of these "sweet trees" may offer obvious advantages to producers attempting to establish high-yielding sugar bushes, this species is quite difficult to reproduce asexually.

This report summarizes some of our findings and points out areas in which information is still lacking. The paper is divided into three major parts: 1) factors associated with development of adventitious roots; 2) methods of overwintering rooted cuttings; and 3) current propagation procedures.


Author: Ray E. Halward

PP: 431

Rhus aromatica, a native shrub commonly known as fragrant sumac, has a wide range as its native habitat. It is found in Quebec, Ontario and at least 13 States from Northeastern to Southern to East-Central regions of the U.S. It is classed zone 3, on Canadian hardiness map.

Author: Robert W. Langhans, L.A. Spomer

PP: 434

There are many differences to consider as one makes the transition from field to container growing. The soil is shallower, there is less volume, the soil is amended and watering and fertilization are drastically changed. You should have a basic understanding of the relationship of soil moisture and aeration. We will not give you any formula for a soil mix nor any water scheme or schedule. Unfortunately, each situation, each plant, each grower is a different problem and they can be solved usually in different ways. This is a management decision and it is up to the manager. We hope to give you the information for making the proper management decisions.

Author: David L. Morrison

PP: 447


Greenleaf Nursery Co. is headquartered approximately 70 miles southeast of Tulsa and has a new division in Texas about 70 miles southwest of Houston. Both nurseries are exclusively producing container grown ornamentals, growing both conifer and broadleaved evergreens, trees and shrubs. The practical aspects of overhead watering presented in this paper will be those gained from past experience at the Oklahoma site but will to an extent apply to both areas.

There are a number of factors affecting our particular situation that should be kept in mind when considering our method of irrigation. First, there is as much as 125° variation in our temperature, ranging from -15° F to 110° F. This forces us to use two differing overhead systems from season to season since we must overwinter our stock. Secondly, our growing season lasts from April to mid-October. Third, there are approximately 100 acres of container stock that is exclusively overhead watered unless problem areas arise.


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 451

Good growers have always realized the vital role that water plays in their daily operation, but it is comparatively recently that we have come to know with some degree of certainty how water can affect a plant, can control its development and can change the final result substantially. This we now know to be true in every phase of plant growth.

Our main crop, of course, is rhododendrons, and we have always been aware of the need to control the frequency and quantity of water and to provide growing conditions which would allow surplus water to be removed as quickly as possible. This is true in field culture and even more important in container culture. The need for controlling the growing medium, whether it be in the field or in a can, to as close to field capacity as possible under wet conditions is, of course, based upon the effect of surplus water on the development of the rhododendron wilt disease, Phytopthora cinnamomi


With the high temperatures which are almost inevitable in the


Author: Ralph N. Freeman

PP: 454

The importance of water in plant growth is becoming more appreciated by horticulturists. Today's concerns are not only quantity of water but also quality. Experience has shown that there are great differences in the chemical composition of waters from various sources. Even though water may be perfectly clear, there may be chemical substances dissolved in it that are injurious to plants.

If a water supply is contaminated with a large supply of dissolved chemicals, there is usually a method to counteract this problem. This paper has been prepared to acquaint plant growers with some to the problems that could and have been experienced by many people and to describe, in some cases, remedial action. Finally an orderly sequence of steps is suggested to help correct a suspected water quality problem.


Author: Richard T. Vanderbilt

PP: 466

Our rhododendron production system was discussed in detail at the 1967 meeting. We have made some changes since and I am sure that our system is about to undergo more changes in the near future. We maintain a separate, but unequal, stock block for cutting material. We aim for good growth, but a low level of nitrogen in the cutting when it is stuck. We are using both single and multiple cuttings depending on available stock.

Cuttings are stuck in peat pots, 2½" extra deep. When we transplant we are very careful to remove this pot completely. We have found that peat pots can cause a lot of grief later on if we do not do this. Even when the rhododendrons appear to be aggressively rooting out of the peat pot, they are making a circular root system that causes them to be pot bound and most reluctant to go into a new medium. The reason we stick with peat pots is to do away with hauling medium in and out of the houses.

We transplant in December or January into 48 fluid ounce plastic container. It


Author: Jeremy Wells

PP: 467

As we are a specialist grower, our problems are unique. We have three major cash crops: rhododendrons, deciduous azaleas and evergreen azaleas; 95% of our income comes from these crops. Thus, it is imperative to keep certain production procedures definite in our planning:
  1. The plants must be alive, healthy and in good salable condition at the end of the growing season.
  2. The crops must be sold at a variety of ages and sizes.
  3. Management must carefully plan to see that the first two criteria are met with the least amount of expenditure in labor, time and money.

