Volume 56

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Interpreting Water Analysis©

Author: Chris de Jager

PP: 43

  • Alkalinity is typically expressed in units of concentration of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or bicarbonate (HCO3-) equivalents.
  • Units: mol·L-1, mmol·L-1, mmolc·L-1, mg·L-1, or meq·L-1.
  • Generally reported in mg·L-1 or meq·L-1.
  • For CaCO3 unit conversion: 1 meq·L-1 = 50.04 mg·L-1.
  • To convert mg·L-1 HCO3- to meq·L-1 CaCO3 divide mg·L-1 HCO3- by 61.
  • 60–120 mg·L-1 CaCO3 could be used as an adequate guideline.
  • 180–240 mg·L-1 CaCO3 acid injection likely required.
The Use of Copper Compounds as Root Pruning Agents©

Author: Ann Radke

PP: 73


Melaleuca alternifolia, commonly known as "tea-tree," contains special oil in its leaves famous around the world for its antiseptic qualities. During the 1990s an elite clone of M. alternifolia (‘Clone 88’) was identified for its superior oil qualities and high oil yields, and my nursery was contracted to mass-produce this clone for a large plantation in north Queensland.

Tea-tree plantations are planted at a very high density of plants (25,000–30,000 plants per hectare), and because of the very large number of plants required for a plantation, there is considerable pressure on nurseries to supply the plants at the lowest price possible.

Between 1997 and 1999, my company produced by cutting propagation 10 million plants of M. alternifolia ‘Clone 88’. We became very proficient at the production process, achieving an average strike rate of 95% across the whole project and 99% strike rate on the final 2 million plants. Because of the high labour cost involved in cutting

Finishing a Liner Faster Using Multiple Stem Cuttings©

Author: Angela Korty, Briggs Lipsitz

PP: 432

The production process for Spring Meadow Nursery begins with rooting stem cuttings. The propagation department has sought different methods to increase rooting success and reduce finish time. One method tried was sticking selected taxa of plants with unacceptably low rooting percentages into small-sleeved plugs (20–30 mm) containing a peat-based medium. While this method did increase rooting percentages for many finely rooted taxa, we discovered that, in many cases, roots were not growing out of the plug and into the predominately perlite-based medium following transplant. The root ball remained mostly confined to the plug itself, and few, if any, roots penetrated the walls of the plug sleeve to fill out the pot. As a result, even though rooting was increased, production of these taxa in the long run was slower and less efficient. It was apparent that we needed to find another way to finish our liners more quickly.

We decided to stick two stem cuttings per 2¼-inch pot of the

August Field Planting of June Stuck Softwood Cuttings©

Author: Jon Pickerill, Kyle Banas

PP: 433

At Mariani Nursery most of our summer softwood propagation is rooted in sand beds in greenhouses. We also have a greenhouse with a concrete floor with hot water tubes embedded in the concrete. This house was built specifically for winter evergreen propagation. In an effort to increase our softwood production without building another greenhouse and also to make use of the evergreen house during the summer months we developed a new production method, which I will share here.

The plants we chose for this system were all plants that would root fast so that we could transplant them by the middle of August. Genera that have worked consistently over the past 3 years are Spiraea, Cornus, Physocarpus, and Rosa. Genera that rooted well for us but didn't transplant well under this system were Rhus and Hydrangea.

Cuttings are taken in June and stuck in 32-count trays in a bagged commercial soil mix and set on the floor under mist. The cuttings root in about 3 weeks and are immediately put on a

Efficacy of Wastewater Irrigation for Rooting of Ornamental Cuttings©

Author: Eric Roesler, Calvin Chong

PP: 434


Wastewaters from diverse sources including municipalities, composting farms, and anaerobic digesters have been used in crop production systems (Alam and Chong, 2006). The objective of this study was to propagate cuttings of different species in media irrigated with different sources and/or concentrations of wastewaters.

Hydrangea macrophylla and Hydrangea serrata Trials at the University of Kentucky©

Author: Robert E. McNiel, Sharon Bale, Terry Jones, Bonka Vaneva

PP: 439


During the last decade, Hydrangea macrophylla has enjoyed a resurgence as a dominate landscape plant. Selection and hybridization has yielded many new cultivars. During the late 1990s we concluded little was known about the usefulness of the wide range of cultivars for establishment in landscapes in the Ohio River Valley. Starting in 2000, we have established several evaluation plots at three locations (Table 1) across Kentucky as material of landscape size (No. 1 container) became available for use. Cultivars established after 2000 have six replications at each site. Specific cultivars have been established at one, two, or three sites. Data is included for cultivars at multiple sites. We have now evaluated over 100 cultivars. Plants have been evaluated for winter hardiness and ability to flower. Quicksand and Lexington sites are on drip irrigation while the Paducah site is hand watered on an as-needed basis. All three sites are in USDA Hardiness Zone 6.

Seed Propagation of Rare and Unusual Acer Species: A Review of Propagation at the Morris Arboretum

Author: Susan Stansbery, Anthony S. Aiello, Shelley Dillard

PP: 442


For the past quarter-century one of the primary missions of the Morris Arboretum has been domestic and international plant exploration, evaluation, and introduction. Since the late 1970s, staff of the Arboretum has participated in 19 plant collecting expeditions, including trips to South Korea, China, the Caucasus Mountains, and the United States. The goals of the plant exploration program include broadening the genetic pool of known species, conserving rare and endangered species, and introducing appropriate new species. These plant collecting expeditions have resulted in a living collection that contains approximately 4,000 plants of wild-collected and documented origin, representing just over 900 taxa. The diversity of Acer (maples) in the Arboretum is one of the most significant collections developed through our plant exploration efforts.

This paper reports on two aspects of Acer seed germination at the Morris Arboretum. One aspect is a compilation of germination

Somatic Embryogenesis in White Oak (Quercus alba)©

Author: S. Tittle, S.T. Kester, R.L. Geneve

PP: 450


White oak (Quercus alba) is an important forestry species. The implementation of forest fire controls in the 20th century have resulted in a major decline of native stands of white oak (Abrams, 2000). Further complicating oak survival is their potential susceptibility to sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). Propagated by seed in the nursery industry, white oak availability is limited due to nursery production difficulties. There is a need for a clonal propagation system for selection of desirable characteristics such as fall color, hardiness, pathogen resistance, and improved nursery production characteristics.

White oak seed can be sown immediately after collection without any special treatments. This method of propagation however does not provide superior cultivars to the nursery industry. A clonal in vitro system of propagation produced from superior mature clones could result in increased profits for both liner and field production of white oak. In addition,

Adventitious Root Formation in Tomato Hormone Mutants©

Author: S.K. Kittrell, S.T. Kester, R.L. Geneve

PP: 453


The role of plant hormones during adventitious rooting has been studied for many years, yet their specific interaction(s) during rooting is still difficult to determine. It is accepted that auxin is the key hormone responsible for initiating adventitious roots. The other major hormones—gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene—have been shown to promote, have no effect, or inhibit rooting depending on the species or rooting environment (Hartmann et al., 2002).

Part of the reason for this confusion is that traditional model systems used to study rooting (i.e., pea, mung bean, sunflower) were selected based on their ease of rooting and experimental manipulation rather than their genetic characteristics as a rooting system. Ernst (1994) described the characteristics of an ideal model system for conducting meaningful rooting studies. These included important genetic and developmental characteristics of the model species. He felt that Arabidopsis and tomato best

Propagation of Spicebush (Lindera benzoin)©

Author: A.L. Poston, R.L. Geneve

PP: 458


Lindera benzoin, commonly known as spicebush, of the Lauraceae family, is a shrub native to most of the Eastern United States from Maine to Florida and west to Kansas (Dirr, 1998). Spicebush has a dense, rounded growth habit in full sun, a more open growth habit in shade, and prefers moist, well-drained soil. It bears small clusters of yellow flowers in early spring and has smooth light green leaves in the summer that turn bright yellow in the fall. In addition to the aesthetic qualities, there are no serious insect or disease problems (Dirr, 1998).

There is an increasing interest in the introduction of native plant alternatives as concern grows about nursery production of species designated as exotic invasive plants. Thus, there is potential for spicebush to be utilized in the landscape industry as a marketable native shrub.

Previous anecdotal research shows that vegetative propagation of spicebush by cuttings has been difficult (Dirr, 1998). Therefore, propagation from

The Western Red Lily Centennial Project©

Author: Lisa May

PP: 461


The western red lily (Lilium philadelphicum var. andinum) is the floral emblem of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. This showy lily is protected under the Provincial Emblems and Honours Act, but its numbers continue to decline due to anthropogenic activities such as cultivation and fire suppression (Government of Saskatchewan, 1988). The SaskPower Shand Greenhouse undertook the task of propagating large quantities of the western red lily as part of the province's centennial celebration in 2005. Several research trials were initiated in order to determine appropriate propagation methods along with techniques for accelerating growth and blooming.

Horticulture U.K., Adapting to a Changing and Challenging Marketplace©

Author: David Aylieff-Sansom

PP: 467


The fact is that the United Kingdom (U.K.) and European Union (E.U.) are entering very new territories which are in a rapidly changing market. The £ (Pound) and ? (Euro) are becoming elusive, along with spiralling costs and no increase, only decrease, in product value. Many factors have come about to create the situation that horticulture U.K. is now facing, some of which I will try to outline.

Root Systems in Cutting-Raised Eucalyptus Species Are Influenced by Cutting Size and Stock Plant Treatment©

Author: David O. Cliffe

PP: 78


Conventional vegetative propagation of some Eucalyptus species has been carried out for some 50 years, although until relatively recently only on a small scale. The exploitation of the genera by countries other than Australia for the purposes of producing high-grade paper pulp have led to the development of a range of hybrids suited to particular environments and soil types.

The main concentration has been with subtropical hybrids particularly in Brazil and more recently temperate species in Chile, Uruguay, Portugal, and Spain. Selection of clones with high percentages of rootabilty combined with desirable growth rates, form, and fibre quality, is an ongoing process within the industry.

During the last 10 years, a great body of work has been undertaken especially in Brazil, where novel propagating systems have been developed to enable nurseries to mass produce clones. These techniques and some clones have been transferred to Australia and further adapted to suit local

Conifer Cone and Seed Processing©

Author: Dave Kolotelo

PP: 474


The cone and seed processing of conifers is presented as a part of the Seed Handling System defined as all activities between cone collection and sowing in the nursery (Fig. 1). This presentation covers the activities of: (1) Post-collection handling of cones, (2) Cone processing, and (3) Seed processing with a general aim of increasing knowledge about conifer cone and seed biology and processing.

Conifers are a very diverse group of organisms and have been shown to be among the most heterozygous plants (Hamrick et al., 1979). This is not surprising given their long life spans and wide species distributions. This variation is important to maintain and although we continually are improving our processes it is not simply a matter of reducing variability in our product as this variability has an important role to play in our forests. There is a great deal of cone and seed biology behind cone and seed processing, but it is also subjective at times and requires highly

Small Lot Seed Handling of Species Native to British Columbia©

Author: Paulus Vrijmoed

PP: 479


Every spring a seed need list is compiled, based on the following year's plant production schedule and the remaining seed inventory at the nursery. The list includes about 125 plant species native to British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. The seed is collected by a number of plant collectors, including our own nursery team, from different geoclimatic zones in the region. We attempt, as much as possible, to match seed source with the eventual planting sites. This means, for example, that a species collected on the coast will not be used for planting in inland areas and vice versa.

A seed/berry order collection form is sent to each collector, who then proceeds to collect the required species and quantities, depending on availability for that particular season. Collectors take care of shipping procedures, which often means sending seed/berries in sealed pails by Greyhound or courier. Nursery procedure Harvested, ripe seeds arrive from early summer through fall as berries



PP: 487

Evelyn Healy: How did you separate the immature from mature seeds?
Direct Sticking Through Plastic©

Author: Bruce D. R. Peel

PP: 488


I attended my first I.P.P.S. conference in September 1994. I had recently started a small nursery specializing in native plants. Knowing successful propagation would be crucial to its growth and success, I wanted to gain some insight. The conference was held in Costa Mesa, California. The trip was entertaining for my family and very informative for me. The greatest single impression that remains to this day is how friendly and willing to share the people were. Over the years, I have benefited from the information made available by the members of the I.P.P.S. When I was asked to present, I wasn't sure I would have anything sufficiently scientific or new to offer. Upon reflection I realized that it is often tried-and-true methods and ideas that have value and have helped us continue to grow our business. This is our 15th year in business, and as is true of many small business owners, I find myself caught up in the pragmatic aspects of growing the business — staff, sales

Propagating Ornamental Grasses at Small Nurseries©

Author: Ewan MacKenzie

PP: 494

By Seed

We try to grow anything that comes true from seed by seeding, because we tend to get more compact and fuller plants that way. One exception is Helictotrichon sempervirens, since seeds are hard to find and germination is not good.

I prefer to have seeds sown in small-celled plug trays (e.g., 288s, 252s, or 128s) since they establish very quickly when transplanted into a 4-inch pot.

I have most of our seeding done by propagators that specialize in seeding and have efficient seeding machines. We get better consistency, and it works out to be more cost effective.

In most cases we multi-seed, putting up to five seeds per cell (see Table 1).

Most of our seeds come from regular seed companies. However, we do collect some of our own seed when seed is either too hard to find or too expensive.

Mycorrhizal Fungi: Impact of Commercial Products in Nursery Propagation©

Author: Mario Lanthier

PP: 496


Mycorrhizal fungi are specialized organisms that live on plant roots in a relationship that is mutually beneficial. The host plant supplies the fungus with carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis. In return, the fungus grows an extensive network into the soil, transferring water and nutrients to the roots and providing a protective environment.

