Volume 12

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Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 43

It is necessary for us to understand the structure of the stem before we examine the origin of roots on stem cuttings.

The vegetative parts of a seed-producing plant are the roots, stems and leaves. Each of these organs is composed of tissues and the tissues of cells. Some of these cells have become specialized, however others have remained almost unchanged since the time they were formed. Such unspecialized cells are called parenchyma. It is these relatively unspecialized cells which are important in the development of roots on stem cuttings.

Growth in plants is said to be primary or secondary. Growth resulting from cells formed by the growing points of stems and roots is primary growth and results in the elongation of the plant axis. Secondary growth results in an increase in diameter of the stem or root. It is the formation of additional vascular tissue (the tissue through which water, minerals, food, hormones, etc are transported up and down the stem) by the cambium and of the bark as


Author: George Rose

PP: 88

Midwest winter conditions are very difficult on plant material, because of the frequent, very rapid changes in temperature and humidity. Many plants, which are hardier in much colder climates, often come to grief in midwest areas because of freeze damage to unripened tissues, caused by early freezes and by the usual lack of a snowblanket to keep the temperatures and humidity surrounding the plants from fluctuating widely

Author: Hans Hess

PP: 91

The use of mist for the production of nursery stock both outside and in the greenhouse during the summer period has made the propagation of many plants much easier than in past years.

Generally speaking material propagated in this way is much tougher than the same plant produced in a heavily shaded greenhouse or under double glass with heavy shading. However, in many cases the plants are not sufficiently mature or tough enough to with stand the severe changes of winter weather. This is especially true in Wayne, New Jersey which according to the chart is part of Zone #6 but really belongs to Zone #5.

We propagate a wide variety of material during the summer in open mist beds and some Rhododendron hybrids in the greenhouse. The first year that we tried the open mist on a commercial scale the question came up, what do we do with these plants for the winter. Many varieties had been tested experimentally for a few years but there were several untested groups. From past experience we knew that the


Author: George S. Oki

PP: 95

The most urgent need to the California nursery industry, within its present market, is for lowered cost of production. This is the opening sentence of Dr. Kenneth F. Baker's Manual 23 or "The U.C. System for Producing Healthy Container Grown Plants." This manual 23 was edited in September, 1957.

With annual increases in general operational costs, labor, materials, and all taxations on local, state and national levels, this urgent need is becoming more significant for business survival.

Systems and mechanization is an integral part of the U.C. System along with the general practices as Outlined in Manual 23. Some of the important factors in integrating systems and mechanization are:

  1. Type of crop
  2. Size of operation
  3. Geographical location and climate
  4. Existing facilities
  5. Personnel acceptance

Oki Nursery's principal crop is standardized to containers of 1 gallon and 5 gallon size. Varieties range from tropical Hibiscus and philodendrons to general varieties such as junipers and many deciduous varieties.


Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 108

We have learned a great deal this morning and this afternoon, starting with the anatomy of cuttings by Bill Snyder. Jim Wells told us about the wounding of cuttings and Hal Tukey showed us that we can actually melt in the rain after all. Fred Galle told us some of the things we should avoid, and George Oki has our systems and mechanisms all back in order.

I think that just before supper it might be nice to relax a little bit and take a quick tour through some of Europe, emphasizing, as much as possible, plant propagation. We will start in France.

We took the opportunity to see many of the famous sights in Paris, including those dealing with anatomy, but the real reason for coming to Paris was to visit the small town of Gif-sur-Yvette which is the site of the centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. One of our members, Dr. J. P. Nitsch, is assistant director of a phytotron located at the center. The phytotron is designed to study the effects of the environment upon plant


Author: Joseph C McDaniel

PP: 110

Hydrangea arborescens and H. quercifolia, two of the American hardy species most widely cultivated, are remarkable, for going so many years without the introduction of new cultivar forms until the recent introduction of the clone named ‘Annabelle,’ there had been no really improved cultivar of arborescens introduced to the nursery trade since E. G. Hill brought our ‘Snowhill’ in 1906. With quercifolia the situation has been even more static. It has been in cultivation in this country and abroad for more than 160 years, with largely vegetative propagation but also with much collection of seedlings from woods in the southeastern state. (It is found sparingly to Louisiana, north as far as Hardin and Wayne countries in Tennessee, and south into Florida, but Georgia and particularly Alabama have the most native H. quercifolia.) Yet there seems never to have been a named cultivar form in the trade up to now. My father and I have now registered the very showy flowered form developed by him in

Author: Vincent K. Bailey

PP: 115

This subject was discussed with you two years ago by Rodney Bailey but I feel it is of sufficient importance to again bring it to your attention. The superiority of own root plants over those budded on Prunus americana or some other root stock is so obvious that I will not take time on that but rather will discuss our method of producing plants from soft wood cuttings.

Our schedule during the past summer was as follows:

                                 Stuck      When      Rooted       %
Prunus cistena      29,000      July 12      18,445      64
Prunus triloba      20,000       July 15      12,875     64

The per cent of cistena rooted in 1960 and 1961 was 80 and 65 per cent triloba rooted.

The greenhouse is equipped with air conditioning and humidification. The air conditioning allows us to use much more sunlight which I believe is important to success. The relative humidity is carried at 80 to 85 percent for the first 3 to 4 weeks and this contributes to success.

A mild solution of Indolebuteric acid is used as a soak. It is important to take cuttings at


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 116

Notwithstanding all of the brain power represented by this assembly today I think it safe to say that none of us has ever had a completely original thought. I hasten to add that by original I mean one that is totally independent of something previously spoken, written or accomplished. Never before has a society been so progressive or so dependent upon progressiveness. Our very survival depends on the continuous satisfaction of an endless and prodigious hunger for education, innovation, instigation, participation. In this we have a responsibility to future generations as well. Henry Ward Beecher has said, "We should so live and labor in our time that what came to us as seed may go to the next generation as blossom, and what came to us as blossom may go to them as fruit. This is what we mean by progress."