The control of disease has become very important throughout every phase of rhododendron production, especially propagation. Strict sanitary procedures, plus the use of certain chemicals, has produced a great reduction of disease incidence. Our propagation takes place between May and December. When the propagation houses are empty in April, we wash them down with a solution of chlorine granules in water. The houses are then fumigated with


Author: Michael D. Johnson

PP: 470

At Summer Hill rhododendron production accounts for about 40% of our business. We are at present propagating between 60 and 80 thousand rhododendrons a year. This involves 14 varieties of Catawbiense hybrids and seven varieties of what we call small-leaf varieties, such as ‘Purple Gem’ and some of the Carolina hybrids. These are all produced from cuttings taken primarily in October. We also grow a relatively small quantity of Carolina rhododendrons which are propagated from seed. However, I will not get into our seedling production as it is such a small item with us.

Our rhododendrons are sold as three basic size crops — 1 gal containers, 2 gal containers and half-bushel baskets. It all starts, of course, with propagation. We do not have a stock block but take our cuttings from 1 and 2 year old plants that are in production. We feel this gives us a far superior cutting to cuttings taken from old stock plants. They usually root readily and we shape our plants that are in production when we


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 91

In preparing for this presentation I tried to consider how teaching propagation in our department would differ from that done at the other institutions represented on this panel. There is probably little difference in how we handle seeds, cuttings, buds or grafts but there may be a big difference in how we motivate the students. While the technique that I will describe works well for our vocationally oriented, suburban campus, I am not necessarily recommending it for all colleges.

At Cal Poly our students in Ornamental Horticulture operate a commercial nursery and flower shop as part of their educational experience. It gives them an opportunity to propagate plants, grow them on, and market them while participating in the profits from the crops that they grow. Many of our alumni claim that production and management experience gained through our Agricultural Enterprise Program was the most valuable experience that they received in college. I know, too, that the dollar incentive is much


Author: Bruce A. Briggs

PP: 476

As a nurseryman, I am interested in attracting young people to horticulture for more than one reason. First, as potential customers, as citizens who are sympathetic to our industry's goals, and as citizens who are concerned about creating a better life in a better world. Then, I would also like to interest more young people in continuing further research in horticulture and in becoming an active part of some segment of the industry.

As members of the I.P.P.S., we can go back to our motto "To seek and to share". We can start by seeking more knowledge, better techniques, additional applications and new fields of endeavor. We can share this knowledge, the materials with which we work, and our own enthusiasm for horticulture. We can use the current interest in ecology to advantage and share our knowledge with those from other fields who have just recently jumped on the ecology bandwagon. By serving on planning boards for parks, cemeteries, highways and cities, we can help create beautiful


Author: John A. Wott

PP: 480

What is horticulture? Bailey describes "horticulture" first of all, as "the cultivation of a garden or orchard"; then secondly "the act of growing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants". Thus literally, horticulture means "garden culture". How do we interest young people in "garden culture"?

Author: Alfred Fordham

PP: 490

The question box session convened at 7:30 p.m. in the Terrace Room. Dr. William Snyder presided as moderator.

MODERATOR SNYDER: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen; since you are all familiar with the Question Box session we will not waste time with formalities but we will begin with the first question. What is the background and history of Taxus ‘Taunteni’?

CASE HOOGENDOORN: It came from Taunten, but I believe it originally came from the Arnold Arboretum.

MODERATOR SNYDER: Mike Johnson, while at your nursery, I noticed that the roots on your azaleas only went down about halfway in the can, what is your explanation?

MIKE JOHNSON: I am nor sure. Most varieties do tend to go down but we have noticed that on Rhodendron vaseyi roots rarely go down very deep in the ca. For some reason the roots stay rather shallow; it may need more aeration and this may be one which we should grow in Swiss cheese cans.

MODERATOR SNYDER: Would Quercus palustris grow better if inoculated with mycorrhiza, given an


Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 93

There seems to be an increasing interest among students in plant propagation at the University of California, Davis Campus. Enrollment in the plant propagation course was quite stable for a number of years at about 35 students per year, then in 1971 it increased to 55, and in 1972 to 80. This class is given in the spring quarter, running 10 weeks, from about April 1 to June 10. It consists of two 1-hour lecture periods and one 3-hour laboratory period per week. Several laboratory sections per week are given, depending upon the enrollment. Twenty students is the maximum per laboratory section. One-third to one-half of the enrollment has been graduate students; a sizeable percentage of the enrollment is foreign students. Various majors are represented — such as plant science, environmental horticulture, agricultural education, agricultural science and management, pomology, viticulture, international agricultural development, and botany. It is an upper division course with a prerequisite of

Author: Edward J. Jelenfy

PP: 98

The techniques in teaching of the Central and North Facility gardening classes are taught by separate instructors but in essence are the same.

At the Central Facility Ornamental Horticulture and Floral Work, along with landscape and general garden maintenance is taught. Seed sowing and cuttings for propagation are planted in a greenhouse under mist systems. In general, the inmate students work very much like any other plant growing establishment would operate. A number of aspects of propagation are taught, such as grafting and budding. The floral students learn various aspects one should know to enter the floral trade.

The North Facility student enrolled in Landscape Gardening is taught to properly use garden tools, along with techniques on how to grow plants, prune, bud, graft, plant bedding plants, trees and shrubs, and general garden maintenance, along with lawn care and planting.

The teaching techniques of the Department of Corrections in general is the same as in any other