Mycorrhizal fungi are very common in natural soils. They are less common in nursery growing media or in urban soils. From 2001 to 2005, our company tested commercial formulations of mycorrhizal products in nursery production and urban plantings. This article reviews trial results in plant propagation at Byland's Nurseries Ltd., Kelowna, British Columbia.



PP: 509

Patrick Peterson: Did you say you applied a granular material after the plants were rooted?
Propagation of Difficult-to-Root Shade Trees: Parrotia and Carpinus©

Author: Sandy Howkins

PP: 511


Parrotia persica ‘Inge’s Ruby Vase’ and Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ are both upright plants with small leaves and good pest resistance, making them good street trees for urban areas. With the ongoing problems in North America such as emerald ash borer and Acer platanoides cultivars joining the invasive species list in New England and eastern Canada, the need for other species or taxa to take over is increasing. Grafting compatibility is always a consideration when dealing with large, mature specimens in the urban setting. Putting these two types of trees plus other difficult-to-root taxa onto their own roots can be very challenging.

Specimen Trees Wholesale Nurseries Ltd. is located in Pitt Meadows, part of the greater Vancouver area in southwestern British Columbia. The nursery is compromised of 480 acres; 20 acres of containers, 6 acres under polyethylene greenhouses, and 450 acres of field-grown conifer and deciduous trees and shrubs. The greatest hurdle we have overcome

Greenhouse Automation and Plant Propagation's Global Connection©

Author: Sheila Bhattacharya

PP: 514

Plant propagation has been approached in different ways in different growing operations. Unrooted cuttings are usually collected either from the shade house or greenhouse or even from plants grown in landscaped areas in order to produce rooted vegetative liners in a nursery set up. Therefore, the seasonal changes in all the environmental parameters influence the quality of cuttings and rooting ability of cuttings throughout the year.

There is, however, a new approach to propagation in certain greenhouse operations. The global connection between cutting production facilities around the world and some of the very sophisticated greenhouse operations here in the United States of America is a fascinating phenomenon.

New introductions of ornamental plants are developed constantly by plant breeders around the world. Once produced, these plants are nurtured through tissue culture to maintain the true genetics and then mass-produced in perfect greenhouse conditions. The nuclear/mother stock



PP: 516

David Hannings: I understand you root cuttings in the fall and they stay on the mist beds all winter. Are the mist beds in the greenhouse or outdoors? Also, what do you do about nutrition during that period?
Air Pruning Techniques©

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 80


In May 1985 I was Program Chairman of the Australian Region Conference held in Rockhampton, Queensland. One of the papers presented at that conference was prepared by Dr. Greg Moore of the Victorian College of Agriculture and Horticulture, Burnley Campus (now the University of Melbourne, Burnley). This paper, "Getting to the Roots of the Problem," was one of the most thought-provoking I have ever listened to. Greg outlined root development problems in an experimental planting of Eucalyptus regnans seedlings established by the Victorian Forest Commission. The seedlings planted in this experimental plot were some of the first forestry seedlings grown in nursery tubes, rather than being produced in outdoor field beds. Eight years after planting, the trees were approaching 20 m tall with a breast-height diameter of up to 35 cm. At this time large numbers of the trees began to fall over, and root system inspections revealed serious root system deformities.

Greg Moore concluded

Daphne Research at the University of British Columbia: The Search for Fungal Resistance©

Author: Andrew Riseman

PP: 517

A Daphne research program was initiated in 2000 at the University of British Columbia (UBC) designed to develop cultivars with improved commercial and garden performance. The overall appeal of daphne is based on many desirable characteristics, including its attractive foliage, variable plant habits, and flower colors, but most of all, its sweet fragrance or perfume. The most "popular" species among nursery producers and home gardeners is Daphne cneorum L. (rose daphne or garland flower). Both total sales of D. cneorum, as well as the number of nurseries producing stock, are increasing rapidly. In British Columbia, Canada, over 23 commercial growers are currently selling D. cneorum compared to only seven growers in 1992 (British Columbia Landscape and Nursery Association Buyer's Guide and Directory, 1992 and 2005).

Despite this increase in production and inherent appeal, daphne has acquired a poor reputation for long-term performance because of disease problems reported by both producers

Propagating Rhododendron Species by Cutting and Seed©

Author: Dennis Bottemiller

PP: 520

The Rhododendron Species Foundation (RSF) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the conservation, research, acquisition, evaluation, cultivation, public display, and distribution of Rhododendron species. The Foundation provides education relating to the genus and serves as a unique resource for scientific, horticultural, and general gardening communities worldwide.

The RSF will use the following means to achieve this mission:

  • Acquire and maintain as comprehensive a collection of Rhododendron species as possible.
  • Conserve Rhododendron species through the cultivation and distribution of selected forms and documented wild-collected material as obtained in the field and by other means.
  • Support the Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden — a living plant museum and effectively designed garden for the display and cultivation of rhododendron species along with other plants with which they associate.
  • Provide information, education, and support of research for persons interested in the
Simple Successful Propagation at Classical Farms©

Author: Ross Merker

PP: 523

Classical Farms LLC is a wholesale grower of annual color crops in Rainier, Washington, which is slightly southeast of Olympia in western Washington State. My wife and I started the business in 1985. Jill Cross is our production supervisor. Our primary crops are pansies and a large selection of annuals including hanging baskets, color planters, and gallons. Fall crops include garden mums, perennial asters, ornamental cabbage and kale, pansies, and cyclamen. Plants in 4-inch pots are the most common size, with over 1.6 million produced in 2006.

The majority of the 4-inch crops are purchased as plugs. However, in-house propagation plays an important role with many crops. Our propagation facilities work well and are not particularly sophisticated. Annual premium cuttings, basket stuffers, cordyline, fuchsias, perennial asters, garden mums, and chocolate cosmos are rooted by cutting propagation. Ornamental grasses, cabbage, and kale are propagated by seed, along with other selected



PP: 526

Verl Holden: Have you found a mycorrhizal fungus that colonizes Daphne?
Chemical and Physical Properties of Douglas Fir Bark Relevant to the Production of Container Plants©

Author: M.G. Buamscha, D.M. Sullivan, J.E. Altland, D.A. Horneck

PP: 527

A one-year survey on the chemical and physical properties of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark was conducted with the following objectives: (1) document baseline chemical properties of Douglas fir bark (DFB) that have relevance to production of container plants, (2) determine the effect of screen size and age on DFB chemical properties, and (3) document the consistency of those properties throughout the year. In June, Aug., Oct., and Dec. 2005, and Feb. and May 2006, fresh and aged DFB samples were collected from two Oregon bark suppliers. One supplier offering a bark screened to 2.2 cm (coarse), and the other a bark screened to 0.95 cm (fine). Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, and essential plant macro- and micronutrients. Native fresh and aged DFB contains significant extractable amounts of all essential plant macro- and micronutrients, except N. In general, the aging process reduced pH and increased extractability of phosphorous
Seed Germination and Viability of Bursera Species of Morelos, Mexico©

Author: Evelyn A. Healy, Richard Y. Evans, Consuelo Bonfil

PP: 528

Tropical dry forest restoration in Mexico is hindered by poor germination of Bursera copallifera and other common Bursera. Fungal infections of the seeds are common. Preliminary work on B. copallifera found that the stony endocarp was water-permeable. One germination experiment on a mixed collection of B. copallifera seed tested treatments with (1) deionized water, (2) 4-h soak in 3% hydrogen peroxide, (3) mechanical scarification by cracking, and (4) 4-h soak in 3% hydrogen peroxide plus mechanical scarification. There was no statistical difference between the treatments, although mechanical scarification alone appeared to encourage fungal infection. A second experiment with individual seed collections of several B. copallifera trees tested: (1) deionized water (control), (2) moist pre-chill for 6 days at 4 °C preceded by a 48-h imbibition period at room temperature, (3) 250 µM GA3, (4) 600 µM benzyladenine (BA), and (5) 125 µM GA3 plus 300 µM BA. Logistic regression analysis found that the most important effects on germination were the variation between the seed collections of each tree (p = 0.05 < 0.0001) and the tree by-treatment interaction (p = 0.0005). Treatment effect was minimal (p = 0.0432). While the seeds of each tree responded differentially to the treatments, none of the treatments improved germination to a statistically significant extent. Pre-chilling decreased germination of the seeds of one tree. Most of the remaining seeds were dead at the end of the test period. The proportion of viable seeds varied widely among the trees. Low viability and vigor appeared to be the most important factors limiting germination in B. copallifera. The results suggested a possible relationship between tree density and seed viability that should be examined more closely.

Author: Bob Smart, David Threatt, Kay Phelps

PP: 533

MONDAY MORNING, 9 October, 2006

The 31st Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society — Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 am at the Hilton Charlotte University Place, Charlotte, North Carolina, with President Bob Smart presiding.

The Principles and Practices of Breeding Hydrangeas©

Author: Josh Kardos

PP: 534


Hydrangea includes approximately 23 species with a disjunct distribution in temperate and tropical regions of eastern Asia, Eastern North America, and South America (McClintock, 1957). Of these 23 species, Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris, H. arborescens, H. macrophylla, H. paniculata, H. quercifolia, and H. serrata are the most common in cultivation. Hydrangea macrophylla, with over 500 extant cultivars, is one of the most important flowering shrubs, and its popularity is due to its versatility as a garden shrub, florists' pot plant, and cut flower (Griffiths, 1994).

The IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program: What, How, and Why©

Author: Cristi L. Palmer

PP: 538


The IR-4 Project works with growers, researchers, registrants, and regulatory agencies to develop research data so that new products can be registered and new crops, diseases, insects, and weeds can be added to existing product labels. The IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program, one of several programs under the IR-4 project, develops information for non-edible specialty crops grown in greenhouses, nurseries, landscapes, Christmas tree farms, and forestry production nurseries.

The IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program is supported by two major funding sources: the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). The ARS research staff conducts research trials across all pest disciplines and is critical in the effort to provide pest solutions to the green industry. The funding provided by CSREES typically supports research through the state university and State Experiment Station systems.


Propagation of Deciduous Azaleas©

Author: Donald W. Hyatt

PP: 542


There are 15 deciduous azalea species native to the Eastern United States, but they are relatively rare in our gardens. In 1791, plant explorer William Bartram said of Rhododendron calendulaceum, the Flame Azalea (Fig. 1). "This is certainly the most gay and brilliant flowering shrub yet known." (Slaughter, 1996). Our native azaleas have been greatly admired for hundreds of years, but partially due to propagation difficulties, these species are still not widely available in the trade.

Native deciduous azaleas come in a wide range of colors, and many are delightfully fragrant. Species bloom at various times of year, from early spring to late summer. Most native azaleas are not bothered by mildew, a major problem with the deciduous Knap Hill and Exbury azalea hybrids. Adapted to local environments, native azaleas require less care than many garden shrubs. Their delicate flowers, which usually bloom over a long time period, are also less susceptible to weather. Many plants have

Irrigation Management©

Author: John Bunker

PP: 84


Since man started production of cropping for food, irrigation and the addition of water to supplement the natural rainfall has endured evolution and innovation in both the harvesting of water and the application of water to the crop.

Water has been taken for granted for many years in that it has always been there and been in abundance, which in turn promoted wasteful techniques in the application of the water.

Water is shaping up to be one of the 21st century's greatest challenges due to climate change, coupled with the increased demand of municipalities, industry, horticulture, and agriculture and the new requirements of environmental flows required to sustain the environment. This is evident in Australia, with initiatives being put in place with the Murray/Darling River system.

We are currently in a cycle being referred to as a 1- in 100-year drought, with below average rainfall being experienced in a large portion of the Australian continent for the last 5 years. As

Propagation at the U.S. National Arboretum, an Overview©

Author: Barbara L. Bullock

PP: 548


Established in 1927 by an Act of Congress, the U.S. National Arboretum is administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service. The mission of the National Arboretum is to serve the public need for scientific research, education, and gardens that conserve and showcase plants to enhance the environment.

This presentation will discuss two divisions at the National Arboretum: the Tree and Shrub Breeding Program of the Research Unit and the Gardens Unit. These units focus on plant propagation for distribution, breeding, and display. Our breeding program encompasses a wide range: from basic and developmental research on trees, shrubs, turf, and floral plants to the development of plants with superior characteristics through a program of testing and genetic improvement. We develop new methods of pest and disease detection and control, improve our understanding of the taxonomy and nomenclature of ornamental plants and their wild relatives, and collect

A New Substrate for Container-Grown Plants:Clean Chip Residual©

Author: Cheryl R. Boyer, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley, Glenn B. Fa

PP: 553

Clean Chip Residual (CCR) is a potential new nursery substrate that is a forestry by-product composed of approximately 50% wood, 40% bark, and 10% needles. This study evaluated CCR as a growth substrate for container-grown nursery crops. Two perennial species were grown in one of eight substrates (100% bark from two sources, two screen sizes of CCR, and the same treatments combined with 20% peat) along with standard nursery amendments. Species tested included Buddleja ‘Pink Delight’ and Verbena ‘Homestead Purple’. Growth of these species in CCR was, in general, similar to plants grown in typical pine bark substrates. These results indicate that CCR has the potential to be a viable substrate option for the nursery industry.
Pre-Emergent Herbicide Use in Propagation of Loropetalum chinense ‘Ruby’©

Author: Diana R. Cochran, Charles H. Gilliam, D.J. Eakes, Glenn R. Wehtj

PP: 560

Three herbicides were evaluated during propagation of Loropetalum chinense ‘Ruby’ to determine the effects on rooting and subsequent plant growth. Herbicides evaluated were: Gallery (isoxaben), Ronstar 2G (oxadiazon), and Regal O-O (oxyfluorfen + oxadiazon). Herbicides were applied at three separate times during the propagation process: before sticking, lightly rooted, or fully rooted. Before sticking treatments were applied to flats filled with standard medium prior to the cuttings being stuck. About 1 month later when roots had just begun to emerge [3 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) long], a separate group of cuttings (lightly rooted) were treated. Finally, the third application occurred to a separate group of cuttings (not previously treated) once the cuttings were fully rooted. Data was collected at 65, 248, and 342 days after sticking (DAS). One year after sticking, growth indices of ‘Ruby’ loropetalum were similar regardless of when Gallery was applied. At that time there was no effect on root coverage except when Gallery was applied before sticking, which had 58% root coverage compared to 69% for nontreated plants. With Ronstar and Regal O-O shoot growth was similar about 1 year later; however, root coverage was suppressed with Ronstar applied before sticking and at lightly rooted, while Regal O-O suppressed root coverage on all dates of application.
Native Plants and Communities of the Piedmont of North Carolina©

Author: Dennis P. Niemeyer

PP: 566


The current plant communities in the Piedmont of North Carolina differ greatly from the original landscape that existed prior to settlers coming to the region. Almost all virgin forest has been harvested, with much of the land being used for houses and development and the remainder being used for agriculture. As this land regenerates from the harvest, the countryside has become a patchwork of multiple different stages of regeneration taking place.

