Volume 59

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Thinking Outside the Box — Taking a Look at Hedges in New Zealand©

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 43


The list of exotic weeds that have started out as hedges is horrendous, and there is a continuous battle to eradicate them. The use of native plants for hedging can only be recommended both for shelter and ornamentation in gardens. The ecological advantages for the environment are many fold — home and fruits for birds, lizards, insects, and soil enrichment.

The selection of New Zealand native plants has for some time been practiced in other countries — flax in Tristan de Cunha, Metrosideros in South Africa, Pittosporum in the United Kingdom and Europe, and I?m sure many other countries where most have become weeds.

Propagation of Lomatia tasmanica©

Author: Natalie Tapson

PP: 45

Lomatia tasmanica W.M.Curtis is a critically endangered endemic plant that is restricted to southwest Tasmania. The single population is made up of less than 500 stems from a triploid clone (Lynch et al., 1998) originating at least 43,600 years ago (Jordan et al., 1991), and as such may be the oldest living plant in the world. The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens has worked in collaboration with the Threatened Species Section of the Nature Conservation Branch since 1994 to secure an ex-situ conservation collection currently being held at the Gardens.
Propagation of Mangroves©

Author: Luke Dent

PP: 50


Background Details on Wallum Nurseries. Wallum Nurseries is located 15 km from Brisbane’s central business district in the bay side suburb of Gumdale. The nursery was established by my parents in 1999, and is now one of Australia’s largest and leading wholesale nurseries specializing in Australian native flora for revegetation. Wallum Nurseries is a tube-stock grower of bushland flora, coastal flora, rainforest species, grasses, and wetland species.

Wallum Nurseries has been an Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme, Australia accredited nursery since its establishment. We are also Eco-Hort Accredited and are now undertaking BioSecure (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) accredita?tion. This ensures the quality of stock our customers have come to expect from us. In 2005 Wallum Nurseries won the best Medium-Sized Production Nursery Award from the Australian Garden Industry.

Commercial Forestry Cuttings in South Africa: A Tale of Two Systems©

Author: Iain M. Thompson

PP: 53


The commercial forestry industry in South Africa has a large positive effect on the country’s economy. The forestry industry is one of the larger providers of rural em?ployment in South Africa and workers in the plantation sector number over 75,000. The forest products sector is the fourth largest manufacturing division in the country and the forestry sector, as a whole, provides employment to approximately half a million South Africans, a figure that is expected to increase as South Africa moves deeper into the 21st century (Jones, 1994; Tewari, 2001).

Approximately 1.1% of South Africa’s total surface area is made up of commercial plantations, comprised mostly of exotic species and covering an area of over 1.28 million ha. However this area is decreasing, whilst processing capacity contin?ues to grow (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2003; Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2007).

Dirty Water©

Author: Jeff Elliott

PP: 56


My nursery is situated in Amberley, 50 km from Christchurch in the South Island of New Zealand. The rainfall is about 22 in. (55 cm) per year. My water right is limited to a shallow aquifer with deep water not really an option, as the neighbors drilled down 250 m and got nothing. We are only 3 km from the sea and at an altitude of about 30 m. Originally when I set up the nursery I did it with recycling in mind. The nursery was developed with a 1 in 200 gradient. In retrospect 1 in 100 would have been a lot better. All the water ran to a central drain and out into the paddock, and boy was that green. Initially when I started on this article it was all about recycling nutrients and the practicalities I have encountered in doing it. Unfortunately any lecture preparation seemed to only point out just what you don’t know. This is frustrating and seems to require an enormous effort to fix unless you just tell your story and don?t pretend to be an expert. That’s me, no expert.

The Challenge of Building a New Glasshouse and Embracing New Technology©

Author: Nick Cracknell

PP: 60


In 1980 we bought a glasshouse tomato business at Granton, a suburb 20 min. north west of Hobart. There was just under an acre of glasshouses.

We had the typical glasshouse found in Australia at that time; only about 2 m high at the walls and possibly 3-1/2 m at the ridge (Fig. 1). We were growing tomatoes in soil and steam sterilised annually to destroy soil and root diseases.

Growers in Tasmania were only producing one crop a year in the 1980s and picking normally commenced early November and went through to the end of February. Financial necessity made us experiment at growing two crops a year and this is what we did for 28 years until January 2008. We would plant out in July and picked from November to the end of January with the second crop planted 1st week Febru?ary and picked from April to June.

Germination Testing at the Tasmanian Seed Conservation Centre©

Author: James Wood

PP: 66


August 2005 saw the opening of the Tasmanian Seed Conservation Centre (TSCC) a seed banking facility located in a purpose-built laboratory at the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens.

The seed bank is a product of the Joint Tasmanian-Millennium Seed Bank Project (MSBP), a project resulting from collaboration of the following:

  • The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens
  • The Tasmanian Herbarium
  • The Resource Management and Conservation Division of DPIW
  • The Seed Conservation Department of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (U.K.)
The Biological Control of Weeds©

Author: Hugh Gourlay

PP: 72

Biological control is a natural method of controlling the presence and reducing the nuisance value of pest plants in our environments. Weeds are highly invasive plants that arrive in a new environment without their natural predators. Biocontrol aims to redress this imbalance by introducing some of the most damaging insect predators that can be found on these plants in their native ranges.

Biological control is often the only answer that is available for many pest plant species where chemical control has proven to be too risky or ineffective. Biocontrol is self sustainable and an extremely selective form of pest plant control.

In a complete biological control of weeds programme the first stage is deciding if the pest plant is appropriate for biocontrol. This means we need to have a plant that is widespread, invasive, and unable to be controlled by other methods.

Sweet Roots: A Trial Using Honey as a Rooting Hormone©

Author: Liza Whalley

PP: 74

The following trial was completed by me, Liza Whalley, as the recipient of this year’s New Zealand IPPS Propagators Scholarship. I have been employed as as?sistant propagator at Taupo Native Plant Nursery for 2 years and it has been the first propagating position I have been employed in. Some help was provided by Taupo Native Plant Nursery to complete this trial.
Propagating Medicinal Plants to Conserve Natural Populations and Sustainable Supply for the Traditional Healing Community in South Africa©

Author: Erika Oberholzer

PP: 78


For thousands of years, before the advent of modern allopathic medicine, indigenous people on all the continents on earth practiced traditional medicine. Each ethnic grouping developed a system of healing in which they interwove the natural resources, plants, animals, and geology existing in their area with their cultures and belief systems.

Collectively we now refer to these historic systems of healing as "Traditional and Indigenous Medicine."

For a while it seemed as if the genesis of modern, western medicine was leading to the demise of many of these systems of healing. The West with its commitment to scientific methodology, considered traditional healing simple superstition.

However, given the movement towards natural living that has been taking place in recent years, a new feverish interest in the art of traditional and alternative healing has developed. Traditional healing systems all over the globe are now being studied with great interest by western scientists.

Selecting the Right Potting Mix©

Author: Graham Saltiel

PP: 81


Over the years I have been associated with the manufacture of, and involvement with, a wide range of mixes and growers. It didn’t take long to realise that many variables, unique situations, and management systems existed. I became increasingly aware that mixes needed to be tailored to suit each situation and that a regular and in depth dialogue was needed between supplier and grower. Observation and communication between both became critical.

In some instances in the past, growers would change supplier in an attempt to rectify a problem with a mix or with plant growth. Each change really only meant going back to square one whereas observation, discussion, and adjustment were really all that was needed. Working together has great benefits for both supplier and grower and our industry as a whole.

Is Nutrition in Propagation Media a Con?©

Author: Nicola Rochester

PP: 84


The successful root development and establishment of cuttings can be increased by the incorporation of low to moderate levels of controlled release-fertiliser (CRF) in the propagation media prior to sticking (Hartmann et al., 1997) or at root estab?lishment (Janick, 2001). However, the technique of including CRF in propagation media or applying CRF to the tops of their trays or cells after root initiation even though detailed in industry standard text books on growing media (Handreck and Black, 1984), is still not widespread standard practice within New Zealand or Aus?tralia. There is still a belief that nutrition in propagation media is not desirable and could be a hindrance to root development and/or will encourage more top growth than root growth (as indicated in a strawpole taken by a show of hands at the start of this presentation at the IPPS Conference, Hobart, 2009, unpublished data). It was therefore decided to re-evaluate the benefits (or not) of CRF incorporation into propagation media for four species and where possible look at the effect on top growth versus root growth.

Dragon Trees of the Pacific Mist©

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 90


I have long been enamoured with a favourite food of the endangered kakapo par?rot. Dracophyllum, with their often bizarre habit of growth that hints of ancient lineage, these ericas of the south, can be large trees to tiny alpine mats. There are in fact three closely related genera within Australia and Tasmania, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Chatham Island, Stewart Island, Auckland Island, and Campbell Island.

The genus includes about 60 species in three subgenera.

The Global Costs of Exotic Plants©

Author: Hugh Gourlay

PP: 92


The Cost of Weeds to Australia. If there were no more weeds, incomes of Australian agricultural producers would rise, giving 20% of the benefits to food consumers and a saving of $112 million in government expenditure: "Last year Australian bio-control science turned a $4 million investment into a $95 million return…and did the same the year before, and the year before that, effectively all the way back for 100 years. An average benefit-cost ratio of 23 : 1 over that time period is simply a brilliant investment" [The Hon. John Kerin, former federal Minister for Primary Industries, Jan 2006 (Cruttwell McFadyen, 2007)].

Breeding and Selecting Correas©

Author: Peter Ollerenshaw

PP: 96


The genus Correa belongs to the family Rutaceae. It occurs naturally in eastern Australia from near the Queensland border through New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia. There are 11 species ranging from prostrate groundcovers to 4-m-tall shrubs. They mostly flower from late summer through autumn and winter and are pollinated by birds and bees. The four petals are fused into a corolla or bell and may come in a wide range of colours from green, red, pink, white, orange, and yellow or a combination of these colours (Fig. 1). They are easily propagated and make ideal garden or pot plants.

How to Better Model Your Irrigation System©

Author: Michael Danelon

PP: 98


As water reforms impact catchment areas, water users are now required to detail how efficiently they are using this limited resource. For many, water use efficiency is an area often neglected as the initial design and implementation of a system is all they have to demonstrate the theoretical performance rather than documented irrigation performance post system installation.

To meet water reform requirements, it is important for nurseries to carry out regular water audits so the information required is at hand and any shortcomings can be rectified. An audit not only considers the physical elements but how water is managed within a nursery.

This paper looks at how an irrigation system could be audited to determine its water usage.

Protected Berry Production: Strawberries and Raspberries©

Author: Mark Salter

PP: 101


Background. The unmet market demand in Japan for strawberries during the Japanese summer period (Months of May-October) is estimated to be approximately 100,000 tonnes per annum. Currently approximately 5,000 tonnes of poorly regarded strawberry cultivars are imported into Japan during the Japanese summer, primarily from the U.S.A. and New Zealand. The production of Japanese strawberry cultivars during the Tasmanian winter (Japanese summer) represented a unique opportunity to supply the Japanese counter seasonal market.

As a result of demand from Japan for out-of-season product, Japanese company New Agri-Network came to Tasmania to explore the possibility of establishing a production site in the state. New Agri-Network established its first greenhouse at Cambridge in 1999, primarily as a model to display the unique style of strawberry production used in Japan. Typically Japanese strawberry production occurs throughout the cooler months of the year in greenhouses. Summer production is limited because of Japans warm humid climate during the summer months.

Acadian Ascophyllum nodosum Extract Improves Early Root Growth and Plant Establishment in Vegetable and Bedding Plant Seedlings and Field-Grown Lettuce and Strawberries©

Author: James Gardner, Will Neily, Laurel Shishkov, Tony Tse, J. Norrie

PP: 108


Many vegetable field crops such as tomato, melon, and lettuce are grown in plug trays under greenhouse conditions prior to transplanting into the field. The development of a large, robust root system is essential for early plant establishment and allows young seedlings to withstand any number of transplant stresses.

Seaweed extracts have been shown in bioassay, greenhouse, and field studies to improve root and shoot development of various agricultural plants as well as to alleviate some symptoms typically associated with biotic and abiotic stresses (Khan et al, 2009). Greenhouse experiments at Acadian Agritech’s® research center in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, were designed to test the effects of Acadian seaweed extracts (a derivative from the marine algae Ascophyllum nodosum) on root development in lettuce, watermelon, mung bean, pansy, and cosmos. Lettuce and strawberry were also examined in field studies comparing growth effects of Acadian A. nodosum extract to standard grower programs for these crops.

Possible Improvement in Production Process of Hedera Potted Plants Using a Grooved Production Stake©

Author: Takashi Shimomura, Syohei Kinouchi, Norito Okada, Hitoe Hirao

PP: 113


For facade greening self-clinging and twining climbers are widely used (Dunnet and Kingsbury, 2008). These climbers, such as ivy (Hedera sp.), are propagated mainly by cuttings.

During the growing production process in the nursery some of the elongating shoots touch each other or bend down and touch the container medium surface of neighboring pots because the pots of rooted cuttings are closely placed in a tray. Then the shoots will twine around each other or the aerial roots will grow into the container medium. The resulting plants will be difficult to lift from the tray in perfect condition for shipping if not tied up (Fig. 1). In this study, we investigated the possibility of avoiding the problems mentioned above by using a ground stake (prop) in Hedera pot-plant production.

