Volume 7

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Author: Louis Vanderbrook

PP: 28

Our industry, during the next few years, will experience some of the most drastic and revolutionary changes ever to occur in its history, and it will definitely result in the survival of only the most fit.

For some time we have been experiencing the effects of labor shortages and a scarcity of good skilled labor, which will become much more acute as the years progress.

To survive and surmount these difficulties, it will become necessary for its to tax our ingenuity to the utmost, and it will most decidedly be to our advantage to be teachable and observant of the methods of management and operation of other industries, which we may come in contact with, and to emulate their success by adopting that which may be of value to us in curtailing time and costs of production.

To accomplish these things, we must observe, think, plan, decide and act. How many men do you know who observe? How much do you trust their observations? When we say observe, we mean gather facts. How do men gather


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 71

The Japanese umbrella pine makes a beautiful evergreen specimen. It has dark glossy green foliage that is very dense. It is pyramidal in shape and does not tend to lose its lower branches. The needles are arranged in whorls with twenty to thirty arising from each node; in an arrangement similar to that of the ribs of an umbrella. It is from this similarity that it gets its common name. This tree is not susceptible to any serious disease and is for all purposes a highly desirable tree.

Why is it then that in spite of all these favorable characteristics the umbrella pine is seen very rarely. The following facts may explain why it is so scarce and why only a handful of nurserymen propagate it. Vegetative propagation is highly impractical since cuttings are very difficult to root. Thirty per cent rooting after approximately six to nine months is considered phenomenal and this rarely occurs. The seeds are extremely slow to germinate, taking approximately 100 days, and when germination does


Author: Leslie Hancock

PP: 73

Though seed is the common method of production of Cotinus coggygria or Smoke Bush, we are discussing the vegetative propagation of desirable clones. The variety rubrifolia is the commonest known. There was at one time a variety pendula but it is the variety atropurpurea which I consider most attractive. Strangely enough, although our parent stock came originally from Boskoop, it cannot now be procured from that source, which shows how easily the reproduction of good things can lapse.

Propagation by layering presents no special problem. Branches are pinned down to the ground in spring in the usual manner. Some hilling up of the young shoots is done as they develop, and both the layered branches and the young shoots develop roots the first year. As in many other cases, it is not the technique of layering but the separation and after-care which requires skill. With us, Cotinus coggygria is on its northern limit of hardiness, and the young shoots tend to winter-kill, particularly if


Author: George P. Blyth

PP: 74

Since the introduction of soil heating cable to the gardening and nursery trades, many uses have been found for this type of equipment. Since we do not have greenhouses, they have been a wonderful thing for us. Our results in evergreen propagation from both grafts and cuttings through the use of cabled, outdoor propagating frames have been good.

The frames are approximately 6' × 30' × 10", and require 10 hot-bed sash and nine rafters. The frames are constructed of one-inch pine for the slides and ends, with 2" × 8" cedar at the base. The frames are lined with Tentest for added insulation. One side of the unit is 28 inches high while the other side is 24 inches high, thus giving slope in order to shed the rain.

In locating the unit, we dig down 8 inches below the ground level, filling in the excavation with cinders. The frame is then placed over this area. Two inches of steamed soil is then spread over the cinders. Next, the cable is laid so that the loops are evenly spaced at 6 inch intervals.


Author: J.B Hill

PP: 75

Discussing the propagation of plants directly in containers should be prefaced by indicating that the propagation that we have done directly in one-gallon containers has been on an experimental rather than on a production basis. This was done two years ago and was not followed up this past year. I think we have sufficient information about it, and therefore I will describe the procedures we have used and the results obtained.

The reason we did not follow it up this past year was because we thought we could get a saleable plant in one season from going into the container early in the spring with an established, potted or banded liner. Having now had one year's production experience with that program, I am not sure we can do it across the board with the line of deciduous flowering shrubs that we wish to market in one-gallon containers.

The purpose of attempting to propagate directly in the container is two-fold, namely, to save cost and time. To an extent these two purposes are interrelated


Author: Kenneth W. Reisch

PP: 78

I believe Mr. Hill explained the purpose for doing this type of propagation very thoroughly. Here again we are interested in producing plants with the minimum amount of handling by propagating directly in the container in which they will be finally marketed. Our tests on which I will report were conducted during the Spring of 1956 and 1957.