Disturbance of a plant community is usually followed by recovery, which we call succession. Succession represents a sequence of populations that replace each other, resulting in community change. A typical sequence of dominant vegetation is: Summer, winter annual weeds ⇒ herbaceous perennials ⇒ shrubs ⇒ early successional trees ⇒ late successional trees.

Succession is a continuous process of change in vegetation, which can be separated into a series of phases:

  • Pioneer: 0–10 years
  • Sub Climax: 10–100 years
  • Climax: 100–300 years
Aromi Retrospective©

Author: Maarten van der Giessen

PP: 569

Dr Eugene Aromi, a University of South Alabama education professor, and his wife Jane began hybridizing deciduous and evergreen azaleas in 1969 in their Mobile, Alabama, backyard. Aromi's goals were to produce improved cultivars for Zone 8. At the time that he began his work, very few deciduous azalea hybrids were acclimated to the south. The outstanding Ghent, Knap Hill, and Exbury Hybrids were developed for the cooler European climates and could not adjust to the wet, hot conditions in the southern U.S.A. The work of American hybridizers was concentrated in the Northeast U.S.A. and primarily concerned with cold hardiness. Most hybridization of evergreen azaleas was also targeted for cold hardiness. The U.S.A. hybridization programs at the Glenn Dale station in Maryland created a race of cold-hardy Indica-like plants that performed poorly below the Mason-Dixon line. There have been few new introductions to the Southern Indica azaleas since the turn of the century in spite of the fact
Multiple Propagation Techniques of Simpson Nurseries©

Author: Don Covan

PP: 580


There is some aspect of propagation going on at Simpson Nurseries during at least 10 months out of each year. Multiple propagation techniques have enabled us to grow and adapt to changes in the nursery business over the last hundred years. I will briefly cover four techniques of propagation used by our nursery.

Lusting for the New — Is There a Market Beyond Branding?©

Author: Sue Watkins

PP: 584


The logistics and talent to propagate a hundred thousand or more of a plant is mind boggling to me. One hundred or less is within my experience. With very limited numbers and a premium price, we have found success with new introductions to our customers. Just selecting marketable plants is a challenge in itself. In this talk I wish to point out some plants and qualities that I've found customers yearn to have and how we have lured them to buy — without branding. Branding definitely profits those who find or create a winner. But it takes big numbers and lots of money to support and advertise this kind of venture. Not all of us have the wherewithal to pull this off. For sure, hot "new" plants draw customers and keep you on their radar screens.

Money is the bottom line in all our efforts. If the retail customer isn't interested, the money stops flowing all the way back down the horticultural line. Our job in retail is to make our customers delirious — well, satisfied — with their

Temperature Control and Water Conservation in Above-Ground Containers©

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Andy C. Whitcomb

PP: 588


Excess heat in above-ground containers has long been recognized as a major problem. The challenge has been to find a practical way to moderate temperature. Harris (1967) measured temperatures in California 8 cm (3 inch) below the surface and 2.5 cm (1 inch) from the exposed edge of metal containers painted black or white, covered by aluminum foil, or shaded by wood. Exposed sides of black containers reached 46° C (115 °F) and remained at or above 38 °C (100 °F). There were no roots in about 33% of the container volume due to excessive heat. Painting the container white reduced temperature only 3 to 4 °C (5 to 7 °F), while aluminum foil reduced temperature about 5.5 °C (10 °F), but temperatures were still above the lethal point for roots. Shading containers with wood was the most effective treatment; none of these treatments were commercially feasible.

Whitcomb (1980) compared injection molded containers made of white or black plastic and found the white container only about 3 °C

Propagation at May Nursery©

Author: Brad May

PP: 595


I have a crew of 12 women who collect and stick their own cuttings. They can do 18,000–40,000 a day depending upon the taxon. We go out first thing in the morning while there is either dew on the plants or just the coolness of the morning has the cuttings in a fresh state. We stop cutting and harvesting and come into an air-conditioned propagation room by 10:00 AM. We have to be careful that the moisture level does not get too low since the air conditioning removes the moisture from the air. We keep the temperature at 22 °C (72 °F). As we take the cuttings, they are brought in every 20–30 min, watered down, and placed on a screened rack. We do not dip them in a fungicide because we have a weekly spray program for the propagation area. If cuttings are from clean, healthy plants, a fungicidal dip is not necessary.

We place newspapers on the table where the cuttings are prepared, then throw away the paper at the end of the day. This is done so that if by chance a cutting

Larger Plants from Liquid-Based Micropropagation: A Case Study With Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Sike's Dwarf’©

Author: Jeffrey Adelberg, Jacqueline Naylor-Adelberg, Mevlut Tascan

PP: 597


Liquid-based Micropropagation. Virtually all commercial micropropagation in the U.S.A. uses semi-solid "gelled" medium (agar or similar polymers) to support plantlets on medium surface. Gelling agents are the most expensive component of media. They slow laboratory operations, including medium preparation, dishwashing, subculture, and moving plants to greenhouse. Gels also slow plant growth by limiting the availability of water and nutrients. A variety of liquid bioreactor systems have been designed for micropropagation. The "motorized" function of these bioreactors is to provide oxygen to the propagules while their entire plant surface is wet with liquid medium. Cost and complexity are the largest barriers to commercial utility.

Our lab has shown a simple rocker system yielded more and larger plants than agar with herbaceous perennials including hosta (Adelberg, 2005), elephant ear (Adelberg and Toler, 2004), and daylily (Adelberg et al., 2005). Subsequent transfer to

Propagation of Chamelaucium uncinatum Cultivars by Grafting©

Author: Bradley J. Pearce

PP: 88


Geraldton waxflower is one of the most spectacular wildflowers of Western Australia. Flowering occurs during the early spring wildflower season. The native flower and nursery industries have selected a range of superior colours and forms, and these have been introduced to the flower and nursery industries across Australia. The mass flowering effect creates a large, spontaneous demand from the flowerand plant-buying public.

The University of Queensland Plant Nursery Unit has propagation licences in place with the breeders in Western Australia, and these licences enable us to supply plants to flower growers and nurseries across Australia.

Redneck Lupines on a Roll: Breeding Advances in the Genus Baptisia©

Author: Tony Avent

PP: 601


My love for baptisias began many years ago, but it was in 1994 that I went off the proverbial deep end for this herbaceous genus of glorified peas in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Perhaps it was my numerous unsuccessful attempts to grow other Fabaceae genera such as Lupinus that led me to the virtually indestructible genus Baptisia and its 16 currently recognized species. It is obvious from their native range that baptisias are extraordinarily drought tolerant lovers of hot weather. Consequently, gardeners growing them in cool climates will benefit from siting them in the hottest of garden locations.

Baptisia is an Eastern North American genus of prairie plants that range from Canada south to Florida and west to Texas. The genus Baptisia made its debut in 1808, although it was not formalized until 1811 by Robert Brown. Species that had been described decades earlier under the genera Sophora and Crotalaria slowly began their migration into the new genus.While taxonomy

Fern Propagation Strategies at Casa Flora©

Author: Naud Burnett II

PP: 607


Casa Flora has traditionally specialized in production of tropical and hardy ferns over its 39-year history. That represents a long learning curve and a willingness to take risks. We have come a long way from those early days of producing tropical ferns from runner tips in beds of peat. We have gotten where we are today by introducing new taxa, insisting on quality, and pioneering new production methods. Fourteen years ago we bought a large tissue culture lab and two smaller ones in Florida producing tropical ferns. In 2 years we were producing 2 million plants. Two years later and with much difficulty, we started producing hardy ferns in the lab as well. Now we consistently ship over 106 fern taxa year round, many with their own protocols.

Ferns, going back 300 million years, are much more primitive than most of the plants commercially propagated, and so have unique opportunities and problems. Much of coal is made up of fern fronds, and many of the ferns today are

Sunlight Management©

Author: Frank Giglia Jr.

PP: 612


Sunlight management is the process of manipulating the sunlight quality and quantity to which plants are exposed. A new generation of agrotextiles has been developed and tested over the last 10 years. They allow the grower to choose both the duration of light as well as the particular wavelength that will produce the desired effect from the plants at all stages of development.

Albert Einstein won his Nobel Prize for describing the photoelectric effect. He proved that beams of light are made up of particles and wavelengths. He called the particles photons. He stated that we could neither affect nor measure both at the same time. Therefore, in order to manage light, we will need materials to affect the photons (light energy/intensity) and different materials to affect the wavelength (light quality). There are currently three fabrics that manage photons and two fabrics that affect wavelength. For photon management, use aluminized, gray, and pearl fabric and to manage

The Propagation of Plant Diseases©

Author: Jean L. Williams-Woodward

PP: 614


Almost all commercial ornamental production utilizes vegetative propagation to increase plant numbers. As such, the risk of inadvertently propagating disease-infected plants is on the rise. If a plant is infected with a root or crown rot disease, it usually dies or shows symptoms that prevent its propagation via cuttings or division. However, many foliar diseases do not kill the plant and can be present within symptomless leaf or stem tissues. There are several diseases that have become increasingly common on ornamental plants primarily due to either the lack of recognition of disease symptoms or the lack of symptoms at the time of plant propagation. In addition, with the increased use of off-shore production of herbaceous and woody plants, there is an increased risk of introducing new diseases into ornamental nurseries in the U.S.A.

Highlights of The Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden©

Author: Douglas Ruhren

PP: 618


The staff of Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden in Belmont, North Carolina, was thrilled to host I.P.P.S. when they met in Charlotte in October 2006. Attendees had a quick stroll through the gardens before enjoying a catered dinner in the Robert Lee Stowe Visitor Pavilion.

This presentation is in two parts: first an overview of the Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden from a horticulturalist's perspective, and second, a look at a number of notable plants and groups of plants. Included in this second half are several suggestions of possible nursery crops that to this gardener's mind could be worthwhile additions to the nursery trade.

Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden is primarily a horticultural display garden. The oldest gardens opened on 8 Oct. 1999. Our focus is creating the most aesthetically pleasing gardens of year-round interest. Within this framework we work with the whole range of plants: permanent trees and shrubs, winter-hardy herbaceous perennials (including grasses and ferns),

A Comparison of Nutrient Requirements Between Pine Chip and Pine Bark Substrates©

Author: Brian E. Jackson, Jake F. Browder, Robert D. Wright

PP: 623

The objective was to determine the response of Japanese holly (Ilex crenata Thunb. ‘Compacta’) grown in ground pine chips (PC) or milled pine bark (PB) substrates to fertilizer rate. The PC substrate was prepared by further grinding coarsely ground debarked whole loblolly pine logs in a hammer mill. Plants were potted on 17 Aug. 2005 and fertilized by incorporating Osmocote 15N–9P–12K at 3.5, 5.9, 8.3, or 10.6 kg·m-3 (6, 10, 14, and 18 lb/yd3) in PC or PB. Plants were glasshouse grown until 22 Nov. 2005. After severing the shoots for dry weight determination, substrate respiration rates (CO2 µmol·m-2·s-1) were determined for the treatments using a LI-6400 soil CO2 flux chamber. Maximum shoot dry weight for PB- and PC-grown plants occurred at 5.9 kg·m-3 (10 lb/yd3) and 10.6 kg·m-3 (18 lb/yd3), respectively. Maximum shoot dry weight for PC-grown plants was 23% higher than for PB-grown plants. Substrate respiration rates were higher in PC compared to the PB substrate. The reason that PC-grown plants required a higher fertilizer rate to achieve maximum growth than PB-grown plants may be attributed to increased nutrient leaching and microbial nutrient immobilization.
Nitrogen Nutrition of Southern Seaoats (Uniola paniculata) Grown in the Float System©

Author: Daniel S. Norden, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, David L. N

PP: 627

Southern seaoats (Uniola paniculata L.), a major coastal dune species, was grown by seed in a greenhouse using the tobacco float system with nitrogen (N) in the nutrient solution at 10, 60, 120, 180, or 240 mg·L-1 (ppm). Transplants were produced successfully using this means of culture and N at 135 to 150 mg·L-1 (ppm) maximized vegetative growth.
Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Tissue Cultures©

Author: Richard R. Williams

PP: 91


Environmental factors have many effects on plant growth and development. Indeed, plant propagators often take great care in managing the nursery environment to optimise plant propagation and growth. The environment includes physical or chemical (abiotic) and biotic components. In the nursery the biotic factors include not only insects and microorganisms but also other plants, including weeds. What may be less obvious in the nursery is that plants in turn may affect their environment. This interaction between the plant and its environment is the scientific discipline of "ecology." The main message of this paper is that plants growing in plant tissue culture (or in vitro) are also subject to these same interactions, hence the research field of "in vitro ecology." In this short paper I am going to focus on two aspects of the culture environment, light and gas exchange (ventilation).

