Volume 8

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Author: Francis De Vos

PP: 32

Firethorns are by all odds the most colorful shrubs in the autumn landscape of the southeastern states. Briefly challenged by the autumnal foliage of a myriad of deciduous shrubs and trees, they outlast their competitors and remain the cheeriest plant in the drab landscape of early winter. Today, I shall review with you the landscape merits of the various species and varieties and show you color slides of many of them.

The genus Pyracantha is closely related to such genera as Cotoneaster, Crataegus and Mespilus, and has been assigned at different times to one or the other of these genera. The genus is also closely related to Osteomeles, with which it has been hybridized to produce the monotypic bigeneric genus Pyracomeles vilmorini (Pyracantha, crenatoserrata × Osteomeles subrotunda). Despite the closeness of the genus Pyracantha to its related genera we have the most difficulty in determining the true identity of specimens at the species and cultivar level.

Let us take a


Author: John F Sjulin

PP: 72

Cotinus coggygria can be successfully propagated by softwood cuttings in outdoor mist beds. At Inter-State Nurseries we have rooted fairy large quantities of the variety which we call "Royal Purple" for the last four years. However, in two of those four years we suffered large losses after the cuttings had rooted. The first year we attempted to pot them shortly after they had rooted and we lost all of them. Then last year we lost about seventy-five percent of the cuttings about thirty days after they had rooted. We think this was due to improper drainage caused from using the same gravel base two years in succession. This year when we rebuilt the beds, we raised them and put in fresh crushed rock. We are going into the winter with about a sixty percent stand.

Our cuttings are collected from a block of plants which are grown just for that purpose. Terminal cuttings, about eight inches in length, are taken when the stock plants have made ten to twelve inches of new growth. This


Author: Robert L. Ticknor

PP: 73

One of the most expensive weed control jobs in the nursery is in beds where plants are grown until large enough to be planted in the field. Close spacing and the small size of the plants necessitate the use of hand labor for this job.

A number of products have come on the market in recent years to meet this problem. We at the Waltham Field Station started testing these products in 1956 for weed control efficiency and to determine how to safely use them

The two products and an untreated check plot used in 1956 were Mylone and Vapam. Mylone was a 85 percent wettable powder formulation used at a rate of ¾ pound per 100 square feet Vapam was a liquid used it a rate of one quart per 100 square feet. These materials were applied in a watering can and were thoroughly watered into the soil.

The object of these trials was to find how soon after the soil was treated on May 24th that plants could be safely set out. Euonymus alatus, Forsythia ovata, Juniperus horizontalis, Rhododendron


Author: L.C. Chadwick

PP: 76

One of the major problems in the control of weeds in commercial nurseries is the suppression or elimination of weed growth early in the spring. Cultivation is often difficult to accomplish during this season due to unfavorable soil conditions or because nurserymen are busy digging, shipping or planting stock at that time. This experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of some herbicides applied during the fall on the elimination or suppression of weeds the following spring If it is found that herbicides can be applied in the fall and suppress or climate weed growth during the months of March, April and May, it would be great and to the nurseryman.

Five herbicides, or combinations of herbicides, Alanap20G, a combination of SES and CMU, a combination of SES and CIPC, and CIPC were applied on November 1, 1957, to 150 square feet plots in a block of Taxus cuspidata intermedia. Control plots were included and all treatments were replicated 10 times. Buffer strips, 2 feet wide


Author: Richard O. Hampton

PP: 79


Investigation of stone-fruit virus diseases began in the early 1880's with the work of Edwin F Smith with peach-yellows. Only five stone-fruit virus diseases, all affecting peach, had been described prior to 1930. Milestones in the development of the present knowledge include the discoveries that certain peach viruses could be eliminated from budwood by heat treatment (7,9), that certain virus diseases which are masked in sweet cherry could be detected by use of index hosts (6, 11) and that some viruses are seed transmitted (1,2,3). Much work must yet be done in the following phases of research with these viruses, host ranges, symptomology, in-host behavior, means of natural transmission, their chemical composition and their control by heat treatment, host resistance and chemotherapy.