One of the most important and bar reaching ingredients of progress is communication. Why even to retain the status quo, we must communicate and communicate well at that. Everything that


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 118

I would like to ask first that the "gentleman" who lifted one of my jets from the back table for closer inspection please return it. There were two there yesterday. There is only one now and I didn't put it in my pocket.

I went home to England this summer for the first time in 11 years and I didn't go to look at nurseries, I just went to relax I went to the Mat Penny Company in France to look at their misting system because I had heard such a lot about it. Harvey Templeton will know we have become a little disillusioned with the electronic leaf because of the problem of maintaining it in good order. We are using a time clock and have been so for a number of years.

I must own that I was very impressed by the appearance of the Mat Penny equipment. It is in the back of the room. I will very briefly run through the points which they consider make it superior.

First of all, the jet which some of you may have seen is ruggedly constructed. It is of the Florida type, a baffle


Author: F.L.S O'Rourke

PP: 120

Mr. Moderator, Fellow Members: I had long wanted to visit the Pacific Coast and see the horticulture that we heard so much about. This past summer and fall I spent about two months out there and I was literally, amazed at the growth of some of the plants which I saw. I know quite a number of you folks have been there and you know what I mean.

It is an area of wholesale growing for America as well as production for their own locality. The coast of Oregon and Washington is quite rainy. It is an area where holly, rhododendron, and other broadleaf plants grow exceptionally well. There are some nurseries there which are making quite an effort to produce these in quantity, and I have found out that some rhododendrons which were being grown within 100 yards of the Pacific Ocean are shipped as far east as New York City Amazing but true.

In deciduous material, quite a bit of emphasis is put on fruit and shade trees in the interior valleys. In these areas water is limited, but they do


Author: Roy M Nordinf

PP: 122

Although the Juniper collection contains a great many species and clones, we will confine this discussion to a number of junipers that remain low in stature we plan to quote the age and dimensions of these plants, information that should have some value whenever plants are considered for landscape use — especially when used in foundation plantings. All plants receive only a very small amount of trimming during their early years in the nursery rows, once they are placed in their permanent locations, the plants are allowed to grow and develop into their natural form and shape.

The late Prof Maney raised a number of seedlings from Juniperus chinensis var sargenta. Four plants were selected and named they are frequently called the Iowa Junipers, and they are the first four plants to be registered under the program instituted by the American Association of Nurserymen in 1947. Juniperus chinensis ‘Ames’ at 14 years old has a pyramid shape, being 4' wide at the base and tapering


Author: James S. Wells

PP: 47

The practice of wounding plant material as an aid to successful rooting is not a recent development Textbooks of last century, describing methods to use for layering, say that the stem should be bent into a shape U where it is fixed to the ground, and that for best results, the stem should be "nicked" at this point. This, of course, is a wound. Burbridge [2], in his book published in 1875, indicates the need for ringing the stem of many plants which are to be propagated by marcottage, a method which may more readily be recognized today as air layering. Old time growers recommended the splitting of the base of carnation stems and Sheat [10] mentions this for cuttings of Daphne odora.

Yet, despite the general acceptance of wounding in one form or another in old gardening journals, it is only recently that the method has been tested and applied in a scientific manner to the propagation of a wide range of plant materials.

In searching through the literature, I was not able to find many


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 124

Many kinds of cuttings which root easily present a survival problem during the subsequent winter, for when potted or flatted after tooting they go into a dormancy from which they never recover. In an effort to avert this loss of material a method of handling these difficult cuttings without disturbing them was tried. Plastic flats were filled with rooting medium suitable for the material being tested, the cuttings inserted and the units placed in the propagating case. When rooted they were left in the flats, given a light liquid feeding, and hardened off. In November the units were transferred to cold storage and in March were returned to the greenhouse where new growth soon appeared.

Enkianthus cernuus rubens and E. perulatus are two subjects that have shown very poor winter survival. This slide shows 30 rooted cuttings of E. cernuus rubens which were left undisturbed before overwintering, all of them survived. Twenty-four cuttings of E. perulatus were treated similarly and of them 21


Author: Case Mahlstede

PP: 125

Advantages of grafting blue spruce on unpotted understock are: Save the time of potting up and room in the greenhouse. You can put graft lower on the understock.

The disadvantage is that the graft does not make quite the growth as on potted stock.

To begin with, we ordered 500 transplanted Norway spruce about pencil thickness for early spring delivery. We like to graft as soon after the middle of March as the stock can be had, and start grafting right away, leaving the understock in the cool barn. Take out a bundle at the time, make it ready for grafting and put on a scion 1 year's growth when heavy enough; otherwise, a scion with two side branches. Cut on both sides. Last year we used rubber bands for tying, but they don't rot quickly enough so we are going to tie again with waxed cotton.

Our greenhouse bench is 45" wide and 13" deep and we heel in the grafts in about 8" of Canadian peat. Damp the peat just wet enough that by squeezing it hard, a couple of drops of water come out. We get


Author: Albert Lowenfels

PP: 126

I was having breakfast this morning with Roy Nordine. I said I was in a very fortunate position, I don't have to think of the fast buck I have another business, so I can experiment, and in 1947 I built a greenhouse and at that time Polyflex was advertised heavily. I think I saw a house in Columbus, Ohio that had it on. So I covered my greenhouse with Polyflex and in about a year it started to break down. Then I covered it with other plastics and eventually they not only broke down, but I found that the light doesn't come through the plastic as well as it should. The plastic discolor.