Cone-Shaped Pots for Straight-Root-Type Tree Seedlings©

Author: Kanjiro Takemoto

PP: 118

In Japan, the circling of roots in pots is a troublesome problem in production of straight-root seedlings of tree species used for the purpose of greening of highway slopes. When transplanting seedlings, some of the circling roots must be cut off. This decreases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. To solve this problem, I tried to improve the sowing pot for the tree seedlings. I received much valuable advice from Dr. Yoshichika Takeuchi, professor emeritus of Tottori University, and I made a cone-shaped pot with unwoven cloth (50 g·m-1) with a volume equal to a 9-cm-diameter pot (volume about 350 ml; Fig. 1).
Production of Own-Rooted Nursery Plants of Mango by Air Layering©

Author: Masahiko Fumuro

PP: 120


Nursery plants of mango are usually produced by grafting using rootstocks of the Taiwan native strain in Japan. Cutting propagation is profitable for production of nursery plants by reason of disuse of rootstocks and shortening of the growth period of the nursery plants. But mango is a difficult fruit tree to root from cutting. The objective of the present study is to present the production technique of own-rooted nursery plants of mango by air layering in order to shorten the growth period of the nursery plants and establish the container planting cultivation of mango using own-rooted plants.

Totipotency of Juice Vesicle in Citrus Fruit©

Author: Nobumasa Nito

PP: 122

The use of in vitro culture methods for Citrus has already had practical benefits for plant breeding and genetic studies. The development in the techniques of protoplast isolation and culture added further possibilities for the use of cell cultures. The establishment of embryogenic callus and plant regeneration from callus resulted in the success of protoplast fusion and regeneration of ‘Oretachi’.
Micropropagation of Diplazium nipponicum©

Author: Wakanori Amaki, Shiori Kadokura

PP: 123

A micropropagation procedure using green globular body (GGB) as an intermediate propagule for Diplazium nipponicum Tagawa, an edible fern endemic to Japan, is presented. GGBs were induced from rhizome segments on half-strength Murashige-Skoog (1/2 MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 benzyladenine (BA), 20 g·L-1 sucrose, and 8 g·L-1 agar (pH 5.2). The GGBs were able to multiply efficiently on the full-strength MS medium supplemented with 1 or 2 mg·L-1 BA, 20 g·L-1 sucrose, and 8 g·L-1 agar (pH 5.5). The regeneration of sporophytes from GGB segments was promoted by the addition of 1 mg·L-1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the full-strength MS medium supplemented with 20 g·L-1 sucrose and 8 g·L-1 agar (pH 5.5). After acclimatization, the regenerated sporophytes grew normally in a greenhouse.
Tissue Culture of Salix pet-susu: A Fast-Growing Biomass Resources Tree©

Author: Katsuaki Ishii, Tomonori Matsuzaki, Rie Tomita, Takashi Yamasaki

PP: 130


Willows (Salix species) are a fast-growing species for effective forest biomass production. They are widely distributed in the world but occur most abundantly in the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Among many willow species, S. pet-susu Kimura is one of the fastest growing species in the Hokkaido Island of Japan. For multiuse of all components of wood, components like hemicellulose or lignin in addition to cellulose can also be used for many functional materials. We have attempted to assess the plant growth regulatory function of xylooligosaccharides produced from the hemicellulose of hardwoods like Salix. In the course of study, we established an in vitro culture system of S. pet-susu for in vitro assessing of regulatory products and molecular tree breeding.

Obtaining Plantlets by Flower Bud Culture and Scape Culture in Primula kisoana©

Author: Hiroaki Ohashi, Kaoru Akaboshi, Yoshinori Ochi

PP: 133


Primula kisoana Miq. is a hardy perennial distributed in a part of Shikoku province. This species has wide variation, especially in diameter and color of the flow?er. For example, ‘White Flower’, ‘Lyo-beni’, and ‘Birodo’ were on the market as garden cultivars.

We obtained a number of variations through breeding and selected some superior clones (Fig. 1), and are planning to propagate by root segment culture and micropropagation. However, the culture methodology and conditions have not been established for obtaining plantlets from the in vitro culture of this plant. We studied the effects of plant growth regulators and difference among individuals on flower bud and scape culture.

Development of My Favorite Functional Plant Pot Saucer©

Author: Emiko Inaba

PP: 137

In interior rooms flowering and foliage plants perform as interior design elements and they relax you. In addition, they purify the air.

You will need a tray (plant pot saucer) to put foliage and pot flowers in a room. We also see many foliage plants and flowering plants in hospitals and large office buildings; however, sometimes they?re not in good condition.

‘Hanasaki-RAKUDA’: Planter for Irrigating Potted Plant©

Author: Shingo Sato and Jyunpei Hayashi

PP: 139


Hanasaki-RAKUDA (In Japanese, ‘hana saku raku da’ means that it is easy to bloom flowers) is a planter for irrigating potted plant (JPN Patent Publication No.06-022650), which was developed to obtain a planter capable of simply inserting and exchanging a water-absorbing material for irrigation, surely leading rainwa?ter, etc., into the planter body and minimizing the growth of various microorganisms and algae in the planter body. Almost 20 years ago, Sato was a member of developmental team of Hanasaki-RAKUDA, and Hayashi has been involved in sales of this item for long time. Now, our company, Hanakaido Inc., continues to cooperate in both the sales and technological support of Hanasaki-RAKUDA.

Field Excursion at IPPS Japan 16th Conference in Siga Prefecture©

Author: Masanori Tomita

PP: 142

The tour was arranged on June 28th to visit research institutes and a botanical garden. In the morning, approximately 40 participants left the Hotel Piaza in Otsu City.

The first visit was the 70-hectare Plant Breeding and Experiment Station of Takii Seed Company (http://www.takii.co.jp/english/) located southeast of Konan City. This station has been devoted to breeding new selections of both vegetables and ornamentals and their propagation since 1968.

Understanding the Links in the Green Supply Chain©

Author: Shelly Fuller

PP: 149


Good morning ladies and gentlemen. It’s great to be among green-fingered people. My background: National Diplomain Horticulture, Bachelors of Technology in Environmental Management, owned a landscaping business for several years, before continuing my studies and completing a Masters of Science (MSc) in Conservation Ecology. I now focus my energy on addressing environmental issues (more specifically climate change-related) within the land-use-based sector.

What I’m offering you today is a holistic view of risks and opportunities (in relation to climate change) as I see it for this industry (a broad level approach), what they mean for your business, and how you can start addressing them.

Beautiful Banksia for Horticulture©

Author: Rose van der Stay

PP: 157


Banksia belongs to the most famous southern hemisphere angiosperm family, Proteaceae. The family contains 73 genera, with Australia having 42 genera and South Africa 14. None of the South African genera occur in Australia. South America with 7 genera, shares 3 with Australia Gondwana continent connection. Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, sailing with Captain James Cook on the Endeavour, collected the first Banksia specimens in 1770 at Botany Bay, Sydney.

This unique Australian genus has fascinated botanists and plant people ever since. Currently there are 78 species with 61 species occuring in South West Australia. The tropical species grow in north western Australia and across Cape York in North East Queensland. There is one species in New Guinea; the 16 eastern species are spread down the eastern seaboard from North Queensland to Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia.

Propagation of Red Data Proteaceae Species of the Agulhas Plain©

Author: Charles P. Laubscher, Patrick A. Ndakidemi

PP: 162

Propagation of Red Data Proteaceae on the Agulhas Plain remains limited. This study highlighted the threats of four Leucadendron species. Further emphasis is placed on the propagation of Leucadendron laxum which is harvested as a indigenous cut flower. The application of rooting hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) in various rooting mediums in L. laxum was tested under greenhouse conditions and under shade house conditions. The treatments included: control, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm, and four rooting mediums: (a) bark and polystyrene; (b) peat moss and polystyrene; (c) bark, river sand, and polystyrene; and (d) perlite and river sand. A randomised block design with three replicates was used. Compared with other media, bark and polystyrene had the highest significant results in root and shoot growth, and the percentage that callused, rooted, and survived. The IAA treatments at different concentrations had significant effects on rooting, callusing, shoot growth, root lengths, and numbers of roots per cutting. Evidence from this study was conclusive that the shade tunnel was more successful in rooting L. laxum than the environmentally controlled greenhouse environment.
Pesticide Residue Management©

Author: Andrea Durrheim

PP: 172

During 2008, I was invited to attend a Pesticide Risk Reduction seminar in Sweden along with delegates from fifteen other countries. I would like to share some of the "food for thought" which was given to me during this initiative.

Pesticides and their residues result in risks to operators, workers, consumers, and the environment. Residues are found on plant material, in the air, water, and soil, and as growers in a green industry, it is very much in our power to limit these potential impacts.

Pesticide residues on plants can endanger the health of workers and consumers. In the case of ornamental crops (not intended for eating) withholding periods are often not considered important. Re-entry periods specified on pesticide labels are, however of paramount importance. Pesticide residues can accumulate in the human body, later resulting in diseases such as cancer which is difficult or impossible to trace back to chemical exposure.

Trichoderma in the Fight Against Root Rot in Zantedeschia Tuber Production©

Author: Marieke Mendes

PP: 175


Zantedeschia hybrids (coloured arum or calla lilly) is quite a difficult crop to grow due to its susceptibility to root rot. Primary infection by a complex of pathogens from the genera Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and Pythium often leads to secondary bacterial infection of Erwinia. While irrigation and environmental conditions play a very big role in disease management, the use of fungicides becomes a necessity and sometimes quite an extraordinary expense, while crop losses remain high.

Observation of wild as well as garden-grown coloured Zantedeschia indicates relatively good health and resistance to disease and even increased tuber production with minimal inputs as opposed to high intensity cultivation in "artificial" growth medium. Figure 1 shows two tubers both grown for two crop cycles, one in an intensive crop system with coir and bark as grow medium and under 40% shade; the second in a garden in Midrand, South Africa, on an east-facing wall.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens©

Author: Jan van Schoor

PP: 181


Agrobacterium tumefaciens>/I> is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen responsible for crown gall disease affecting over 600 types of plants, mainly monocotyledonous spe?cies, such as woody and herbaceous plants.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens enters the host through wounds or through the emergence of lateral roots. The bacterium migrates to the point of initial infection through the process of chemotaxis. Chemotaxis is the migration of a pathogen towards sugars and amino acids which accumulate around plant roots in the rhizosphere or to specific plant compounds released from wounds, such as acetosyringone and opines. Propagating techniques facilitate the infection process through wounding.

Growing the Plant Is the Easy Part, Selling It at a Profit Is the Challenge©

Author: Tony van der Stay

PP: 183


Nurserymen are our own worst enemies when it comes to putting a value on our plants/effort. I have never heard of a grower going broke because he put up his prices, but the trick is having good stock at the right time in the right market. After years of being in business and worrying about my prices, the penny dropped! I am in the market, not to sell plants, but I am selling time and should start charging accordingly — after doing this, we started to make more than a living!


The following are some reasons we are in the nursery business:

  • Because we love plants
  • I wanted to be outside and not stuck in an office
  • I inherited the business from my parents
  • I could see an opportunity to make some money
  • I like the lifestyle and the long hours
  • It seemed to be a good idea at the time
Report Back From 2008 Southern African-Australian Region Exchange Student©

Author: Quintin Muhl

PP: 186

As the Southern African IPPS exchange student for 2008, it is with great pleasure that I am able to give a brief overview of my 3-week stay in Australia.

Upon my arrival in Australia, I was kindly taken in by Greg and Lindy McPhee, who live in Lismore, New South Wales. Greg went to great lengths to make sure I see and experience as much as possible of the Australian Horticultural Industry during my stay in Lismore. Not only was I shown numerous advanced nurseries, but I was also given the opportunity to lend a hand in several nurseries, gaining valuable hands-on experience. This also provided me with an excellent opportunity to chat to employees and employers alike, about issues concerning the industry.

Nursery Management of Downy Mildew, Particularly in the Cut Flower Industry©

Author: Jac Duif

PP: 187

Impacts of Plasmopara obducens on Impatiens and Peronospora chlorea on Eustoma (syn. Lisianthus,/I>). The last few years this fungus disease has created havoc amongst the nurserymen, growers, and flower growers. Those engaged in the wholesale and retail nursery business as well as cut flower growers can tell you horror stories because of big losses in plant material and sales.

In the first instance with the Impatiens walleriana the fungus Plasmopara obducens created chaos the last few seasons. The plants are attacked by downy as soon as weather conditions were getting colder and wet. Downy mildew thrives under these conditions. Downy mildews are not true fungi but they are more closely related to algae and are also related to Phytophthora and Pythium.

It was about 2006 when I first saw downy mildew on a batch of impatiens in South Africa.

A Technique for Field Collection of Woody Plants for Micropropagation©

Author: Annemarie vd Westhuizen, Lorna Fischer

PP: 190

One of the biggest obstacles with the initiation of woody plants in tissue culture is contamination. Even when keeping the mother material in sheltered areas, pruning to encourage the growth of new material and treating regularly with broad-spectrum fungicides, it is not uncommon to observe contamination percentages greater than 90% during initiation.

Sterilization protocols for the majority of woody plants require the use of mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but this it is not an environmentally friendly option. Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] can be used as an alternative but is not as effective. Using a sterilization protocol adapted from other woody plants, which includes the use of both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in an attempt to initiate Eucalyptus species into culture resulted in 100% contamination. After applying a technique on pre-sterilization storage for 48 h in the dark developed by Watt et al. (2003) explant contamination was reduced to 9%. Although the trials were conducted only on Eucalyptus it is a technique that has the potential for use in initiation of other woody species in tissue culture. The aim of this study was to assess the adaptability of a reported eucalypt-field-collection technique on the successful decontamination of eucalypt hybrid material.