Cutting wood was collected in the usual manner in January and February. Eight inch cuttings were then made, stored at 70 degrees for roughly two weeks, and then held at 40 degrees until they were stuck directly in the containers in March and April. Multiples of one through four cuttings were used in these experiments. The containers were then put right out in the nursery without any protection. The cuttings rooted and produced saleable 15 to 18 inch plants that same year.

The first year we propagated Weigela, Forsythia, and Philadelphus by this technique. Although I do not have the percentages. I would say we had 75 or 80 per cent stands by this type


Author: Harvey M. Templeton Jr

PP: 79

As you know, propagation of most viburnums from cuttings is relatively easy and especially so from softwood cuttings under mist, although there is at least one notable exception. Since they are easy to root and time limited, I will omit the discussion of their propagation and go on to a phase of their production which, in some cases, is not easy, that is, getting them through their first winter alive and in good condition. Viburnum carlesi is probably the one which gives the most difficulty, although Viburnum juddi, chenaulti and even burkwoodi can sometimes be troublesome. Notice that plants containing carlesi "blood" seem to give the most trouble. The first evidence of winter damage is that the stems crack, usually just above the soil line, during one of the first few hard freezes in the fall. The obvious conclusion is that the plants were not dormant at the time they froze.

Now the question is, "why are these plants slow in becoming dormant in the fall"? Is their dormancy induced by a


Author: A.R. Buckley

PP: 81

Successful grafting of scions on unrooted cuttings as stocks is not a new technique of propagation, although references to it in literature are very brief. The best reference I can find among the books at my disposal is the half-page devoted to it in the recent work by Mahlstede and Haber (1) where it is referred to under the heading of "cutting grafting." In Kains & McQuesten a few notes may be found under the same heading (2) and in Bailey's Nursery Manual the method of propagation is confused with piece root grafting.

Preliminary investigation into the use of cutting grafts for the propagation of Juniperus virginiana varieties began in 1955 when a number of scions of J. virginiana hilli and J. virginiana canaertii were grafted on unrooted cuttings of various species of juniper including J. sabina and J. horizontalis. At that time only a small number of grafts were made and these were placed under a polyethylene tent in a medium of sand and peat. Here they were sprayed with a syringe


Author: L.L. Baumgartner

PP: 84

The purpose of this report is to describe a new kind of soil mix that has been very satisfactory for container-grown stock. Our studies on container-grown stock at the laboratory during the past three years have been directed toward the objective of producing the best mix that could be easily reproduced and would present the best growing medium.

The mixes used in these studies varied widely and included soil-sand-peat, soil-peat, sand-peat, perlite-soil, perlite-soil-peat, perlite-peat (German and domestic) , and perlite alone. Within each of these combinations, the percentage of the various ingredients varied in fractions of 25 percent.

These tests included 18 of the common varieties of commercial ornamental plants grown in the Northern latitudes of the United States. The 24,000 plants involved in this work were fed both solid and water soluble fertilizers of two basic types. One type was of a 4–1–1 proportion and the other type was a 1–2–2 proportion. The general conclusions reached


Author: A.M. Shammarello

PP: 85

I have been propagating rhododendrons from stem cuttings for the past 20 years. In the past it was a matter of luck in regard to the percentage of rooting obtained. However, with the aid of mist, polyethylene, and hormones, the percentage of rooting has increased and is consistent from year to year. Despite these new aids we have to adhere to the basic principles such as the time of taking the cuttings, the medium and amount of bottom heat applied.

I consider it of primary importance to have a stock block of plants to provide an ample number of healthy cuttings. We take our cuttings from mid November to mid December, since this time of the year seems to work out well for the rooting of most varieties. A cutting of about one quarter inch in thickness and from two to two and one half inches in length is used. Three or more medium sized leaves are generally left on a cutting, although if the leaves are quite large we trim off a portion of the leaf. Cuttings are then heavily wounded,


Author: R.E. Halward

PP: 87

Last year at the annual meeting of the Plant Propagator's Society I mentioned the use of insect wings as a leaf for intermittent mist control. At that time I was rather hesitant to recommend its general use as it had only one season's trial. It was obvious that some improvements must be made to make it more efficient. To give the leaf a better proving ground, a permanent mist bed, 18' by 6'was constructed and a sectional wooden frame covered with polyethylene plastic was used for a cover. Burlap was used for shading. The nozzles used were the Florida 550A type, set a foot above the sand medium and about 40" apart. Water pressure was maintained between 40 and 60 pounds. Ventilation was given daily by raising the ends of the frames.

