Volume 34

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Author: D.K. McIntyre, M. Richardson, S. Hughes, G. Lejsek

PP: 30


Many plants have seeds which are difficult or slow to germinate. When seeds are slow to germinate, and it has been determined that there is no physical barrier to the uptake of water — such as a hard seed coat — then various methods may be used to hasten germination. These methods include the use of gibberellic acid, ethylene, cold stratification, etc.

From the propagator's point view it is important to have as many seeds germinate as quickly and uniformly as possible.

The technique of hydrating and dehydrating (wetting and drying) offers a simple method which may be used to speed up germination and increase uniformity of germination.

Sen and Osbourne (5) showed that if the embryos of Secale cereale were hydrated for 3 to 6 hours, then dehydrated back to their original weight, their germination was more rapid than for untreated seeds when they were re-imbibed. Berrie and Drennan (1) using oats, and Vincent and Carvers (6) using Runnex crispus, obtained the same response. All these


Author: Nelson R. Wilson

PP: 74

Plants may be grafted in a multitude of ways for many different reasons, but grafting is usually employed for one of the following reasons:
  1. To propagate plants which are difficult to propagate by cuttings;
  2. To join plants, the roots or shoots of each being selected for special purposes such as disease resistance and/ or adaptability to special conditions such as soil or climate;
  3. To invigorate weak plants, or repair damage;
  4. To allow one root system to support more than one cultivar;
  5. To produce clonal material usually on more vigorous rootstocks than itself; and
  6. To eliminate problems of structure, growth, and disease.

Grafting is widely used for the commercial production of fruit trees and a variety of other ornamental nursery lines derived from clonal selection. These include flowering fruit trees, elms, ashes, liquidambar, etc.

Grafting is also widely used to create "special effect" plants that could not otherwise be grown to display their best features. These "special effect" plants include most


Author: Donald R. Hendricks

PP: 528

Since 1971, the Hayes Regional Arboretum in Richmond, Indiana, has been searching for a way to propagate its 181 native woody species in such a way that:
  1. Single specimens can be collected without the aid of expensive greenhouses or facilities.
  2. The original plant is not destroyed or altered where it is growing.
  3. The genetics of native material could be duplicated.
  4. Propagation could be done at the site where the plant grows.

In 1981, there appeared in the Journal of Arboriculture a reference to an article published on the air-layering of water oak cuttings by Dr. Robert C. Hare, Plant Physiologist of the Southern Forest Experimental Station, USDA Forest Service, in Gulfport, Mississippi (3). His technique involved the use of peat rooting cubes as aerial, in-situ chambers. Other species tried by Dr. Hare were slash and loblolly pine, southern red oak, sycamore, and sweetgum (1,2,5,6).

A program was initiated to try and duplicate this technique on woody plant species native to Indiana and Ohio.


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 531

In nature's scheme of things, many remarkable methods have been evolved for dispersal of seeds. Study of these methods is fascinating and sometimes essential to those involved in collecting seeds for propagation. To understand these methods allows one to collect seeds after they are properly developed for propagational purposes but before they are lost through natural agencies of dispersal.

Although the seeds of some woody plants are dispersed in late spring and throughout the summer, most do not ripen until autumn, rightly considered the time of fulfillment in nature — a season of natural abundance. As ripening occurs, changes come about in the appearance and character of fruits, and many plants become dispensers of food. Fleshy fruits containing seeds dependent for dispersal upon animals and birds become palatable and change to a wide variety of colors attractive to those responsible for their distribution. The pulp furnishes food to the bird or animal which, in turn, carries the


Author: T. Murray Alward

PP: 535

The rooting of softwood cuttings from hardwoods began at Riverbend Farms in December, 1980, in a 96 × 27 ft. double polyhouse. We use a hot-water boiler for heating our benches with wood from our farm as the main fuel source. The heated benches are located in the front half of the polyhouse and are used for propagating evergreen cuttings and grafting. The space at the back of the polyhouse on the floor is reserved for propagating deciduous hardwood cuttings. Two additional polyhouses supply further space and storage for pot liners.