Light can be described and measured by several characteristics, each having various effects on

In-Slab Bench Heating Improves Propagation Hygiene and Cuts Maintenance Costs©

Author: Paul Carmen

PP: 96


The Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) is dedicated to growing, studying, and promoting Australian plants. It currently holds around 6,500 species of Australian plants, many of which are new to horticulture.

In June 2004, a new production nursery was opened. Major features of this modern facility include: twin-skin polytunnels, a computerized Building Management System (BMS), and "in slab" bench top heating.

The twin-skin polytunnels provide maximum light throughout the year and insulation for additional warmth in the cooler months to optimize growing conditions. The BMS computer controls and monitors the irrigation and ventilation within the polytunnels and growing areas.

"In-slab" heating bench tops are used to provide bottom heat to maximise root growth throughout the propagation and young plant development phases. These bench tops have been constructed to replace "in-sand" benches and heated cold frames in the old nursery. In this case, electric heating cables

Tapping Our Biodiversity: The Future of Native Plants in Horticulture in Queensland©

Author: Peter Radke

PP: 100


Because Australian native plants originate from the Australian bush, they are inextricably tied to the Australian landscape, and so the growing of Australian native plants has always been about not only propagating and growing Australian plants in gardens, but also about getting out into the bush collecting propagating material and understanding the plants in their natural habitats.

Historically the plants most extensively collected, studied, and grown in gardens and landscapes have tended to focus on eight main genera in the "big 3" Australian plant families: Mimosaceae (acacias), Proteaceae (grevilleas, banksias, and hakeas), and Myrtaceae (callistemons, melaleucas, leptospermums, and eucalypts). This is no doubt because these are the genera and families that, more than any others, put that particular Australian stamp on the Australian landscape and that most Australians identify with typifying all things Australian. So, if you want to create a garden that looks

The Effects of Mulch on Soil Temperatures for Field Growing Conditions©

Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 104


Figure 1 was photographed by Ian Tolley at the University of Florida, Lake Alfred Research Station, U.S.A., during his Churchill Fellowship in 1966.

It was an old record stuck high up on an office wall, and current researchers, at that time, were unable to provide the author's name.

Other Data Sources

  • At this time I am unaware of any current trial evidence of this nature.
  • The unknown researcher used commonly available cotton trash (mulch).

Relevance of the Charts

  • I thought this information was particularly important to tree crop production in hot, dry climates.
  • Technology to accurately convert the information (distorted by a parallax error) was not available at that time.
  • Thirty-nine years later, I still felt the information was useful to enhance support for mulching, as a permanent tool towards sustainable soil management.

The Converted Charts

  • Each chart has five integrated, scaled segments.
  • For clarity three charts, each of five graphs have been
The Shady Side of Fern Propagation©

Author: Paul Michael

PP: 109


All ferns at our nursery are propagated by either vegetative material or spore. In the case of the vegetative material we do a range of material depending on the species. Some are from pieces of rhizome; some bulbils are removed and direct stuck; and some are from bulbils along the rachis and we layer these fronds onto mix. These bulbils over time will root into the mix and can then be picked off and plugged out. Of the approximately 40–60 fern species we grow, approximately five would be vegetatively propagated. Vegetative propagation is relatively simple, but in the case of some species, we have found that better plants are obtained through spore propagation.

Water Analysis Equipment©

Author: Jackeline Dinwoodie

PP: 44


Importance of pH. The pH is a measure of a liquid's acidity and alkalinity.

  • pH is one of the most common parameters measured in a wide range of industries.
  • The unit of measure for pH is the degree of hydrogen ion activity in a solution or aqueous base medium. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
  • Although litmus paper is a common method of pH measurement, it can only provide a rough indication, which might be insufficient in most applications.
  • The most accurate method is by using pH meter and electrode with a hydrogen ion-sensitive glass bulb.
  • The movement of ions across the membrane produces a voltage that is measured in mV and converted via the pH meter and reflected as a pH value
  • Thus, depending on the concentration of the ions in the solution, the mV and hence the pH vary.
  • Variations in temperature do have an influence on pH; it is thus important to have a pH meter with Automatic Temperature
The New Zealand Native Plant Collection at Dunedin Botanic Garden: "Our Treasure"©

Author: Shirley Stuart

PP: 111


Welcome to a brief glimpse of the treasure that is the New Zealand native plant collection at Dunedin Botanic Garden. What I would like to do this morning is to tell you a bit about how the native plant collection is arranged and show you some of the plants I think of as special. The collection covers approximately three hectares and we've got about 20 minutes, so it's a whirlwind tour and I would like to think you will be inspired to go and see it for yourself.

A Few Observations on Misconceptions: Rot 'n Rush©

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: 114


It's amazing how the soil we have treated so badly continues to bless us with food, clothing, and beauty. To see whole areas stripped and dumped into huge anaerobic heaps and sold off as top soil is at the least depressing! To have spent hours double digging and "Bastard Trenching," was for me a waste of youthful exuberance if not character building. To have learned that mulching and no digging is the way to grow is a blessing in old age; it takes much time for soil to recover from poor husbandry and the mixing up of its vital ecological components. "Never use sawdust" an age old adage was and still is, the cry being that it robs the soil of nitrogen, a huge hangover from the trenching and bury it brigade. We use tons of sawdust with not a trace mineral or other deficiency. Thick mulch over gardens and tree areas keeps the soil cool, full of organisms, and rich in humus with few weeds; the type of sawdust (untreated) can be from any species. The only drawback

Whistle Stop Chelsea 2005 Experience©

Author: Carole Scholes

PP: 117


The Chelsea Flower Show was the highlight of a short visit back to London, the city of my birth. Visiting Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Chelsea on one of the Members Only days was exceptional. The area was lightly populated, allowing good viewing of the exhibits. The exhibits and exhibitors were fresh and sparkling.

The new Great Pavilion at RHS Chelsea contained a mix of show gardens, floral, and plant exhibits. Although our visit was on an overcast day, the light conditions in the marquee were excellent, and the colours almost natural. Walking in, we were overcome by the vastness of the Great Pavilion and by the sights and the scents held within its walls.

Outside, the show gardens, allied traders, floral arts, and horticultural displays drew much attention from all visitors. It was interesting to observe the medals system, in that excellence of display to a certain standard gave awards and that more than one medal could be awarded in each class if each exhibit

Question Box©


PP: 119

An open forum, in the spirit of Seeking and Sharing, for all participants to respond to and discuss the written questions submitted during the Conference on any subject.
Overview of Annual Meeting of IPPS Japan Region 2006©

Author: Kaneto Aoyama

PP: 123

On 15 and 16 July, the 13th Annual Conference of the IPPS Japan Region took place in Wakayama Prefecture. Professor Nito, the International Director for IPPS Japan Region, served as the Executive Secretary of the Wakayama Conference and obtained cooperation from Kinki University to develop a successful conference.

On the first day, we had a keynote presentation from IPPS Japan Region member Mr. Mamoru Noguchi, who was formerly of National Institute of Hygienic Science in Osaka; the subject of his address was "Search for Medicinal Wealth" (Fig. 1).

He discussed a new method that is used to evaluate for positive effects of herbal dishes using radar charts and discussed its theoretical background in detail. He compared the radar charts for some Kampo medicines (Chinese herbal medicine) as well as herbal dishes that have been prescribed for the same disease. He also introduced cooking recipes for the herbal dishes. Additionally, he showed similar patterns in most cases,

Field Trip in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan©

Author: Nobumasa Nito

PP: 127

The 13th Annual Conference of IPPS Japan Region was held in Wakayama on 15 and 16 July 2006. There were 35 participants, and eight papers were presented in the session.

On the 2nd day, 16 July 2006, participants enjoyed the field trip in Wakayama area. It was a very fine day and exceptionally hot for the rainy season in July. The group drove to the south from Wakayama city and visited Koike Nursery Co. Ltd. (Fig. 1A, B, and C). Koike Nursery is one of the biggest in the western part of Japan and propagates seedlings of vegetables and flowers. The products are sold to farmers and wholesalers as well as DIY shops for amateur gardeners. The seedlings are propagated under an enclosed environmental systems controlled by computers.

The next visit was to Bio-Center Nakatsu (Fig. 2), which is run under the subsidy of Nakatsu village municipality. Seedlings of Gypsophila and Lilium japonicum, which is indigenous to the Kii peninsula, Japan, are propagated by tissue culture methods.

Plant Type Variation Induced by Grafting and the Related Genes Analysis in Pepper©

Author: Takumi Katano, Hiroaki Miyazawa, Katsuaki Suzuki, Yutaka Hirata

PP: 132

Investigations into the variant characters of graft-induced pepper strain "Peaton" (Capsicum annuum L.) have been carried out in our laboratory for many years. Although the high branching character of Peaton is an important horticultural character, the mechanism causing high branching is unknown. From previous studies, plant type such as branching pattern could be regulated by plant hormones. Specifically, the interaction of auxin and cytokinin could be a good clue to understand the mechanism of Peaton's high branching ability.

A decrease in auxin sensitivity was found by two kinds of auxin sensitivity tests. Therefore, two genes, AXR1 and PIN1 that relate to auxin-signal pathway, were isolated and sequenced, and G specific sequence was seen in PIN1. Future studies investigating the expression and sequencing of these genes would be important in understanding this phenomenon.

A Novel Technique for Mass Propagation and Production of Miniature Pot Plants of Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)©

Author: Tomio Nishimura, Hiroshi Tagata, Tadao Fujimori

PP: 140

A novel technique for mass propagation and production of miniature pot plants of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) was developed using a tissue culture technique and a plant growth retardant. Juvenile shoot apices that were excised from mother plants in a glasshouse were surface sterilized and used for tissue culture. Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 of N6-(2-isopentenyl)-adenine was adequate for mass propagation of transferable shoots. Shoots taken from flasks were immersed in 100 mg·L-1 indolebutyric acid for 3 h to promote rooting and then transplanted to a potting mixture of peat moss, vermiculite, and perlite (8 : 1 : 1, by volume) in a 128-cell tray for acclimatization. Miniature pot plants with a number of flower buds were successfully produced by spraying the transplanted seedlings with 20 mg·L-1 growth retardant (Paclobutrazol), followed by another spray at 200 mg·L-1 20 days later (Fig. 1). Excessive fertilization suppressed formation of flower buds and enhanced
Tetraploid Induction by Colchicine in Rosa bracteata©

Author: Hirokazu Fukui, Akiko Takahashi

PP: 141

Rosa bracteata is the only species in the genus Rosa that lives in subtropical areas — Okinawa in Japan to Vietnam — and has heat tolerance. Modern roses for cut and potted flower production do not have heat tolerance, with flowering and vigor declining during the summer season, because modern roses were bred from wild species living in temperature zones. In this study, we tried breeding modern roses with heat tolerance by crossing to R. bracteatae. As the chromosome number of modern roses is 2n = 4x = 28 and R. bracteata's is 2n = 4x = 14, the F1 by crossing between those will have chromosome number of 2n = 3x = 21 and will not have fertility. So we attempted to induce a tetraploid form of R. bracteata with colchicine.
Studies on Dwarfing Rootstocks of Japanese Persimmon©

Author: Takuya Tetsumura

PP: 142

Japanese persimmon tends to grow to a large tree. Hence the necessity of propagation of dwarfing rootstocks has been urged for 50 years (Ito, 1988), although nursery stocks grafted on the dwarfing rootstocks are not available yet. It has been thought that Japanese persimmon is one of the difficult-to-root fruit species, and propagation by cuttings has so far proved to be very difficult (Tao and Sugiura, 1992). A few reports on cutting propagation of Japanese persimmon proved that an etiolation treatment on mother plants and auxin and vitamin treatments on cutting bases were effective in rooting the cuttings collected from seedlings and cultivars (Machida and Fujii, 1969; Tukamoto et al., 1959). However, these techniques have not been applied to commercial production mainly because the production of mother plants and cuttings are cumbersome and complicated.