The Suitability of Coir Peat as a Substrate for Bedding Plant and Perennial Production©

Author: Hans-Jürgen Sittig

PP: 192


The substrate we used, composted pine bark mixed with 10% vermiculite, gave inconsistent results. It was difficult to manage the pH and EC levels because:

  • Quality of composted bark supplied was inconsistent.
  • pH was very low, often below pH 5.5.
  • Downward pH drift during cultivation.
  • EC levels in packs and pots remained low, also after pre-enriching and adding fertilizer with each watering.
  • Air-filled porosity varied a lot, often too many fines were resulting in poor oxygen availability in the root area.

In our efforts to find a solution to these problems we first reviewed the basics to ensure we understood what was happening. This knowledge also helped us to better evaluate other substrate possibilities. We decided to investigate the suitability of coir peat.

Ornamental Horticulture in Ireland©

Author: Jim Kelly

PP: 199

The founding of the GB&I Region of IPPS in1968 was a milestone in the affairs of the hardy ornamental plant industry in these islands. For aspiring researchers in this field, it was very comforting to have direct access to some of the most fertile minds among its membership. Its publications and ideals inspired a generation of growers, educators, and researchers and paved the way for progress. In what had traditionally been a "closed shop" in many ways, knowledge was spread on a new level by virtue of its "Seek and Share" ethos. It is a singular honour for Irish IPPS members to host the International meeting here. Ireland has a mild, wet climate. January temperature averages are from 4 to 7 °C and July from 14 to 17 °C. The warm currents of the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift influence the climate, giving suitable conditions for a diverse and exotic cultivated, naturalised, and wild flora, particularly on the western side of the island. Killarney, for example, is notable for its naturalised tree ferns while

Arbutus unedo forms larger trees there than anywhere else in Europe. Mount Stewart on the Ards Penninsula has an almost sub-tropical flora.

IPPS — Planning With Purpose©

Author: Patricia E. Heuser

PP: 202

The IPPS International Board is planning for the future. Using a model developed by Peter F. Drucker, the Board has asked important questions of the Society?s leadership and its members to determine how best to meet members’ needs and expectations. In addition, IPPS is moving into a position internationally of higher visibility with opportunities to become a worldwide knowledge resource for hor?ticultural plant propagation and production.
Danish Nursery Stock: White Swan or Ugly Duckling?©

Author: Marianne Bachmann Andersen

PP: 208


Half of my business of Hortus Advising is in advising Danish nurseries how to produce and how to promote and sell plants. My customers are growing perennials, shrubs, conifers, trees for landscape, hedges, ornamental trees, fruit trees, and roses. The other half of my business is writing marketing material for a garden centre chain, marketing material aimed at consumers, and a year round magazine for the garden centre industry. I have been involved in IPPS since it began in Denmark 1992.

The Danish poet and writer Hans Christian Andersen lived from 1805?1875. One of his fairytales is called The Ugly Duckling and tells the story of the young swan that was raised amongst the ducks and therefore not accepted. When it grew up it turned to a beautiful swan.

Mechanisation of Nursery Production and Handling Systems©

Author: Gary Leeder

PP: 210


I started my career in horticultural machinery as a service engineer but after nine months I was moved into the sales department — either I was a good salesman, or a terrible service engineer. Anyway, very early on in the trade, I had to visit a very reputable nursery in Lincolnshire. When I arrived, the nursery owner was standing working at the potting machine I was to repair. He was filling 9-cm liner pots and placing them into a tray, which he then placed on a free-standing piece of powered conveyor — the tray of pots travelled just 5 m down the conveyor to a man who took the trays off the conveyor and placed them onto a trailer.

I asked the grower why he was bothering with the conveyor — why not just carry the trays? He took great delight in telling me that he had done his sums and worked out that the conveyor saved him about 100 miles of walking every year. When I got home I did the sums for myself. Assuming the trays held 15 pots each, and the walk to the trailer was 5 m and then 5 m back to the potting machine, you would have walked 100 miles by the time you had potted 240,000 plants.

Trends in Production and Logistics for Commercial Horticulture©

Author: Tim Wilson

PP: 213


This paper presents a basic view of how certain sectors of the commercial horticul?ture industry (mainly the protected crops sectors) compare with other industries in terms of production and logistical processes.

The protected crop sectors currently benefit from various degrees of automation. Development in this area is continuing at a rapid pace, driven by today’s competitive global market. Several examples of current "state of the art" systems are detailed as practical references.

Experience With Mechanised Container Plant Handling and Dispatch©

Author: Christopher R. Bowman

PP: 221


John Woods Nurseries produces more than 1.7 million plants per year, across 13 different product groups. Potting young plants into their final pot is one of the most intensive production processes on the nursery. Timing is vital in the potting processes to ensure the finished plant is ready when the customer needs it. We also recognised a need to increase productivity and reduce labour costs in the despatch process. This paper describes our search for more efficient systems to increase productivity and reduce labour costs, and our experience with the chosen systems.

Innovation for Commercial Nurseries©

Author: Charlie Parkerson

PP: 225

Most nursery operations are done a particular way because "That’s the way we always have done it" or even because "That’s the way Dad always did it." This paper is about how to break this thought process.

At Lancaster Farms, our approach to innovation starts with the idea that if something does not add value to the product then it is waste. The innovation might be a faster, easier, or cheaper way of working but if quality or safety is compromised then it is waste.

The Use of Irish Indigenous Composted Materials in Growing Media©

Author: William R. Carlile, Dearbhail Ni Chualain, Colman Hynes, Sarah L

PP: 226


Peat substitution in growing media has been continuously and sometimes hotly debated within U.K. horticulture since 1989 (Carlile, 2004; Alexander et al., 2008) with demands from pressure groups, notably the Royal Society for Protection of Birds, that peat use in horticulture be phased out. Peat taxes have been proposed in the U.K., and 2010 is likely to be a pivotal year for peat use in growing media in that market. In 1999, the U.K.’s Biodiversity Action Plan called for growing media and soil improvers to be 40% peat free by 2005, and 90% peat free by 2010. The former target was met (largely through peat substitution in soil improvers), but the latter will not be met. A chorus of disapproval is likely to arise from environmental and other lobby groups, with action demanded from the U.K. government. There is much opportunity to develop peat-reduced media for the U.K. market.

Green compost has been studied extensively in several parts of the world for its potential as a constituent of growing media. The use of green compost and its admixture with other materials has formed the basis of much of the research programme at the Bord na Mona Research Centre since 1995, and is reviewed by Prasad and Carlile (2009). This work has been aimed at both professional and retail markets, and a primary intention was to use materials indigenous to the Republic of Ireland.

Special Features of Plastic Film Greenhouse Covers to Improve Growing Conditions©

Author: Dimitrios Doukas

PP: 229

Important features of advanced plastic films that optimise greenhouse growing conditions are presented:
  1. Thermic effect: thermic films have attracted attention for their ability to reduce heat loss at night. Film manufacturing technology and new additives can now provide superior clear (9% infra-red transmission) and diffusing (5% infra-red transmission) thermic films offering improved heat retention capacity.
  2. Optical properties: light transmission can be tailored to suit the specific crop, growing season, area, and grower’s expectations. A synopsis of the most important light manipulation effects is given.
  3. Anti-mist effect: some manufacturers’ and independent trials indicated that anti-drip, anti-mist films not only controlled the development of undesirable mist formation under certain conditions, but halved the number of fungicide applications required for adequate disease control, compared with standard film or standard anti-drip film.
  4. Cooling effect: recently developed three-layer silver and bubble films counter excessive heat development in greenhouses.
Root Manipulation in Containers©

Author: John Cooley

PP: 233

Good roots are the primary objective of any plant propagator. This might not be so true with quick-growing annuals but is particularly so with any perennial or woody plant, and especially trees. However, the majority of containers in use today do not do a good job of developing good root systems.

We need to aim to produce a root system as close as possible to the one the plant would develop when grown from a seed in its natural environment. Figure 1 shows a natural root system on a tree, note the dominant tap root plus strong lateral roots to give support and adventitious feeder roots to take up water and fertilizer.

Figure 2, by contrast, shows the type of root system that is found all too often in container-grown nursery stock, this being an example of a tree root circling in a black pot. A plant with such a root system will never establish successfully and growth will never be fully healthy. The culprit here is the black pot, it is cheap, practical, and most growers use them despite the fact that they know it produces a poor root system.

New Plant Introductions for Mid and Northern Europe©

Author: Wim van der Poel

PP: 237


With my brother, I own a 5-ha nursery called Wim & Alphons van der Poel in Hazerswoude near the famous Dutch nursery town of Boskoop. My father was a nurseryman, so were my grandfathers, and our family business has been running since 1887.

My brother and I were brought up on the nursery and in those days it was quite common to help in the nursery at a young age, starting with weeding and later planting. As there are about 900 nurseries in the area I soon began to work at another nursery during the summer holidays. After completing high school, I went on to attend the Boskoop Nursery School, which had an emphasis on practical training, with half days at school and half days as an apprentice at a local nursery. I also worked in Germany and England to learn more about the nursery industry and to learn the language and customs. With my brother Alphons we took over from my father.

Knowing the End Consumer: A Grower’s Collaboration in Launching a New Plant Brand©

Author: Elmer Dool

PP: 242


This paper is an honest evaluation and presentation of a moment in time in the life of an Irish nursery. It’s about the mounting difficulties that have to be faced and the solutions that have to be found in the face of a very severe recession. Irish consumers are now talking about how much they save, not how much they have spent — and that is a problem for all businesses. In the last year Sunhill Nurseries has experienced a 30% drop in turnover with the most recent months showing an even greater drop. This is an enormous jolt to a system that had only seen year-on-year turnover increases in the last 20 years. Other nurseries have had a similar experience.

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Young Plant Production at Magnolia Gardens Nursery©

Author: April Herring

PP: 245


Magnolia Gardens Nursery specializes in young plant production using tissue culture, in particular that of numerous Nandina domestica

cultivars. Young plant production comes with many rewards but there are also many challenges that must be overcome to reach them. These include deciding what plants to produce, determining the best production protocol, acclimization and finishing of plants, and finding innovative ways to deal with a slow economy. One of the biggest rewards is the discovery of a new plant and having the ability to use tissue culture to bring it to market more quickly than traditional propagation methods.
Using Plant Propagation Technology for Improved Plant Marketing©

Author: Pat FitzGerald

PP: 248


A definition of technology as it applies to nursery producers might be: "The practical application of science to commerce or industry." The word science comes from the Latin scientia meaning knowledge. Therefore in essence the title of this paper is simply the application of propagation knowledge to improve plant marketing. We can sometimes be blinded by words that appear more involved than they were meant to be when first devised. Technology is useless unless it results in ease of use.

The motto "To Seek and Share" is quite appropriate and in fact much of what the IPPS stands for is directly relevant to the use of technology for improved plant marketing. The purpose of this paper is to make a few practical suggestions based on our experience, working on our own, in an area where vast amounts of knowledge lay hidden in tomes of research papers.

Young Plant Production: Keep It Simple©

Author: Wayne Eady

PP: 252

Delamore Young Plants is one of the country’s largest suppliers of young plants to the nursery industry. In this paper I want to share with you the thought processes we go through to keep things simple both for us and our customers.

Our business aims to make the offer easily understood and easy to handle; to maintain rigorous product selection criteria and rigorous supply base control; to thoroughly trial products every year and to maintain strong relationships with sup?pliers, customers, and competitors.

The Role of the Evaposensor in the Propagation of Hardy Nursery Stock©

Author: Christopher M. Burgess, Richard S. Harrison-Murray

PP: 257

Standard mist controllers (such as simple timers, electronic leaves, or those using solar radiation integral) often fail to match misting frequency to the needs of the cutting very well, leading to reductions in rooting percentage and quality. The need for mist (or fog) varies with light level, humidity, temperature and air movement, all of which fluctuate with the weather, season and time of day. The Evaposensor, with its wet and dry artificial "leaves," responds to all these factors making it possible to measure and control the evaporative demand on cuttings in a reliable and reproducible way. The Evaposensor was invented in the 1990s as a research tool for controlling mist and fog environments, but only recently has equipment suitable for growers become available. Starting in 2007, a Horticultural Development Company (HDC) project promoted the development of a dedicated controller for use with the Evaposensor and funded trials on six nurseries. Evaposensor control gave significant improvements in rooting across a wide range of subjects, combined with easier management of the propagation environment. The new mist controller is made by E&TS Ltd. It can be used independently, or integrated with existing controllers in a variety of ways, for example to allow multiple beds to be controlled from a single Evaposensor.
President?s Message©

Author: M. Nevin Smith

PP: 267


I?d like first to welcome you all to this year’s annual conference of the International Plant Propagators’ Society, Western Region. We owe a hearty "thanks" to Jim Conner and his hard-working committee members for putting together a fine program of lectures and tours for you, with plenty of fun in sunny San Diego around the edges.


This is our fiftieth anniversary as a society, and you’ll probably hear frequent references to a rich history of "Seek and Share." I?d like to bring that motto, as I understand it, into sharper focus and to talk about practical, attainable ways we might carry it forward.

Western Region 50th Anniversary Recollections of IPPS Before, During, and After 1960©

Author: Donald F. Dillon, Sr., Philip A. Barker

PP: 269


On this 50th anniversary of the Western Region of the International Plant Propa?gators’ Society, it is important to remember our history and to look to that history to guide us into the next 50 years. Today we are going to look at the origins of the Western Region, who conceived it, and who gave it life, energy, direction, and character. The formation of the Western Region established an important precedent for the establishment of additional autonomous regions around the globe as part of an international organization, the International Plant Propagators’ Society.

The original creation of the International Plant Propagators’ Society can be credited to the vision and commitment of many people, and especially to Ed Scanlon and his publication ‘Trees Magazine.‘ Ed Scanlon felt an organization was needed to share updated information on plant propagation. This type of organization had formed in 1934 during the depression, but had subsequently failed.