So then I decided to try something else and I saw the ads for Fiberglas and there is an agency in our town. I inquired where I could get it and they said Lord and Burnham, which is a leading greenhouse manufacturer. So I rang up a fellow I know there, who put up the greenhouse for me, and he said, "I won't put it in." In our climate the heavy snows breaks it down. Some of the people that advertise in


Author: Fred B. Widmoyer

PP: 132

Graftage is the recognized means of propagating plant materials which are either difficult or impossible to obtain from seeds or cuttings. Propagators using grafting have unknowingly recognized plant anatomy when they speak of "compatabilities" and "incompatabilities". Most frequently, the reference is to the relationship of stock to scion.

Budding and grafting involve the same principles, differing only in the number of growing points on the scion. In all cases, wounding occurs in the process. Healing may be attributed to the activity of the cambial layer in some species, phloem, xylem and ray parenchyma in others. The basic phenomena occurring during the reestablishment of buds and grafts will be discussed.

Roberts (1949) has thoroughly reviewed the literature as it related to the techniques and physiology of graftage. More recently, Rogers and Beakbane (1957) discussed stock and scion relations. Of the histological research reported most of it has been on fruit varieties.

In order to better understand


Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 136

This method of budding was developed by Mr. Hoyt Cockrell of Cockrell's Riverside Nursery at Goldthwaite, Texas. I have never heard of this method being used anywhere else until we adopted it two years ago. Mr. Cockrell tells me that they are nearly always 90 to 95 percent successful in their Pecan budding using this method.

The outstanding characteristics of this method of patch budding is that a single blade knife are required. Another advantage of this method is its speed. Our budding crew was averaging 260 buds per man per 8 hour day, by the end of the season, and for most of them it was the first time to use this method. Some individuals who had done some of this type budding the year before were putting in 400 to 500 buds per 8 hour day. About half of the crew consisted of high school boys who had never done budding of any type. This method is fairly easy to teach, provided the student is reasonably adept at handling a knife.

We used this method of budding on Pecans, Japanese


Author: Ian Mackay

PP: 142

In the propagation of field grown roses, budding can be performed over almost the entire growing season of the understocks, which in southeastern Pennsylvania extends from mid-May until late October. In fact we can start several weeks earlier than the current season's budwood is available, a point which can be illustrated by noting that while it is possible to start on May 15 using stored budwood, we would have to wait until June 15 for wood from the stock block or July 15 before it is available from the main crop.

It is only by the use of budwood stored from the previous year that we can gain a month over nature and start in May, an operation made possible by the use of refrigerated storage and the comparatively recent knowledge of how to use it successfully. The adoption of this method has brought with it several money saving improvements which are, first, that by being able to start four weeks earlier, the same number of budders are able to produce 25% more plants during the season,


Author: Ray Halward

PP: 144

Selection of Scionwood

I hardly think it necessary to delve at any length into the importance of the selection of suitable scionwood and to what extent it affects the Propagator's success in grafting. This has been emphasized in many previous papers presented to this society.

Selection of Scionwood should be from known plants whose performance in the past has been observed and found to have the most desirable characteristics of the species and varieties involved, and permanently labelled or charted to prevent errors. It is equally important to be sure that the wood to be used for grafting is kept free of insects and diseases. Weakened Scionwood is poor risk.

Maturity of Scionwood in respect to grafting, in most cases, has not been reached until it has been exposed to a period of near freezing temperatures. This process in nature can be duplicated by the use of refrigeration. This allows early collection where necessary, particularly where importation is desirable or extreme


Author: K W Reisch

PP: 150

Seeds of many plant species do not germinate readily for various reasons or combinations of reasons and to introduce the subject. I will define some common terms relating to this.

Seed Dormancy is an all inclusive term indicating that seed will not germinate and produce seedlings due to unfavorable environmental or internal conditions (the inhibitory factors may be external, internal or a combination of both).

Quiescence relates to the fact that seed will not germinate and produce seedlings due to unfavorable external conditions. Contributing factors are moisture, temperature, oxygen, light, or others such as pH, nutrients, carbon dioxide, or toxic conditions. This can be overcome by simply supplying the contributing factors at optimum for germination.

Rest or Internal Dormancy describes the situation where seed will not germinate and produce seedlings due to unfavorable factors or conditions specific to the seed. These may be classified in the following eight areas. Seed coat,


Author: Thomas S Pinney Jr

PP: 154

There have been a number of techniques developed to overcome the problem of rest or internal dormancy of various seeds. Chemical and mechanical treatments may be helpful in overcoming internal dormancy that is caused by: (1) seed coat (i.e.) Gleditsia, Gymnocladus (2) hard endosperm which acts as a seed coat (i.e.) Tila and (3) when seed coat is one of the factors which contribute to the internal dormancy of the seed (i.e.) Cotoneaster, Viburnum, Malus and Crataegus.

There are several chemicals which may be used to overcome the seed coat or endosperm internal dormancy in the seed. There has been considerable work done using chemical such as sulfuric acid to breakdown the hard seed coat or endosperm. An acid resistant type of container such as wooden barrel or plastic or container is used. Usually the seed are placed in some type of basket that is acid resistant so the seeds may be lifted easily out of the chemical at the proper time.

Generally 95% sulphuric acid commercial grade 1.84


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 157

The USDA Woody- Plant Seed Manual and Contributions from the Boyce Thompson Institute are invaluable sources of information for those concerned with germinating seeds of trees and shrubs. However, when it comes to many woody ornamental plants and the more remote botanical garden subjects, information as to germination becomes hard or impossible to find. No doubt, at times in the past, people have known how some kinds of seeds perform but much was unknown and little recorded for the information of others. Among that which is written it is not uncommon to find erroneous information e.g. A comparatively recent, widely circulated publication, says regarding Liquidambar styraciflua, "Propagated by seeds which, if stratified, do not usually germinate for two years." Such false information is misleading to those wishing to propagate L. styraciflua for 2 months of cold stratification will produce a general germination.