In December, 1980, I utilized the space past the heated benches to stick hardwood cuttings in flats, as listed in Table 1. The cuttings were approximately 4 to 5 in. and the media, our favourite, was a 6 sand, 4 peat, 3 perlite, mixture.


Author: Kathryn K. Merchant

PP: 536

I will attempt to explain the procedures for propagation of Ilex opaca by cuttings that we have found most successful and profitable.

Cuttings are taken from healthy plant in mid-to-late December after a good freeze, prepared, and stuck in greenhouse benches filled with perlite and heated with bottom heat. When taking the cuttings, we try to make them at a finished length of 8 to 10 in., to reduce handling. Cuttings should be taken when the temperature is above freezing. This may be important. I lost about 100 cuttings this past year due, perhaps, to the "wind chill" factor. That is the only variable that was different in all the groups of cuttings. The actual temperature was about 36°F, but with a wind chill of 10 to 15°F. Of 105 cuttings taken under these conditions, only two rooted.

The cuttings are stripped, wounded, and dipped in the appropriate hormone solution. We strip the leaves on the lower 3 in. of the cutting. The bottom ½ to ¾ in. of the cutting is then wounded on two sides


Author: Robert J. Gouveia

PP: 537

We have been using outdoor mist beds at our nursery for 5 years. They are an alternative to a costly greenhouse structure and the use of an expensive energy source.

The beds are made of cement blocks, mortared together, and set into the ground 16 in., or the depth of 2 blocks. The medium is coarse sand filled to the top of the first block. In 1982, we insulated one bed with 1 in thick rigid foam (polyisocyanurate. R = 7.2 at 68°F). The bottom insulation was sloped toward the middle with a 3 in space for drainage. The sides have 16 in of insulation. Sand is used to grade the slope level. Lead cable is then laid down 5 in. apart on the sand and ¼ in. mesh hardware cloth is laid over the cable to help disperse the heat and protect the cable. The temperature controls for the medium give us 70° F at the root zone. In 1984, it took 676 kilowatt-hours to heat 225 sq ft of bad at a cost of $67.60. Collection of cuttings for narrow-leaved evergreens begins at mid-April and must be completed before


Author: Bernard Fourrier

PP: 540

Propagation by hardwood cuttings is an important part of the propagation procedures at McKay Nursery. Hardwood cutting propagation has several important advantages over other methods;
  1. It is the second most economical method of propagation — after seedlings.
  2. Liners from hardwood cuttings are larger than those from softwood cuttings.
  3. The cuttings do not require special handling in storage.
  4. The cuttings are more easily transplanted.

A limiting factor is the many stock plants necessary to make large numbers of hardwood cuttings.

Our hardwood cuttings are prepared and stuck at two times of the year — fall and spring. We prefer fall cuttings as they perform better, and many of them callus before the soil freezes. Some species, however, suffer bark splitting when stuck in the fall, so cuttings of these species are stuck in spring.


Author: Nina Bassuk, Diane Miske, Brian Maynard

PP: 543

The practice of stock plant etiolation, whereby dormant plants are grown under severely restricted light levels and then allowed to green up while shoot bases remain etiolated, using a covering of black adhesive tape, produced significantly better rooting of cuttings. Rooting was improved from 5% to 68.5% for Fagus sylvatica, from 15% to 42.5% for Carpinus betulus, and from 53.3% to 83.3% for Pinus strobus, Cuttings from 6 hybrid lilac cultivars also showed improved rooting with prior etiolation and, moreover, the period over which lilac cuttings could be propagated successfully was lengthened considerably.

Author: Barry A. Eisenberg, Jack Gruber, Jo Ann Horhorysak

PP: 551

Shipment and storage of unrooted cuttings has changed dramatically over the past 10 years. In this time period cutting production has shifted to specialist propagators who are normally located long distances from final growers. Given that this is the case, then one must accept that cuttings are going to be shipped for longer periods without adequate environmental controls.

