Volume 13

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Author: Dale E. Herman, Charles E. Hess

PP: 42

I. Introduction

Etiolation is known to play a definite role in enhancing the rooting potential of many plants. A number of references attest to this fact in the literature, several of which will be cited below.

Sachs (1864) noted that adventitious roots formed in great abundance in darkness on portions of stems of a variety of plant species, but that this phenomenon would not occur in light (23).

Mevius (1931) found that light inhibited the rooting of cuttings of Tradescantia species (14). Gardner (1937) successfully rooted cuttings of McIntosh apple made with the basal cut in an etiolated area (3). Reid (1922) and Blackie, Graham, and Stewart (1926) used similar methods as Gardner to affectively root a difficult clone of camphor (21, 1). Smith (1924) found that etiolation enhanced rooting in the genus Clematis (25). Etiolation was proven was proven very beneficial in rooting avocado cuttings according to Frolich (1961) and Johnston and Frolich (1957) (2, 10).

The process of etiolation is


Author: James Wells, F.O. Lanphear

PP: 100

The round-table discussion on sanitation and propagation provided some useful and interesting information for the many that were present. As might be expected, the sanitation practices varied considerably among the propagators. One example that illustrates this was the difference in frequency of changing the rooting medium; varying from changing with every batch of cuttings to using the same medium for 20 years. In relation to the differences among propagators it was pointed out that those on the West Coast are known to be much more concerned with this problem and practice sanitation much more extensively than most propagators in the East.

The discussion centered around certain key points which I will now attempt to summarize. One of these was the use of various chemicals as disinfectants in the various propagation steps. There appeared to be considerable use of Morton Soil Drench and Pano Drench either as a drench for the rooting medium or for the cuttings themselves. Some applied


Author: George Rose, Wayne Lovelace

PP: 101

Our discussion group opened by asking, "What is meant by cost control in propagation?"

Does this mean to produce smaller cuttings, grafts, or seedlings, or to crowd more cuttings into a given area, or to produce cheaper, easier to grow varieties. It could mean to use cheaper, less experienced help, or to use cheaper, more easily worked understock regardless of the quality of the resulting plants, or to increase the volume of propagation to cut the cost of the individual item and then hope that the material produced can be sold.

We concluded that cutting the cost of propagation is only a very small part of the answer to production cost control.

The following points were presented to be of prime consideration along with actual propagation costs.

  1. Change in consumer demand.
  2. Change in marketing procedures and outlets.

These enter into cost control much more than trying to produce a plant cheaper than your competitor.


Author: J.H. Tinga, Charles Hayes Jr

PP: 105

During the summer of 1961 and 1962 pilot experiments in the use of large cuttings were made in the mountains of Virginia. As a result of these experiments a larger project consisting of 1,000 three gallon cans were established near Norfolk, Virginia. This was to test the theory that large saleable plants could be produced in one season. If the unrooted cutting was stuck in the media in July, and if the plant could be moved to the landscape site in October, then no moving or handling would be necessary, thus decreasing labor costs.

The experiment was all under one mist system which was controlled by the balanced arm and screen wire mechanism. The mist was on when the screen wire weight was dry. It did not usually operate at night or in cloudy weather.

The first variable was the rooting media. There was not a significant difference between rooting results of the four following mixtures: (1) half bank sand and half German peat, (2) half bank sand and half Canadian peat (this peat was


Author: Paul R. Bosley Sr

PP: 109

Budding is usually done in the open field and requires no expensive physical lay-out, such as greenhouses, heating plants and grafting cases.

Budding requires a minimum amount of handling and labor.

Budding takes advantage of the natural cycle of rest and growth that takes place in a plant during a year.

Budding produces the maximum size plant in the minimum amount of time. And a true union of tissues takes place during the first growing season.

I have found much to my amazement that different practices are employed in different parts of the country, as for example along the Eastern Seaboard and up around Long Island most nurserymen practice grafting and they don't have the technique or the help to establish a budding practice. In Lake County everybody practices the budding methods and budding help is generally available.

There was a time when young boys 10 and 12 years old were winders behind budders and before they had finished high school they were doing the budding and some of


Author: Roy M. Nordine

PP: 113

Acer Campestre nanum Lodd , also called A. campestre globosum de Vos and A. campestre compactum Schw.

A very dense, globular, slow growing form of the Common European Hedge Maple. Scions were obtained from Arnold Arboretum in 1950 and grafted onto Acer campestre during the winter and grown in a grafting case. These plants are now 3 feet high and wide. The plants on the slide were grafted in the winter of 1954 and now measure 2½ feet high and 2 feet wide.

Acer Ginnala Durand Dwarf.

In 1954 a large witches broom was found on an old Acer Ginnala in Durand Eastman Park, Rochester, New York. In 1956 we made a few grafts on Acer Ginnala and grew them in a grafting case. What you see is now a plant 3 feet high and 5 feet wide. Growth when small is short and slow but increases with age. This year's growth was 9–12 inches. Anyone can speculate about the ultimate size of this round shrub-like plant. The same brilliant fall colors of orange, scarlet and purple appear in this cultivar.