Those involved with seed germination realize the importance of seed age and


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 55

To thoroughly cover such a topic as this, the physiology of evergreen cuttings from time of taking to time of rooting would, of course, take considerably more time than 20 minutes. When I accepted the request of our program chairman to give this talk, I didn't realize just how difficult it would be merely to decide on how to present it. Also, John was clever enough to make this request well in advance of the meeting. Six months seemed so far in the future that it was very easy to agree.

However, I've decided to present this talk by discussing the status of growth of the cutting at the time it's taken and how it may have some bearing on its ability to initiate roots.

Concerning the physiology of the cutting itself, the ideal situation for rapid root initiation would be one in which the following conditions exist:

  1. The presence in the stem of young cells that can quickly be induced to become meristematic.
  2. As you have heard from Bill Snyder's presentation, it is necessary that certain cells


Author: R. Roy Forster

PP: 164

Before I undertook a short study necessary for the preparation of his discussion, my knowledge of oaks was limited to perhaps a dozen or so species commonly found in tree and shrub collections. I learned that there are 300 species of Oak in the temperate regions, less than a third of which are in cultivation. If all the cultivars and hybrids are included with the species there is a wide variety for the grower to choose from. There are shrubs and small trees, deciduous or evergreen. There are fastigiate and pendulous forms. Some have variegated or colored leaves, while others have deeply cut leaves like those of a fern.

There seems to have been little, if any, systematic breeding work done with Oaks. This is hardly surprising considering the generally slow growth rate of the trees. Propagation is slow if not difficult. Most of the hybrids and variants have arisen by change, and few seem to have been distributed beyond Botanical Gardens and other collections.

During a recent trip to


Author: Roy Nordine

PP: 166

The genus Quercus L or Oak contains about 275 species and 50 hybrids, 45 species and 30 hybrids are found in North America. They are distributed through the colder and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and southward into the mountains of the tropics. They include evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs. They are found on nearly all soil types from rich, moist, and sometimes swampy sites and heavy tight soil to the drier, rocky, sandy, and barren sites.

The oaks are divided into two groups, the white oak group and the black or red oak group. The white oak group is identified by the rounded outer, margins of the leaves, while the leaves in the black or red oak group have pointed margins. The two groups are also separated by the ripening of the acorns. Plants in the white oak group ripen the acorn in one year; those in the black or red oak group require two years to ripen The only known exception is Quercus agrifolia, (California Live Oak) , which, though belonging to


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 168

The vegetative propagation of Oaks is one of the little traveled by-ways of plant propagation, infrequently employed and even then for only a very few horticultural varieties. The reason is that the oaks are difficult to propagate either by layering or cuttings and if grafted, which is the most successful method, are so badly stunted by the process that several years', culture are necessary before normal growth is resumed. It is a pity that there are not more successful methods known, for an inexpensive, reliable process would be very valuable for the nursery and forestry professions. Everybody who has grown large blocks of oaks for shade trees has observed the considerable variation which even young trees exhibit. Often standing side by side in the nursery row can be seen crooked, stunted specimens and ones which grow with exceptional speed, form a straight trunk and well furnished head without special attention, and are saleable long before the majority of the other trees in the same

Author: John B. Hill

PP: 173

As I approach this group of experienced and knowledgeable propagators, I wish it understood that I do so without any burden of vanity or overconfidence. The broad subject of propagating the various cultivars of Juniperus chinensis is, at once, so broad and widespread in its practical application that I feel it most useful to avoid frequent reference to the research of other workers and, rather, confine my remarks so that they apply to our experiences and observations made in Dundee. The published research is readily available to all.

Hasty examination of earliest records finds that there is reference to the rooting of Juniperus chinensis by cuttage in the Orient and England during the 18th century. Very little is said of the actual technique and equipment employed, but the strong inference in these early reports indicate that even then the idea was considered neither novel or new.

For the benefit of those in this audience who have not yet encountered the problems typical of rooting the


Author: A.F. Dodge

PP: 179


In an effort to more clearly define the behavior of familiar as well as new introductions of woody ornamentals when planted in the North Central Region, several state ornamental specialists met under the leadership of Prof. S.A. McCrory at South Dakota State College, Brookings, South Dakota, in January 1954. This group organized a regional performance study program within the framework of a state-federal North Central Regional Plant Introduction, New Crops program. In the spring of 1954, the Regional Station began forwarding woody ornamental and shelter plants of mutual interest to cooperating personnel at 21 trial sites in eight states.

This work is recognized by the several participating state agricultural experiment stations of the North Central Region, the Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa, and the New Crops Research Branch, Crops Research Division of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as necessary and contributing


Author: O.A. Jolly Batcheller

PP: 203

MODERATOR BATCHELLER: Seeds have always played an important role in the history and development of countries, as food, as articles of commerce, for religious rites, and for decoration.

If anything, the seed in the 20th Century has become more important, with some F1 hybrid seed selling for over $1000 per ounce. Despite the cost of planning, development, processing, packaging and care, the modern day seed is still a better buy than it's predecessor, as rated by yield and returns.

Unlike most products sold today in easily observed plastic packages, the seed is "an unknown," "a picture or description in a catalog that should come to life," "the promise of a seed company." This built-in future, as developed by the great seed companies, needs all the protection and care possible so that the embryo may develop to its greatest potential. To assist us this evening in our discussion on Seeds In Their Role in Modern Propagation we have a well-known panel of experts:

Dr. Walter Lammerts, Horticulture


Author: Walter E. Lammerts

PP: 204


If, by practical value, we mean the germination of seed for routine growth of nursery stock, I might as well say right now that embryo culture has none. However, most larger nurseries by now realize the value of at least some plant selection as a means of improving their general line of nursery items and finding varieties better adapted to specific localities. The very fine work, is an outstanding example.