Materials used in the construction of the leaf included a piece of plastic 2½" in diameter by 3/8" thick, 2 flashlight battery carbons, waterproof glue and 2 bumble beewings, which were joined by their outer tips with a spot of glue. In addition, sufficient


Author: R.P. Meahl

PP: 29

The genus Picea, or spruce, is one of our important evergreen groups. Many species are valued for their use in reforestation, lumber and pulpwood, Christmas tree production, and general ornamental or landscape use. The most efficient methods of propagation are then of primary importance to the nursery industry. The three primary methods of propagation are by seed for those species which will come true, and either grafting or cuttings for those which will not. These three areas will be considered separately.

Author: Fred C. Galle

PP: 88

The basic problems of propagation whether in the North or South are essentially the same. We have the problem of controlling the water, light, temperature and other factors which are requisites to good propagation results. Many erroneously think that all we have to do is throw cuttings on the floor or the ground and they take root. We think the same thing of the people up North. We have no easier problem than you do. In fact, we all have problems. They may be with different materials but we still have all the same problem, that is, trying to get roots on the basal end of the cutting. We do perhaps have a longer growing season than some people and milder climates, although sometimes our milder climates can be quite varied, because of the lips and downs in temperature. I think in my own section, for example, we have already had colder temperatures than you have had in Cleveland. We had 25 degrees about three weeks ago and before I left it was 70 degrees again. These ups and downs in

Author: James S. Wells

PP: 92

In company with many other plants, the propagation of hollies has undergone a quiet revolution during recent years. I mean by this, that the methods of propagation and culture employed by the average grower have changed radically. The groundwork for this change was laid much earlier and in reviewing the somewhat meager literature available to me, I was astonished to find how long it takes to put an idea over, as well as how difficult it is to change it pattern once it has been established.

Although it is now generally accepted that the propagation of most species and varieties of Ilex is best accomplished by rooting cuttings, the acceptance of this method is comparatively recent. I recall that in 1946 most growers were maintaining production by grafting, as I understand they still do in England. It is perhaps significant that the first reference to the propagation of Ilex in the Proceedings of our Society was a review by Gleason Matoon, published in 1952, titled "Vegetative


Author: Donald J. Hillenmeyer

PP: 98

It is certainly an honor and a pleasure to come before this fine organization to present what little I can which might be of interest to fellow members. From attendance at former meetings, I have been highly impressed at the great amount of technical knowledge presented on these programs. Before going into the actual propagation of the so-called borderline broadleaves. I would like to say something about these plants and their hardiness. There are many plants that have been treated on a "hands off" basis by northern nurserymen (those north of the Ohio River) because of rumors and sad experiences in freeze damage in former years. I find in my experiences that many of these plants have never been tried under the best of conditions, and consequently, your customers have been denied a wider use of plant materials. I am not suggesting that everybody in the North go out and spend a large sum of money on liners of these questionable plants, because there is a limit to how much they will take

Author: W.C. Sherman, R.E. Sherman

PP: 108


The mulch bed method of seedling production has been used at the Elsberry Plant Materials Center since its establishment by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in 1934. Neighboring, Forrest Keeling Nursery has adopted the method because it fits in with weather and soil conditions of the area. Having shared experience for several years, we are presenting this subject jointly.


Author: A.E. Hitchcock

PP: 114

Last year you heard from Dr Henry Kirkpatrick whose specific subject was concerned with the rooting of lilac cuttings. As a result of this interesting discussion there are probably many questions in regard to what might be the prospects for the development of new root-inducing chemicals, what is the present status of rooting compounds, and what are the specific uses for these chemicals. As far as I am concerned I think that there is always a use for root-inducing substances in cutting propagation. It is true that they will not work on all species of plants, and therefore cannot be considered a cure-all. As for the possible development of a chemical which will produce roots on all species of plants, I doubt very much whether such a chemical will ever be developed. There is a possibility that one might be formulated, or discovered, but I think that it is quite unlikely.

One of the first so-called hormones used to stimulate root production on cuttings was indoleacetic acid. However, as


Author: Frank Turner

PP: 120

At the outset, I ask your indulgence for a few side issues that are not concerned directly with propagation and culture. However, unless these issues are justified by common sense they would have little merit before a Society of our kind. Instead of posing the question, why grow plants in cans, I would like to submit the widely considered proposition that its practice is a method that promises a large degree of industrialization to the nursery industry. This aspect of industrialization, is drawing the interest of numerous mid-America, ornamental growers. It is viewed, after all factors of the equation are thrown in, as a tempting, less painful direction for expansion.