Author: J.B. Gartner

PP: 116

Eucommia ulmoides is a tree obtaining a final height of about 60 feet with wide spreading branches and it has been suggested as replacement of the elm. It is a very nice tree with very glossy green leaves and serrated, and shaped much like those of the elm. It is more attractive than the elm and is apparently very disease resistant. This tree is a native of central China and was introduced into the United States by the U.S.D.A. several years ago. It is dioecious (having male and female flowers on different trees) which makes it a very clean tree without any fruit. The fruit is similar to the elm being a compressed winged nutlet with the flowers being very inconspicuous. A mature tree approximately fifty years old exists on the University of Illinois campus and has brought much interest since the loss of elms. Very few nurserymen carry this tree, possibly because of its difficulty to root. There are a few mature specimens throughout the country, but these are from the original

Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 117

This series of slides depicts a witches's; - broom development on Pinus strobus, located in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts. It is of unusual interest for although witches'-brooms seldom produce flowers or fruits, this one bears cones containing viable seeds which have given rise to numerous dwarf plants. What appears to be two trees is actually one that divides into two parts four feet above ground and the broom comprises the entire crown of one leader. It is about ten feet tall by ten feet wide and is borne on a tree approximately eighty feet high.

A second view shows the site and gives some idea of its immediate surroundings. In the foreground, with the broom-bearing tree situated at its edge, is a fifty yard wide clearance cut through the woods to accommodate high-tension electric lines. As a result of this unnatural opening in the woods, seeds shed from the broom had a better chance of developing into plants than would be the case in natural woodland where any abnormal


Author: Joseph C. McDaniel

PP: 120

The cucumber tree, Magnolia acuminata L., ranges from the north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario to Louisiana and Georgia, attaining 90 feet in the Great Smoky Mountains. It is the largest growing deciduous magnolia in America, probably second to M. grundiflora as a timber source, and one of the hardiest magnolias in the world, succeeding in northern Europe up to southern Norway. It has sometimes been used as an understock for grafting other magnolias, but in recent decades has lost favor particularly to M. Kobus, whose seeds seem more readily available from trees in cultivation. With the rise of mist propagation in recent years, relatively few of the deciduous Asian Magnolias now are grafted. M. acuminata understocks may still offer the most feasible means of multiplying select clones of the closely related but smaller M. cordata, sometimes regarded as merely a variety of acuminata. (The Chinese M. liliflora is more distantly related, and through it, M. Soulangiana.)

Cultivars of M.


Author: Joseph C. McDaniel

PP: 124


In the following paper, which is an updating of the talk I gave at the Cincinnati meeting of the International Plant Propators' Society in 1962, I discuss my own crosses involving so far the two Sweet Bays, M. virginiana L. (synonym: M. glauca) and M. australia Ashe with other species; mention crosses which several other breeders have made with American Magnolia species; and outline some of the possibilities of further breeding to secure new hybrids worthy of propagation as evergreen or deciduous ornamentals. Though one prominent botanist told me that he thought any two magnolia species were fertile to each other's pollen, experience indicates the situation to be less simple. We may not in the foreseeable future cross between the two subgenera of Dandy's classification, but there are enough interspecific crosses and even intersectional and 3-sectional hybrids (within both subgenera) to indicate that much more may be done with breeding in this ancient genus. In the North


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 132

I would like to take one of the three minutes allotted to me, if I may, to mention briefly an aspect of our work which think has not always been recognized, and that is the "quality" of the rooting obtained from any given treatment. I believe that sometimes we are inclined to be mesmerized by percentages, and it is very easy to present a misleading picture from figures which do not reflect the quality of the rooting obtained. We all know how much the successful re-establishment and ultimate survival of a young plant depends upon the quality of the root system produced in the propagation bench. Where material is propagated in fall or winter, the percentage of survival the following spring, no matter how carefully the storage conditions may be controlled, is in direct ratio to the number and the quality of roots on the cutting when they are first moved. I must own that I was quite disturbed to hear at last year's meeting, a number of critical comments to the procedure of wounding cuttings,

Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 63

I would like to begin by describing some of the factors which can affect the rooting of a cutting, then go into how some of these factors may work, and end up with a few techniques which are used to increase the rooting capacity of difficult-to-root cuttings.

Author: Albert Lowenfels

PP: 135

Because of the presence of so many learned and noted botanists, this talk should have said "Syringa." But just being a plain propagator I use the common name. My inspiration for raising lilacs from cuttings came from reading a pamphlet by Kirkpatrick issued at least 20 years ago by Boyce Thompson, Yonkers, N.Y. Aside from that I find very little in the literature on propagating lilacs from cuttings. Bailey, in his classical nursery manual, gave various methods of propagation and said "Green cuttings handled in frames in the spring and summer are used," and he also mentions that mature wood would grow. Well, I'm not able to root summer cuttings or mature wood. Mahlstede and Haber give one line on lilacs, showing spring and summer as the best time for green lilacs. Hartman and Kester give almost a page to lilacs including green cuttings taken early in spring, but remark, "due to the fact that cuttings must be taken at a definite time in the spring at the peak of the nurseryman's busy season,

Author: C.E. Wildon, F.L.S. O'Rourke

PP: 136

Practical plantsmen have always used certain soil amendments to "lighten"soil for pot and container growing. Organic matter such as peat moss, leaf mold and compost and inorganic materials like sand, cinders, perlite and vermiculite are frequently used. One of the more recent materials to be employed is arcillite, a montmorillonite clay which has been calcined at high temperatures so that the crevices and spaces within the arcillaeous mineral are firmly fixed to resist decomposition.

One of earlier uses of arcillite was its incorporation in the soil of golf greens. It has proven quite resistant to break down by freezing and thawing and as reported by Montgomery (1) greatly stimulates the uniform growth of grass apparently by allowing air to penetrate to the root zone.

Arcillite is a satisfactory medium for the cutting bench, either used alone or mixed with peat. It requires more frequent watering than other media due to its higher degree of porosity, but is ideal under mist systems. It has also


Author: Donald Schoeneweiss

PP: 138

Iron-deficiency chlorosis has long been a major problem in the cultivation of many species of trees and shrubs. Among those species commonly affected by chlorosis, pin oak (Quercus palustris) frequently exhibits the most severe symptoms. The development of yellowing or chlorosis due to iron deficiency has been attributed to many factors, including insufficient soil-iron content, despite the fact that other species such as red oak may grow vigorously and without developing any symptoms of iron deficiency when planted adjacent to chlorotic pin oaks. Results of extensive soil testing indicate that chlorosis among pin oaks, at least in Illinois nursery fields, is most often associated with high pH or alkaline conditions.