In the United States, approximately fifty stone-fruit virus diseases have been described. Since the complete host range of many of these viruses is not known, the number affecting each


Author: W.A. Cumming

PP: 85

Studies on the propagation of Prunus at the Canada Experimental Farm, Morden, Manitoba, have been concerned with methods for the multiplication of both the fruit and ornamental varieties of this genus and specifically for varieties which have been introduced or are being developed by breeding programs, for use on the Canadian Prairies. The lack of knowledge on methods for the propagation of some of the introductions, hybrids and selections has seriously hampered their commercial production and final acceptance by the gardening public.

The background of the Prunus varieties with which we are working is, for the most part, quite different from that of those which are grown in the more favored areas of this continent. We have problems in common with the States which are situated in the Northern Great Plains area, only ours on the Canadian Prairies are slightly more accentuated. Some of you who know Morden, I expect are ready to challenge that statement. By virtue of the


Author: David B. Paterson

PP: 92

When we first decided to try to grow flowering cherries from cuttings, we knew that at least a few nurseries were already doing this with some success. Our aim was to try to find a method of rooting and growing these plants, one of which would fit in with our conditions and our procedures.

Naturally, this work was started with some preconceived ideas as to what the major problems and the best means of solving them would be. Our first consideration involved the type of cutting and the best time for taking them. For some reason or other it was assumed that the problem of timing would be similar to that of Pink dogwood, and the Japanese red maples. From what we had heard and read of these, and from a little experience with Pink dogwood cuttings, we felt sure that the answer would be to take soft up cuttings in June and place them under mist.

This problem was solved in a rather unique way. Since 1957 was the first year of the existence of the Nursery Department at Longwood Gardens


Author: Phillip W. Worth

PP: 94

The history of our procedure started as a result of the poor stands we had been getting by, taking the cuttings and storing them over winter. We knew we had a soil that was, you might say, a. natural rooting medium, being very sandy, light and well drained. About three years ago we stuck possibly around 10,000 cuttings of the more or less easily rooted common shrubs in the fall. This was done at a time when in our operation we had approximately two or three weeks in between additional evergreen diggings and before we were able to start digging deciduous material. In these two weeks we would usually have five or ten men standing around doing only fill-in jobs. We were very elated with our results this first year but still were a little pessimistic because we realized that the excellent results we obtained may happen this time and maybe never again. However, we again had very good results.

The next year we went into it a little more extensively, sticking three or four times as


Author: J. Ravestein

PP: 96

We collect our magnolia cuttings from old plants which we have been using for a number of years to produce layers. We take the current season's growth which shoots up in the middle of our plant. The length of these cuttings doesn't matter and we cut them nearly any size. The longer these cuttings are the better, since through the years we have run our tests it has been shown that the stronger and longer the cuttings are, the better the percentage of survival you have, that is, if you have any at all.

The wood for our viburnum cutting, is taken from plants which have been budded the previous year. One such plant is Viburnum carlesi. Here also we prefer the longer cuttings. If I may go off the subject for a moment I would like to note that we have also in our tests the Japanese maples, Purple beeches, and the Cutleaf red maple.

We take our wood as soon as the dormant stage sets in, that is, in our part of the country, around the beginning of November. In some years we have to


Author: Hans Nienstaedt

PP: 98

We in forestry are novices in the field of propagation, while you have been at the game for centuries. We have had to look at the experience gained in horticulture for the fundamentals to use in the propagation of our plant material. However, since our work schedule, our plant material, and our objectives often differ from, yours, our approach to problems have sometimes followed new directions and have resulted in some modifications of techniques. One such modification, fall grafting of conifers, is subject of my talk

Mark Holst of the Petawawa Forest Experiment Station in Ontario was, I believe the first tree breeder on this side of the Atlantic to suggest fall grafting. His initial results and the earlier results reported by Stefansson (4) in Sweden were not very successful and prompted me to try to develop a more satisfactory technique. In the following, I shall discuss the results of my experiments and newer successful experiments by Mark Holst with Spruce, I will also mention some


Author: F.C. Galle

PP: 106

This is one of the newest gardens in the United States and one of the largest. The Gardens were initially started in 1947 and were formally opened in the Spring of 1952. At present, they comprise 2,500 acres with over 300 acres in water in ten lakes, ten miles of scenic drives throughout the area, and three miles of walking trails.