We had a number of questions in mind three growing seasons back, at our home nursery, in Central Ohio. There, we consider our operation to be on the glaciated edge of corn-belt soils, in a quite typical, reasonably severe plains climate. The plants we grow there are mostly listed for Rehder's Zone IV. We are situated on


Author: Walter Lee

PP: 124

The California concept of container production is to mass produce plants and offer them to the retail nurseryman at the lowest possible price. This has been brought about by the great demand for shrubs and trees for home beautification in California and the neighboring states.

Shrubs and trees are sold and planted in California twelve months of the year, and retail nurseries in California are open either 6 or 7 days a week. There are peak seasons occurring in the early spring and fall when the demand for plants is greater than in our summer or winter months. To meet these demands the wholesale growers in California have been forced to use mass and container production methods.

Another factor that has contributed to container growing in California is the high cost of land which in many cases amounts to thousands of dollars per acre. Approximately 10 times field production may be realized by the use of container methods. For example, we can grow roughly about 96,000 containers on an


Author: A.J. Lancaster Jr

PP: 126

Thank you, it is indeed a pleasure to be with you folks.

First I would like to spend a moment on the conditions that exist in our area where we are growing about 95 per cent of our stock in containers. It is an area which has rainy weather, cold weather, warm weather, and hurricanes, except for this year. It is a land, as far as weather conditions are concerned, where a little bit of everything might be had. Starting in January of this year and on through until almost the middle of March, we had what we consider a hectic winter. It was rainy and cold, the low officially, about six above zero. For us this was considered cold. Then we had all of our rain in the spring, which was followed by the worst drought in over 50 years. When you are growing in cans and you have no rain, you have got to stay with it all the time. When I look at a plant I can't help but compare the plant to a human being. I don&39;t know if any of you ever look at it that way, but that plant is something living, something you have got to take care of. When a drought comes, it must be nourished. When a plant gets hungry you have got to feed it. When the cold comes, you have to wrap


Author: K.W. Reisch

PP: 132

Structures for growing plants under controlled conditions are known to have been in existence since 42 B.C. The doctor of Roman Emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero prescribed cucumbers for an ailment, so a translucent structure of slabs of talc or thin sheets of mica was constructed for their culture. The modern greenhouse probably had its inception with the use of forcing houses in northern Europe to grow such fruits as oranges and grapes. The growers then decided to heat the air inside the structure and used dung, stone stoves, or fireplaces. Oranges were grown in structures with an open framework in the summer and covered with wooden shutters and heated in the winter. One of these, built in Germany during the 17th Century, was 32 feet wide and 400 feet long. It wasn't until the early 18th Century that glass roofs were used and the first greenhouses in this country came into existence in the late 18th Century. They were narrow with a solid wall on the north and a glass roof sloping

Author: Tom Kyle Jr

PP: 137

The system of washed air cooling is accomplished by equipping the greenhouses with large volume exhaust fans mounted on one side, or end, and wet fibrous pads on the opposite side of the house. Air drawn through the pads by the fans is cooled by evaporation and drawn through the house. We try to build ours up to the point where a complete removal of our air is accomplished every minute, throughout the house. The propagation house which we equipped was 16 feet by 100 feet. On the end of the greenhouse where we have our work rooms we put in a 42 inch bladed fan operated by a three-quarter horsepower motor. This fan is rated to exhaust 14,000 cubic feet of air per minute. At the opposite end of the greenhouse we were forced to construct our pads on a rafter. They were five feet high, 16 feet wide, or a total of 80 square feet of pad which is required to provide the right amount of cooling. Above the rafter we placed an ordinary galvanized gutter, similar to the type you use to drain

Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 33


The germination of a seed and a seedlings subsequent growth are two of natures most fascinating and complex phenomena. In the propagation of Picea by seed, as is true with other plants, this process of germination is of utmost importance. Over a long period of time plant propagators have developed many cultural practices designed to regulate the germination of a seed and its subsequent development. The cultural practices described in this paper may not agree with all the very latest scientific findings on the subject, since the practices discussed are based upon ones actually used at the Evergreen Nursery in Northwestern Wisconsin. They have been developed over the past 92 years by continual study of scientific and commercial findings along with our own experience. Further, the discussion which follows is limited to those Picea species and varieties commonly grown from seed by our nursery. Picea abies, Picea pungens glauca, Picea glauca and Picea glauca densata. The


Author: Zophar Warner

PP: 139

We are in an era of very rapid development and change. This applies not only to space travel and sputniks but also to the propagating profession. In a meeting of this kind anything presented on the third day may have become obsolete during the discussions of the first and second days.