The recommended control measures for iron-deficiency chlorosis involve the application of iron-containing compounds such as ferrous sulfate, ferrous citrate, or chelates. These compounds are soluble in water and may be applied as a foliar spray, which gives only temporary


Author: J.C. Moore

PP: 141


A few years back while working with chestnut propagation at Auburn University, cuttings made from young seedling plants rooted readily while cuttings from old trees were very difficult to root.

This led to the belief that there were substances in the germinating seed that caused the young or juvenille wood to root readily.

Seed cotyledons enclosed in the old seed coat were removed from several young seedlings, and a simple hardwood scion from bearing trees, trimmed to a point at the base, was inserted into each of the removed cotyledons. These grafts with the cotyledons attached were placed in a medium of sand to see if the scion would absorb enough of the substances from the cotyledons to induce rooting. Checks were used without cotyledons attached.

Within a few weeks some of the scions began to grow vigorously while others put out weak growth and died in a short time. When the grafts were examined, it was found that those making good growth had formed a union with the


Author: F.O. Lanphear

PP: 144

It is common knowledge among propagators that cuttings from most species root better at certain times of the year than at others. With narrow-leaved evergreens, we usually think of fall and winter as being optimum. The effectiveness of root-promoting substances such as indolebutyric acid (IBA) also depends on the season the cuttings are taken. However, very little is known about the controlling mechanism in this seasonal rooting response. Our first consideration might be the environmental differences that exist between seasons. One environmental factor that is particularly interesting in conjunction with this seasonal rooting response is photoperiod or the daylength. There have been numerous reports on the effect of photoperiod on rooting, mostly demonstrating the promotion of rooting by extending the photoperiod (3, 4). However, this is not always true. In some earlier work, (2) we found that long photoperiods actually reduced the rooting of cuttings of Japanese yew and certain

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 149

Mr. Ralph Shugert, Neosho Nurseries, Neosho, Missouri served as moderator. The meeting convened at 8:00 p.m. in the Crystal Room, Sheraton-Jefferson Hotel. [Editor's Note: The questions and answers are included in this year's Proceedings for the first time.]

Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 153

The definition of the word "research," according to Webster's unabridged dictionary is:

"Studious inquiry or examination, specifically and usually, critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation; the revision of accepted conclusions, theories or laws in the light of newly discovered facts; or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions."

In the area of the arts and the humanities, research is most frequently accomplished by diligent investigation, comparison, criticism and interpretation of the writings, the paintings, the sculpture, the musical scores or other products of an individual or groups of individuals whose accomplishments may be related. By contrast, in the area of the sciences, research is most frequently accomplished by experimentation. Since the propagation of plants is primarily a science, we shall be concerned with the experimental approach.

Classically, two levels of


Author: K.W. Reisch

PP: 158

The incidence and spread of disease organisms in the propagating phase is probably far more critical and costly than most propagators realize. We know that disease or insect infected wood can readily be a source for infection and spread, but the contamination of previously "clean" stock is a problem with which all plantsmen should be concerned. Many growers on the West Coast have recognized the seriousness of some of these problems and have taken positive steps to correct them, through sanitation and disease control programs.

We are all familiar with fungus diseases such as those causing damping-off and we can readily diagnose the cause and take steps to prevent or correct it. If all diseases initiated in the propagating phase killed the plants at this time it would be fine, but the initiation of pathogens, which are evidenced later in the life of the plant, can prove to be very costly. The decline of plants in later phases of growth often results in death, or weakened plants of poor


Author: A.F. De Werth

PP: 163

The techniques used for rooting leafy cuttings and grafts under mist are now well known and widely practiced by plant propagators. The mist sprays used maintain a film of water on the leaves which not only results in a high water vapor pressure surrounding the leaf but also lowers the temperature of the leaf and the surrounding atmosphere. All of these factors have a decided effect upon decreasing the rate of transpiration.

The use of the mist techniques in the research projects including plant propagation at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station presented considerable difficulties due to the high soluble salt content in the available water supply. (This was largely due to sodium accumulation on the leaves.) This condition resulted in severe marginal burning of the leaves on most cuttings placed in this environment for periods exceeding 15 days.

Another well-known propagating technique for the propagation of cuttings and grafts is the use of a closed case covered with glass,


Author: Zophar P. Warner

PP: 166

There is a great deal of information about plastic houses. The Cunningham house was described before this Society two years ago. This presentation can be found on page 142 of the 1961 Plant Propagators' Proceedings. Harvey Templeton has some pipe frame and woven wire structures. The Berryhill Nursery has been using quonset hut type plastic structures for several years. I am sure there are many other good ones in use, some with wood frames.

The most obvious requirement of an inexpensive plastic structure is that it cover the most area or furnish the most cubic feet of space at the least cost per square foot or cubic foot. On this level, it is an engineering problem in which local snow and wind loads must be taken into consideration. If this were the only problem this audience would be better served by having an architect or engineer furnish structural data that I am in no way qualified to present.

I would like to depart to a large extent from the structural aspects of "Inexpensive


Author: Richard Zimmerman

PP: 71


The Tree Improvement Program of the Texas Forest Service is concerned with the selection and breeding of superior strains of southern pines for paper pulp and lumber. One of the problems encountered in this program has been the vegetative propagation of selected trees. Since only mature trees are selected, rooting capacity is low (6, 7) and the selections have been propagated by grafting in the past. For our purposes, this has the disadvantages of (1) a different genetic constitution of the stock and scion, (2) possible incompatability between the stock and scion, and (3) higher cost.