The main plant collections are native plants of the Southern Appalachian region, however, there are on the walking trails, collections of American hollies. Collections have also been started of the Flowering crabapples, Camellia sasanguas, Magnolia species, and Hybrid rhododendrons.

The area of the Garden is normally considered in Zone 7, although there are many plants that are normally considered to be for Zone 8 and 9, which can be grown in protected locations in the Gardens and, equally as well, many of the plants from colder regions of the country that are very satisfactory in this location.

There is one main function of the Gardens, which should be explained


Author: Judson P. Germany Jr

PP: 38


The firethorns have long been an important group of ornamental plants to commercial nurserymen in almost every section of the country. There are few plants available today which combine evergreen or semi-evergreen foliage with a showy display of white flowers in the spring, followed by a massive array of deep red or bright orange berries in the fall, While most people are attracted to firethorns because of their heavy berry production, many are discovering that they are also good subjects for training as espaliers, into tree forms and other exotic shapes. They can be used as screens, foundation plants, or in mass plantings. There are dwarf forms and prostrate forms. For those who appreciate variegated plants, there is at least one very interesting variegated variety

Just as the flowers and fruit of this group of plants have made them extremely popular in the past, the versatility of old varieties put to new uses and the introduction of new forms almost yearly is certain


Author: Walter H. Hodge

PP: 113

Longwood Gardens was the private country estate of Mr. Pierre S. du Pont until his death in 1954. At that time it came under the care of the Longwood Foundation, Inc., a non-profit philanthropic foundation, and today is beginning to become in some ways more like certain old-line arboreta and botanical gardens though it will always remain primarily a display garden.

When long-range plans and goals for the future of Longwood Gardens were being formulated, we wondered how the Gardens could initiate a plant introduction program which would benefit its own displays as well as ornamental horticulture elsewhere in the United States. The result was a cooperative program of plant exploration in which the parties concerned were Longwood Gardens and the U S. Department of Agriculture. It seemed logical that, since the Federal Government through its New Crops Branch (USDA) already had the ‘know-how,’ the staff and facilities for plant exploration, Longwood should work cooperatively with it.


Author: A.R. Buckley

PP: 116

In 1886 when plans were being made to establish the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, a piece of land 65 acres in extent was set aside for the development of an Arboretum and Botanic Garden. It was felt that such a garden would play a very important part in agriculture and all its branches by the introduction of plants from all parts of the world, in order to test their hardiness and usefulness, as well as to exhibit to the general public a representative collection of exotic and native plants.

Work started on the garden in 1887 under the direction of Dr. James Flecther, botanist and entomologist of the Dominion Experimental Farms who, two years later, planted the first trees and shrubs. During the initial year of planting, about 200 species were set out, two specimens of each, placed in their individual generic groups. Quite a number of these first trees are still to be seen in the Arboretum in good state of health. Among these were the Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Siebold's Walnut


Author: Karl Sax

PP: 120

In some respects the breeding of ornamental trees and shrubs is easier than breeding crop plants. Woody plants can be propagated by cuttings or by grafting so that it is not necessary to produce homozygous segregates which will breed true from seeds. For the same reason, it is not necessary to produce a fertile hybrid, it fruit is no ornamental asset.