Many researchers have investigated the field performance of double grafted trees in which potentially dwarfing interstocks were

Efficient Plant Production and Cultivation©

Author: Ben Geijtenbeek

PP: 47


Ask yourself the following three questions:

  1. What is my problem?
  2. What is the reason behind this problem?
  3. What are some manageable solutions?
Potential of Neem Extracts for Insecticide©

Author: Masanori Tomita, Hiroshi Endo

PP: 146


Synthetic pesticides often cause environmental contamination and can be a great risk to human health. As a consequence, there has been an intense search for safer pesticides. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, syn. Melia azadirachta L., Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb.) is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is the only species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India and Burma. It became naturally distributed throughout much of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in drier areas. The medicinal properties of the neem tree have been well known in the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years. The bark, leaves, flowers, seeds, and fruit of neem plants are used to treat a number of diseases, and the tree had a cherished place in all ancient Indian treatises on medicine (Musabyimana and Saxena, 1999). Neem oil is pressed from seeds of the neem tree and has powerful pest controlling activities and medicinal properties (Singh and Singh, 1998; Pavela et al., 2004

Summary of Development, Introduction, and Marketing Strategy to Share Lotus in the Southeast United States©

Author: Daike Tian, Ken M. Tilt, Floyd M. Woods, Jeff L. Sibley, Fenny D

PP: 151

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is a well-known plant based on its edible, ornamental, and medicinal uses. Lotus is an impressive flowering rhizomatous, perennial, aquatic herb, which has a long history in the diverse cultures of the Orient (Follett and Douglas, 2003). The plant is sacred in the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Sacred lotus has been cultivated in Asia for thousands of years and has been a prestigious crop in China for nearly 5,000 years (Shen et al., 2002). Lotus is known in the United States, and there is a native yellow-flowered species (N. lutea Willd.). However it is used sparsely in the landscape and rarely eaten. A developing and open world economy has led to increasing exchanges and meshing of cultures, ideas, and horticultural treasures. In 2000, two professors and two graduate students from Auburn University visited Wuhan Institute of Botany in Wuhan, China, in the Hubei province. Their hosts at the Institute shared the beauty, diversity, and development
I.P.P.S. New Zealand and Qualification of I.P.P.S. Japan©

Author: Yutaka Hirata, Katsuaki Suzuki

PP: 155

We, Katsuaki Suzuki (MS student) and Yutaka Hirata, attended the 27th Annual Meeting of I.P.P.S New Zealand at Dunedin in the South Island from 27th to 30th April 2006. We arrived in Auckland April 24th and traveled to Dunedin aided by Mr. Peter Waugh via Hamilton. On the way to Dunedin, we visited many beautiful cities and towns including Hamilton, Oxford, and Wellington in the North Island and then traveled to the South Island visiting Picton, Nelson, Greymouth, Christchurch, and Dunedin (a most Scottish town). We returned to Wellington and Hamilton, visiting Maori cultural regions in the north and finally returned to Auckland. Low population and high sheep and cattle numbers with large areas of grape growing and pine forests, were very impressive even for us. Gardening and horticultural activity using organic technology and enthusiasm are fairly high. The strong basis of IPPS New Zealand (I.P.P.S. N.Z.) has come from their needs, life style, and social status.
Hormonal Morphogenesis of Mulberry Tree Mutant©

Author: Tatang Sopian, Yutaka Hirata

PP: 156

Mulberry tree mutant ‘Garyu’ exhibited bending on its stem similar to dwarf mutant of trifoliate orange tree ‘Hiryu’. Hormonal treatment by GA3, (S)-(+)-ABA, and their mixture (GABA) showed that normal stem mulberry types, ‘Ichibei’ and ‘Ryoumenguwa’, responded to these hormones, whereas bending-stem mutant mulberry, ‘Garyu’, and hybrid mulberry, ‘Shin-ichinose’, did not respond to them. Through genetic analysis, we show that mulberry had hormonal related genes GIA and BRI1 homolog genes.
Development of a Pest Warning System to Reduce Chemical Use in Hardy Nursery Stock Production and by Professional Gardeners©

Author: Jan Gouwy

PP: 165


In Belgium a pest early warning system was introduced in 1996 by the extension service of the Belgian Ministry of Agriculture.

Its creation was prompted by the withdrawal from the market of several broad-spectrum pesticides and the growing environmental consciousness of both growers and their customers. The warning system meant that existing routine calendar-based treatments could be replaced by a more integrated pest management approach with selective pesticides and more attention paid to use of natural enemies. The aim of the system is reduced and more effective use of pesticides by limiting treatment to the moment in the lifecycle of a pest when it is most vulnerable. The number of treatments and thus the cost therefore decrease. The system is available to nurseries, garden contractors, and local authority parks and open spaces managers.

The service initially provided warning messages regarding five pest species. In 1997 operation of the warning system was transferred to

Breeding Strategies for Woody Ornamentals: Selection Towards Disease Resistance with Particular Reference to Powdery Mildew©

Author: Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Katrijn Van Laere, Leen Leus

PP: 168

In breeding programmes, including those for woody ornamentals, polyploidization and interspecific hybridisation offer potential to introduce new genetic variation. Some examples in Buddleja and Hibiscus breeding programs are presented. In roses, as in many other species, disease resistance breeding is currently one of the major challenges. To be able to select genotypes with enhanced disease resistance, appropriate bioassays are needed. Inoculation protocols to test powdery mildew resistance of both parent plants and large populations of progenies have been developed. By these methods an early selection towards powdery mildew resistance is possible in a cost-effective way.
Propagating Dahlias for Royal Horticultural Society Trials©

Author: David Hide

PP: 174


The dahlia is a member of the Asteraceae and comprises 30 species of perennial herbs and sub-shrubs. It is found growing in the wild from the mountains of Mexico to Columbia. The genus was introduced into European cultivation in 1789 at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Madrid, from where it was distributed across Europe, reaching the U.K. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) in 1798.

Dahlia coccinea and D. pinnata are the origin of the vast majority of garden hybrids. Dahlias hybridise readily and today there are more than 50,000 registered cultivars.

Each year the dahlia trial at RHS Garden, Wisley, produces an unrivalled display from late summer until the November frosts. Wisley's propagators produce three 13-cm pots each of 120 to 150 entries trialled each year. The trial includes a selection of the best new cultivars and a selection of old standards with which the new ones can be compared.

Alpine Habitats and Cultivation in North-West Yunnan©

Author: Jane Armstrong

PP: 177

In 2005, the author spent 3 weeks (August to September) studying alpine plants in the Lijiang and Zhongdian areas of Yunnan, China, both in the wild and in a local nursery. This helped in the understanding of how these plants grow in relation to soil, climate, aspect, and associated flora. The author also gained an insight into Chinese horticulture and was able to share experiences of alpine plant cultivation with Chinese students and nurserymen.
Suitability of Processed Whole Pine Tree as a Substrate Component for Production of Greenhouse Crops©

Author: Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley, Cheryl R. Boy

PP: 180


Peat moss is the primary component of growth substrates in the production of greenhouse-grown herbaceous annual crops. Rising transportation costs of peat moss from Canada or Europe is affecting the profitability of many greenhouse operators (personal growth communication). Alternative substrate components have been evaluated in the U.S.A. for use in greenhouse production. Some substrates have been evaluated as additions to reduce the quantities of peat moss in a given substrate and others as replacements for peat moss. A cost-effective sustainable alternative substrate is processed whole pine trees. Gruda and Schnitzler (2004) demonstrated the suitability of wood fiber substrates as an alternative for peat-based substrates in cultivation of greenhouse tomato plants. Wright and Browder (2005) showed that whole chipped pine logs ("clean chips") could be used successfully for nursery crop production with attention to nutrition and irrigation. Substrates composed of whole pine

Application of Lean Manufacturing to Nursery Stock Production at Johnsons of Whixley©

Author: Jonathan H.T. Whittemore

PP: 188


Lean manufacturing is a simple and effective way of improving systems. The costs of the lean approach are proportionate to the scale of the business. However, the lean way of operating must be embraced by organisations as a whole; trying to apply it to selected parts of an organisation will not be effective. The processes of plant production can be analysed and improved in just the same way as those in any other industry. The fact that the product is a living organism is no justification for inefficiency on the nursery. This paper will cover the basic principles of lean manufacturing, the practicality of its application, and the reality of trying to operate under the philosophy of a lean regime in an industry where investment cash is scarce.

Optimizing Fertilization for Plant Cultivation©

Author: Ben Geijtenbeek

PP: 50


Optimising fertilization requires up-to-date information on the composition of the growing medium and water. With this information one can do a calculated fertilization schedule according to the fertilizer requirements of the specific crop.

The key aspects to consider are the pH and EC of the substrate and the water.

Ditch Systems for Biological Filtration of Recycled Irrigation Water©

Author: Rene Jochems

PP: 192


GroeiBalans is a small company operating in The Netherlands supplying advice on sustainable crop management to nurseries. This paper describes a biological water treatment system that it has been developing with a number of nurseries in The Netherlands.

The Importance of Water Treatment. The health of the water used to irrigate the plants on the nursery is fundamental to the health of the soil or container medium in which the plants are growing. It is important for introducing and maintaining good soil biology. With healthy, biologically active water the introduction of beneficial microorganisms, including mycorrhizas, is more successful. Growers need to recycle irrigation run-off in order to meet government regulations and restrictions and because there is a limited supply of good quality water. It is important that recycled water is treated in a way that maintains or improves its biological quality.

The Application of Advanced Irrigation Technology in Hardy Ornamental Nursery Bed Systems©

Author: Russel Sharp

PP: 194

Precise control over plant water status can provide growers with a means of using controlled water deficits to beneficially modify growth, development, and quality. Infra-red (IR) thermographic technology allows remote monitoring of leaf temperature, which can be a good indicator of plant water status because leaf tissues heat up as transpiration is reduced by closure of stomata (a common response to shoot or substrate water deficit). Precise methods of delivering irrigation and nutrients, based on IR imaging and gantry booms that tailor dose to the needs of individual plants, are being developed as part of a new Water- LINK project (Department for Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs). Expected benefits compared with existing nursery systems include minimal water run off, increased crop uniformity, a lower reliance on growth regulators, and less need for nurserymen to monitor the water status of beds. The technology is compatible with a number of emerging technologies in irrigation and planting monitoring.
Experience Using Controlling Seed Moisture Content During Stratification to Improve Germination on the Nursery©

Author: Niels Dictus

PP: 198


My business offers seeds and seed treatment services to the large number of tree nurseries in the Zundert area of The Netherlands and produces plug-grown nursery stock seedlings. We use a seed stratification technique based on controlling the moisture content in the seeds. The aim is to reduce premature germination while increasing the proportion of seeds which go on to break dormancy and germinate after sowing.

This paper explains how the technique is applied to Acer platanoides and Fagus sylvatica, with reference to the traditional stratification treatments for each species. The treatments and germination results shown are based on our own trials and experience.

Liquid Sorting and Film Coating: Techniques for Improving Tree Seed Performance©

Author: M.P.M. Derkx

PP: 200


Tree seed performance has benefited considerably from the development of controlled methods to overcome dormancy. Traditionally tree seeds have often been stratified outdoors. Depending on the types of dormancy, stratification starts before or during summer and continues during winter, or it starts before winter. Seeds become ready to germinate during winter, and they may start to germinate before sowing. Reducing the water content of the seeds during pre-treatment can prevent this premature germination.

If premature germination is prevented, treatments at slightly reduced and controlled moisture content (MC) can be prolonged. As a result, percentage, rate, and uniformity of germination increase. Moreover germination proceeds over a wider range of seedbed conditions. So far, controlled MC treatment has been developed for about 20 species, both broad leaved and conifers.

Seed quality is often a limiting factor in tree seeds, which are often collected from the ground.

Biofumigants and Green Manures for Field-Grown Nursery Stock©

Author: Abi Rayment

PP: 205


This paper considers the general benefits of green manures, cover crops, and biofumigants for the nursery industry and reviews the three green manure/biofumigant crops currently of interest to growers in Great Britain and Ireland.

It is important to understand the distinction between a green manure, a cover crop, and a biofumigant crop:

Green Manure. The soil incorporation of any crop (green or soon after flowering) for the purpose of soil improvement.

Cover Crop. Any crop grown to provide soil cover, regardless of whether it is later incorporated. The crops are primarily grown to prevent soil erosion by wind or water.

Biofumigation. Growing and incorporating a crop in a way that exploits its defensive enzymatic systems or biocidal activity, as a strategy to control weeds or soil-borne pests or pathogens.

General Benefits of Green Manures and Biofumigant Crops. These crops can help improve soil structure and moisture retention and provide and provide

Bionomics for Woody and Herbaceous Perennial Plant Production©

Author: Karel Eigenram

PP: 208


Until recently chemistry was seen as the best way to understand and work with crop production, turning it into an industrial process: seeds and chemicals are the inputs and the crop is the end product. But what happens in the middle is biology — and bionomics is about looking at soil chemistry from a biological standpoint.

Biology is mostly about organic molecules rather than inorganic chemical salts or ions. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and the trace elements are important for the crop's nutrition. From these elements plants can synthesize all they need. It is the soil's organic compounds however that determine the availability of these nutrients to a crop.

Soil bionomics is about the soil economy and the maintenance of soil organisms, which in turn maintain the nutritional quality of the soil. Bacteria and fungi prepare the nutrients in a form suitable for everything else living in and from the soil. Economics is based on numbers and counting to measure financial

Compost and Compost Tea in Organic Greenhouse Horticulture Using the Soil Foodweb Approach©

Author: Didier Bouden

PP: 213


Vzw Lochting-Dedrie is a nonprofit organization that offers employment to people who, for a wide variety of reasons, aren't able to be part of the regular work force. On average, we have about eight people working in the organic growing section lead by two instructors. The organization is supported by national and local government in the form of wage subsidies and the use of land; 30% of the income is in the form of wage subsidies but 70% has to be earned selling what is grown.

The organisation has a 1-ha greenhouse and 25 ha of outdoor land, which is used to grow leeks. The greenhouse activities are almost exclusively carried out by our own work force. Work on the fields, apart from harvest, is outsourced.

Since 2005, our aim is to base the entire fertility management on the soil foodweb approach as developed by Elaine Ingham. She is the founder and director of the Soil Foodweb Institute, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

Practical Experience with Active Compost and Compost Tea in Container Production©

Author: Carlos Verhelst

PP: 218


A number of European environmental laws are making it more difficult to produce nursery stock. In particular, the availability of pesticides and fertilizers is being reduced to prevent pollution of the water supplies. To counteract this trend, a number of nurseries are beginning to work with compost and compost tea, which can contribute to a more environment-friendly way of growing nursery stock.

In partnership with my wife, I run a nursery at Jabbeke. We specialise in liners propagated by grafting. Our customers are street tree growers, container nurseries, and, for some lines, garden centres.

Our propagation program has two main elements: summer grafting from August to the end of September and winter grafting from January to the end of February. In winter, bench grafting is done with the hot-pipe callusing system. In summer we work with potted rootstocks in P9s, which are grafted under polyethylene tents. All grafts are potted in P14s in March and covered with tunnels

Suggestions for Using Compost Tea in Cuttings Propagation©

Author: John Summers

PP: 221


Compost tea is a liquid extract of humic compost containing large numbers of beneficial microorganisms. It is already in use in many nurseries in Europe as an aid to pest and disease management in plant production, but this paper highlights some potential uses in propagation.