Attempts at working out a satisfactory technique for propagating older pines from cuttings met with little success. Accordingly the decision was made to begin a basic investigation of rooting in pines. The purposes were, first, to study root initiation in pines and, second, to determine the relationship between juvenility and root initiation. The first phase of the research has been to


Author: Ray E. Halward

PP: 170

It was pointed out in a brief summary in the March issue of the Plant Propagator under the heading "Field Trials for 1963," that some plants had been propagated successfully using the leaf-bud cutting technique. It was hoped that the field trials this year would add to the knowledge already available.

In answer to the request for participants I received two replies, one from Paul E. Case of Pleasant Grove Nursery, Peach Bottom, Pennsylvania. The other Robert L. Ticknor, Associate Professor of Horticulture, Oregon State University.

Paul Case reported the following: the cuttings were stuck in a greenhouse bed with a depth of 5 inches of sharp, washed sand. A heat cable maintained a temperature of 72° – 75° F. The cuttings were under a tent of plastic supported 10 inches above the sand by a wire frame. A 50 percent slat shade plus the usual whitewash shading covered the glass. The greenhouse temperature was generally under 75° with a night temperature 10° lower. The cuttings were watered heavily


Author: Hans Hess

PP: 174

Since all of our plants originally started from seed, this paper on Holly propagation will start with the miraculous and often exasperating little seed.

Berries are collected when ripe in November and December. They will vary in size and shape depending on the species, the largest being about ½ inch in diameter on Ilex macrocarpa and also Ilex opaca variety Emily, a selection of the late Wilfred Wheeler.

Inside the berry there are generally four individual nut like seeds, which if you carefully remove the pulp, appear as a single stone. The skin and pulp are removed from the seeds by fermenting in water with a small amount of sugar and rubbing over a screen or by using a commercial seed cleaner. The seeds of the various species vary in size in definite relation to the size of the berry. The imperfect seeds which are plentiful in some species are floated off and discarded. A bulletin which describes and illustrates the seeds of thirty some species was written some years ago by Dr.


Author: D.F. Wetherell

PP: 176

The age old practice of plant propagation has taught us that many of the organs of a mature plant can be separated from the rest of the plant and in a relatively short time will reconstruct the missing parts to reform an intact plant. This capacity for regeneration of parts must mean that at least some of the cells which compose these organs, carry all the information and metabolic tools necessary for the formation of an entire new plant, i.e., they must carry as much inherited information as the zygote which forms as the result of fertilization and which is the starting point for the embryonic plant contained in seeds. We call the possession of all essential genetic information and metabolic machinery — totipotence. Biologists have long wondered whether such cells could be isolated from the protection of their tissues in the intact organ and still retain not only their ability to grow but also their totipotence. As long ago as the turn of the century intensive efforts were being made

Author: Donald B. White

PP: 182

This five year study was originally designed to observe the performance of four scion, five interstem, and ten rootstock varieties, in all possible combinations (Table 1). However, of all the factors that ultimately determine the usefulness of any graft combination, only survival, compatibility, and anchorage, will be covered here.

The plants were propagated at a commercial nursery in 1955 and 1956. Six-inch rootstock pieces were grafted to three-inch nurse root pieces of Western apple seedlings, using the whip and tongue technique. The grafts were callused and field grown for one season. In 1956, "two eye" stem pieces of the scion varieties were bench grafted to five-inch sections of the interstem varieties. The grafts were callused until bud break in the spring and then grafted, in the field, onto the rootstocks.


Author: J.L. Petty

PP: 202

Rosa canina has been known and used as an understock for over three hundred years. This is true only in European countries, however, for on the North American continent there would appear to be only two growers using the stock to any extent. Both of these growers are to be found in Canada: Carl Pallek Sons, Vergil, Ontario, and Rosecroft Nurseries in Langley, British Columbia.

It is estimated that 95% of European growers use this stock extensively. However, in Britain and Holland, nurserymen seem to be equally split on the merits of R. canina and R. multiflora strains and much argument is heard on both sides. In Germany and Belgium, R. canina flourishes almost 100%. In British Columbia, the Rosecroft Nursery works on a fifty-fifty basis to meet trade requirements.

Rosa canina may be distinguished mainly by the dog-tooth thorns which are borne in profusion; it is from this characteristic that the species derives its name.

The growth is of medium vigour, whilst the structure is


Author: R.L. Ticknor, A.N. Roberts

PP: 205

Studies of rootstocks for hybrid tea roses were started at Oregon State University in 1948 and are still being carried out. The present report deals with a trial started in December, 1960, and completed in November, 1962.

In Oregon, California, and the Southwest rose growing areas, cuttings are used for rootstocks, while in the Northeast, seedlings of Rosa multiflora are used. In the past, mixtures of different R. multiflora types were used as rootstocks for hybrid tea roses in Oregon. At present, most rose growers in Oregon, as well as in Texas, are using clonal lines of R. multiflora, while in Arizona and southern California the variety, Dr. Huey is used. Growers in all of these areas have made rootstock selections. In Addition to grower-selected lines, Dr. G. J. Buck at Iowa State University, Ames, has a breeding program to develop better rose rootstocks.

Cuttings of two California, one Iowa, nine Oregon, and four Texas rootstocks were used in this trial, which was started in


Author: Ralph S. Moore

PP: 208

I have been interested in mist propagation of cuttings for at least fifteen years. An article published in the American Nurseryman some eleven or twelve years ago reported experiments with misting over a two-year period and so I decided to experiment on my own. At about this time I found where a mist nozzle could be obtained which looked as if it would work, so I installed about a dozen mist heads.