Some knowledge of genetics and cytology can be helpful. The plant breeder should have some knowledge of the breeding behavior of heterozygous and homozygous varieties, the inheritance of dominant and recessive characters and the cytological basis of hybrid sterility. In past years plant breeders wasted considerable time and effort in crossing commercial double forms of carnations to get new types not realizing that these types are hybrids between worthless "bullhead" doubles and single flowered forms. As a result they obtained only fifty per cent commercial doubles, whereas if they had crossed "bullheads" with singles they would have


Author: Lela V. Barton

PP: 126

Seedling production of the genus Viburnum has long been a problem. It has been discussed in the literature without any definite and satisfactory answer. Giersbach (2) summarized the work done up to 1937. As early as 1894, Jack reported "about seeds with a hard bony covering," which might commonly be expected to grow in the second rather than in the first year, especially if not planted until spring. He mentioned Viburnum as one of these. Many of the reported germination tests Viburnum seeds consisted simply in planting the seeds in soil out-of-doors at various times and recording the time of emergence of the seedlings. For the most part no planned experiments were conducted to determine the effect of various factors on germination.

Davis in 1926 (1) observed two stages of germination of the high-bush cranberry. The first was the growth of the radicle at a temperature of 68 F or higher, the second the development of the cotyledons, still covered by the seed coat at a cold temperature of


Author: L.L. Baumgartner

PP: 136

When our program chairman asked for a discussion of this subject we were well aware of the fact that it is a broad title and that books have been written on each of its three phases Therefore, it this presentation should be acceptable to you, it will probably represent a greater contribution to the art of organization and condensation rather than a contribution to scientific discipline Our primary objective is to reexamine the handling of water and plant foods in the light of operational problems in nursery management. Some of my statements based on my experience will undoubtedly be contrary to your experiences and I hope that this may provide the basis for further discussion. This subject often appears overly-complicated and possibly mysterious because of the many special circumstances and exceptions which make many facts appear to be contrary to each other. I am certain that this will appear very elementary to some of you and I beg your indulgence as I attempt to develop

Author: John C. Brown

PP: 143

Chlorosis is a general term which denotes a yellowing in plants, a condition related to a large number of abnormalities. The more specific term, iron chlorosis, refers to a "chlorosis" which can be alleviated by providing the plant with suitable iron compounds. This disorder is particularly prevalent on calcareous soils where it is difficult to keep iron in forms which are available for all plant growth. It may occur on neutral or slightly acid soils, especially where so-called acid-loving plants such as azaleas, rhododendrons, and blueberries are grown. Growth medium, fertilizer, organic matter, and water are all contributing factors to this yellowing or iron deficiency (1) . Soil and/or plant treatment for control is often difficult, but can be achieved by the careful and persistent gardener. Where possible, most satisfactory results will be obtained by choosing plants that are chlorosis resistant.

Several thousand observations of chlorosis have been made in the southern Great Plains


Author: F.L S. O'Rourke

PP: 147

The hardwood cutting method of Propagation is relatively convenient and inexpensive and whenever reasonably good results are obtained by the use of hardwood cuttings, that method is usually preferred to layering, grafting, or the other more cumbersome types of propagation. Several discoveries recently made by Mr. R. J. Garner and Dr. E. S. J Hatcher at the East Malling Research Station in Kent, England, may lead the way to a much more extensive use of hardwood cuttings for propagation in the future. These investigators have studied the propagative factors affecting hardwood cuttings from three aspects, (1) the source plant and the condition of the cutting wood before taking, (2) the care and handling after collection, (3) the environment under which the cuttings are rooted.

An analysis of the factors affecting the source plant from which the cuttings are taken shows the extreme importance of this consideration. It includes a study of the particular clone involved, its genetic


Author: Sylvester G. March

PP: 150

The mention of eucalyptus to most people brings to mind thoughts of the Koala bear and Australia Uniquely, the genus Eucalyptus, with its 500 species, is native only to Australia, Tasmania, and neighboring islands.

In addition to eucalyptus leaves being an essential part of the diet of the Koala, eucalypts play all important role in the economy of Australia Its wood is used for paper pulp, fibreboard, commercial lumber, firewood and. charcoal. From its bark comes tannin and from its leaves, essential oils. These essential oils are used in disinfectants, perfumes and medicines.