The uses of plastic film in propagating houses are so extensive and varied that I have made no attempt to compile their uses, many of which are common knowledge. I will confine my remarks to the uses we have already made of plastic film and what part we expect it to play in our future operations. A few years ago we started using polyethylene film to line the inside of a sash house. Since the sash were removed yearly it was difficult to keep it tight without use of the film. The following things resulted from using the film: (1) heat loss was substantially reduced, (2) constant humidity and soil moisture were easier to maintain, (3) the air space between the film and the glass acted as an insulator


Author: Karl Sax

PP: 146

The ranch type house and limited grounds demand smaller types of ornamental trees and shrubs for landscaping. The migration to the shrubs has also revived an interest in fruit trees. For such orchards, dwarf trees are essential to provide a variety of fruits in a limited space and to facilitate pruning, spraying and harvesting. Even the commercial fruit growers are becoming interested in dwarf or semi-dwarf trees to reduce labor costs.

In our breeding work with ornamental trees and shrubs we have produced several small ornamental trees which have been named and released to nurserymen. Perhaps the most outstanding example is the "Hally Jolivette" cherry, named after the author's wife. The French name Jolivette means "pretty little one," an appropriate name for the tree, as well as the wife. This tree grows to a height of eight to ten feet and beans semi-double, pink-centered flowers which are borne over a period of about 10 days.

Another small graceful tree is the "Blanche Ames" apple, named after the wife of Oakes Ames, former director of the Arnold Arboretum.


Author: Roger C. Coggeshall

PP: 156

The final session convened at 1:45 o'clock, President Vanderbrook presiding.

PRESIDENT VANDERBROOK: Gentlemen, we will start the afternoon off with the panel on "The Propagation of Some Unusual Plants." The moderator will be Roger Coggeshall, of the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts.

MODERATOR COGGESHALL (Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass.) : The program this afternoon will be concerned with the propagation of unusual plants. It will be more or less a continuation of the talks which we have heard both yesterday morning on the propagation of the borderline evergreens and the talk this morning by Dr. Karl Sax.

The propagation of so-called unusual plants or newer plants in The Arnold Arboretum is going on constantly. Some of them have no merit at all as far as commercial arboriculture is concerned, others we think, do.

I would like to show a series of slides which will certainly illustrate some of the material we have at the present time.

(Editor's Note: Mr. Coggeshall discussed


Author: Richard A. Fenicchia

PP: 158

The coniferous, deciduous and broad-leaved plant collections of the Bureau of Parks. Rochester, N.Y., contain some plants of distinct and unusual habits of growth. The variations in these plants include forms of low, compact, dense, upright, pyramidal, spreading, pendulous, and color variations, not to mention many other characters and traits. The hardiness factor also enters into the picture in relation to hybrid rhododendrons and other plants of a tender nature. The development of hardier clones is a major goal.

The Park Department is interested in maintaining and adding to its fine collections of plant species and clones and is always on the look out for new forms of plant life. Some of these plants have found their way into the trade, others are only in arboretums and collections. The test of time and climate will determine the usefulness of this plant material.

I would like to say a little about the experimental work that is underway at the present time, as well as some of the


Author: K.D. Holmes

PP: 164

It has been suggested that I speak on the subject of "Propagation of Some of the Stone Fruits." I will attempt to tell you, rather briefly, of the methods used at Mount Arbor Nurseries. I might start by telling you of the type of record form we keep on all budding operations. We use a large columnar ruled pad, 17" × 11". This record is prepared in our main office and each page carries a main heading showing the type or species and the location, such as the farm number, the block number and section. A sub-heading carries the row number, the variety, budder, date budded, and the amount budded. There is also a space for brief comments and a column for the per cent of bud take that the budding foreman fills in as we re-bud. There is also space for the name of the re-budder, man hours and rate of pay. This column, if filled in as the budding season ends, will give very valuable cost information.

As concerns our actual methods of production I will start with comments on dwarf flowering and


Author: John Ravestein

PP: 38

The understock used for the grafting of spruce is not grown at our nursery. Norway spruce is purchased from a reliable source as 2 to 3 year old seedlings, preferably once transplanted. You should be certain that the understock is healthy with a fibrous root system. These seedlings can vary in size from 6" to 12". We always plan to have our understock arrive in the spring in plenty of time to allow us to inspect the plants and to trim the roots in order to establish a fibrous root system. We then heel in the plants for a short time in order to induce some new root growth. They are then planted out.