As little information was available on the use of misting as an aid in rooting cuttings, I had to learn the hard way. For example, such items as amount of water, duration, drainage, rooting medium, hardening off cuttings after rooting, etc. had to be learned by the trial and error method.

I have observed a number of different misting nozzles but for my purpose still prefer the original Thompson #215 (made in Los Angeles by Thompson Sprinkler Co. and available through various dealers). It is relatively inexpensive and trouble-free.

These heads operate on low pressure (our's varies from 40–60


Author: E.P. Dering

PP: 210

My experience in freezing budwood, came as a result of a rather freakish circumstance. We had just built a warehouse and a refrigerator. We had some wrapped roses left over at the end of the season, and I decided to keep them in storage for another month or two. We looked at these buds throughout April and May, and they looked nice and plump. About the first of June, I took out these roses. The roots were just wrapped and the tops were frozen. The buds looked plump so I budded them. Everyone of them grew. Well, that gave me the idea that rose budding "eyes" could be kept in storage.

Our first method was to cut the buds in late fall, put them in a peach box with a layer of peat moss, another layer of buds, and another layer of peat moss, and then dip them in a pail of water and freeze them solid at 25 degrees. However, they were hard to thaw out. So, finally, we decided to start wrapping them in newspaper and butcher paper and from there we went to newspaper and polyethylene bags, which we


Author: Fred Edmunds

PP: 211

Our aim in production of two-year field-grown roses is to provide a plant with a well-branched, heavy top, a shank of two inches or less, and a finely divided root system with many flexible roots. From the standpoint of trade acceptance as well as an item that can be handled with ease, we try to approach the ideal as nearly as possible by varying our cultural methods.

Our climate is best divided into the dry season and the wet season. From June 15 until October 1, less than 10% of our rain falls. The rest of the year is cool and moist with our coldest weather arriving about the middle of January. By employing the attributes of our climate to best advantage and devising protection from severe weather, we are able to produce one of the finest quality plants at the lowest possible cost per unit.

Our cuttings are shorter than usually planted, being only eight inches in length. We use the Clarke strain of Rosa multiflora for early budding, and the Burr strain of R. multiflora for mid-summer

Question and Answer Period

Author: A.N. Roberts

PP: 215

Moderator Roberts: We are more than pleased to see such a fine turnout here this evening after such a busy day. I don't know how many of you enjoyed today's tours as much as I did, but I am sure you all did. Before we get started on the question and answer period I think on the behalf of all of you, we should thank Bill Curtis and our two leaders of these tours, Bob Ticknor and Wayne Melott, and especially all the people who opened up they nurseries to us today and showed us such a fine time. Let's start out by giving them a big hand.

This is the first of Plant Propators' Society meetings I have attended. I have belonged to the Eastern organization since it started, but I have never been close enough to attend their meetings. I understand from those who have attended over the years that one of the finest parts of the program is the question and answer periods where you have a change to quiz one another and get some of your questions answered. And so with these few words we are going


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 74

The subject of Mist Propagation of Cuttings Inserted Directly into the Rooting-Growing Medium is not a new one. I recall saying to this society last year that none of us have completely original thoughts. I am sure that there are many propagators who have at some time or other rooted cuttings inserted directly into soil, peatmoss or a combination of these. We could all benefit from their experiences. I hope that you can benefit from ours which I will briefly relate this afternoon.

Leslie Hancock has twice described before this society his Burlap Cloud Method of rooting soft cuttings in soil (1). Harvey Templeton has given us the details of the Phytotector Method for rooting cuttings (2). C. W. M. (Charlie) Hess, Sr., talked on the subject in 1955 (3), as did Jack D. Hill (4) and Kenneth W. Reisch (5) in 1957. In 1959 I very briefly described some little work we had done that year in rooting some woody ornamentals inserted directly into peat-moss pots (6).


Author: E.A. Wood

PP: 222

The basic reason I investigated the use of low-voltage bottom heat was the cost. Since the advent of the better types of plastic-coated wire and the ability to run more lineal feet from one thermostat this is no longer so important.

In our latest installation we made and used this plastic-insulated cable under two inches of sand. Since we use perlite for our rooting media, we are having the best results by placing the cable in sand which gives better lateral distribution of heat. To protect the cable from being moved or broken we use saran screening on top of the sand and the perlite is then placed above that where it can be cleaned out easily without disturbing the cable.

I first heard about low voltage bottom heat in a short note stating that the Europeans were using it; I wondered why didn't we use it. At the time, I was installing 1000 sq. ft. of propagating area and, after pricing lead-covered heating cable, I thought the subject worth looking into. Cornell University a little later


Author: Harry Carlson

PP: 224

Among the large number of varieties of conifers we grow at the nursery, we often find a new variation starting to grow. Some of these new plants are worthwhile growing, while others have to be discarded. We will keep some of them several years to watch their growth habits. I have some slides that will show some of these new varieties and their characteristics.

Juniperus horizontalis

This plant was selected from some seedlings of J. horizontalis. A good many had to be discarded. I kept three that were very compact and of a different shape. This plant is blue all summer, but when cold weather comes, it turns to lavender. It is a fast grower and resembles Bar Harbor, but the winter color is entirely different.

Juniperus horizontalis

This is another juniper from the same lot as the other one. This is very low-growing, compact, and takes less shearing to make a nice plant. It has finer foliage than the first one. It is also a slower growing plant and lower than Bar Harbor. It is very dense


Author: Leona Drew

PP: 226

Propagation by this method has been used for many years. The results, in most cases have been equal to the more modern way, in greenhouses, with mist systems, and other modern conveniences.