Water Recycling with Flood Benches: Benefits and Disadvantages©

Author: Richard Wilson

PP: 272


Water run-off is becoming a top issue and priority for nurseries and agriculture in general. Within 2 years, regulations will be written in California from 5 years’ information gathering at sites. If you cannot contain it, it will have to be clean before discharge. If you can contain it, how can you use it to your advantage?


La Verne Nursery. We have an 8-acre reservoir that recaptures 100% of our irrigation run-off and have the capacity to capture a rain event equal to a 50-year rain event.

IPPS 2009 International Tour: Ireland©

Author: Douglas Justice

PP: 247

Every year, the International Board of IPPS meets in one of the Society?s eight regions. An extensive tour — usually 10 days to 2 weeks long and immediately preceding the host region?s annual meeting — is organized by a committee from the host region for the Board and other interested members. Board meetings are typically held at various points along the way, so that by the time participants reach the end of the tour, they can take part in all activities at the host region’s annual meeting. This year (2009), the region was GB&I and the tour was held in Ireland.

I was asked by Western Region 1st Vice President Jim Connor to present a short report on the International Board meeting and tour in Ireland at the Western Region annual meeting. Upon considering this task, I thought it might be useful to explain the role of the International Board as it relates to individual members of IPPS, while showing a few pictures I took on the tour.

Propagation Methods for Agave©

Author: Randy Baldwin

PP: 276

There has been an increase in interest in succulent plants, including agaves, likely because people are becoming more conscious of the need to reduce water use in their landscapes. There is also better availability of agaves because of advances in propagation methods. This talk will address the propagation methods we use at our nursery, including seed propagation, rhizome cuttings, planting bulbils produced in the inflorescence and the division of pups, both naturally forming and those induced by damaging meristematic tissue. The general principles of micropropagation for this group of plants will also be discussed.
Questions and Answers: Session I, Friday, 2 October©


PP: 280

Jonathan Manning: Are there salt build-up problems in the water or the media with your flood system? If so, how do you deal with them?

Richard Wilson: The pH may increase and you have to stay on top of that. We have a valve in-ground that automatically adjusts EC which can also rise over a period of time. We add fresh water to counteract the EC increases.

Propagating the Oaks of the Interior West©

Author: Scott Skogerboe

PP: 281


Most of us know the old adage, "If we want something done right, we have to do it ourselves." Propagating the native oaks of the interior portion of the American west is a perfect example of this old saying. As with many regionally important plant species, it is often difficult and sometimes impossible to find these oaks in the nursery trade. We cannot easily just open up the nursery catalogs on our desks and order these plants, so if we want them, we have to grow them ourselves.

At our Nursery, located in north central Colorado, we grow many of our regions native oaks because our conditions are vastly different than in much of the rest of the country. We start with having a precipitation rate of only 14 in. per year. Our mineral soils are thin and lacking in organic matter and the pH is very alkaline, often times greater than 8. Our springs and falls are very unsettled, as we can have spring freezes into the teens in late May, and in the fall, I’ve experienced the first frost come as an arctic blast blowing in with -5 °F temperatures. Our native oaks have evolved in these inhospitable conditions, and can take what nature throws at them. For us, they can be nearly cast iron.

In the Company of Plantsmen©

Author: Allen Bush

PP: 285

Jelitto Perennial Seeds is a small seed company devoted to the breeding, production, and seed technology of perennials and ornamental grasses. We’re committed gardeners, too. At the end of the work day most of us rush home to our gardens. The company employs 23 employees. Most work at headquarters in Schwarmstedt, Germany, in northern Germany. In addition, there are also marketing offices in North America (Louisville, Kentucky), United Kingdom (Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire), and Japan (Urayasu-shi, Chiba).

Jelitto lists over 3000 different seed items in their 2009 catalog. Seventy percent is under our production in over 20 countries. The company has pioneered the patented GOLD NUGGET SEED® process that significantly reduces the germination time on over 300 taxa that might normally require extended moist-cold stratification. Jelitto Seed Technology JET® represents the company’s improvement in seed cleaning.

Seed Technology: Ways to Improve Seed Results©

Author: Teresa Johnson

PP: 287


By incorporating seed technology products into a business, a grower can save money by producing more plants for the same financial inputs. Savings can be realized in multiple ways:

  • Easier handling > labor savings
  • Fewer skips > more plants per plug flat
  • Fewer doubles > fewer seed sown per plug flat
  • Higher germination > more plants per plug flat
  • Uniform germination > more transplantable plugs
  • Faster germination > less bench time (less labor and less utilities)


Grading. In the early 1980s, the demand for high-quality seed was spurred by growers switching from the broadcast method of sowing to plug production.

Rooting Substrates©

Author: Brian Cantin

PP: 290

The blueprint for designing a substrate, whether it be for germinating seed, rooting cuttings, or finishing a crop, should focus on a balanced root environment. Simply stated, the root environment consists of physical, chemical, and biological properties. Interaction between these three properties forms a complex control over plant and root health.

These three properties interact with each other to provide a balanced and ideal environment to sustain and promote root development and create the foundation for the plant. If any of these properties are substandard, the overall health and performance of the root will be jeopardized. An ideal rooting medium must have sufficient air, easily available water, and good drainage.

This article will focus only on the physical aspects of the root environment, specifically aeration.

Biological Disease Control — Grow Your Own©

Author: John Francis

PP: 292


"Planting" or applying very small dormant propagules of beneficial microbes to your rooting medium can result in a population of organisms that provide many benefits including protecting your plant roots from disease. While the "crop" doesn’t produce a plant of above-ground beauty or utility, some biological fungicides can result in hairy, disease-free, vigorous roots, which to a grower, are beautiful things!

I will be focusing on biological fungicides for root disease control. When approached with a new product to try, the first level of evaluation is to determine if it is EPA/DPR registered. Registered products have at least been screened for a basic level of efficacy against root diseases. Currently, the more commonly used biological fungicides are either bacterial or fungal organisms (Table 1).

How Mycorrhizae Can Improve Plant Quality©

Author: Michael P. Amaranthus, Larry Simpson, Thomas D. Landis

PP: 296


A mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae) is an anatomical structure that results from a symbiotic association between a soil fungus and plant roots. In exchange for a "home," the fungus provides numerous benefits to the host plant which we’ll discuss in the next section. Mycorrhizal fungi produce an extensive network of microscopic hyphal threads that extend into the surrounding soil or growing medium (Fig. 1).

Literally thousands of research papers have been written on mycorrhizal fungi, but many growers are unsure whether their plants have mycorrhizae or how to identify them. Numerous brands of commerical mycorrhizal inoculums are available but, unfortunately, some have been marketed as a "silver bullet" that will cure all your propagation problems. Since you are all experienced propagators who already know how to grow plants, we?d like to share with you how to make them even better.

Using Slow Sand Filters to Remove Plant Pathogens From Irrigation Runoff©

Author: Michael A. Harris, Lorence R. Oki

PP: 302


What Is Slow Sand Filtration? Slow sand filtration (SSF) is an old water treatment technology that is reappearing in horticultural applications in Europe, but isn?t yet in widespread use in the U.S.A. A common misconception is that SSF and rapid sand filtration are the same but with different flow rates. Though they use the same type of substrate they are quite different in that SSF is a biological treatment method that can remove pathogens (Wohanka, 1995), whereas rapid sand filtration is a physical filtration process.

Wild Things: Propagating Lesser-Known California Natives©

Author: M. Nevin Smith

PP: 306


It has taken many years and it has involved several false starts, but California’s native plants are finally joining the horticultural mainstream. The process began long ago with a few trees, mostly oaks, pines, and redwoods, and two shrubby genera, Arctostaphylos and Ceanothus. Recently it has encompassed a much wider range of plant genera and even plant types, including a number of herbaceous perennials and even a few bulbs.

Those of us who would like to take part in this evolving market will encounter a new set of interesting challenges for nursery culture and propagation, calling for a combination of creative thought, careful observation, and patient experimentation. The novel factors have to do with the plants’ adaptations to an almost overwhelmingly wide range of natural conditions, all of them distinct from those of more familiar ornamentals.

Questions and Answers: Session II, Friday, 2 October©


PP: 312

Neil Funston: How will the slow sand filter work in a nursery situation deal with pesticide run-off? Will that affect the biological action?

Loren Oki: Based on information we’ve received from civil and environmental engineers pesticide run-off should not have a negative effect. If the molecule can be degraded there?s going to be an organism to degrade it.

Valerie Sikima: How specific are the mycorrhizae to the actual plant? Can you use a broad-spectrum mycorrhizae on most plants and expect them to grow?

Plant Propagation in an Animal World©

Author: Christy Powell

PP: 314


The 100-acre San Diego Zoo is dedicated to the conservation of endangered species and their habitats. The Zoo also manages the 1,800-acre San Diego Zoo’s Wild Animal Park, which includes a 900-acre native species reserve and the San Diego Zoo’s Institute for Conservation Research. The San Diego Zoo’s Botanical Collections are accredited by the American Association of Museums and hosts a wide range of plant species from around the world due to its favorable climate and location. The Botanical Collection consists of the following: 46 taxa of Erythrina, 796 taxa of orchids, 106 taxa of cycads, 32 taxa of gingers, 135 taxa of aloes, 254 taxa of palms, 38 taxa of Acacia, 71 taxa of Ficus, and 74 taxa of bamboo. The San Diego Zoo’s collections include 47 taxa of imperiled species representing 2,761 individuals. Regional and specialty gardens are also found on Zoo grounds such as the Mediterranean Garden, Hawaiian Garden, South American Garden, Madagascar Garden, Bog Garden, Butterfly and Herb Garden, and Vegetable Garden.

Zoo horticulture is a unique facet of the horticulture industry.

Commercial Plant Tissue Culture — Past and Future Perspectives©

Author: Susana Vanzie-Canton

PP: 317


Instead of focusing on the minutiae of commercial plant tissue culture (TC), I’ve elected to provide you with a broader perspective of the TC industry focusing on its early years through to today’s commercial applications, finishing with our Rancho Tissue Technologies (RTT) perspective on the future of commercial plant tissue culture. Having been in the U.S.A. TC industry for over 20 years, RTT has the technical background and experience to offer valuable insights into this important part of the horticulture industry.

Cutting-Propagation Media: Cutting to the Chase©

Author: Shiv Reddy

PP: 321


During crop production, cuttings of woody nursery crops or even herbaceous greenhouse crops are seldom planted directly in a growing medium in which the crops would be finished. Cuttings are first rooted in a propagation medium in propagation containers and grown in propagation houses. The cutting-propagation medium is thus an important part of the propagation process.

When you are a supplier of growing media, you face many queries concerning media for cuttings: Is the medium sterilized? Why not? My cuttings are rotting! Are fungus gnats coming in the media? Media smells! When should I feed the cuttings? Why are my "rhodies" not rooting as well as those I saw in Georgia?

You notice that the same growing medium produced very good roots at one grower and poor roots at another grower. You notice roots on blackberry proliferate like emails on your BlackBerry and magnolia keeps mum like your landline. You start wondering about the basis of these differences and whether a medium can remedy them to some extent. How can media serve as a conduit for the needs of cuttings?

Questions and Answers: Session III, Friday, 2 October©


PP: 327

Fred Ceballos: Christy, you mentioned plant confiscations. Where were they confiscated and by whom?

Christy Powell: These were border confiscations. This often happens when bringing plants from Mexico. There have also been confiscations in Florida. If the plants don’t have the proper permits they’re confiscated and given to us.

Propagation of Cactus and Agave Made Easy©

Author: Jack Kelly

PP: 328


This paper is designed for plant enthusiasts who wish to propagate their agaves and cacti through vegetative means. Although there are many methods used by commercial growers who mass produce these plants including in vitro propagation, grafting, cuttings and seed, this paper will focus on low-tech, easy-to-follow protocols utilizing cuttings of cacti, vegetative divisions, and bulbils of agaves.

Propagation to Popularization: Moving New Plants into the Mainstream©

Author: Janet Rademacher

PP: 331

Over the past two decades the urban landscapes of Phoenix and other key cities in the Southwest have undergone a major transformation. Lush, high-water-use plants and turf are almost a thing of the past on commercial and municipal projects, and are much less prevalent in residential communities. The current plant palette consists of desert-adapted and water-efficient plants that were unknown in the marketplace 20 years ago. How have these new plants achieved popularity? How did they move from a propagation bench into right-of-way landscapes, public spaces, and private gardens? Professionals working together have fostered a greater appreciation and acceptance of desert plants in our region. Education has been the key to change.
Pest Management in Ornamental Production©

Author: James A. Bethke

PP: 333


Ornamental plants are some of the most attractive yet costly plants in production on the planet. Total sales by greenhouse- and nursery-crop growers reached $17 billion in the U.S. in 2006 (Jerardo, 2007), and total gross sales of nursery crops alone totaled $4.65 billion (NASS USDA, 2006). In addition, average sales per acre were $88,411, which is significantly greater than most any other crops on an acre-by-acre basis. However, maintaining a high-value high-quality crop can be challenging for any grower with the myriad plants to grow and the myriad pests to control. Even small blemishes caused by pests can have a profound effect on the quality and value of an ornamental plant. Therefore, pest management in ornamental production is very different than pest management in agriculture because higher standards are expected and prophylactic use of pesticides is common and allows an ornamental grower to sleep at night. But what are some of the challenges and alternatives in pest management faced by the producers of today?

Questions and Answers: Session IV, Saturday, 3 October©


PP: 341

Patrick Peterson: Was the sulfur compound being used to dip the bottoms of the plants a particular type?