We plan to have the understock grow in our nursery for two years. However, there are exceptions to this, which I will point out later.

We prefer to plant on a sandy soil which is not too rich in nutrients. The ground should be prepared as early as possible in the spring by spreading ¾" to 1" peat over the bed and rototilling to a depth of approximately 8". We use the peat to get a more fibrous root


Author: R.W. Oliver, S.H. Nelson

PP: 41

It has long been recognized that spruce as a genus is difficult to propagate from cuttings. Older texts give general instructions applicable to conifers as a whole and usually comment that Abies, Picea and Pinus are so difficult that grafting is more practical.

The most specific of the texts, one by W. L. Sheats, states that five varieties of Norway spruce can be rooted most satisfactorily if taken in October. The cuttings should be stuck in sand overlaying a mixture of peat, sand and loam in a cold frame. They should be covered over winter and kept under shade the next summer, with slight ventilation and hand syringing. Well rooted cuttings, up to 75 per cent can be transplanted the following September.

The identification and synthesis of growth promoting substances led many workers, between 1935 – 50, to try them on species such as Picea pungens, and kosteriana, hitherto considered very difficult. As the results were poor to mediocre, few writers published them.

Dr. Meahl has ably


Author: Phil Jones

PP: 49

The fact that Hugh Steavenson, Vice President of your organization, invited me to address your group, is an indication to me that many of you nurserymen do grow annual bedding plants and a good many of you who don't grow them are perhaps interested in getting into the field.

To start with, I would like to give a brief summary of bedding plant opportunities as they exist.

There is not any question that the market for bedding plants and ornamental plants of all sorts is greater today than in the not too distant past. The home owner's attitude toward the exterior appearance of his home is entirely different from what it was 30 years ago. Just for a moment I would like to quote to you from an article by Paul G. Craig which appeared in the October bulletin of the Ohio Florists Association: "There are a lot more customers around than there were a decade ago, and they have a lot more money to spend. There are today 33 million more persons and 8 million more families than in 1947. There is no


Author: Kenneth B. Fisher

PP: 53

The term "perennial," when loosely applied, covers all plants which live for more than two years, and as such applies to woody, as well as herbaceous material. For our purposes today the discussion will be confined only to herbaceous material, for that, after all is the material accepted under the category of perennials by the trade. This broad classification includes probably 3 to 5 thousand varieties.

Even this definition is too broad, for in parts of the United States, such as the far South and far West, some material which is of a true perennial nature, must because of tenderness be treated as annuals in the rest of the country and Canada. Some of the plants in nursery catalogs which are listed as perennials are actually biennials, i.e., Campanula calycanthema (Cup & Saucer) , Digitalis (Foxglove), and Dianthus barbatus (Sweet William). Other plants offered in herbaceous lists such as Iberis (Candytuft), Pentstemon (Beard Tongue), Phlox subulata, Teucrium, Vinca minor and the like,


Author: George Rose

PP: 62

Last year Dr. John Mahlstede of Iowa State College carried out a research project for the National Mail Order Nurserymen's Association on the shipping and livability of hardy perennial plants. Perennials of several varieties were purchased from 20 mail order nurseries, without their being aware that the plants were being tested. Differences in shipping methods, the type of plants sent, and the livability of the material when planted under ordinary conditions, were all carefully studied and compared. One of the rather unexpected highlights of the test was a disclosure that potted plants almost invariably shipped better and had a higher survival than dormant bare-root plants, no matter how such plants were stored, packed or shipped. These weren't exactly joyful tidings as far as the mail order industry was concerned, for potted plants cost more to grow, more to pack and more to ship, than dormant bare-root material. But in this age in competition, the ultimate factor that determines who

Author: L.J. Enright

PP: 69

Although Mahonia bealei can be propagated by softwood cuttings under glass, the percentage of success, the time required for rooting and the short period during which cuttings can be taken, have helped to place this plant on the long list of "difficult" woody ornamentals. The variability of seedlings also adds to the need for a propagation method which would produce strong rooted cuttings in a short period of time. Investigations at the University of Maryland have led to interesting responses by a number of woody plants during the past two years. Because it has been possible to stimulate roots on plants heretofore considered almost too difficult to propagate commercially, it was decided to try several of the techniques and methods on the Leatherleaf mahonia.

Cuttings were taken from mature plants and cut to a length of eight inches. In an earlier test it was discovered that all root development on this plant originated at a node. For this reason, the treated cuttings were wounded at a