First, location; this can be either inside of a lath house, or out in the open, provided the frames are shaded. The shade can either be permanent or controlled manually.

The construction of these frames is not expensive; in fact, this is an ideal way for young people, who are starting out on a shoestring, to get started in plant propagation. The frames are generally built, in length, of multiples of three-foot sashes. A frame, six feet in width by fifteen feet in length, seems to be the most advantageous. Whenever two frames are constructed together, back to back, they should be twelve feet in width, with the center four inches higher than the outside edges. Instead of using glass sashes, we find it more economical and easier to lift, to use a cover constructed of two pieces of angle iron put back


Author: Bob Whalley

PP: 228

Actually, as you may know, there is no difference in the propagation whether custom or otherwise, but we do quite a lot of custom rooting.

When the cuttings are ready for rooting, that is, if they are brittle enough to snap off rather than bend, our customers bring them to us, often in clean wet burlap bags or, better yet, in plastic sacks. This test does not always hold good, as a few types actually should be put in when they are soft or even sticky, but it is a general rule. We urge that they be brought to us as soon as possible after cutting, so they will be fresh for making up. We usually make our cuttings about 4½" or 5" long with a slanting cut on the end and a single, medium-deep wound. We pull off the bottom leaves and any flower buds leaving the top 6 or 7 leaves, which we cut into half, so as to allow the air to circulate through the flat. We root our cuttings in flats and use a mixture of two-thirds sharp river sand, one-third peat moss, well


Author: Bill Menke

PP: 230

Growing rhododendron liners in full sun was not a matter of choice. My lath house was never large enough, so from the start there was always stock spilling out into the sun. Then as time passed and I collected soil-borne insects and fungi, I had to fumigate. I just could not do a good job around posts, so now I have no shade on the place.

We grow all our plants in flats, 20 to a flat, and keep them in the greenhouse or plastic house until all our field work is done, generally by the 15th of June. By the time we are ready to plant, the flats are a solid mass of roots and have to be cut into squares for planting.

We line the plants out in beds 7 ft. wide with 6 plants to the width of the bed, same spacing both ways; that gives them enough space for two season's growth. After planting, we spray with Simazine, at the rate of two pounds per acre, for control of weeds.

From then on they are watered and fertilized just like large nursery stock. Our soil is heavy clay, not too good for growing


Author: John Henny

PP: 231

First of all it probably would be well to define just what is meant by the term, Exbury azalea. This is a strain of azaleas that was developed by the late Lionel de Rothschild at Exbury. It was developed by taking the best of the Knaphill varieties that Anthony Waterer had been working on and then crossing and selecting and recrossing and selecting until the strain developed into what is now called the Exbury strain of Knaphill azaleas. These are different from the mollis types in that they flower for the most part from two to three weeks later in the season. They have much larger flowers with rounded instead of pointed petals. The flowers tend to lay back flat instead of funnel-shaped and they are fleshy and of heavy substance. Also the foliage colors quite well on most of them in the fall.

These azaleas, like most other deciduous ones, do not propagate readily from cuttings in commercial quantities. Grafted plants of deciduous azaleas are not very satisfactory in that they tend


Author: Martin Holmason

PP: 238

I don't believe that trying to cover the methods of seedling production in 20 minutes would be as hard as trying to tell you how to build an atomic bomb but I will have to try as I don't know how to build a bomb! There are many sides to the question of growing seedlings but I will cover the high points as I see them and if there are any questions you wish to ask, we'll have them at the end of my discussion.

We grow seedlings in two places, one growing ground is located in Sunnyside, Washington, and one is located here in Oregon on Sauvie Island.

I'll begin with our plant up in Washington where we grow all our apple and pear seedlings. Of course, some of the seed is imported, some from France, some from Austria or China or Japan while some is local seed. We import Pyrus calleryana, P. ussuriensis and French crabapple seed. Our domestic apple seed is locally grown and is mostly of the Winesap variety. Our Bartlett pear seed is from local canneries.

Some of the seed is planted in the fall


Author: Kent Brooks

PP: 242

Most of you know, of course, there are varieties of pears that are not compatible with quince rootstocks, especially the Bartlett variety. While we have received reports of a Swiss and French selection of Bartlett as being compatible, there has not been enough work done regarding these selections to propagate them commercially with the confidence that they would continue to grow favorably.

This situation caused us to consider various ways of getting a combination of a compatible variety between the rootstock and pear variety. Knowing that both Buerre Hardy and Old Home were compatible, we made up some grafts consisting of Bartlett grafted on B. Hardy or Old Homes using grafting tape to hold the grafts together. We then put these in moderately warm storage for approximately thirty days to start the callusing action at the graft union. After this thirty-day period, we either put them in cold storage or graft them in the field onto quince rootstocks. We were not entirely sure what growth


Author: H.B. Tukey

PP: 244

I have chosen to speak in general terms. You are fortunate in having horticultural experts in your midst, as well as able nurserymen and orchardists, who can give you detailed information on specific points for this region far better than I can do. But, perhaps looking in from the outside, I can point out the general features of clonal apple rootstocks and where they seem to me to fit.

Let us, then, consider three topics:

  1. Why are we interested in clonal apple rootstocks?
  2. What clonal apple rootstocks command our major interest and what do we know about these rootstocks?
  3. How do we propagate clonal apple rootstocks?

Why Are We Interested In Clonal Apple Roostocks?