No, it’s dusting sulfur. Sometimes a rooting hormone is added to the sulfur, which will make it less yellow, but you don’t have to do that. You don’t have to do the sulfur either. The key is to scab them over so they are really dry. You can let them go for a month or up to 6 months and they’ll still root easily.

Clonal Propagation: The Clean Plant Choice for Orchard Crops©

Author: Michael Vietti

PP: 342


Duarte Nursery Inc., was founded in 1989 in California’s Central Valley near the city of Modesto, as a grapevine nursery supplying potted bench-grafted grapevines to the wine industry. During the nursery’s establishment, demand for vines was outstripping availabilities so the nursery grew rapidly in the early years and by the late 1990s was producing 18,000,000 potted vines a year. Even though the company was growing rapidly, there was concern over having only one product line creating sales for the company, so the Duarte family entered into a partnership with John Driver who was operating Dry Creek Laboratory, a biotechnology lab in Modesto, California. Out of the many projects Mr. Driver was working on, his work on clonal propagation of rootstock taxa being used in agriculture, had real potential as a viable commercial enterprise that fit well into the nursery’s established practices.

Zee-Stem a Bridge to Successful Cherries©

Author: Tom Spellman

PP: 345

In the world of adaptable fruit taxa, cherries have to be one of the most problematic. Not only has it been a challenge to find cultivars that fruit reliably out of USDA Zones 6 to 9, it’s also been challenging to find compatible rootstocks that adapt to heavy and/or wet soil conditions. Zaigers, the fruit hybridizers out of Modesto California, are successfully challenging both.

Floyd Zaiger’s fruit breeding roots run deep. In the 1950s, Floyd worked with fruit breeder Fred Anderson. Fred has long been considered the "Father of the Nectarine." In his early years, Fred worked with the famous breeder Luther Burbank. Mr. Burbank (who needs no introduction) is known for many hybrids in the world of horticulture, including the Santa Rosa plum, the Russet potato and the first, true plum-cot, an F1-plum-apricot hybrid.

Automation for Propagation: Uniformity Is the Key©

Author: Bill Bozicevich

PP: 347


Normally, the decision to automate production is based solely on the labor cost associated with the process. Since finding and retaining good labor in sufficient quantities is difficult and getting harder all the time and due to the fact that labor represents one of the largest input costs a grower has, this seems to makes sense. However, there are other significant benefits to be gained through automation. First, the uniformity gained through automating technical processes often leads to efficiencies of all other associated inputs, through more even distribution and the ability to accurately repeat processes. Second, with the current "green" movement gaining momentum, it also makes sense to waste as little as possible, which is good for both your business and for the environment. As an added benefit, working conditions often improve for the production line workers and machine operators and elevate those jobs to a higher status, empowering the workforce.

Questions and Answers: Session V, Saturday, 3 October©


PP: 350

Kathy Echols: This is a question about the Zee-Stem. Are you using it for all of your cherry production now or is it going to be sporadic?

Tom Spellman: At this time Zee-Stem is about 40% of our total cherry production. I see that expanding next year to between 60%-70%.

Kathy Echols: Are those plants only going to commercial growers or are any of those plants available to the home gardener?

Nuggets of Knowledge — New Plant Forum©

Author: Allen Bush

PP: 351

Echinacea purpurea ‘Lucky Star’. ‘Lucky Star’ is the first new Jelitto Echinacea introduction since the long-lived ‘Rocky Top’ in 2003. We’ve waited until we had something special and, after years of careful selection, we’re very pleased with this lovely white-flowering selection, bred out of Jelitto’s ‘Rubinstern’ (ruby star). Beautiful white petals, horizontally arranged around a large cone, distinguish this consistent, new affordable seed strain.

Why does anyone need another Echinacea introduction? There is a confusion of dazzling color selections to sift through, but only a few are durable garden plants. And when propagated by tissue culture cultivars came on board, the cost of production, and royalties, significantly increased the price tag.

The Effect of Etiolation on Rooting of Acer grandidentatum Cuttings©

Author: Melody Reed, Larry A. Rupp

PP: 353


Bigtooth, or canyon, maple (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) is of interest due to its fall color and potential use in low-water landscapes. Improved asexual propagation would facilitate the introduction and production of new clones from the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of etiolation on rooting A. grandidentatum softwood cuttings.

Welcome to Cleveland, Ohio, 2009©

Author: Bill Barnes

PP: 359

Good Morning, I want to begin by thanking all of you for coming, for it is your par?ticipation that makes this, Your Society, function.

I also, want to thank on behalf of everyone here, the local site committee who have done a heroic job of putting together a splendid group of tours and bringing to us the Ohio Secretary of Agriculture as our banquet speaker. If you see a local site person, look on their name tag, step up, and thank them personally if you can. They have done a great deal of work for us. This group includes: Brian Gilson, Carla Lee, Charles Tubesing, John Maslen, Kathy Kowalczyk, Mark Gilson, Rick Wenham, Tim Brotzman, and Vic Swanson.

Trends in Horticulture©

Author: Anna Ball

PP: 362


The most recent trends in sustainable horticulture are:

  • Plastic and soilless media were invented in the 1960s with full integration as a matter of regular production practices in the 1970s
  • Mass marketers businesses began their growth stages in the 1980s
  • The advent of annuals produced in plugs occurred as well in the 1980s
  • The introduction of off-shore vegetative annuals began in the 1990s
  • The beginning of sustainability has started in the early 2000s

"We’re the original green industry, but even BP® has redesigned its logo to look like a flower." — Kerry Herndon

Sustainability should be viewed as a part of your overall organization. Sustainability is not a project that resides outside of your normal business practices. Sustainability will be a driver of innovation throughout your organization.

How We Propagate Some Difficult-to-Root Plants©

Author: John Larsen

PP: 366

I am going to mainly discuss Rhus typhina ‘Bailtiger’, Tiger Eyes staghorn sumac (PPAF) and R. aromatica ‘Gro-low’.

Rhus aromatica ‘Gro-low’. This is what we have found to work on ‘Gro-low’. We take as juvenile cuttings as we can and that means taking cutting from plants from our fields that were planted out the same spring as we take the cuttings. So what we are doing is just taking a cutting from a plant that was rooted the year before. We take these cuttings as soon as they are big enough to cut off which is usually late July or early August. Once the cuttings are taken they are put in cold storage usually 2–5 h after they are cut.

Pine Tree Substrates for Container Crops: Current Status and Overview©

Author: Robert D. Wright and Brian E. Jackson

PP: 371

Researchers in the Department of Horticulture at Virginia Tech have been studying the use of ground pine trees, referred to as pine tree substrate (PTS), as a new container substrate for greenhouse and nursery crops since 2004. This research is a totally different approach to container substrate production in that a new material is created for use as a container substrate rather that mining peat or using a by-product of another industry such as pine bark. The development of a new substrate for container-grown nursery crops is very timely since the availability of pine and Douglas fir bark is currently unpredictable due to reduced forestry production and its increased use as fuel and landscape mulch. This article reports the current status of PTS research including plant growth trials, stability during long-term crop production, new methods of substrate construction, PTS storage, and commercialization efforts.
Growing Container Plants in a Pine-Tree Substrate: Results at the Nursery Level©

Author: Charlie Parkerson

PP: 375

Early Trials. Dr. Wright supplied us with limited amounts of pine tree substrate (PTS) from his hammer mill at Virginia Tech starting with the 2006–2007 growing season. This PTS was a ready-to-use combination of pine chips and pine bark milled together into a homogeneous mixture. We planted a wide range of items in this ready to use substrate and were very pleased with the overall growth and quality of the plants in the trials. In the Spring of 2008 Virginia Tech supplied 40 ft3 bags of hammer-milled pine chips in various screen sizes. The chips were then hand mixed with our normal pine bark in various proportions. All mixes grew very nice plants. The only problem that we had was some settling of the substrate.
Growing Media Options: Take the Test Before the Lesson©

Author: Ted Bilderback

PP: 376


Container crop producers are experiencing rising costs and concern for future availability of substrate components used to grow container plants. Rising fuel costs have dramatically affected the cost of Canadian peat moss. Additionally growers are experiencing increased prices and shortages of pine bark. Over the last 40 years nursery container crop producers have depended on pine bark as a by-product of forest operations. Pulp mills, fuel pellet mills, and other industries are increasingly turning to pine bark as a source of fuel, reducing supplies available to the horticultural market. Competition and increasing costs of substrate components threaten the future economic profitability of the floriculture and nursery industry. Therefore, investigation of alternative container substrates is necessary and paramount for sustainable container crop production practices.

Carbon Fever, Prescriptions, and Home Remedies for Our Carbon Addictions©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 381

The dawning of the 21st century has more than brought to our attention the need to look beyond where the nursery industry has habitually been. Worries of global warming and its uncertain ramifications are simultaneously coupled with the anxiety that our energy needs will increasingly become more and more expensive. The reality is that our carbon-based economies will still be with us for some time yet to come and it is a certainty that we will have to make significant adjustments to cope with increased costs in the future.

The hard and cold facts (no pun intended) are that the energy and raw material needs of most nursery operations are largely carbon based and in many cases these raw materials are not renewable. It is interesting that the original text of this missive was written on notebook paper that is derived from sugar cane residue. When joined with the digital miracle of the computer, the carbon foot print to produce this dialogue at least at the beginning is negligible. Plastics in the form of film and slides were eliminated and replaced by electrons. Even the transmission of this "paper" to the editor will be electronic and will side step gasoline or diesel induced transportation.

Increasing Productivity in Propagation©

Author: Sebby Ruffino

PP: 389


Prides Corner Farms is a large wholesale nursery in eastern Connecticut that pro?duces a diverse line of woody ornamentals, herbaceous perennials, herbs, trees, fruits, and vegetables. Our propagation department generated over 3.5 million woody and perennial liners this past year. We use almost all propagation techniques including: unrooted cuttings, grafting, seeds, root divisions, and micropropa?gation to accomplish our tasks. Because we typically use more than 2–3 cuttings per propagation cell, we’ll stick over 4 million cuttings. As you can imagine, we need to stick hard and fast in order to get all our liners done in a timely fashion. My objective today is to explain how Prides Corner Farms uses group incentives as a motivational tool to help increase productivity in propagation.

We’ll Do It for You: Evolving Trends Toward Custom Propagation©

Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 392

This paper will discuss the evolving trend toward custom or contract propagation by grower nurseries in the United States. Our propagation nursery, located in Groveport Ohio, has expanded over the last 4 years with new facilities to capture this demand. Without sounding like an "infomercial," I will attempt to explain our history and evolution to meet this changing situation.

I wanted to discuss first the methods used to grow chickens in America. One option is the large commercial high technology chicken farms. A second less ex?pensive route is to raise them loose in your backyard. Both of these methods will likely be successful but in today’s world it is unlikely that any method in between these extremes will be profitable and successful. I use this example as an analogy to compare to the propagation industry in the nursery business. I believe the trend is clear toward large, highly efficient propagation nurseries replacing most of the in house propagation conducted by mid-range nurseries. Very small mom and pop size nurseries might still continue propagation successfully on a shoestring.

Protecting Your Horticultural Water Supply in the Face of Development©

Author: Lisa J. Ungers

PP: 395

Thank you for the introduction and Good Morning IPPS! It is my honor to be speak?ing to such an impressive assembly of our industry?s finest. Thank you for having me here today. I could not begin to introduce Roemer Nursery without first telling you a little about its founder Egidius M. Stroombeek. Gied as we know him, a na?tive of Holland, was trained as a propagator in Boskoop, under the direction of Siem Van Klaveren where he received his degree.

In 1952 Gied immigrated to the U.S.A. via New York after a 10-day journey across the Atlantic. Gied was stopped at customs and questioned by custom agents regarding his reasons for coming to the United States. Apparently, customs agents did not know what a propagator was and were suspicious of the container of hor?mone powder in his luggage. They continued to interrogate him until he was finally able to convince them that the hormone was for his future crops and he was then permitted entry into the country.

Using Composts for Healthy Plants and High Productivity©

Author: Bill Hendricks

PP: 398

Klyn Nurseries has used composts in various aspects of production for over 20 years. Over the years we have modified certain applications of how we use composts but have never veered from the basic principles we discovered so long ago. The basic principle that organic material improves soil tilth, texture, drainage, adds slow-release nutrients, and provides disease control where used properly is a given. Using these principles we apply organic matter to our fields and bed production at every opportunity. The biggest problem we face is finding large enough quantities of these materials when we need them.

In field production we use a combination of composted nursery waste (ground up plants and container media), leaves and grass clippings. Working with the local County Cooperative Extension office we provide a service to the community as a drop off point for the Local Leaf to Land program allowing residents to drop off leaves and grass clippings at no charge.

Diversity of Plants and What This Means to Losely Nursery©

Author: Bryan Champion

PP: 400


I would like to thank the IPPS for the opportunity to share some thoughts with you. I stand here today humbled in front of my piers for which I have great respect. Nothing today that I have to say about plant material will be new to any of you. I will instead try to explain how these plants impact our operation thus making it somewhat easier to survive in today?s economic conditions with a diverse line of plant material.


Many of you remember Edward Losely. I was 21 years old when I started working at Losely Nursery. I was fresh out of Ohio State and ready to tackle the world. It was not long after starting to work for Mr. Losely that I realize how much I still had to learn. I was very fortunate to learn from whom I feel is one of the best talents we had in our industry.

The Evolution of Willowbend Nursery©

Author: Kurt Unger

PP: 403

I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you all for coming and to thank the IPPS for the honor of speaking to you today.