Also, many nurseries are realizing the need of breeding work involving actual cross pollination in order to combine desirable trait such as unusually lovely foliage with exceptional flower or fruit quality. Unfortunately, in many genera the percentage of germination obtainable by routine methods is rather low, varying from 10 per cent to 65 per cent. Also, and even more important, the really desirable combination of characteristics is often found in that percentage of seeds which do not germinate!

Finally, in most shrubs and trees such as the camellia, peach, nectarine


Author: C.J. Eden

PP: 208


The first process in the propagation of conifers by seed is the collection of the cone containing the seed. Cones are collected mainly during the months of September and October. Collection may be from standing or felled trees, from the ground, or from squirrel caches.

Cones should be checked for seed maturity and seed quality before full scale picking. Various tests for determining maturity can be made: cone flotation, color of cone or seed, character of seed endosperm and embryo. Seed quality can be checked by cutting the cone and examining for blank or damaged seed.

The Pacific Southwest Forest & Range Experiment Station has delineated fourteen seed collection zones in California. All the area with a zone is considered to have the same climatic and edaphic conditions. Therefore, planting stock propagated from seed collected any place in the zone may be planted at any place within the zone and be considered as being planted into the same environment as that in which


Author: Dara E. Emery

PP: 214

This is a discussion of problems likely to be encountered in the seed propagation of California species of Ceanothus, Fremontia, and Rhus. Seed dormancy of one or more types is common to all these species. When the hot water treatment is used to break the seed coat dormancy, the seeds are added to about four times their volume of water at a temperature of 180° to 190° F., left to cool for 12 to 24 hours, and then sown before drying. Depending on the quality of the local tap water with its additives such as chlorine, iodine or fluorine, significantly better results may be obtained with the hot water treatment by using bottled drinking water, distilled water or rain water, and their use is recommended. The concentrated sulfuric acid treatment may also be used on hard seed. In this treatment it is important that the seeds be thoroughly and repeatedly washed in running water immediately following the prescribed soaking period in order to remove all the excess acid which may still

Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 219

MODERATOR HARTMANN Major milestones in the history of plant propagation are rare — especially in the field of propagation by cuttings. In recent years, however we have experienced two such events. One is the development of the auxin concept in plants and the knowledge of the effects of synthetic plant growth regulators and the discovery that one of these effects is the stimulation of adventitious roots on stem cuttings. This development started about 1935, and the mass of knowledge accumulated since then has been tremendous, leading now to routine applications of auxins, as IBA, to cuttings.

The second development we have witnessed in recent years has been the discovery, starting in the 1940's, that rooting of leafy cuttings is greatly enhanced by keeping the leaves wet by means of mist sprays. This has greatly increased the scope of plant materials we are able to propagate by cuttings. Just why this is so will be explained by our first speaker, Dr. Hess. Following this, Peter Mordigan will


Author: Edwin Kubo

PP: 61

Before discussing my subject. "Care and Management of Cuttings From Collection Through Rooting," I Would like to give you a brief resume of Oki Nursery. Located in Sacramento, Oki Nursery, one of the largest container nurseries in California, was founded by Mr. M. Oki in 1907. The approximate production acreage of the Nursery is 56 acres and the annual production is in the excess of 2 million container grown plants. Our production is based on the U.C. system in which the use of clean soil, clean stock, sanitation, standardization, systemization and mechanization plays an important role.

To increase the efficiency of our production program, we have emphasized careful planning of our production through the use of good record keeping Our annual production projection schedule plays an important part in determining the varieties and quantities to produce for the year. The Seeding schedule and Cutting schedule are used as a guide before executing production. Once in production a careful


Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 220

Mist propagation is a form of automated syringing which has proven itself in both experimental and commercial use. A number of plants are now being propagated from cuttings which formerly were grafted, and plants which are easy-to-root can be propagated in a shorter time. Also the time in which a cutting can be taken and successfully rooted has been extended by the use of mist. Although timing is still very important, it is not quite as critical as it is for other types of propagation practices.

The question may now be asked, if mist is really automated syringing, why is there such a difference in the results obtained with mist as compared to the standard double glass technique? Why is it, for example, that with Prunus serrulata 87% rooting is obtained in 32 days under mist where as only 37% is realized under double glass, or similarly with Cornus florida rubra, 96% rooting is obtained under mist compared with 22% under double glass?

To find the answers to these


Author: Peter Mordigan

PP: 223

The increased use of mist propagation throughout the country has necessitated that progressive propagating nurseries experiment and energetically use their findings for the sole purpose of a more efficient operation. The cost of production has become such a serious problem that thoughtful propagators should stop and analyze their particular situation. There are those who are already satisfied with their results. However, there are many who are interested in new methods of propagation. Perhaps this discussion on "The Economics of Mist Propagation" will give hope and comfort to the new adventurer and give reassurance to the "Old Timer" that he is on the right track. To best illustrate this, a quick analysis of our own operation, should throw a new light on the subject.

Our operations is in the Sylmar area of the San Fernando valley in Southern California. It is an area 1160 ft. above sea level with extremes of 105° F to 29° F. windy from October to May, sunny days, 300 plus when there


Author: Don K. Sexton

PP: 226

During the past 6 years the author has propagated native California plants from cuttings, under mist spray, for use in the University of California Arboretum on the Davis Campus. In many instances only a limited number of plants has been desired, and propagation of a particular species has been attempted on only one or two occasions. In other instances, especially with ground-cover plants, a number of lots involving many cutting have been grown. Records have been kept of each lot of cuttings.