Comparison of Ground-Cover Materials for Container Growing Systems: Horizontal Versus Vertical Drain©

Author: Els Pauwels

PP: 222

This paper reviews the materials most commonly used as ground covers on Belgian container nurseries and reports on trials comparing their drainage characteristics. Older materials tend to discharge water horizontally (surface run-off), while newer materials are designed to drain vertically (below-surface run-off). The choice has implications for water management in the crop and for recovery and recycling of irrigation water.
Jumping the Garden Fence©

Author: Hildegard Klein

PP: 52


The presence of invasive alien plants in South Africa is due to human intervention. Many alien plants become naturalized and start to multiply and spread far from their original planting. Their invasiveness is harmful to the environment.

What Makes Some Alien Plants Invasive?

  • These plants have no natural enemies.
  • The rapid reproduction by means of seeds.
  • Easily reproducing by vegetative means.
  • Natural chemical defences.
  • Hybrid vigour
  • .

In South Africa there is not enough information available for accurate assessment of risks. Precautionary measures must be taken that sometimes clash with trade interests.

How Did the Invasive Alien Plant Get Into the Country?

  • As garden ornamentals.
  • As barrier plants — to prevent soil erosion, etc.
  • As forestry or agro-forestry species.
  • Unintentionally — people bringing in small quantities of seeds without declaring them at the border.

Main Proportion Invaders Among Different Users.

  • Ornamentals 55%
The Influence of a Dynamic Climate on Pests©

Author: Lene Jakobsen, Jesper M. Aaslyng, Annie Enkegaard

PP: 229

The influence of a dynamic climate on pests is at present not well investigated. During the last years, some Danish growers have observed that problems with pests have diminished when they shifted from the traditional rigid climate control to a dynamic regime. This tendency was also observed in experiments where different dynamic climate strategies were tested. A recent experiment has shown that the influx of thrips from outside was diminished when a dynamic climate regime was compared to a traditional rigid climate regime. Another experiment revealed that the development time of Myzus persicae was longer under a simulated dynamic climate compared to a static climate. Knowledge of how the development of a pest is influenced by a temperature regime makes it possible to use climate management as a tool for pest control.
Viruses in Plants — Fascinating but Treacherous©

Author: I. Elisabeth Johansen

PP: 233


Plant viruses are fascinating pathogens that can induce beautiful symptoms on their hosts but also cause serious damage to commercial crops. To prevent damage from viral diseases it is important to understand and control virus spread. Recent research has given new insights into the mechanisms of plant defense against virus infection. This has enabled researchers to generate resistant plants. In addition, studies of viral defense reactions have contributed to the understanding of gene regulation.

Hygiene Problems in Plant Tissue Culture Propagation©

Author: Sridevy Sriskandarajah

PP: 238


Plant tissue cultures have been used for various purposes such as mass propagation, production of disease-indexed plants, and genetic engineering. Plant tissue culture is defined as culture of plant cell, tissue, or an organ under sterile conditions in an artificial medium under aseptic conditions. This statement clearly indicates that for a successful tissue culture operation there should not be any contamination by microorganisms during the entire culture period. Contamination by microorganisms will not allow the plant cultures to grow, and the contaminants will eventually destroy plant cultures. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the major contaminants, the sources of such contaminants, and the methods available for sterilizing plant material before the introduction into tissue culture medium and to know the methods for an overall hygiene in a tissue culture operation.

Contamination caused by some common microorganisms can result in large losses during

Regeneration of Farfugium japonicum Through Adventitious Shoot Formation from Leaf and Petiole Explants©

Author: Tomohide Yamamoto

PP: 242

Donor plants were produced from meristems on half-strength-MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 BA. From the in vitro plant, leaves and petioles were excised, and leaves were divided into two halves, distal and proximal ones. The petioles were successively divided into three segments. These were used for explants. Direct adventitious shoots were actively formed from these explants on the MS medium supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.1 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). In the divided half of leaf, the position forming most actively adventitious shoots was the proximal end (cut section) of distal half. In petioles, the number of adventitious shoots increased toward the proximal direction. Such a polarity was considered to be due to a gradient in age of petiole tissue. The adventitious shoots rooted easily in the hormone-free medium. The regenerated plants flowered after about 1 year from the beginning of the explant culture.

Author: Steve Castorani

PP: 249

Good morning and welcome to the 56th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society Eastern Region in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

We have an outstanding program and an action-packed 3 days planned for you.

I would like to inform you that we have members attending from the Southern and Western regions as well as Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Netherlands, Great Britain, plus five attendees from China. We also have members and representatives from Quebec where next year's meeting will be held.

I would like to ask all the new members to stand as well as all of you who have signed up to be their buddies during the meeting. Please meet each other at the registration desk at the break. It's important that we spend time with our new members and make them feel welcome among us. That also holds true for all of the students that are attending. The students are the next generation of I.P.P.S. members. We welcome you and hope you find your time here interesting and rewarding.

I would

Some Thoughts from Inside and Outside the Propagation House©

Author: Todd Davis

PP: 251

It's a time of flux for the nursery business. Market and external factors are affecting what we grow and how we grow it. Here's a look at seven major factors and how they're changing the face of nursery production.
Basic Facts about United States Plant Patents, Trademarks, and Brands©

Author: Tom Foley, Jr

PP: 254

The United States nursery industry is experiencing rapid changes in the way new plants are introduced into the market. As the industry evolves, the use of plant patents linked with a marketing campaign and branding is becoming necessary for consumers to connect to the value of the plants.
Why We Brand©

Author: Mark Sellew

PP: 257

What is another name for the green industry? I say it is a mature consumer products industry. We have become a mature consumer products industry, and that means today if we want to grow our business we need: (1) new products, (2) category management, and (3) production differentiation.
Some Computers and Half-a-Dozen Graphic Artists, Not! Marketing Opportunities with Patents, Trademarks, and Brands©

Author: Jonathon Pedersen

PP: 259


So what will it take? Are you ready to leap into branding?

  • Today you have heard what patenting and trademarking does, doesn't do, and why.
  • A grower perspective on why branding is important.

So let' get branding, this is easy, right? All we need is a colored pot and some Point of Purchase (POP) materials, and watch the dollars roll in. Well not so fast. The industry today is showing a decline in sales with sales per participating household slowing or not increasing.

On the Way to the Market: A Retailer's Perspective on Plant Branding©

Author: Karen M. Olson

PP: 264


Members of the business world from outside horticulture emphasize the importance of branding products. Plant developers and growers frequently express that plant branding is the wave of the future.

Garden centers however, often convey differing views. I surveyed personnel at over 50 garden centers throughout northeastern United States. What follows is a synopsis of the information, ideas, and opinions expressed by plant retailers, peppered with my experiences working at a garden center in central Pennsylvania for 13 years.

Implications of the Biodiversity Act on the Nursery Industry©

Author: Kay Montgomery

PP: 56


Where Did It Come From?

  • Nineteen drafts dating back to 1992
  • Part of an International initiative
  • Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit — 1992
  • Johannesburg Earth Summit — 2002
  • Gazetted as law in June 2004

Integrated Legislation to Protect Biodiversity: National Environmental Management Act (NEMA)

  • Protected Areas Act — 2003
  • Biodiversity Act — 2004
  • Coastal Zone Bill
Alternative Strategies for Clonal Plant Reproduction©

Author: Robert L. Geneve

PP: 269


Pick up any biology textbook and there will be a description of the typical sexual life cycle for plants. In higher plants, the life cycle starts with seed germination followed by vegetative growth leading to flower and gamete formation with the ultimate goal of creating genetically diverse offspring through seed production. The fern life cycle is more primitive but follows a similar progression from spore germination to the gametophytic generation leading to sexual union of gametes resulting in the leafy sporophyte, which in turn creates the spores.

Interestingly, plants have evolved unique alternative life cycles that bypass typical seed production in favor of clonal reproduction systems. This may seem counterintuitive because sexual reproduction should lead to greater genetic diversity in offspring compared to clonal plants. These sexual offspring should have a higher

Propagation Equipment 101©;

Author: Alan Jones

PP: 274


This paper is a review of equipment used to provide the best environment for propagation. For some it may seem a rather basic review, but sometimes going back to basics is not a bad thing.

It has always been said by propagators "If you have the basic understanding of plant propagation and the required environment, you can root cuttings in any type of structure." History and I.P.P.S. tours have proven that sophisticated propagation structures are not always necessary to be a successful propagator. As many of us have learned over the years by attending I.P.P.S. meetings, no two nurseries have the same system or the same way to propagate and grow the same plant.

While most nurseries now use a mist or fog system for propagation, cuttings have been rooted for hundreds of years using very simple methods. These simple structures and systems were used before the advent of more automated systems like the mist system. The I.P.P.S. was founded at a time when mist

It Ain't Just Dirt©

Author: R. Christian Cash

PP: 280


Rooting of cuttings and growth of seedlings is dependent upon providing proper environmental conditions for root growth and anchorage for plants. The decisions include selecting the appropriate media components, type of pot, pot filling technique, and watering methods.

What Do Roots Need? The rooting process requires the presence of water and oxygen in a medium. Water is necessary to keep plants hydrated, allow for nutrient uptake, and for metabolic processes, which maintain cell processes. Oxygen is required for the process of respiration to occur in a rooting environment. For a root to function the proper balance of water and gas exchange must be provided. In addition to the necessary water and gas exchange, roots require appropriate temperatures for growth and nutrients available upon root initiation.

WHAT IS A MEDIUM? A medium is a substrate that provides for growth of roots. William Fonteno writes in the Ball Grower's Guide for Greenhouse Crops, "A major misconception

Wow! The Hormones Have Kicked In©

Author: Bradley Rowe

PP: 284

In propagating plants from cuttings, rooting hormones can improve adventitious root formation, nutrients can influence plant health and growth rate, and various biological and chemical means can be pursued to combat pests.
Will Some Plants Get "Green Cards"?©

Author: Wayne Mezitt

PP: 287


Although the issue of invasive landscape plants emerged publically only in the mid-1990s, it has quickly become one of the foremost challenges for the nursery industry. Initially started as a concern that non-native plants were overrunning natural areas, it has evolved into a complex and challenging puzzle for all of us who produce, maintain, and market landscape plants. Depending upon which perspective we choose to take, the challenge presented by invasive plants can be a threat to our well being or an opportunity to improve our industry. In any case, this issue will not go away anytime soon, and it holds potential to become a fundamental base for building the future of our industry.

This session is intended to offer an overview of the invasive plant issue and provide specific examples and resources for additional information. The expectation is that all members of I.P.P.S., and soon the entire nursery industry, will more fully understand and appreciate the importance

Will Some Plants Get "Green Cards"?: Current Thoughts on Invasive Species©

Author: Robert E. Schutzki

PP: 289


Invasive plants have been a topic of discussion for the past several years and will continue to be in the future. We have witnessed legislation, plant bans, and all sorts of negative information across the country targeted at "non-native" plants. The intent of this article is to review some background on the invasive species issue and highlight information that will aid in our understanding and shape the way we address the issue. Our background review will focus on: Executive Order 13112; National Invasive Species Council, Regulatory Action; the two workshops titled "Linking Ecology and Horticulture to Prevent Plant Invasions" held in St. Louis and Chicago; Assessment of Plant Invasiveness; Research Needs; Position Statements by Stakeholders; and Key Concerns impacting the horticulture and landscape professions. The invasive plant issue is extremely complex and crosses many discipline and commodity boundaries. Each has their own perspective…their own

Plants for a Livable Delaware©

Author: Faith B. Kuehn

PP: 293

Concerned about issues associated with invasive plants, in 2002 the Delaware Invasive Species Council formed an Invasive Plants Group. The Group's overall goal was to develop a list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in Delaware. This list would form the basis of an effort to promote agreement between the green industry and public about invasive plant issues and to develop support for addressing the issues. Group members represented Delaware's Departments of Transportation, Natural Resources, and Agriculture; the Delaware Nursery and Landscape Association; and Delaware Center for Horticulture. The Group's objectives were the following: develop a list of invasive plants, make recommendations for regulatory action, describe effective control measures, recommend alternative plants, publicize the Voluntary Codes of Conduct, and develop a communication package.

After reviewing invasive plant categorization schemes developed by several states and organizations, the Invasive Plants

Hey Joe, Can You Believe They Outsourced My Job Too?©

Author: Peggy Walsh Craig

PP: 297

During the last couple of years, top greenhouse growers have largely come to the conclusion that it doesn't pay for them to make their own cuttings. For example, one of Canadian Ornamental Plant Foundation's significant bedding plant producers in Québec, Canada, recently told me that his usual price for an unrooted geranium cutting with tag is about $0.30. His customers last season could buy the same cutting for $0.11 from Costa Rica. Cutting sales were a large part of his business, and he's now considering his options. Most of the bigger Ontario greenhouse producers have already made the change.

Is there any reason to believe it will be any different in the nursery business?