Willowbend Nursery was founded by the Brewster family in 1897. It began on 7 acres of land. During the Great Depression, the nursery filed bankruptcy and was taken over by a bank. Attempts by the bank to sell the nursery to outsiders went unfulfilled and three Brewster brothers were able to purchase the lands back. One of these brothers was Thor Brewster who eventually bought his two brothers out of the business and passed it on to his only son Dave in the early 1970s.

In 2006, Willowbend underwent its second bankruptcy proceeding. The nursery itself, the land, and the key personnel survived the proceedings; however the Brewster family did not. In the Spring of 2007 Angelo Petitti of Petitti Garden Centers purchased Willowbend out of bankruptcy and Ridge Manor out of receivership. Angelo is a very innovative individual. He is extremely passionate about horticulture and has experienced unprecedented success with his garden centers. He is unparalleled with his uniqueness due to integration. By integrating his business from wholesale through retail, Angelo has created an environment in which only the best product is sold to the end retail customer.

Recovering Phosphorous From Waste Water©

Author: Jim Zablocki

PP: 405

The concern of phosphorous entering our waterways and ground water is well recognized at this time. Attempts have been made to reduce the amount of phospho?rous in fertilizers to help reduce pollution. Lower levels of P to zero P have been introduced to help mitigate this problem. The challenge we face is phosphorous is an essential element in all living organisms. Modern agriculture cannot continue without this essential element. To put things into prospective 135 million tons of phosphorous is mined annually with over 90% used in the formation of fertilizers. What we may not know is that phosphate rock from which all commercial fertilizers are made is a finite source.
How Wet Is Wet?: The Art and Science of Watering©

Author: Will Healy

PP: 408

  • The profitability of your business is controlled by the person holding the hose.
  • More plants are damaged by incorrect water application than any other thing you do.
  • Pesticides compensate for incorrect water application.
  • Slow growth, uneven growth rate, reduced quality, and poor post-harvest survival are all signs of incorrect water application.

Watering plants is a core activity in a nursery. Most staff receive training consisting of "go water the plants." Rarely does a new employee understand the intricacies of when to water, how much to apply or the frequency of application based on plant development and weather conditions. Invariably growers either "figure it out" or become frustrated and quit your company and start the process all over somewhere else. Unfortunately while the growers are "figuring it out" they produce crops that are inconsistent in quality with increased shrink.

Propagation of Difficult-to-Root Semi-Hardwood and Hardwood Evergreen Cuttings©

Author: Gail Berner, Carolyn Mihalega, Vijay Rapaka

PP: 414


The semi-hardwood cuttings of Daphne tangutica and hardwood cuttings of Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Tempelhof’ and C. pisifera ‘Mops’ have a reputation for being difficult to root. In 2008, propagation trials were conducted with the cuttings of those genera in peat/perlite-based conventional medium and Oasis® phenolic grower foam medium. The objective of the study was to explore the possibility of rooting difficult-to-root semi-hardwood and hardwood evergreen cuttings in Oasis phenolic grower foam medium.

Environmental Stewardship in the Nursery©

Author: Jen Llewellyn

PP: 417


In these "green" times, it seems as though the nursery sector is one of few industries that hasn’t been recognized for its contributions towards helping the environment. Nursery growers produce the plants that sequester carbon, provide oxygen, clean the air and water, restore habitats, and so on. But it doesn’t stop there. At many nurseries in Ontario, growers are working hard to implement more sustainable production practices. Many of these stewardship activities are targeted towards protecting surface and sub-surface water, reducing the use of fossil fuels, and recycling or reducing waste.

Bringing Nature Home©

Author: Douglas W. Tallamy

PP: 421


Most of us have never thought of our gardens — indeed, our entire landscapes — as wildlife preserves that represent the last chance we have for sustaining the plants and animals that were once common throughout the U.S.A. But that is exactly the role our suburban landscapes are now playing and will play even more in the near future. If this is news to you, it’s not your fault. We were taught from childhood that gardens are for beauty; they are a chance to express our artistic talents, to have fun with and relax in. And, whether we like it or not, the way we landscape our properties is taken by our neighbors as a statement of our wealth and social status. But no one has taught us that we have forced the plants and animals that evolved in North America (our nation’s biodiversity) to depend more and more on human-dominated landscapes for their continued existence. We have always thought that biodiversity was happy somewhere out there "in nature," in our local woodlot, or perhaps our state and national parks. We have heard nothing about the rate at which species are disappearing from our neighborhoods, towns, counties, and states. Even worse, we have never been taught how vital biodiversity is for our own well-being.

Plugging Into the Green Economy©

Author: Steve Castorani

PP: 425


As you heard in the previous talk given by Dr. Doug Tallamy, native plants are the necessary link in the food chain if we expect to increase biodiversity in our landscapes. In the early 1990s, my business partner at the time, Dale Hendricks, gave a talk to the Eastern Region IPPS in Long Island entitled "New Markets for Native Plants." At the conclusion of the presentation a member protested the idea of promoting native plants and rejected the idea that native plants should play a significant roll in nursery production. We could see that he was threatened by the idea of promoting and using native plants. He also believed it would be bad for the nursery industry and just plain bad business. I’m here today to tell you that after the last 17 or so years, the perceived threat is over. What was yesterday?s fringe is now today?s mainstream.

Successful Propagation of Native Plants©

Author: Glenn W. Rogers

PP: 430

I have not always grown native plants. It was not too long ago that many of the herbaceous plants I am growing now were sprayed with herbicide! After graduat?ing college I was hired by Richard Hesselein at Princeton Nurseries in Allentown, New Jersey. Little did I know I would be there for 23 years and I would manage the Allentown seed beds and later become their propagator. I learned seed production, grafting, budding, rooted cutting, tissue culture, and container production of shade trees and shrubs. Princeton Nurseries was a great place to work since the Propagation Department was always well funded. But all good things must come to an end, and with the passing of Bill Flemer III, I knew it was time for a change. Lucky for me, I accepted an offer from Pinelands Nursery and Supply in Columbus, New Jersey, which allowed me to continue to live in the community where I grew up and my daughter did not have to switch schools.
Does It Have to Be Native to Be Sustainable?©

Author: Stephen Foltz

PP: 433


The nursery industry has always been considered part of the "Green Industry." Now every day we see more and more industries claiming to be "Green." Just the other day I saw a concrete truck with the words "Go Green" on it. How sad is that! Everything we say and do these days must have the word "Sustainable" attached to it. Now we are hearing that we just can’t plant plants that do well in our area, they must be sustainable plants. Some will even go a bit further and say that native plants naturally grow here so they must be more sustainable. So we end up with a very confused public and a very confused industry on the issue of sustainable plants. Here is the question. Does it have to be native to be sustainable?

This seems like a reasonable question. One that often gets me into trouble or laughed at depending on which group of people I am talking to. When I bring it up to nurseries and landscapers they tend to have the same reaction, they can?t believe I am even asking the question.

Propagation of Plants From Cuttings Using Rooting Solutions by Foliar Methods©

Author: Joel Kroin

PP: 437


To be efficient and competitive it is necessary to use effective methods. In propaga?tion, the goal is produce high quality and high yield production. Material cost must be minimized. It is also important to select labor-saving methods that assure all plant materials are properly treated.

I have never completely read a whole book on plant propagation nor a complete chapter. I did however read a popular book on nursery management. Written in ’96, the esteemed writer explains that the best way to propagate a plant is to use its natural reproduction ability. Perhaps you own this popular book, the Nursery Book, written by Liberty Hyde Bailey, not 1996 but 1896, more than 120 years ago. He did not discuss plant rooting substances since scientists had not yet identified them (Bailey, 1896).

Non-Invasive, Cold-Hardy Clumping Bamboos: The Genus Fargesia©

Author: Susanne Lucas

PP: 454


First of all please let me clarify a general misconception. I believe that bamboos are not "invasive," because: (1) bamboos do not flower and set seeds that are dispersed far and wide, (2) bamboos do not invade wetlands — their roots cannot survive in water-saturated soils; they do not "jump" to other areas, and (3) some genera of bamboo have pachymorph root systems with no expanding stolon or rhizome parts. However, some bamboos are extremely spreading and if planted, need to be sited properly, be maintained within the desired perimeter of spread, and have their unwanted spread controlled.

New Plant Forum

Author: Jack Alexander, Ted Bilderback, Tim Brotzman, Steve Castorani,

PP: 461

  • Acer palmatum ‘Twombly’s Red Sentinel’
  • Alstroemeria ‘Tangerine Tango’ ppaf
  • Buddleja ‘Blue Chip’ pp# 19,991, cbraf, Lo & Behold® blue chip butterfly bush
  • Buddleja ‘Miss Ruby’ ppaf, cbraf
  • Coreopsis ‘Route 66’ ppaf
  • Fargesia murielae, Oprins Selection, New Umbrella umbrella bamboo
  • Fargesia nitida ‘Isle of Man’, Great Wall bamboo
  • Gleditsia triacanthos ‘Draves’ ppaf, Street Keeper honey locust
  • Hamamelis ovalis
  • Helianthus x multiflorus ‘Sunshine Daydream’ ppaf
  • Hydrangea arborescens ‘Abetwo’ pp# 20,571, cbraf, Incrediball® smooth hydrange
  • a
  • Hydrangea arborescens NCHA1 ppaf, cbraf, Invincibelle® spirit smooth hydrangea
  • Hydrangea paniculata ‘Jane’ ppaf, cbraf, Little Lime® panicle hydrangea
  • Picea pungens ‘Lemonade’
  • Syringa ‘Penda’ pp# 20,575, cbraf, Bloomerang purple reblooming lilac
Production of the Vine Dioscorea bulbifera©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 466

Dioscorea bulbifera L., air potato, occurs naturally in tropical Asia and Africa (Griffiths, 1994) and was introduced into the United States sometime in the early part of the 20th Century (Anonymous, 2008). It is generally considered to be an invasive plant in Florida and surrounding Gulf States (Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with a subtropical climate. There are reports of it being in Hawaii and Puerto Rico as well (Anonymous, 2007).
Results of Supplemental Lighting to Improve Winter Rooting of Evergreen Cuttings©

Author: Gail F. Berner

PP: 468


Goal: To improve rooting success of winter propagated hardwood evergreen cuttings, and to reduce unacceptable levels of variability in rooting from year to year.

Location: Grand Haven, Michigan, approximately 5 miles from Lake Michigan. Days are short with frequent cloud cover from November-February.

Rationale: Despite a lack of data for minimum required light intensity to root evergreens, Dr. Paul Fisher of Young Plant Research recommends a minimum Daily Light Integral (DLI) of 3–5 mol·m-2·d-1 (pers. commun. 16 Oct. 2008).

Monitored greenhouse 2008 DLI values were found to be well below target values January until March, (Fig. 1).

Controlling Leaf Hoppers With Granular Insecticides©

Author: Samuel R. Drahn and Jean-Marc Versolato

PP: 473

Using granular insecticides can help deter leafhoppers from feeding on 1st year seedlings and may help produce larger and more heavily callipered liners. Timing traditional chemical sprays to the wind currents that bring leafhoppers northwards can be a difficult task. They arrive unpredictably and when in low numbers, es?pecially in the nymph stage, and are difficult to detect until damage is visible. By applying granular, systemic insecticides early in the life of the seedlings chemicals can be taken up by the plants and persist until the leafhoppers arrive.
Propagation of Northern Bog Blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) by Seeds and Stem Cuttings©

Author: Patricia S. Holloway, Katie M. Kokx, James Auer, Shannon Pearce

PP: 475


The northern bog blueberry is the most harvested wild berry in all of Alaska. The plant grows from the northern tundra to the coastal mountains. It has been a traditional food of indigenous people for thousands of years and is commercially harvested for farmers market sales and for small cottage jam and jelly industries. The berries are extremely high in antioxidants even when frozen or processed into juices, fruit leather, and other products (Leiner et al., 2006; Holloway et al., 2006).

Because of increased demand for this northern berry, Alaskans are interested in managing wild stands and field cultivation for improved fruit production (Holloway, 2006). Any attempt at cultivation requires a rapid and consistent method of propagation that is feasible in Alaska with limited propagation facilities.

Utilizing Host Plants in an Integrated Pest Management Control Program©

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 479


Insect vectors can be serious pests of production and display crops, of both woody and herbaceous plants. This presentation will highlight an ongoing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program designed to reduce conventional chemical control methods of selected insect pests.


There are numerous seasonal insect pests which damage and even destroy production plant materials. These pests also ruin display gardens, by their predation of the plants, making them unsuitable for view, by eating stems, leaves, and flowering parts of these plants.

Brewing Compost Tea at North Creek Nurseries©

Author: Tim McGinty

PP: 481


North Creek Nurseries is committed to the pursuit of sustainable production and business practices. Our interest in brewing and using compost tea began in 2003, when we began to trial aerated compost tea drenches (ACTs) on native plants in our deep plug program. While the experiments were not scientifically verified, the observable results were dramatic. The results of these trials stimulated our interest to learn more about brewing and using compost tea in propagation and liner production.


The generally accepted definition of compost tea is: an aerobically brewed cold water extract made from compost. It contains beneficial microorganisms, nutrients, and plant growth regulators that enhance plant and soil health.

Overview of the Ed Mezitt Hybrids: IPPS Eastern Region, Lasting Legacy Poster©

Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 483


Edmund (Ed) Victor Mezitt was born in 1915, son of Peter J. and Anna (Olga) Mezitt, and grew up involved in the nursery business founded by his parents in 1923. He graduated from Cornell University in 1937 with a degree in landscape architecture. Understanding the need for better landscape plants, he joined his family in an effort to select and propagate superior individual plants with improved characteristics, many from seedling crops being grown by Weston Nurseries. His first attempt at hybridizing in 1939 resulted in the now-world-renowned Rhododendron PJM Group. Using this initial success as his foundation, Ed documented more than 4,500 crosses until his death in 1986.