In general, California native plants respond to attempts at cutting propagation under mist in much the same manner as do other plants. However, many species require better drainage, both in the rooting medium and after potting, than do most plants.

Several factors must be taken into account in this type of propagation. First, the condition of the stock plant from which the cuttings are to be taken must be considered. Rather soft, leafy cuttings with a firm or even


Author: Floyd Dillon

PP: 229

Optimum citrus environment is the reason for the location of our growing grounds at historical Mission San Jose, Alameda County, California. We are now a part of the new City of Fremont.

Here, in 1797, the 14th Mission of the ultimate 21 Mission chain, was established. It proved to be an ideal climatic location.

In the 1840's Captain Fremont, after exploring most of the West, selected Mission San Jose as the place for his future permanent home, "Casa Fremontia."

I quote a portion of a letter, now in the Bancroft Library, University of California, from Fremont, written at Mission of San Jose in September, 1846.

"This is a pretty place — this Mission. The gardens or orchards might be made handsome places, but to render them valuable, possession of the water which comes from a ravine in the hills is essential. A handsome plain of good lands extends from the hills towards San Francisco Bay and could be well watered."

I will add — he didn't get this land — but Fremont is a rightful name


Author: Fred Real

PP: 230

In grafting and rooting citrus simultaneously, our propagators go out into our mother blocks and cut twigs of scion wood and understock, using the last growth cycle. When the twigs are grafted and ready to be flatted, they are on the average 12 inches long. Our propagators gather their own wood each morning and never is the wood allowed to get dry. The twigs are always kept moist and when they are brought into our propagating room they are dipped into a fungicide solution, containing ½ cup P.C.N B and 2½ cups of Captan (40 percent wettable powder) in 20 gallons of water.

When the preceding preparations have been made, our propagators start making their grafts. The cut for the graft is ½ to ¾ inches long at about a 30° angle. After the graft has been made, it is tied with a rubber band.

The grafted twigs are put back under mist. After making twig grafts, our propagators dip the plants into the fungicide again before "stumping&quot them. The cut on the base of the plants is made square,


Author: Don Dillon

PP: 231

We have adopted the U. C. System for container-grown plants, as discussed in University of California Manual 23. as the foundation of our growing operation. We are convinced that mother blocks of clean planting stock are essential for a sound growing operation. This is the first principle to support the production of, quality nursery stock. The second principle is proper soil treatment. We use a modified U. C. soil mix, in that we use redwood sawdust instead of peat moss. The soil mix is an essential part of our operation. The last principle is proper sanitary practices. We make a real effort here also. All of these practices are necessary. They are goals. We recognize that in some of our practices we are a little short and that constant improvement is necessary. In this work we are regularly assisted by Mr. O. A. Matkin of the Soil and Plant laboratory, Orange, California, one of the authors of Manual 23.

Incoming water, either clear or fertilized, passes through Monarch, 100 mesh, strainer.


Author: Richard Maire

PP: 234

MODERATOR MAIRE Automation — a word that has last become a by-word in our world of modern industry. The ever-present effort to cut corners, mechanize, reduce labor cost and production cost to compete for then share of the dollar in a fast moving market, has stimulated this transition to automation.

Agriculture, like the other industries, has followed suit. So have the nursery and floriculture industries as a segment of agriculture, but not as fast, and they are not as far advanced as many other industries.

The importance of automation to the nursery industry is well stated in the first paragraph in the first section of University of California Manual 23, "The UC System for Producing Healthy Container-Grown Plants," with which most nurserymen are very familiar. It read as follows

     "The most urgent need of the California nursery industry
     within the limits of its present market, is for lowered
     cost of production. This is best achieved by reducing
     plant losses and by lowering labor cost through

Author: Robert D. Raabe

PP: 235

The title of this paper should probably be "The Determination of Pathogen-Free Propagating Material." The distinction between "pathogen-free" and "disease-free" is one which is technical and yet, it is important enough so that it should be mentioned here. Disease is a complex resulting from the interaction of a susceptible plant (called a suspect or a host) a causal agent (called a pathogen in infectious diseases) and an environment favorable for disease development. ‘Disease-free’ would mean the absence of disease as a result of the absence of any one or more of the three factors necessary for disease. Thus it would be possible to have plant material with a pathogen present but because of environmental conditions not favorable for disease development, there would be no disease. Later should favorable environmental conditions occur, disease would then result. If, however, the plant material is pathogen-free, disease would not result even though the plant might be placed

Author: Stephen Wilhelm

PP: 238

Practical techniques for the production of clean propagating materials involve three basic operations, and these lie at the heart of the subject matter of the fields of plant pathology and horticulture. The raising of superior plants through advances in horticultural science and the control of plant disease are our common objectives and no longer should anyone just assume that plant diseases are inevitable and crop losses to be expected. The three basic operations referred to above are: (1) getting rid of the pathogen at the source (2) getting rid of pathogen carry-over in the soil or from other growing or propagating media (3) getting rid of all sources of contamination by which the pathogen can be reintroduced into growing operations. The first operation — getting rid of the pathogen at the source — means obtaining pathogen-free planting stock, and the full meaning of "clean stock" as used in this talk is stock that is not carrying any known injurious organisms, fungi,

Author: Arthur M. McCain

PP: 242

The major sources of plant disease organisms are infected plants, plant debris, soil and rooting media. Disease organisms are disseminated by the transportation of infected plants or plant parts, by air currents, water, insects, nematodes, and mechanically by man. Based on his knowledge, and on experience in controlling diseases, the following sanitary practices will help maintain plants in a disease-free or healthy condition.

Obtain cuttings from selected, disease-free stock plants isolated from production areas.

Take cuttings from high up on the plants.

Break cuttings from stock plants where possible or disinfest tools between cuts.

Do not overhead irrigate stock plants.