At the turn of the century a good deal of effort was expended to establish plantations of this rapid-growing tree in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Florida, but land proved to be of greater value for farming and therefore most of the eucalypt plantations have disappeared. Today, in California the eucalypt is best known as an ornamental tree for street planting. So intensively have they been


Author: J. P. Mahlstede

PP: 153


r since man first began grafting plants there have been failures. In some years a nurseryman might have unusual success and have a 80 or 90 per cent take Other years, with the same understock and the same scion variety, handled under what the propagator considered identical conditions, stands of 50 or 60 per cent might be realized.

The essential aspects of understock culture of the common red cedar have received particular attention in recent years, since this material is the most commonly used stock for junipers and has given the most trouble to propagators of evergreens. Frequent transplanting to promote the formation of a fiberous root system, and a good sanitation program are considered requisite to an acceptable, commercial stand Melhus and Maney (1921), working on the control of crown gall in apple grafts, suggested the feasibility of dipping the grafts in a Bordeaux mixture of an 8–8–50 composition. It is quite apparent that sanitation is quite important to


Author: J.C. McDaniel

PP: 159

Despite the recent advances in cutting propagation procedures, there are some species of fruits, nuts and woody ornamentals where grafting and budding are the only practical means for multiplying clones, and others in which for various reasons budding and grafting will supplement cutting propagation My talk is based on work with nut trees and several fruits growing in the open. Several variations from the usual procedure, particularly in summer budding, have shown promise as means of getting more uniform take, with difficult materials or in seasons when ordinary budding practices have not been very successful Three that I wish to emphasize are (1) plate budding as a substitute for "T" budding, (2) plastic bud covers and (3) protective fungicide treatments for nursery-budded or topworked woody plants.

Author: Toru Arisumi

PP: 43

The two closely related genera of Berberidaceae, Mahoma and Berberis, comprise a large group of useful ornamental shrubs. According to Rehder (4) there are about 50 species of Mahonia found in North and Central America and in East and South Asia, and about 175 species of Berberis found mostly in East and Central Asia and South America, with a few in North America, North Africa, and Europe. Many species in these genera are susceptible to some of the rust fungi (Puccinia graminis) of cereals, acting as alternate hosts in the life cycles of these fungi. For this reason the cultivation and distribution of rust-susceptible barberries and mahonias are prohibited in 19 states within or near the cereal growing regions of this country. Fortunately, there are about 30 species of barberries and 9 species of mahonias that are rust resistant and safe for cultivation in these states (5). This group of rust-resistant species includes many diverse and attractive types Suitable for use in a breeding

Author: Richard H. Zimmerman

PP: 162

In the past twenty years, there have been scattered reports of the treatment of cuttings with various types of fertilizers in an effort to improve rooting. These attempts have covered a wide variety of plants, numerous types of fertilizers and several methods of application. In many of the trials, root and/or shoot growth was stimulated by the addition of fertilizer but in almost all cases, the cuttings also had to be treated with a chemical root-inducing compound for the effects to be noticeable.

A series of experiments was conducted with cuttings of several species of woody ornamental plants to determine the effect of fertilizer applications during the rooting period on the rooting, root growth and shoot growth of the cuttings.

It was found that soaking greenwood cuttings of California Privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium) for 24 hours in a liquid fertilizer had no effect on rooting or root growth and a very slight effect on shoot growth. After the cuttings were inserted in the rooting medium


Author: Frank Turner

PP: 164

Thank you for the privilege of appearing before you to call some of these observations to your attention. To clarity the title, "Form Variations in Taxus as Related to the Source of title Cutting on the Stock Plant," I will say that we are referring to the location or level from which the cutting is taken from the stock plant as it in turn is related to the subsequent development of the mature specimen. My remarks are made in order to stimulate thinking about observable differences that could be attributed to taking cutting pieces from various plants and from the "same" plant in different locations, whether that be done by design or habit.