Development of a Double Crop Production System Using Retractable Roof Houses©

Author: Dania Rivera, Hannah Mathers

PP: 489

Double cropping containerized tree liners in a retractable roof greenhouse (RRG) increases the incentive for their production in Midwest nurseries. The objectives of this study are to evaluate possible acceleration of tree production using double cropping in a RRG at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, with subsequent upshifting to a pot-in-pot (PIP) system. Two tree species were selected to be grown in the RRG, red maple (Acer rubrum ‘October Glory’) and greenspire littleleaf lin?den (Tilia cordata ‘Greenspire’) all the trees were grown from tissue culture and they had a start height of 20–25 cm.
Some Factors Affecting Seed Germination and Seedling Growth©

Author: Hamish Safdari

PP: 491

Poor uniformity of seed germination and early seedling growth rates are major obstacles in conventional propagation. This paper combines some principles of propagation with climate control and may help growers better understand and then control seedlings environmental factors.

The physical environment affects seedling physiology (photosynthesis, transpiration, and respiration), with factors interacting to control growth rate and uniformity. A strategy for controlling environmental factors will benefit seedling etiolation, hardiness, and disease control.

A New Tetragonal Sweetleaf Plant and Its Cutting Propagation©

Author: Fang Geng, Zhihui Li, Donglin Zhang, Fangping Tong

PP: 493


Tetragonal sweetleaf (Symplocos tetragona Chen ex Y.F. Wu), a member of Symplocaceae, is a new woody ornamental evergreen plant. Since it was discovered in 1986 (Wu, 1986), this small evergreen tree attracted gardeners by its dense, glossy dark green foliage and round to pyramid habit. As a wonderful landscape tree, tetragonal sweetleaf is gaining popularity in urban landscapes and public areas and earning nicknames "forever green tree" (Liuchunshu in Chinese) and "fragrant mountain flower" (Shanguihua in Chinese). Tetragonal sweetleaf is native to China and mainly distributed in Hunan, Fujian, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi province (Qin and Li, 2007; Wu and Huang, 1987). To date, no record had been found for tetragonal sweetleaf in North America. This paper is to introduce this beautiful tree and share its cutting propagation method.

Initiating Flower Buds of Hydrangea macrophylla Liners©

Author: David Joeright

PP: 499


For many years Hydrangea macrophylla has been forced into flower in greenhouses for sale in April or May as houseplants. In nursery production, it is common to overwinter larger containers and allow them to flower naturally, often with a head start in covered houses. In greenhouse production it is common for growers to start with pre-cooled plants produced by a supplier which they can force into flower in 12–14 weeks. In nursery production it is common for growers to purchase or propagate liners to transplant and grow for one or two seasons before finishing. Hydrangea macrophylla flower induction is best achieved by cool temperatures (<18 °C) under shorter daylengths, then followed by a dormancy period. In greenhouse production coolers are used to initiate and develop flower buds. In nurseries, flower initiation typically occurs naturally. Because flower buds are initiated before dormancy it is critical not to prune or pinch plants after this process has begun or flower buds will be removed.

Technologies for Creating Efficient Workflow Between 2-D AutoCAD Drawings and 3-D SketchUp Models in the Preparation of Planting Plans©

Author: Michael R. Mohney, Dan T. Stearns, Martin McGann

PP: 501

Landscape planting designs are commonly created in two-dimensional plan view using AutoCAD or other similar software applications. Drawings produced by these programs provide detailed information on horizontal placement of site elements, but offer little to designers or clients regarding the three-dimensional spatial relationships that are critical to successful designs. Three-dimensional models created using Google SketchUp or similar applications provide designers and clients with realistic virtual images that can be viewed from an infinite number of viewpoints.
Improving the Postharvest Quality and Rooting of Cuttings©

Author: Vijay Rapaka, Jim Faust

PP: 502

The most common postharvest ethylene-related problems include leaf senescence (yellowing) and/or abscission of matured leaves. Successful postharvest shipment of non-rooted vegetative cuttings is dependent on the interaction between endogenous carbohydrate status and ethylene sensitivity. Plant sensitivity to ethylene is dependent on the carbohydrate status of the cutting. Cuttings harvested at the end of the day possess relatively high carbohydrate levels and are less sensitive to ethylene action. In contrast, cuttings harvested early in the morning have low carbohydrate levels and are more sensitive to ethylene in the post-harvest environment. Application of the ethylene-blocker 1-MCP inhibits leaf senescence and abscission regardless of the endogenous carbohydrate status and ethylene production.

Successful rooting of vegetative cuttings is dependent both on preharvest carbohydrate status and current photosynthesis during the course of propagation. When cuttings produced under high light levels at tropical locations are shipped and propagated under lower light during winter months, their net carbon assimilation will be impaired. This is primarily due to the poor photosynthetic performance of the cuttings during propagation because of the improper adaptation of their photosynthetic apparatus. The survival and root formation of those cuttings can be improved by supplemental lighting during propagation.

Technical Sessions©

Author: Hugh Gramling, Patricia Knight, Eelco Ti, Rick Crowder Nga

PP: 509


The 34th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Imperial Palace Casino Resort with President Hugh Gramling presiding.


President Gramling welcomed everyone to Biloxi, Mississippi, for the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society Southern Region of North America.

University of Arkansas Plant Evaluation Program©

Author: James Robbins, Jon Lindstrom

PP: 510


The University of Arkansas established a Statewide Plant Evaluation Program in 1999. Over the past 10 years, the program has evaluated 118 different woody ornamental plants — some have been winners and some not so hot. As you can imagine, with thousands of different ornamental plants, just 118 plants is a drop in the bucket. However the program is trying to make an impact by providing reliable performance data for homeowners and the green industry in the MidSouth.

Because there are so many different woody ornamental plants, the Arkansas pro?gram established two general guidelines for accepting plants for evaluation. The first is to assess the suitability of broadleaf evergreens with the primary consider?ation being winter hardiness in Northwest Arkansas (USDA Cold Hardiness Zone 6b). The second is to assess the performance of underutilized woody ornamentals that may serve a specific landscape function such as a screen or hedge.

When It All Comes Together! Propagation at Bracy’s Nursery©

Author: Larry Herring

PP: 512


At Bracy’s we produce a wide range of items from fruit to trees to ornamentals and perennials. We have grown from an 8-ha (20-acre) nursery in the late 1990s to a 61-ha (150-acre) facility today, while adding more and more items to our palette. This rapid growth along with our staged production process pushed us to expand and more fully develop our limited propagation at the nursery. Our goal from the start was to be able to furnish liners for our production in a way that was timely, efficient, and cost effective.

The propagation facility at Bracy’s includes two primary mist houses and an overwintering structure and encompasses 6968 m2 (75,000 ft2). In this facility, we produce approximately 1 million units of over 300 different taxa of plants in sizes ranging from 72 cell to 1 qt. The number produced for each variety range from a few hundred to tens of thousands. We begin propagation in late January and usually finish by early November.

Are You Under-Irrigating Your Trees?©

Author: Richard C. Beeson, Jr.

PP: 516


To maintain high growth rates, plants need to stay fully hydrated. Yet over-irrigation results in nutrient leaching and can promote root diseases. Water management is especially important for container production, where soil volume is limited. For woody shrubs, there are several examples available to estimate irrigation need (Beeson, 2004; Burger et al., 1987; Knox, 1989; Reagan, 1997). However for trees, examples are few (Beeson and Brooks, 2008; Edwards, 1986; Steinberg et al., 1990). In Florida, nurseries and tree farms are often required to justify their request for water-use permits when renewed. This project was initiated to quantify water use of three tree species up to 13-cm (5-in.) caliper. This paper is a brief summary of some of the results.

Rooting of Three Ornamental Plants in Eight Propagation Substrates©

Author: Celina Gómez Vargas, James Robbins

PP: 524

Parboiled rice hulls (PBH) and coconut coir (CC) are being evaluated as potentially new substrates for the propagation industry. Peat moss (PM) and perlite (PER) have been used in many propagation studies showing suitable rooting characteristics for woody ornamentals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PBH, CC, PM, and PER substrates used individually or in combination (1 : 1, v/v) on the rooting of semihardwood cuttings from three woody ornamentals. Results indicated that in general substrate pH decreased during the root?ing period. Based on rooting percentages and number of roots per cutting, PM continues to be a good rooting substrate; PM : PER, and CC : PER also appear to be good rooting substrates. Parboiled rice hulls (PBH) appear to be a suitable rooting substrate when combined with peat moss.
Adventitious Root Formation in Poplar (Populus) Internodal Stem Cuttings Grown In Vitro©

Author: M.E. Stevens, S.T. Kester, R.L. Geneve

PP: 529


Cutting propagation is an important tool for clonal nursery propagation. Currently there is a significant number of woody perennial species (especially trees) that cannot be rooted from cuttings. Adventitious rooting is a complex process that is affected by many factors including hormone levels, light, rooting cofactors, and plant maturation (Hartmann et al., 2002). However, the two major factors determining root initiation are auxin availability and the plant’s ability to respond to auxin. Although researchers have spent decades trying to understand the basic physiology behind adventitious root formation, we still know very little about the genes controlling this process. It has become increasingly clear that the next significant improvement for rooting cuttings from recalcitrant species will not be discovered until we have a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling rooting and maturation-related loss in rooting potential.

Stephen F. Austin State University Gardens: Plants and Plans©

Author: David Creech

PP: 533

INTRODUCTIONStephen F. Austin State University (SFA) Gardens comprises 52 ha (128 acres) of on-campus property at SFA, Nacogdoches, Texas, and is the umbrella organization responsible for the activities, growth, and development of four primary gardens: (1) the 17 ha (10 acres) SFA Mast Arboretum was initiated in 1985 and includes the horticulture facility of the Agriculture Department; (2) the Ruby M. Mize Azalea garden is a 3.2-ha (8-acre) garden of primarily azaleas, camellias, and Japanese maples and was dedicated in April 2000; (3) the 17-ha (42-acre) Pineywoods Native Plant Center (PNPC) was dedicated by Lady Bird Johnson in April 2000; and (4) the SFA’s Recreational Trail and Gardens comprises 27.5 ha (68 acres) of mostly undisturbed forest and this unit will be dedicated in March 2010. Nacogdoches is a small town of 30,000 citizens in the middle of east Texas, about 96 km (60 mi) from the border with Louisiana, part of the great swath of Pineywoods that runs from here to the east coast.
Propagating Trees for City Spaces©

Author: Carl Whitcomb

PP: 539


Trees grown conventionally and planted in city spaces typically experience high stress and a short life. A city environment is especially tough for trees. Exaggerated heat and wind, plus pollution, shading, and other factors all restrict leaf functions. Soils range from fair to poor to a mixture of construction debris with a bit of soil mixed in. Drainage can range from poor to extreme. The problem is often com?pounded by the ridiculously small space where trees are planted. This subject is reviewed in detail including many photos (Whitcomb, 2006a).

Planting trees in spaces with less than 2.8 m2 (30 ft2) of exposed soil surface (roughly the area of a sheet of plywood) leads to slow decline and death, even with the toughest species. Getting landscape architects and designers to provide adequate room for tree root development is comparable to dealing with the IRS (Figs. 1 and 2). The public continues to be enamored with planting trees in cities, yet appreciates little about tree requirements for survival and growth.

A Behind the Scenes Tour of Young Plant Production in Magnolia, Texas at Magnolia Gardens Nursery©

Author: April Herring

PP: 549


Magnolia Gardens Nursery is a medium-sized nursery with three locations in Texas including, Magnolia, Waller, and Plantersville. The nursery has two divisions: one that produces finished containerized stock, and the other that grows lining out stock. The focus of this paper will be the liner division at the Magnolia, Texas, location that specializes in young plant production through the use of micropropagation, in particular that of Nandina domestica. To many the process of micropropagation can seem mythical. This is mainly due to the fact that not every nursery deals in this method of propagation as they would with conventional means such as cuttings, grafting, and seeds. So it is the purpose of this paper to show that micropropagation is not mythical, just unfamiliar. This will be done by going through some of the daily activities at the liner division of Magnolia Gardens Nursery.

Coontie Propagation and Production©

Author: Laura M. Miller, Roger Newton, Shawn Steed

PP: 553


The coontie, Zamia pumila L., syn. Z. floridana, is a cycad native to most counties in peninsular Florida and three counties in southeast Georgia. It is the only Zamia that is native to the United States, and is a larval food source for the Florida Atala butterfly, Eumaeus atala. Coontie has also been historically utilized as a human food source. The name "coontie" is thought to come from a Native American word meaning "flour root." Another common name for this plant is "arrow root," and during the early 20th Century, it was widely harvested and processed into starch in factories all over South Florida.

In modern times, coontie are rarely consumed but rather produced for their value as a landscape plants. The potential planting range for the coontie is USDA Hardiness Zones 8b–11, encompassing the Gulf Coast and much of the West Coast, as well as the most significant population centers of Texas and Arizona. Coontie are best adapted to partial shade, but do well in full sun. In Florida, they are frequently used in low-maintenance landscape situations including urban highway medians. Coontie do best in soils with moderate to good drainage. Soil pH is not usually a limiting factor, and coontie is considered to be salt tolerant.

Enhancing Germination With Liquid Smoke©

Author: Gary R. Bachman

PP: 57


Exposure to smoke has been shown to improve germination of species previously thought to be difficult or impossible to germinate (Dixon et al., 1995). Kings Park and Botanic Gardens in Western Australia have used exposure to smoke to increase the germination of at least 23 native species that do not germinate easily. These include species that had been described as being fire-responsive, suggesting that germination would only occur after exposure to heat from a fire. However, there is evidence that the products of fire rather than the effects of heat may be an important germination stimulatory factor. Keeley and Bond (1997) observed that of 57 species of South African natives from fire-prone areas 44% had increased germination in response to being treated with the products of fire while heat treatments increased germination of only 16% of these species. Only one species, Heliophila pinnata, responded positively to both stimuli.