Keep stock plants sprayed with protective fungicides to reduce the danger from infection by air-borne spores.

Eliminate weeds.

Control insects.

Keep all plant debris cleaned-up.

Do not dip cuttings in water, dust rooting hormones onto cut ends.

Treat all propagating and growing media with steam or


Author: H.B. Tukey Jr

PP: 63

That leaves and other above-ground plant parts, including fruits and stems, may absorb water and nutrients, is now well established. The cuticle layer of foliage, once thought to be continuous and impermeable to the passage of nutrients, has now been found to be discontinuous, with numerous cracks and projections which allow the passage of nutrients in aqueous solutions. That these same plant parts may also give up or lose materials into their external environment is less well understood and appreciated. And yet for at least 150 years there have been reports of this phenomenon, indicating that metabolites, both organic and inorganic, could be leached from foliage by aqueous solutions (2). Despite the considerable experimental evidence and speculation which followed these early reports, the concept of leaching was not fully appreciated. Full and adequate proof was seemingly provided by the use of radioisotopes which conclusively demonstrated that labeled materials, absorbed by plants,

Author: Carl Zangger

PP: 243

Basically the production of bedding plants would fall into three categories:
  1. The preparation of the soil or planting media.
  2. The planting of the seed and production of the seedlings.
  3. The transplanting and care of the seedling to the marketing stage.

Everything must start with the soil, as this phase of our operation is very important. We use the University of California system of growing, in which we utilize a mixture of fine sand and peat plus the necessary fertilizer elements. All the elements of our soil mixture are loaded into a permanently-mounted, ready-mixed cement mixer. We have found this does an excellent job of mixing the soil. We have contrived a lid for the mixer, through which we inject live steam directly into the mixer. As the soil is tumbling within the mixer it is exposed to the steam which, we feel, gives us a thorough and reliable sterilization process. All soil mixed in the nursery goes through this sterilization process, by being brought to a


Author: Henry Satow, Fumio Satow

PP: 245

The events that led us up to the system of clean cultural practices are as follows:
  1. In 1955, cuttings were taken in the usual manner from flowering areas where no sanitary procedures were practiced. These cuttings were misted in steam sterilized sand; rooted cuttings were planted in steam-sterilized ground beds. Analysis at the end of 18 months of the blooming period showed that out of an original 125,000 plants planted, only 50% of the plants survived. The other 50% was lost to Fusarium stem rot, Fusarium wilt, and bacterial wilt of carnation. Reason for loss of plants: uncultured cuttings were planted into steam sterilized soil. A mass inoculation of harmful carnation pathogens into a soil which has lost its bacterial balance due to sterilization. Solution: Use of cuttings entirely from cultured mother-block plants. This resulted in the construction of a double-range, fan-padded glass house, with completely asphalted floor and raised benches housing 6,000 cultured mother-block plants.
  2. in 1957, rooted cuttings from

Author: Henry Ishida

PP: 246

Perhaps the advantage of using clean culture, or better yet the U. C. System, in the production of foliage plants can be better shown by a relative newcomer in the foliage business such as myself, since I feel that we breezed into it without too many headaches or difficulties. I say the U. C. system, since it not only includes clean culture, that is, clean plant material and sterilization, but it also includes soil mixes, nutrition, mechanization and efficient practices.

I have been, and still am, primarily one of the larger bedding plant growers in this area. However, about two years ago with diversification in mind, we began the production of a limited variety of foliage plants. They are namely, pothos, grape ivy, other ivies, dracaenas, Chinese evergreen, palms, different varieties of philodendrons, varieties of ficus, and some dieffenbachias. Even before going into the foliage plant business, I had the opportunity of visiting many of the local growers on Farm Advisor tours and on


Author: W.J. Curtis

PP: 249

We in the Pacific Northwest who graft conifers are somewhat unorthodox in the method and procedure we follow. This came about several years ago, when the late Frank Speybrock of Beaver Creek Nursery, filled his greenhouse benches with freshly potted Norway Spruce understock and immediately began to graft. His percentage was in the high nineties, while those who grafted spruce understock that had been potted in the early spring, had from 50–75%. Was this blind luck? It was later proved not. Frank's success gave all who grafted conifers food for thought. Since that time, 15 years ago, there have been some changes in procedure, at least on my part.

I will try and give you, step by step, the method I use for grafting Koster spruce, Cedrus atlantica glauca, copper beech, pink and variegated dogwood.

We either use Norway Spruce of pencil size or collected Sitka spruce. In November we get the understock and trim the roots so they will fit easily into a 3 or 4" pot without bunching. We


Author: Robert Boddy

PP: 254

Reproduction of lilacs from cuttings has been practiced at the Descanso Nurseries for a period approximately ten years with varying success. Sometimes rooting will be as high as 25%, sometimes only 1%. Generally, the average is about 10%. The percentage of take would probably be much higher it we were working with many types of lilacs or with an abundance of named varieties. But our work has generally been restricted to one named hybrid. "Lavender Lady". This report concerns our work with this special plant.

"Lavender Lady" is unique because of its ability to consistently produce line spikes of flowers year after year with an absolute minimum of winter chilling. Thus our nursery, with sales only in the local area, is primarily interested in this single variety, for many of the finest named varieties of lilacs that perform so well in the East and Middle West will never bloom in warm-wintered Southern California.

We have other hybrid lilacs with virtues similar to Lavender Lady under test at


Author: William Omar

PP: 256

I take one-year seedlings from beds and line them out in field rows, planted one-half inch apart in the row. After two years in the field they are ready for understock and can be dug when dormant around November 1st to 15th and then graded for size, root pruned and cut back some. The seedlings are then potted in 2½", 3" or 4" pots.