Many of you already know that Ball Seed, in the next few years, is rolling out a softwood cuttings program from Costa Rica and Guatemala. Ball has been selling perennial cuttings for a while, as has Yoder Brothers. These floral breeding programs don't take any cuttings until the stock plants have been cleaned up of

The Use of Offshore-Produced Unrooted Cuttings at North Creek Nurseries©

Author: Steve Castorani

PP: 298

  • North Creek Nurseries began buying unrooted cuttings (URC) about 5 years ago (2001).
  • We currently purchase about 500,000 annually from all the major perennial URC producers, Yoder, Florexpo (McGregor), and Maya Crops (Foremostco).
  • North Creek grows over 400 different taxa of perennials. We purchase about 70 taxa as unrooted cuttings. Some of the genera we purchase are: Achillea, Agastache, Aster, Coreopsis, Eupatorium, Gaura, Phlox, Salvia, Sedum, and Veronica.
  • Offshore-unrooted cuttings currently make up about 8% of our total yearly production.
Outside The Box: Breeding of Not-So-Common Woody Landscape Plants at the United States National Arboretum

Author: Margaret Pooler, Richard Olsen

PP: 300


The woody ornamental breeding programs at the U.S. National Arboretum were started in the late 1950s and are known for the release of improved selections of such landscape staples as viburnums, crapemyrtles, maples, and elms. However, breeding and selection work is also under way on several less common flowering shrubs (Cercis, Corylopsis, and Gaylussacia) and trees (Celtis, ×Chitalpa, and Halesia). Challenges in breeding these genera can include a scarcity of available germplasm; lack of information on seed germination or propagation; unknown taxonomic and genetic information on species relationships; and marketing challenges for the new plants. However, these plants can also offer new opportunities for growers, landscape architects, and gardeners and can serve to broaden the palette and genetic diversity of cultivated landscape plants.

Cultivation of Southern African Succulents©

Author: Ian Oliver

PP: 59


There are about 10,000 succulent species in the world of which 30% are native to South Africa. Main succulent plant families found in Southern Africa — 35 main plant families

  • 1344   Mesembryanthemaceae     46%
  • 392     Asclepiadaceae                   14%
  • 334     Asphodelaceae                   12%
  • 239     Crassulaceae                          8%
  • 180     Euphorbiaceae                       6%
  • 131     Asteraceae                             5%
  • 34        Portulacaceae                        1%
  • 28        Families (249)                         1%
Heuchera and Its Allies©

Author: Dan Heims

PP: 303

The Saxifragaceae contains 80 genera and 1200 species. These include the popular genera of:
  • Astilbe — Many flowers and colored leaf forms including a new yellow-foliaged form.
  • Bergenia — Fleshy leaves, earliest spring bloomers, some repeat like Bergenia ‘Herbstblüte’.
  • Darmera — Large-leafed northwest native, hardy in Vermont.
  • Francoa — Chilean relative of Heuchera with full rosettes of foliage and wand-like flowers from pink to blue to white.
  • Heuchera — Evergreen groundcovers in myriad foliage colors.
  • ×Heucherella — Bigeneric hybrids of Heuchera and Tiarella.
  • Mitella — Quiet woodlander. Asian species have larger leaves and better color and texture.
  • Mukdenia — Perfect woodland plants that prefer acidic soils. Mukdenia prefer cooler evening temperatures although they are grown in hot/humid areas of Japan in an all-mineral mix.
  • Rodgersia — Large leaves in different shapes (palmate, pinnate) Flowers from buff-white to strong pink. Must have moisture and acidity.
  • Saxifraga — Woodlanders and montane
Using Traditional and Biotechnological Breeding for New Plant Development©

Author: Mark Bridgen

PP: 307


The constant search for new forms and colors of plants for the horticultural industry is making the development of new cultivars a permanent endeavor. There exists a tremendous potential to introduce noncultivated species from nature and to breed new ornamentals from these native species (Bridgen, 2001). There are several native Chilean geophytes that have potential as commercial and ornamental plants. Species such as Leucocoryne, Conanthera, Rhodophiala, Alstroemeria, and Zephyra could be bred and used as cut flower crops, potted plant crops, and garden flowers.

The Chilean territory is an "ecological island" with geographical barriers that have isolated the biological communities from the rest of the continent and produced a high percentage of endemism. The Atacama Desert to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, and the Andes Mountains to the east have made Chile one of the world's few biodiversity hotspots. Continental Chile is home to some 5,100 species

The New Faces of Hellebores©

Author: David L. Culp

PP: 311


Hellebores have proven to be one of the ultimate perennials for shade: long lived, long blooming, evergreen, and virtually disease free. It is certainly no wonder they were selected "The 2005 Perennial Plant Association plant of the year."

Still, improvements in this genus are occurring at a rapid pace. Colors have been much improved on in the past decades. New colors, richer color saturations, and superior flower forms are the hallmarks of the new generation of hellebores. Recent improved leaf color … and shapes only hint at future possibilities.

Large-Scale Propagation and Production of Native Woodland Perennials©

Author: William Cullina

PP: 313

Native woodland perennials are a source of frustration for propagators, because issues concerning seed viability, extended germination times, and slow and seasonal growth of seedlings discourage large-scale propagation and production. However, with proper seed handling and pretreatments as well as a "liner" approach to production, I believe that large-scale production is possible and profitable.
Grafting: A Review of Basics as Well as Special Problems Associated With Conifer Grafting©

Author: Richard A. Larson

PP: 318


The role of grafting in contemporary plant propagation has declined with advancements in conventional cutting propagation and subsequent micropropagation. However, grafting is sometimes still the method of choice when dealing with certain rare and unusual woody plants and is therefore currently employed by a handful of specialty nurseries and a few larger firms that still market specialty crops.

The purposes of this brief paper are twofold: (1) To enumerate the advantages and liabilities of grafting with the implicit question: Is grafting a viable method for a given nursery to adopt and use in its production? (2) To describe the basic steps in grafting while examining a few unique requirements of grafting evergreen conifers relative to deciduous plants.

Efficiency Tools for Field Growers©

Author: Astrid Newenhouse, Marcia Miquelon, Larry Chapman

PP: 323



The Healthy Farmers, Healthy Profits Project is being funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health to find and share work efficiency tools that maintain health and safety and increase profits for nursery growers in the upper Midwest (NIOSH award No.U01OHO8100).

Nursery work is associated with relatively high rates of musculoskeletal problems (i.e., 400 per 10,000 for California nursery workers) (Faucett et al., 2001; Hildebrandt, 1995). The two types of injury risk that we are concerned about are cumulative injury and traumatic injury. Cumulative injury refers to pain that builds up over time. This is often musculoskeletal pain such as back pain, knee pain, and repetitive stress on hands, wrists, and joints. Traumatic injury refers to pain caused from a particular event such as crushed fingers from improper hitching or internal injuries from a worker being pinned between tractor and wagon.

Three tools in

DNA Nultiscan®: A New Tool for Rapid Detection of Pathogens in Water, Soil, and Plant Tissue©

Author: Marc Sabourin

PP: 327

The main limitation in plant disease management is the ease of plant pathogen identification. Standard procedures' limitations include:
  • Time-consuming and often laborious.
  • Require extensive knowledge in both classical taxonomy and culture methods.
  • Exclude culture-independent organisms.
  • Detect few organism at a time.

Molecular and serological identification methods, on the other hand, generate accurate results rapidly but detect few organisms at a time. The solution is DNA-array technology:

  • Originally developed to screen for human genetic disorders in 1989.
  • Successfully applied to detect and identify different microorganisms in clinical laboratories in 1992.
  • Successfully applied to discriminate and identify DNA samples isolated from specific oomycete (1998), nematode (1999), and bacterial cultures in plant pathology (2003).

The advantages of DNA Multiscan include:

  • Multiplex detection.
  • Rapid, accurate, simple, and sensitive.
  • Semi-quantification.
  • Analysis of samples from different
Growing Insect-Free Plants with New Technology©

Author: Stanton Gill, Chuck Schuster, Ginny Rosenkranz, Paula Shrewsbury

PP: 330


Can very warm water kills pests and make a nursery plant propagator happy and rich? Yes to the warm water killing pests and yes to the part about making nursery professionals happy. Whether you can get rich using this method is up to you. We think that multiple potential benefits can be found using a hot water immersion system to decimate insects, or should we say cook insects, at the propagation stage. This method was developed through University-based research in Hawaii and at the University of Maryland.

Many nursery plant propagators are anxious to adopt effective, cost-efficient methods of nonchemically controlling pests. Concerns over worker's unnecessary exposure to chemicals has prompted many owners to look for alternative methods to deal with insect and mite control that places less reliance on pesticides. Greater regulation on the use of chemical pesticides has created an opportunity to look to other methods of dealing with

Just When I Thought I Had the Right Recipe©

Author: Keith Osborne

PP: 340

The horticulture industry, indeed the world, is all about change today. There are constantly new ideas surfacing, different technologies emerging, and new plants being introduced. In this evolutionary world, when is the last time you took a look at your media recipe? Are you still using what dear old dad concocted back in '72? Are new plants problem crops or does the price of your mix give you the shudders? This article tackles some of the reasons to make changes and hopefully some guidance in implementing those changes successfully.

Let us begin by looking at the reasons we would change recipes in the first place. Ingredients offered over the years have changed. We are witnessing peat moss shortages from the East and bark shortages from the South, and we all know with shortages come price increases. In our generation of recycling, more compost is being produced, and the quality continues to increase whereas cost remains stable or decreases. While we seldom experience completely new

Selectrocide™ Chlorine Dioxide as a New Product for the Control of Algae and Other Microbial Pests in Greenhouse Irrigation Systems©

Author: Peter Konjoian

PP: 342


Algae cause a number of problems relating to greenhouse management. It forms on sidewalls of the greenhouse, particularly when plants are grown close enough for fertilizer solution to splash, drip, or drain onto the glazing material (Fig. 1). The advanced stage of development reduces light transmission through the sidewall and growth of plants in the immediate vicinity. It is viewed by many as a nuisance and can lead customers to form a negative impression of the operation by suggesting that cleanliness and good sanitation practices are not priorities.

Its presence is known to provide feeding and breeding areas for insects such as fungus gnats and shore flies (Fig. 2). Populations of these insects are known to vector plant diseases, particularly those that occur in the growing medium. A shore fly population, if present in a retail area, can be quite distracting and cause shoppers to question whether the "bugs" are going to harm the plants they purchase. Until recently

Mutation Breeding in the Hyacinthaceae©

Author: Sanette Thiart

PP: 62



  • Constant, natural phenomenon.
  • Caused by cosmic or ultraviolet rays.
  • Faulty DNA replication.
  • Can be encouraged or accelerated where needed.

Crop Improvement. Agricultural crops today have all undergone improvement by means of:

  1. Selecting the best plants.
  2. Crossings to combine good qualities.
  3. Resorting to other sources of variation when existing germplasm fails to provide the desired recombinant.
  • By means of mutation techniques.
  • In vitro techniques.
  • Molecular techniques.
Recent Advances in Cutting Propagation©

Author: Brian Maynard

PP: 354


Staying abreast of research developments is a challenge in any area of science and, perhaps, even more so in the relatively obscure area of fundamental and applied research of adventitious root formation on cuttings. There are not a large number of scientists doing plant propagation research, certainly fewer than there were even a few decades ago. As well, there are several journals that publish propagation findings, so there is not just one place to turn for timely information. Traditionally, more applied work was found in the Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators' Society (CPIPPS), and more fundamental research was published in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science (JASHS) or HortScience (HS).In the last 15 to 20 years, however, several other publishing venues have gained in popularity, including the Journal of Environmental Horticulture (JEH),the Proceedings of the Southern Nursery Association (SNA)and Hort Technology. Add to

Flowering Shrubs: Shaking Up the Market©

Author: Tim Wood

PP: 361

Spring Meadow has a long reputation for seeking out and introducing new and interesting shrubs. About 25 years ago we decided to make a concerted effort to work directly with plant breeders to protect and introduce new shrubs and to sell them under an umbrella brand. We currently represent breeders in Japan, Korea, Canada, Netherlands, Germany, England, Poland, France, Belgium, and the United States. Initially we sold plants under the name ColorChoice®, and 3 years ago we partnered with the marketing co-op Proven Winners® and now sell our new shrubs under the Proven Winners ColorChoice™ brand. From the beginning our intention was to change the way people view flowering shrubs. If you look at the plants that we've introduced and the way we market them you can see that in many ways we are emulating the perennial market.

In determining which plants to introduce under the Proven Winners brand we developed a selection criteria that is based heavily on a criteria list developed by J.C. Raulston.

The Early History of the International Plant Propagators' Society©

Author: Philip A. Barker

PP: 365

Creation of the International Plant Propagators' Society can be credited to the vision and commitment of numerous people, especially Edward H. Scanlon (1903– 1976), and to Scanlon's Trees Magazine, which routinely announced happenings about the Society and its members. Summarized here are some of the events and personalities that led to the Society we know today.

Edward H. Scanlon started several professional organizations devoted to trees and especially to people who worked with trees. He capitalized upon his position as editor/publisher of Trees Magazine to promote the need for the new organizations and their various events. Unfortunately, this widely read magazine was no longer published after his death in 1976.

"It is the belief of Trees Magazine," Scanlon wrote, "that a new organization is badly needed and would be enthusiastically supported by progressive nurserymen, scientists, and arborists" (Scanlon, 1951a).He proposed to name the new group the Plant Propagators Society and invited

Breeding, Propagation, and Production of Clematis©

Author: Chris Ozanne

PP: 373


The Guernsey Clematis Nursery Ltd. and Raymond J Evison Ltd. are two companies based on the small island of Guernsey situated just 50 miles north of the coast of France and 100 miles south of the coast of England (in the English Channel). The island itself is just 24 sq. miles. Its size and location gives it a very mild and moderate climate with a maximum summer temperature that seldom reaches 30 °C (85 °F) and winter temperatures that rarely drop much below freezing and never for prolonged periods. With the history of horticulture on the island and infrastructure in place, plus the beneficial climate, Guernsey became an excellent location for glasshouse production. The main disadvantage of growing on Guernsey is that of export, with an ever-increasing cost to transport goods from the island to mainland Europe.