The search for the causal agent has been elusive (Minorsky, 2002; Van Staden et al., 2004).

Chemical and Hot Water Treatments to Eliminate Rhizoctonia from Azalea Stem Cuttings: Failures and Successes©

Author: Warren E. Copes, Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 562


Most disease control practices work by preventing a pathogen from spreading from one area to another, by preventing build-up of the pathogen’s inoculum at a site, and by preventing the inoculum from infecting the host plant. In a propagation setting, exclusion of a pathogen from the propagation house can be a powerful tool. Once a pathogen has entered a propagation house, most controls attempt to limit infection, which also serves to limit inoculum build-up. Between crops, killing all pathogen propagules that remain on greenhouse surfaces allows a fresh start for the next crop. While these general control principles are commonly used, the specific practices and combination of practices needed to achieve these goals will vary depending on the pathogen being controlled. Proper diagnosis of problems is key to control, as problems may or may not be caused by a pathogen. Controls should be selected primarily based on the disease problems that have a history of occurrence at a specific greenhouse or nursery facility.

Rhizoctonia fungi cause a range of disease problems during propagation and production of herbaceous and woody ornamental plants. The senior author has discovered that binucleate Rhizoctonia species live on live azalea stems and in the growing media of container-grown plants all year.

Growing Hollies From Seed: Patience Is a Virtue©

Author: Robert (Buddy) Lee

PP: 566


Hollies (genus Ilex) are a large and complex group of plants with an estimated number of species to be over 500. Selected forms of species and hybrids have been mainstream landscape plant for centuries. The large majority of holly selections are relatively easy to reproduce by means of asexual propagation of cutting wood. Asexual propagation maintains the desired plant in a "carbon copy" state (clone) from one cutting generation to the next without much plant variation, except for a rare sport mutation. Growing hollies sexually from seed can produce plants that exhibit variations for future selection. Selected holly seedlings with variations that prove to be exceptional can result in new and exciting cultivars. The information summaries below are from past experiences germinating seed from Ilex crenata, I. cornuta, I. cassine, I. verticillata, I. purpurea, I. opaca, I. ‘Mary Nell’, and I. ×meserveae at Transcend Nursery, Independence, Louisiana (Zone 8).

Exploring for New Deep South Ornamentals©

Author: Ted Stephens

PP: 569


The growth of the plant market is more often than not driven by the "what’s new" question posed by the potential plant customer. Nurserymen are always looking for the new cultivar or even a new species that shows potential for not only the specialty nursery trade, but also the "big box stores" as well. For the past 30 years, I have been on the look out for new finds to introduce to the ornamental market for our discerning customers. And in so doing I have extended this to explore for new plants in foreign countries, mostly in Japan and the United Kingdom. We will examine a number of new cultivars of more familiar species, but also some genera and species which are practically unknown in the nursery trade such as Platycrater arguta, Ajuga incise, and Rhodoleia henryi.

Ardisia japonica is known well in the Deep South as a shade groundcover with relatively few new cultivars being introduced in recent years. We have found many new outstanding large growing, dwarf, and variegated forms in Japan where there is a cult of growing and exhibiting this genus in the Koten Engei fashion.

Lean Flow Management for Production Efficiency©

Author: Scott Epps

PP: 573


Waste creates problems. It expends resources, frustrates those involved, and adds unnecessary costs to the process. An operational strategy called Lean Flow aims for a solution to these problems — it focuses on reducing or eliminating waste so that fewer resources are needed to do the same or more work than before. Within Lean Flow Management, waste is identified as anything the customer is not willing to pay for, including wasted time, effort, money, movement, and materials. The goal of the system is to provide the customer with the highest quality at the lowest cost with the shortest lead time.

Lean Flow strategies include reducing lead time and inventory, introducing quality checks into processes, and finding better ways to manage work flow. This focus on processes makes Lean Flow heavily dependent on employee involvement. Lean Flow or Lean Manufacturing evolved from the Toyota Production System. Although it orig?inated in the manufacturing realm, the concepts can be applied to all sorts of businesses and operations such as office operations, academia, and retail establishments.

The Basics of Grafting©

Author: Brian Upchurch

PP: 577

Grafting ornamental plants carries with it a mystique and perception as one of the more difficult forms of plant propagation. While it can be difficult at times, successful grafting is usually predicated on a solid understanding of the basics, coupled with considerable practice.

My goal here is to discuss the basic steps and concerns relating to grafting woody ornamental plants. Grafting, much like other forms of plant propagation, begins with a simple recipe. The recipe serves as a guideline; however, each grafter must adapt the recipe to serve his or her specific needs and objectives. This recipe will, more often than not, blend aspects of both science and art to achieve the desired result. Propagation includes the sciences of botany and plant physiology, as well as artistic skills honed by practice and experience over time. A grafter must follow the science of horticulture to provide the necessary elements and conditions for plants to grow and thrive. For example, he or she must also be an artist in the sense that each different plant requires fine tuning the recipe to adjust for different conditions and objectives.

Buddleja and Cercis Breeding at North Carolina State University©

Author: Dennis J. Werner

PP: 583


Breeding efforts in butterfly bush (Buddleja spp.) and redbud (Cercis canadensis) have been ongoing at North Carolina State University (NCSU) since 1998. The goals of this program are to develop improved ornamental forms of these two popular landscape plants, and to contribute to the knowledge of the genetics of important traits found in these taxa. Considerable progress has been made in these objectives, which is summarized below.


Efforts in Buddleja breeding have focused on the development of cultivars demonstrating compact growth habit, improved flower color, and reduced seed set. To date, ‘Blue Chip’ and ‘Miss Ruby’ have been released from the program

Greenhouse Production of Annuals in Aged and Fresh WholeTree Substrate©

Author: Whitney N. Gaches, Glenn B. Fain, Donald J. Eakes, Charles H. Gi

PP: 587

WholeTree (WT) is a potential new sustainable greenhouse substrate component made by milling chipped pine trees (Pinus spp.). This study evaluated the growth of Petunia Dream Series - white and Tagetes patula ‘Little Hero Yellow’ in fresh WT and peat (FWP) (1 : 1, v/v) and aged WT and peat (AWP) (1 : 1, v/v), as well as differences in physical properties of those substrates and substrate components. Plants grown in AWP resulted in larger growth indices in both species; similarly, both species had higher bloom counts when grown in AWP as compared to FWP. Aged WP had a higher container capacity than FWP, while AWP maintained a lower airspace than FWP. Aged WT as defined in this study provided a more suit?able substrate component for greenhouse-grown annuals than fresh WT.
Stem Cutting Propagation in Whole Pine Tree Substrates©

Author: Anthony L. Witcher, Eugene K. Blythe, Glenn B. Fain, Kenneth J.

PP: 594

Wood-based substrates have been identified as substitutes for pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) in container production of ornamental crops. Ideally, these substrates would be used for the propagation and production of such crops. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of processed whole pine trees (WPT) as a substrate for rooting stem cuttings. Four substrates [WPT, WPT : P (1 : 1, v/v), PB, and PB : P (1 : 1, v/v)] were used to evaluate root development of subterminal cuttings of ×Cupressocyparis leylandii ‘Murray’ and Salvia leucantha. The WPT produced the least total root length and total root volume for both species. However, the addition of peat resulted in greater total root length for S. leucantha. Although the PB and PB : P treatments had similar total root length and total root volume in S. leucantha, the addition of peat to PB had a negative effect on ×C. leylandii ‘Murray’ root development. The addition of peat altered the substrate physical properties, resulting in decreased air space and increased container capacity in WPT : P and PB : P. Salvia leucantha and ×C. leylandii ‘Murray’ cuttings responded differently when peat was added to PB, suggesting ideal physical properties may differ among species.
Woody Shrub Production With Alternative Substrates: Aged vs. Fresh©

Author: Anna-Marie Murphy, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, Jeff L. Si

PP: 599


Recent research has identified two potential materials to meet nursery grower’s needs: Clean Chip Residual (CCR) and WholeTree (WT). Both of these alternative substrates contain higher wood content than pine bark alone. The CCR is a product composed of approximately 50% wood, 40%bark, and 10% needles (Boyer et al., 2008a). It is created when transportable in-field harvesters are used to process pines into "clean chips" that can be used by pulp mills. One study evaluating CCR as an alternative substrate in annual species production (Boyer et al., 2008b) reported that two out of three species tested had similar growth when compared to standard PB substrates. Another study evaluating perennial species production in CCR (Boyer et al., 2008a) determined that there were few differences in growth at the conclusion of the study for most species. In 2009, Boyer et al. also reported that CCR as an alternative nursery crop substrate for container-grown ornamentals was acceptable for use at several screen sizes 3.2, 1.9, 1.3, 1.0 cm (Boyer et al., 2009). In general, studies indicate that plants grown in CCR are comparable to those grown in a traditional PB substrate.

Early Postemergence Control of Spurge©

Author: Stephen C. Marble, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R. Wehtje, Albert V

PP: 605

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate early postemergence control of spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) in nursery crops using preemergence active herbicides. In Experiment 1, spotted spurge were overseeded at two different dates in a commercial pine bark substrate and grew until reaching the cotyledon to one-leaf stage or the two- to four-leaf stage. Herbicides Broadstar 1604 (flumioxazin), EXC3898 (Prodiamine 0.5%, S-metolachlor 1.5%, Mesotrione 0.13%), V-10142 (imazosulfuron), and Tower 6.0 EC (dimethenamid-P) were then applied postemergence at the label rate (x) and 2x the label rate to plants either at the cotyledon to one leaf stage (C–1L) or at the two- to four-leaf (2–4L) stage. In general, the V10142 and Tower treatments provided the greatest pos?temergence control in the C–1L Stage. Tower also provided greatest control on spurge in the 2–4L Stage. In Experiment 2, postemergence control was evaluated in the C–1L and 2–4L Stages with Broadstar 1604, FreeHand (dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin), Tower, and Pendulum 3.3 EC (pendimethalin) at the x and 2x the label rate. FreeHand at the 2x rate, along with Tower and Pendulum at both rates, provided the greatest spurge control in the C–1L Stage. Tower (2x) and Pendulum (both rates) provided greatest spurge control in the 2–4L Stage.
Gizmos and Gadgets: Nursery Equipment for Greater Work Efficiency©

Author: Dennis P. Niemeyer

PP: 611


The focus of this presentation is to look at different nursery functions and pieces of equipment that have been developed by nurseries to improve their work efficiency. Most equipment, implements, and machinery used in the nursery industry have been modified to suite the needs of the different nurseries as they try to mechanize and become more efficient.

Inviro Mist Sprayers. These are used by many field nurseries to apply postemergent herbicides. This sprayer system can be modified to fit almost any piece of equipment and multiple different options to apply pesticides to many different types of crops. It can replace applying post-emergent herbicides by backpack sprayers and is more efficient in both less man hours to apply as well as less chemical used with the unique spraying system.

The Effects of Repeated Applications of Roundup Over the Top of Three Container-Grown Crops©

Author: Albert J. Van Hoogmoed, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R. Wehtje, Whe

PP: 614

Liriope muscari, Gardenia jasminoides ‘Radicans’ and Camellia sasanqua ‘Shishigashira’ in 1-gal containers were treated with single applications of Roundup Pro at 1 lb active ingredient per acre in July, August, September, or October 2008. Other plants were treated in July and August; July, August, and September; July, August, September, and October; or July and September. Injury ratings were taken at multiple times after treatments. Growth indices were taken in January and June 2009. Plant vigor ratings were taken in May 2009 and marketability ratings in June. Camellia exhibited no injury from any Roundup application. Liriope showed minor injury from multiple applications. Gardenia showed stunting and chlorosis from multiple applications. Growth rates of camellia, liriope, and gardenia the following spring were similar to the controls except those treated four times the previous fall. Final growth indices, plant vigor, and marketability were similar to controls except for plants receiving four applications.
Vegetative Propagation of Two Florida Native Wildflower Species: Polygonella polygama and Polygonella robusta©

Author: Alison Heather, Sandra Wilson, Hector Perez, Mack Thetford

PP: 620

October flower (Polygonella polygama) and Sandhill wireweed (P. robusta) are native wildflowers with significant ornamental and landscape potential. Propagation by seed is limited by several factors including narrow collection times, seed source, storage conditions, and physiological seed dormancy. Propagation by stem cuttings may decrease production time, improve uniformity, and widen collection times. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on rooting softwood cuttings of October flower and Sandhill wireweed collected from natural populations in central and south Florida. Softwood cuttings of each species were collected in the summer and quick dipped with nine different concentrations of K-NAA : K-IBA (0 : 0, 0 : 500, 0 : 1000, 250 : 0, 250 : 500, 250 : 1000, 500 : 0, 500 : 500, 1000 : 1000 ppm). Root initiation and quality were assessed after 6 weeks (Sandhill wireweed) or 8 weeks (October flower) under intermittent mist. Rooting of both species varied widely among auxin treatments and collection sites. Significant site × NAA × IBA interactions occurred for root index and percent rooting of Sandhill wireweed but not for October flower. Up to 63% and 80% rooting was achieved for October flower and Sandhill wireweed, respectively. However, most measured responses were not significantly different among auxin treatments. Root index and number of October flower were significantly affected by site, with greater rooting from the southern population. Root percent and number of Sandhill wireweed were significantly affected by site, with greater rooting from the central population.