The tremendous interest in dwarfing rootstocks comes about because (a) we are historically due for the next step in the refinement of growing fruit, which is to adopt predictable clonal rootstocks to combine with our predictable scion varieties ; and (b) we sense the solution to many of the modern problems of the


Author: M.N. Westwood, Lyle A. Brooks

PP: 261

Old Home pear (Pyrus communis) has been used for about 40 years as a blight-resistant trunkstock and as a compatible interstock for quince. If the graft-union is placed below ground, the Old Home stem will root above the union. Such trees, with a predominance of Old Home scion roots, are resistant to pear decline disease, a disorder which causes tissue injury at the union when the rootstock is a susceptible type. Seedlings of domestic and imported French pear (P. communis) and those of P. calleryana are more or less resistant to decline. However, 10 to 20 percent of the seedlings will be susceptible and are thus unsatisfactory. Trees propagated on self-rooted Old Home or self-rooted varieties do not develop decline and are thus superior in that respect.

In 1958, Dr. H. T. Hartmann and Prof. C. J. Hansen at the University of California, Davis, reported that cuttings of Old Home rooted quite well if taken in November, the bases soaked 24 hours in 200 ppm indolebutyric acid (IBA),


Author: J. Paul Wilms

PP: 80

Back in 1937, when the J. P. Wilms Nursery began, budding of roses and fruit trees was the only propagation work done. At the end of the next three years, after the name had been changed to Gwenn-Gary Nursery, rooting of evergreen cuttings was begun. The nursery of 10 acres supplied most of the cutting wood which was set in either cold frames or in rented space in nearby greenhouses.

In using rented greenhouse space, several problems occurred. (1) The cuttings had to be made in advance in large quantities, and some drying out occurred before the cuttings could be set. (2) Alternating temperatures, such as when the cuttings were brought in from the cold, made up in a room at moderate temperature, and out in the cold again to be transported to the greenhouse before being set in a controlled temperature environment. (3) However, the most critical problem was the inability to oversee watering and care after the cuttings were set. At best, using rented space was inconvenient, but much better


Author: A.N. Roberts

PP: 269

Recent studies at Oregon State University show that rootstocks for cherries can be materially improved and refinements in tree adaptation gained by selecting superior genotypes of Pruns avium, P. mahaleb, or their hybrids, for propagating as seed lines or clones (1, 2). This approach to standardization of the nursery tree and further improvement in orchard tree performance is supported by research results (3, 4, 5), showing that differences in tree size and vigor, fruit production and soil adaptability can be achieved by such selection.

Seedlings of Mazzard and Mahaleb are still the principal rootstocks used for sweet and sour cherry varieties, respectively. Since both species require cross-pollination for production of fertile seed, their seedling progeny are quite heterogeneous. The extent of this variability is dependent on the genetic make-up of the two parents and the degree of isolation provided the seed orchard. Led by plant pathologists seeking virus-free rootstock materials,


Author: Edward W. Schultz

PP: 274

The use of plastic houses for propagation by our nursery is a method of keeping the cost of production down.

Two houses have been in use for the last six years. The smaller one has an overall dimension of 10' × 40' and the larger one is 20' × 40'. They were placed in a north-south direction in order to utilize the more direct rays of the sun in the early morning and late afternoon. This may be a superior position for October and March. It did not allow enough sunlight during the four winter months when heat and light are at a minimum in this area. Future houses will be built in an east-west direction.

A 20' × 40' plastic house using a concrete foundation and rafters has a material cost of less than $200. A 32" rafter spacing was designed for future use of fiberglass sheets for a permanent roof. Experiments with fiberglass the past three years proved to be very successful for propagation. It would be more adaptable to summer propagation when regular plastic becomes brittle.

At the present time


Author: William Goddard

PP: 276

The following is a resume of my experience in breaking dormancy and in winter propagation of Azalea molle with the aid of supplementary light which, until the past season, I have not been able to do under our climatic conditions.

Three hundred and sixty plants from June cuttings were used in this test. They were potted in 3-inch square plastic pots in August. The growing mixture by volume was 45% friable loam, 45% coarse nursery grade Canadian peat, and 10% coarse washed sand. From August to early October the potted plants were grown outdoors under heavy shade after which they were transferred to a heated plastic house. The minimum temperature was 45° F. Though air and soil were almost saturated with moisture, these conditions apparently had no ill effects on the plants. At the time of housing, 60-watt incandescent lights at 3-foot centers were placed 20 inches above the tops of the plants. Within three weeks, it was apparent that growth was unsatisfactory, so it was decided to try


Author: J.H. Klupenger

PP: 279

Eight or twelve years ago nurserymen and florists in different areas of the country developed the idea that a temporary construction could be built and covered with poly film and used in the spring and summer to finish some of the various crops such as azaleas, foliage plants, and many types of cut flowers. As time went on there has been many types of construction and various shapes of structures erected and used for growing under polyethylene.

Our first experience in the use of polyethylene was in 1953 for growing azaleas for the final year, or the final season of spring and summer, to bud them up for market. After having good results the first year, we continued the following year with more such structures for azaleas.

In building the first structure we checked to see which widths of polyethylene would be available in our area in four-mil thickness. We found the 20' × 100' in four-mil was most popular in wide sizes. We constructed our houses 24' wide with about 5 to 5½ foot on the eaves.


Author: Don Nuffer

PP: 286

The mixture by volume consists of 50% sphagnum peat moss 50% horticultural perlite, and a basic fertilizer mix.

Let us first list the advantage of this type of mix:

  1. Good drainage: In an area of heavy winter rainfall, this is particularly important. It also provides a safeguard against overwatering, both of which brings on fungus problems.
  2. Lightweight: This feature provides ease of handling of material and economizes in the shipping of the finished product to the customer.
  3. Weed free: The fact that the material is for the most part free of weeds in its natural state eliminates (at least for most crops) the need for fumigation.
  4. Stimulates a fibrous root system.
  5. Materials relatively inert and chemically uniform. This is a desirable quality which enables one to use standard fertilizer formulae for all batches of mix.
  6. Mix does not pull away from the sides of the container when dry.