The Guernsey Clematis Nursery Ltd. began in 1985, set up by its founder, Raymond Evison, for the production of young clematis. This has developed over the last 20

While They Were Asleep: Do Seeds After-Ripen in Cold Storage? Experiences With Calendula

Author: Mark P. Widrlechner

PP: 377


Methods to break seed dormancy are of great interest to plant propagators, with many papers on this topic presented at past I.P.P.S. meetings. For example, in Vol. 54 of our Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators' Society, there were reports on embryo culture to avoid dormancy (Douglas, 2004) and recommendations on dormancy-breaking techniques for Helleborus (Bush, 2004), Salvia (Navarez, 2004), and many wildflowers and grasses native to the North Central U.S.A. (Diboll, 2004). As propagators, we typically want quick methods that consistently result in high germination rates without large labor inputs. But if we can afford to be more patient, some seeds may eliminate their primary dormancy mechanisms during storage. This progressive loss of dormancy after maturity in "air-dry" seeds is known as after-ripening (Murdoch and Ellis, 2000). Typically, after-ripening is thought to occur under warm, dry conditions (Foley, 2000; Probert,2000),but the literature

Polyploidy: From Evolution to New Plant Development©

Author: Thomas G. Ranney

PP: 383


Polyploidy is an intriguing phenomenon in plants that has provided an important pathway for evolution and speciation. Although the first polyploid was discovered over a century ago, the genetic and evolutionary implications of polyploidy are still being elucidated (Bennett, 2004; Soltis et al., 2003). On a more practical level, there are many opportunities for utilizing polyploidy as a valuable tool in traditional plant breeding programs.

New and Underused Woody Plants: A Personal Perspective©

Author: John E. Elsley

PP: 390

This is a personal selection of trees and shrubs, consisting of both recent introductions and others that have been around for longer periods of time that, for various reasons have not, I feel, received the recognition they merit. This latter category of plants have "stood the test of time," a claim that many recent introductions cannot assert!

Most of the subjects chosen exhibit one or more outstanding ornamental features, including flowers, fruits, foliage, and overall form or habit. By considering this "Four F Factor" when initially selecting plants, one can greatly enhance the worthy goal of extended seasonal ornamental interest. Selections are broadly listed by their main seasons of ornamental interest with a general hardiness range indicated

New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander, H. William Barnes, Mark Bridgen, Steve Castorani

PP: 398

Alstroemeria ‘Mauve Majesty’ PPAF

Alstroemeria ‘Mauve Majesty’ PPAF is a new garden lily-of-the-Incas that was selected for its distinct mauve flower color, continuous flowering, and strong, upright flower stems. It was also selected because it is winter hardy to temperatures as low as those experienced in U.S.D.A. Zone 5. Plants grow neat and upright in habit and produce an abundance of speckled, mauve flowers all summer and fall until frost. Flowering of 'Mauve Majesty’ begins in late June in Zone 5 and in May in Zone 7. The flowers of this plant are excellent for cutting because flower stems last for up to 2 weeks in arrangements. The flowers of ‘Mauve Majesty’ are sterile and do not produce seed. Plants are asexually propagated by rhizome division and tissue culture. This cultivar is patented through Cornell University; propagation is permitted with license from the University.

This herbaceous perennial plant thrives in fertile, well-drained garden soil in full sun or partial shade.

The University of Rhode Island Ornamenta Breeding Program©

Author: Jeffrey A. Adkins, Nicholas Castrataro, Erik Fargo

PP: 402

The selection of superior ornamental plants combined with effective marketing strategies and production methods drives much of the economic growth in the nursery industry. The majority of newly introduced ornamental plants derive from chance discoveries of unique seedlings or branch mutations in nurseries, arboreta, and botanical gardens. There are, however, many public and private ornamental breeding programs both in the U.S.A. and abroad developing new plants using traditional methods and biotechnology to target specific traits. Unfortunately, lack of genetic variability for a particular trait in many important woody ornamentals is a significant impediment to plant improvement using traditional breeding methods. No amount of crossing alone will introduce or enhance a desirable trait, whether physiological or aesthetic, if the genetic potential does not exist in a population. In nature, living organisms "overcome" genetic shortcoming by tolerating mutations that may bring about genetic
Understanding Remontant Flowering in Hydrangea macrophylla©

Author: Jeffrey A. Adkins

PP: 404

There has, over the past several years, been a great deal of interest and discussion about remontant flowering (repeat flowering on current season's growth) driven primarily by the introduction of the remontant flowering Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Bailmer’, Endless Summer™ hydrangea. Although Endless Summer™ hydrangea and other remontant flowering H. macrophylla have certainly energized hydrangea interest, the genetic underpinnings of remontant flowering remains unknown. The elucidation of these responsible genetic mechanisms would certainly help to facilitate the introduction of the remontant flowering trait into improved cultivars. A traditional genetic approach could be used; however, this approach is impractical because of the long generation time of H. macrophylla and the fact that floral induction is known to be under the control of many genes. The basic pathway and genetic mechanisms involved in floral induction have been revealed in model plants such as Arabidofpsis thaliana,
Wheelie Green: The Development of a Mobile Unit to Produce Rooted Cuttings of Eucalyptus Tree Species©

Author: Helena M. Venter

PP: 65

A first prototype of a mobile unit to produce rooted cuttings has been developed at CSIR NRE. The development of such a unit has two main objectives. Firstly to develop a low-tech unit in which cuttings can be rooted in infrastructure-poor conditions at nurseries based in rural areas. Such a unit needs to maintain the basic conditions conducive to the survival and rooting of the cuttings. The second objective is to develop the unit into a scientific experimental unit in which different conditions can be simulated to determine specific conditions needed to root difficult-to-root hybrid clones.

This paper reports on the progress of the development of the unit to date and the results obtained during the first rooting experiment. For this experiment hedge plants of an Eucalyptus grandis × E. camaldulensis clone were grown in the glasshouse at the University of Pretoria. Micro cuttings were placed in two media, namely a vermiculite medium and air to test for aerial rooting. The cuttings were "washed" in Benomyl (Benzidimazole) to prevent fungus infections and the cut edge was dipped in a rooting hormone, Seradix B2, before placement. Survival decreased rapidly within the first 5 days to about 54% plant survival. The first roots were observed 15 days after placement; at this stage plant survival stabilized at 44%. After 18 days the rooting percentage of the surviving plants was 6% for aerial rooting and 53% for the surviving cuttings placed in vermiculite. During this experiment the floor heating pads could not be used. However, the heat generated by the T5 Extra high output fluorescent tubes was enough to maintain an average temperature of 27 °C in the chamber. Temperatures never went below 25 °C or above 30 °C. The average relative humidity was 81%.

The results of this experiment indicate that there is sufficient potential for successful rooting of cuttings to warrant further development of this mobile propagation unit.

Rooting Possibilities of Fraxinus chinensis©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 406


Fraxinus chinesis Roxb is found in the more northern areas of China and Korea. Griffiths (1994) gives it a Zone 6 rating, and trees growing in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a Zone 6 climate, have shown no climate-related difficulties. Since there has been no damage to temperatures as low as -10 °F there, a suggestion can be made that perhaps it is more cold hardy considering the natural origin of the species. It would be worth testing in Zones 5 and 4.

Grafting White Barked Birches onto Betula nigra: Practice and Possibilities©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 407


Industry experience indicates that for the most part cultivars of many white-barked birches are commonly grafted onto Betula pendula, European white birch. Examples such as B. pendula ‘Youngii’, B. pendula ‘Laciniata’, and B. pendula ‘Tristis’ grafted on to B. pendula seedlings are fairly common. When these graft combinations were grown in their native habitat or situations close to that, this should not present any particular problems. However, when these graft combinations are used in the United States where the climate considerations are significantly different they are frequently short lived and prone to insect and disease problems.

Dr. J.C. Raulston of North Carolina State University, Department of Horticulture, and I decided to look at this phenomenon and thought that by grafting whitebarked birches onto a more appropriate rootstock a more adaptable plant could be obtained. We made a general supposition that if some of the stress factors that contributed to white bark

Propagation of Jamesia americana©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 411


Jamesia americana Toor. and A. Gray., cliffbush, is a western North American species occurring in the Rocky Mountain states of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, California, and New Mexico (Anonymous, 2005). It grows primarily in high, well-drained sites. A member of the Hydrangeaceae, it becomes a shrub to around 1.5 m or close to 5 ft. Stems are pubescent and slowly develop peeling bark. Flowers are generally white with a pink form being reported (Griffiths, 1994).

Propagation and Use of Adina rubella©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 413


Adina rubella, (Rubiacea) Chinese buttonbush, or glossy Adina is from eastern China (2003), Japan (Woodlanders, 2006), and other parts of Asia. It is an upright open shrub and will attain heights of 8–10 ft with an equal spread. It occurs naturally along stream banks, ditches, and other areas of water, although there are conflicting references to the plants acceptance of poorly drained sites with Evans (2003) listing wet conditions as possible while others (SmallPlants.com, 2006) indicate such conditions can be deleterious. Evans (2003) also lists it with a hardiness of Zone 6 while others (Plants for a Future, 2006) stipulate that Zone 5 is applicable. In Zone 6 and higher the plant is user-friendly and will accept conditions from full sun to partial shade. Soil conditions do not seem to be particularly significant, with pH differences from acid to alkaline being tolerated.

The overall appearance of the plant is satisfactory with the bright shiny dark green leaves being a

Production of Fortunearia sinensis from Seed©

Author: H.William Barnes

PP: 414


Fortunearia sinensis Red. & Wils. is a little known member of the Hamamelidaceae, and little if any information is available for either horticultural or research purposes. It is a large shrub with pubescent leaves that are obovate and look similar to a pubescent Corylopsis to which it is related. The green flowers are insignificant and occur in terminal racemes and are not particularly showy. Female flowers emerge with leaves and the male flowers are catkin-like in appearance. Fall color is yellow. Griffiths (1994) suggests a Zone 8 designation but plants growing at the Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia suggest a much hardier plant. Zone 6 is a more likely and appropriate classification. The plant occurs naturally in central and eastern China.

While sparingly effective as an ornamental horticultural plant, it deserves recognition and study to further understand the nuances of the Hamamelidaceae.

Production of Sinojackia rehderiana and Sinojackia xylocarpa from Seed©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 416


Sinojackia rehderiana Hu, jack tree, and S. xylocarpa Hu are two deciduous members of the Styraxcaceae from Eastern China (Griffiths, 1994). Both trees are hardy to Zone 6 and could be significant additions to the flowering tree market from Zone 6 to 8.

In the landscape the trees are somewhat shrubby and can form a single stem, which persists for a limited time only to be followed by fast growing basal shoots that quickly convert the tree to a clump form. However in deep shade this tendency is reduced, and single stem specimens can be found. Flowering is in the spring for both species, and the trees have a strong resemblance to other members of the Styrax family, particularly S. japonica. Differences between the Sinojackia and Styrax pertains to the strong central leader and stem of S. japonica as contrasted to the more open clump characteristics of Sinojackia species and pubescent leaves of Styrax as opposed to the glaucus leaves of Sinojackia.

Culturally they are pretty

Scion and Rootstock Effects on Growth and Early Acorn Production of Grafted Swamp White Oaks©

Author: Mark V. Coggeshall, J.W. Van Sambeek, H.E. (Gene) Garrett

PP: 418

Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.) is an important mast species, producing medium-sized acorns found highly desirable by wildlife in both upland and bottomland forests. In addition, the Northern Nut Growers Association <www.nutgrowing.org> is promoting acorns from selections within this species as a new edible food crop. Dey and others (2004) reported wide variation in both precocity and acorn productivity for swamp white oak within their bottomland oak plantings. They reported that 3.5% of the swamp white oak saplings started producing acorns in as few as 3 years from seed. This early fruiting trait is highly desirable and should be the basis of selection when identifying individuals for deployment in bottomland plantings.

There appears to be little information available documenting the heritability of precocity and acorn production in swamp white oak. In addition, we have found no information on how scion and/or rootstock source may affect precocity or productivity of grafted

Shrub Liner Growth and Development Control with Plant Growth Regulators and Water Stress©

Author: Benoit Guerry, David Joeright

PP: 423


Producing compact, well-branched shrub liners often requires pruning several times during a plant's production cycle. This process requires significant labor and often results in severe plant stress. The goal of the experiment was to determine if plant growth regulators could be used to effectively control growth of shrub liners and also to determine to what extent water stress alone could control growth. The effect on branching was also a point of interest.

Micropropagation of Physocarpus amurensis©

Author: Hailong Shen, Dongsheng Yin, Peng Zhang, Ling Yang, Jiang Huang,

PP: 425

Physocarpus amurensis(Maxim.) Maxim. is an endangered deciduous shrub in the family of Rosaceae only native in China. Micropropagation of P. amurensis was conducted by taking axillary buds from field plants and apical buds from greenhouse seedlings as explants. Protocols were developed for axillary bud and apical bud sprouting, axillary-bud- and apical-bud-derived shoot proliferation, enlongating and strengthening of proliferated apical-bud-derived shoots, in vitro rooting of axillary-bud-derived shoots and ex vitro rooting of enlongated and stronged apical-bud-derived shoots.
Growing Shrub Liners on Flood Floors©

Author: David Joeright

PP: 430

A flood floor is an ebb and flood system that utilizes the concrete floor of a greenhouse as the water basin for subirrigating a crop. Plants are grown directly on the floor. All water is recycled and stored in large water storage tanks. The growing area is flooded with 1–2 inches of water, which is absorbed from the bottom of a container through capillary action into the growing medium. Generally flood floors are divided into sections or irrigation zones, which can be flooded separately. This technology is often utilized in monoculture production settings with container-grown crops. More recently it has been used in production of bedding flats, liners, and even plugs.

We have found that there are several advantages in using flood floor technology to grow shrub liners: consistency of water delivery, crop uniformity, reduced foliar diseases, reduction in water and fertilizer requirements, reduced labor, and zero water run-off. Foliar diseases spread by splashing water can be eliminated