On several occasions at these meetings we have been reminded of the influence of position on the plant and the influence of the age and variety of plant on the rooting of yew cuttings. These reports have been confined almost universally to the speed, percentage, and quality of rooting. In some reports the plant Subjects have been of types usually


Author: Harvey Gray

PP: 166

Rooting Tsuga canadensis cuttings has always presented a challenge to the plant propagator A test on the rooting of this plant was devised and put into operation on December 15, 1957. A total of 1518 cuttings was involved in the test. The Cuttings were made from the previous season's growth, taken from five year old vigorous nursery plants. The ten inch cuttings were wounded with a spiral type cut and subjected to various synthetic hormone treatments. Indolebutyric acid diluted in talc and in alcohol at .8% and 2% concentration, making four different treatments, was used.

The following rooting media used straight or in mixtures as indicated in the table were: medium sand from a local sand pit, sphagnum peat and two grades of styrofoam, irregular pea size pieces and coarse dust. All media were placed in flats and moistened to an even consistency. The cuttings were inserted and the flats were placed in a polyethylene vapor proof case. All of our polyethylene cases are


Author: Martin Van Hof

PP: 168

We at the Rhode Island Nurseries have been propagating our Softwoods under polyethylene for the last three years and previous to that for two years, on a somewhat experimental basis.

I would like to start by trying to tell you how our propagating beds are prepared. Each bed is six feet wide and up to 100 feet long, of course the length does not matter. We use 8 or 10 inch boards for the sides of the bed. Of course, a 1" × 2" furring raised to about 10 inches is much cheaper and will do practically as well.

It is important to thoroughly prepare the soil in your bed. I prefer a Rotohoe to a tiller as the mechanical hoe will not pulverize the soil as much as the tiller will, which means less compaction after watering. Of course, a digging fork and a strong back will do a good job also. Next, the bed is raked as level as possible and the soil is pressed down with a wooden tamper or a roller. At night the prepared bed is covered with tar paper or discarded plastic to protect it


Author: Robert J. Eshleman

PP: 170

This system works well for me when I need only 500 to 1000 plants of a variety of flowering shrub, produced quickly, with little labor or expense.

The principle of using plastic to plant through is much like any other mulch but with many features that are far superior to the average material used for mulching. By plastic I am referring to sheets .002 to .004 inches in thickness and preferably black in color.

The plastic is waterproof except where it is punctured to insert the cutting or plant. Rain enters at these points and spreads under the plastic. It cannot leave except through the foliage of the plant. The plastic maintains a uniform soil moisture content even through dry spells. This makes the perfect environment for rooting hardwood cuttings.

The plastic acts as a greenhouse to help retain heat in the soil. This is very beneficial for root growth in the early spring.

The plastic makes in effective weed control barrier, and if black plastic is used, many weed seeds will fail


Author: Waren Baldsiefen

PP: 172

If limited use of deciduous azaleas in the landscape is ever to be overcome, it can only be brought about with handsome, healthy, long-lived plants, and these can only developed from rooted cuttings. Seedlings are no substitute for named clones, grafting produces a short-lived plant and one which lives for only the briefest span in fringe areas where growing conditions are somewhat or totally adverse to the requirements of the plants, layering in any form is slow to provide plants in quantity. In addition, layered plants in too many cases develop long naked stalks while attached to the stool plant, which later make ungainly specimens.

Outlined herein is the method used at Rochelle Park, New Jersey which has performed with consistent success these many years. Each step is described in full and in the exact sequence it occurs.

The rooting takes place in a modified Nearing frame. As many of you know this frame is an outdoor Wardian type enclosure the approximate size of two hotbed sashes


Author: E. Stroombeek

PP: 47


When reading the title of my paper I hope you did not become confused by the word, foghouse. The only reason I used it was to distinguish between the intermittent mist system and the use of a new type of humidifier which I am going to discuss.