Author: F.A. Rigby

PP: 288

Our first experiments with growing in ground bark were started in the spring of 1954. These experiments were motivated by our search for a material that was economical and light in weight, could be easily handled, and was readily available and still would have good appearance when used as a growing medium. The first year we planted 200 Azalea mollis in three different lightweight media: fresh sawdust, aged sawdust, and ground, bark. The plants grown in fresh sawdust showed a marked deficiency of nitrogen under the culture they received. There was very little difference in the growth of the plants grown in aged sawdust and ground bark. Aged sawdust was eliminated, however, as being not too readily available. Since 1955 we have planted in ground bark and have grown a variety of plants including pine, fir, rhododendrons, azaleas, pieris and heather.

We have used both Douglas fir bark and hemlock bark and have found little difference between them as far as growth is concerned. Hemlock


Author: Dan Schmidt

PP: 291

MIX — To unite or blend into one mass.

MIXTURE — Compound formed by mixing.

SOIL MIXTURE — Several ingredients mixed together.

Soil mixtures for containers should have four important qualities:

  1. SUPPORT — Firm enough mix to hold up the plant.
  2. MOISTURE — Soil mix should have ability to hold moisture between irrigations … it also should have good drainage.
  3. AERATION — Soil mix should be porous enough to let the gases in and out of the soil. If the soil mix is too fine, water will fill up these pores arid will reduce aeration.
  4. FERTILITY — Mineral nutrients: Most green plants are known to require at least twelve chemical elements:
  1. Nitrogen
  2. Phosphorous
  3. Potassium
  4. Calcium
  5. Magnesium
  6. Sulphur
  7. Iron
  8. Zinc
  9. Manganese
  10. Copper
  11. Boron
  12. Molybdenum

Author: Arthur S. Myhre

PP: 294

A fertilization practice that will initiate good flower bud formation on young rhododendron plants is a need expressed by commercial growers and home gardeners alike in western Washington.

A review of American and English rhododendron publications reveals much information on general cultural practices but very little specific information on fertilizing rhododendrons that could serve as guides for this region. Since grower practices and experiences in fertilizing this crop vary widely, information from this source is not always reliable. Therefore, a research study to determine the fertility requirements for rhododendrons when grown under field conditions as measured by plant growth, flower bud formation, and chemical composition of the plant was initiated at the Western Washington Experiment Station in 1957.


Author: L.C. Snyder

PP: 86

In planning a plant inventory for the future one must understand the manner in which new cultivars are developed. Each plant in nature belongs to a particular genus and species, i. e. Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Pine), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) and Acer platanoides (Norway Maple). A species may be defined as a group of numerous individual plants, usually within definable geographical limits, all with so many common characteristics transmitted by seeds without loss from generation to generation, that the plants are considered closely related and of a common descent. A botanical variety is a group of individual plants, usually within a geographical area, that differ from the type species in some important characteristic. Both the species and the botanical variety breed reasonably true from seeds. Individuals within a species are known to differ in such characteristics as form, color of foliage, color of fruit, etc. Some of these individuals may be selected and grown as

Author: L.C. Chadwick

PP: 89

In the very limited time allotted to this discussion I am taking the liberty of limiting it to "Some Recommended Uncommon Shrubs and Small Trees." On the mimeographed list that is being distributed, I have listed 75 different plants in this category. There are several others that could be added that are equally satisfactory for landscape purposes.

Before I show the slides and discuss some of these shrubs and small trees let me comment briefly on the "Quality" of plants. Quality is somewhat of an elusive term, but as it applies to ornamental plants for landscape purposes it should include the characteristics of 1) Hardiness, 2) Adaptability, 3) Durability, 4) Requiring little maintenance, and 4) Possess good habit of growth, outstanding foliage, attractive flowers and prominent fruits.

With these points in mind, I will turn to the slides and plant discussions. The following are comments about some of the plants illustrated and discussed.

LOW SHRUBS — 1½ – 4 feet

  1. Caragana frutex ‘tidy’

Author: Roy M. Nordine

PP: 93

My remarks and development of this topic will be limited to the geographical area of the Eastern region of our Society.

Instead of proposing a program with definite forms and plans to implement a testing program, I will review briefly the past, present and future of work with woody ornamentals.

A tremendous amount of effort by many agencies and individuals has been devoted to testing woody ornamentals. New programs and new areas for future development appear each year.

One of the leaders in the introduction and dissemination of new plants has been our Department of Agriculture. In 1898 a separate section was created in the Department for the introduction of plants new to this country. This section is now called, "New Crops Research Branch." Mr. C. O. Erlanson is the director. This agency has brought in more than 285,000 new plants to date. Most of these new introductions are agriculturally economic plants, grains, grasses, forage, fiber, oil, vegetable, nuts, fruits etc., But there have


Author: John P. Mahlstede

PP: 98

We had tremendous interest and everyone had something to contribute. We had a little difficulty keeping on the track since it seemed that we slipped out of storage and into the problem of overwintering.

One of the first subjects was the storage of hardwood cuttings. Most members reported that their hardwood cuttings were made in the October – November period and that they were stuck in April. However, a few members reported putting the cuttings out in the fall. They overwintered either covered or mounded with soil.

For storage, the medium should be moist, but not wet. The medium could be peat moss, fresh sawdust or sphagnum moss. The temperature which seemed to do the best was 34° F. In subsequent discussion it was worked out that 32° F.± 1° F. was actually the optimum temperature.

The question of crown gall came up. It was concluded that the crown gall did not come from the medium in which the cuttings were stored, but came in with the cuttings. It was suggested that a dip to kill the