After potting, they are bedded down on a greenhouse bench in damp peat moss to a level just over the top of the pot. This sub-merging in peat holds moisture for a long period of time an makes an ideal medium for producing a rapid, well developed root system. Greenhouse temperature should be 55–60 degrees F. top heat. I do not use bottom heat — just let them come along slowly. This seems to work best for me, as I don't want to force bud action too soon On February 1st, or shortly thereafter, depending on the winter, they will be ready for grafting. This is gauged by root action, and when the buds begin to break, I know they are ready for grafting.

I use a low side


Author: William Armstrong

PP: 258

Any operation by a public agency which requires increased expenditure of public funds is reflected on down to the individual taxpayer. We, therefore, are attempting to eliminate a costly problem which belongs to all of us. If you wanted to assume a selfish attitude, the reverse is also true, in as much as any savings by a public agency is reflected in a savings passed on to the taxpayer. From your standpoint, funds spent to replace and maintain detective plant material cannot be used for planting new areas.

The problem which we are attempting to overcome is that of defective nursery stock which is "pot-bound" or "root-bound.". Definitions my differ with individuals so let me suggest this: A "pot-bound" plant is it a plant which has remained in a pot until the roots have become constricted, usually circling the pot a number of times. The pot is usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter. A "root-bound" plant is one which has remained in any container until the natural root growth


Author: V.T. Stoutemyer

PP: 260

Much modern plant research is directed toward the control of plant growth either by regulation of the environment, or by the application of chemicals. The progress already made along this line has been encouraging and, in some cases, spectacular. Our florist shops now offer chrysanthemums every day in the year. Powerful new selective herbicides, often spread by plane or helicopter, kill certain plants in a field, pasture or forest while leaving others. The use of chemicals to aid rooting of cuttings is another example. In some of the eastern states, sprayers dispensing maleic hydrazide are used along highways in place of mechanical mowers. Such instances can be multiplied. We shall discuss an aspect of this problem which is little understood and that is the question of control of juvenility and of readiness to flower and fruit in woody plants.

If we could overcome juvenile characteristics in woody plants as quickly as possible, the breeders of tree fruits would be very happy.


Author: Charles E. Hess

PP: 265

In order to obtain an understanding of the substances involved in the processes of root initiation, a comparative study of rooting has been made in the juvenile and mature forms of Hedera helix L. Hedera was selected as the experimental material because as shown in Figure 1 both the juvenile and the mature form may be found on the same plant. However, the rooting ability of the two forms is very different. The juvenile form roots very easily, 100% rooting is not uncommon. The mature form of Hedera, on the other hand, is very difficult to root, 16% rooting being the maximum under our conditions. Therefore we have plants which should be genetically identical and are grown under the same environment, and yet are very different in their rooting ability.

Author: Harry C. Kohl Jr

PP: 269

It should be understood from the outset that this paper is not a review paper in the sense that it attempt to bring together the literature pertaining to plant heights control. Instead it is hoped that what is presented here will be a discussion which will stimulate new practical methods of control based on noting and understanding older methods and exploitation of little-recognized possibilities such as photoperiod control.

Author: J.B Gartner

PP: 78

First of all, when John Mahlstede asked me to appear, I told him I would be happy to. I thought I would have a message I could present, but the more I think about it the more I wonder why I am up here. There are probably two good reasons why I accepted. One was the fact that at Universities we don't get the opportunity to travel at will, and it gave me the opportunity of attending the Society Meeting, which I am happy to do. Another reason is that we were conducting some experiments pertaining to chemicals and soil amendments. I will discuss these later.

First of all, I would like to go back and review some of the older materials that have been used as aids in transplanting.


Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 82

It is indeed a very great pleasure to appear on this year's program. John Mahlstede has given me a triple-barreled topic, so we shall approach them one at a time.

In giving some thought to this paper, I reviewed all the back issues of our Society Proceedings, that are in my library. On the topic of Root Pruning there undoubtedly is a diversity of opinion. At our meeting in 1956, after Bill Flemer presented his paper on "Propagation of Sophora japonica, by Budding," he was asked by Mr. Carl Kern, "I understand that the roots of Sophora trees grow straight down, like the horseradish. If permitted to grow in the nursery, the main root will go three or four feet straight down. Therefore, root pruning is necessary" Bill's answer was, "It is true they have deep taproots. Our experience has been that we get better growth if we dig the Sophora as two-year-old trees and actually transplant them, than it we merely run a blade under them and leave them where they are. The same thing is true of


Author: Roland Dewilde

PP: 84

In considering this topic, I felt it wise to begin with a definition of the word "hardening." For the purpose of this talk, let's define it as "treatment of plant materials so as to promote the greatest resistance to damage from cold weather conditions."

There is no area in which we might find a greater difference of opinion and a smaller amount of scientific knowledge. We all know of times when things survived well and times when damage was great, and yet we cannot definitely state what caused the difference in results.

There are some measures we can take, which over the years have become standard practice. These might be divided into what might be termed "cultural practices" — and the things we do which might be termed for want of a better term "mechanical pratices".


Author: W.C. Collins

PP: 86

Several factors are involved in hardening plants for winter. Some are directly related to cultural practices and can be partially controlled by the nurserymen. Others, for example, not so manageable, are, inherent plant hardiness, and major unseasonable weather conditions.

Two examples of important, less controllable factors are: (1) the relationship between the normal hardiness of a specific plant and the location in which it is being grown, and (2) those extended periods or severe changes of unseasonal weather that alter the seasonal maturing process.

Two examples of more or less controllable factors are these (1) one is the deliberate plan to locate the nursery within a desired area possessing the largest number of stabilizing factors such as suitable soil type, air drainage and nearness to large bodies of water. (2) Another is the planned reduction or cessation of those cultural practices that encourage vigorous and rapid vegetative growth.