During the last 6 years, the use of intermittent mist devices, in the field of plant propagation has become common practice. Through the years we have seen steady improvement and greater efficiency, especially in the use of outdoor mist frames. However, for many nurseries, greenhouse propagation had been the established pattern of operation with the accent on fall and winter propagation. The intermittent mist setup made it possible to make more efficient use of these greenhouses during the summertime. The big problem had been how to keep the humidity up and at the same time the temperature below extreme levels. Intermittent mist seemed to be the solution. We at Warner Nursery are already using an outdoor mist frame with good results


Author: Henry A. Weller

PP: 54

In the four years that I have attended these meetings, I do not recall anyone ever stressing the actual cost of propagation. Is not being aware of the cost of propagation, and doing something about it, just as important to the nurseryman as the "know-how" of propagating?

Although propagation has been practiced since almost the beginning of time, and procedures have been basically the same, there are ways of modifying these that will result in a better plant, greater yields, and an actual decrease in cost of production.

The two words, dollars, and sense, have a direct bearing upon each other. Using common sense when producing plant material does result in a greater profit, dollar-wise. We are all vitally interested in propagation, or we wouldn't be here today, but I wonder how many of us are aware of, or know how much a given item costs us to propagate and grow. Do we know if it is profitable to keep certain items in our line?

Since I have been keeping accurate cost figures


Author: Harvey Gray

PP: 59

The original title suggested for this talk was "Rooting Cuttings with North Light." I asked permission to change the title so that details allied to "north light" might be considered and developed. This is a generalization of a few concepts held in the area of rooting cuttings. Such a generalization, for me, is possible through a series of demonstrational tests set up and developed over several years by students as part of their application and appreciation of the subject of plant propagation. The following remarks are offered for consideration and discussion, a learning process, if you please, rather than material of unquestionable fact.

We are led to believe that when all other factors are favorable total food manufacture is in direct proportion to light intensity and duration With this thought in mind it might be wise to attempt rooting all of our cuttings in long and strong sunlight What happens to temperature in this strong and long light? It is here where we must


Author: J.B. Hill

PP: 62

Perhaps I should first define what I mean by greenhouse sanitation. Actually it is not a thing, but rather, condition. It is a condition which results from the application of cultural practices that are designed to initiate and maintain cleanliness throughout an entire plant producing facility. We feel that sanitation is a very important factor in this process of attempting to standardize. It is one of those factors which can be controlled, but unfortunately, is not the type of cultural practice through which you go once, and it is all done. It is continuous.

The reason for practicing sanitation is simple. First, it will reduce cost, and second it may permit the production of a plant which could not be economically undertaken otherwise. This condition of cleanliness is armed at production without interference from diseases and harmful insects. Last but not least, it is aimed at producing an operation which is free from too many cull plants.

All experts on industrial relations stress the


Author: L.J. Enright

PP: 67

Several workers have reported (1,2) favorable rooting responses of stem cuttings of a number of species and varieties of Berberis to various chemical treatments. In general, the most satisfactory results were obtained with hardwood cuttings. In every case, the percentage of rooted cuttings was low and the period of time required for root initiation was lengthy. Enright (3,4,5) reported successful results in rooting a number of difficult plants with concentrated-solution-dip treatments of indolebutyric acid. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of similar treatments on the rooting response of Berberis julianae, Berberis sargentiana, Berberis thunbergi, Berberis thunbergi atropurpurea and Berberis verruculosa.

This investigation was carried out for two consecutive 12 month periods to determine the proper time for taking the cuttings, the position on the plant from which the cutting wood should be selected, the timing interval which should be used with


Author: C.W. M Hess Jr

PP: 69

It would not be proper to discuss the field of grafting without giving a little time to the preparation which precedes this mechanical operation. I will therefore start at the very beginning and speak for a few moments about the seeding of Fagus sylvatica, the understock for its suntanned brother. Many have had difficulty in obtaining a good stand of seedlings even though they used seed which was apparently fresh. We have found that the seed of Fagus sylvatica loses its viability very rapidly and consequently planting immediately after receiving the seed is of the utmost importance. The seed generally arrives front Europe after the ground is frozen solid and therefore seedbed preparation before hand is necessary. Seeding directly on the frozen ground does not affect the germination and it generally reduces the danger of rodent damage. We have, in a few instances had to remove four to six inches of snow before being able to plant the seed and obtained equally good results. We have