Production shifts have been noted because of either financial considerations or need to improve the cutting production environment. When plant material is produced in warmer climates, heating costs are reduced and elaborate growing structures are generally not necessary. In addition, labor in most instances is less expensive, especially overseas. A grower can also relocate to an area with limited rainfall which, in many cases, will reduce the severity of foliar diseases, when stock plants are grown outdoors.

With these changes, new problems have surfaced. The major problem is related to postharvest physiology.


Author: David J. Williams

PP: 557

The selection of the proper pesticide to control a known pest is only the first step in implementing a spray program. It is essential that the pesticide be applied properly to insure that the desired pest control will occur in an efficient manner without waste or environmental contamination. More pesticides are applied with low-pressure sprayers than with any other kind of equipment. These sprayers apply chemicals to control weeds, insects, and diseases in field, nursery, vegetable and fruit crops, and turf. Tractor-mounted, pull-type, and self propelled sprayers are available in many models; however, these may not be available to the classroom teacher or be too cumbersome to use for demonstration purposes. The use of a portable spray patternator allows the instructor to demonstrate the concepts of proper pesticide application in a limited area. The spray patternator, due to its portability, is also useful for extension meetings.

All low-pressure sprayers have several basic components:


Author: Douglas J. Chapman, Charles W. Martin

PP: 562

The specific objectives of this paper are to review: 1) reported shade and flowering trees that can be commercially propagated by softwood cuttings, and 2) the morphological characteristics of the growth stage at which these softwood cuttings are most likely to root.

One advantage of propagating trees by cuttage lies in the fact that ease of propagation would stimulate the introduction of regionally-oriented cultivars from superior trees. An important consideration in selecting regional cultivars is the provenance expression of these plants for characteristics such as winter hardiness. As one moves farther north, trees are more photoperiodic responsive. Photoperiod affects vegetative growth, carbohydrate storage, abscission, the onset of dormancy, and overall winter hardiness, to mention a few responses for northern temperate zone trees.

Other characteristics one is searching for when selecting cultivars include disease resistance, environmental tolerance (air pollutants, chlorides,


Author: Adrian Bowden

PP: 76

When plants propagated by tissue culture are transplanted from the sterile high humidity conditions of the tube or jar to the nursery environment, the results are often very disappointing. When evaluating these results we should not look at transplanting as a single process, but rather as a chain of events with conditioning of plants for transplanting; the actual transplanting; the media; temperature/humidity; and hygiene, all being links in this chain. If we then learn to understand each link and understand how it fits into the chain, results will improve.

It should be pointed out that tissue-cultured plants differ physically from similar sized plants grown conventionally, e.g. under mist from cuttings. When first removed from sterile culture their leaves are thinner, they have less cuticle and are less waxy. They are less functional, as their stomates do not respond as efficiently to stressful conditions. Often instead of closing rapidly they remain open. These factors cause


Author: James E. Cross

PP: 565

These wide ranging comments will include nothing spectacular or particularly new to anyone who is regularly propagating the particular plants mentioned but might be useful to those of you who may one day meet up with these same plants at your propagation bench — or they might be useful as something to try on some other plant which might present a similar type of obstacle to commercially acceptable success.

If, as is usually the case, we are propagating a specific cultivar, the most important part of the successful effort is the selection of the specific wood for propagation so that we achieve exact reproduction. However, in our rush to get on with it, we may very well spend a lot less time and care on wood selection than would be called for by its relative importance.

These are two main considerations in the selection of the wood to be propagated:

  1. Ease of rooting ? and the percentage of success
  2. Success in obtaining exact duplication

Let us first consider ease of rooting. If the particular


Author: Dixon P. Hoogendoorn

PP: 570

Acer griseum, the paper bark maple, is possibly one of the most beautiful and interesting small trees available to our trade. The leaves are trifoliate while possessing a delicate soft green texture. In certain locations, leaves will turn a good red color in the fall. The bark curls back to reveal the coppery trunk underneath on trees more than a couple of years old.

It has been reported that a definite flowering sequence problem exists with this particular tree which results in many sterile embryos. Therefore, most of the seed produced is nonviable. This is one reason that Acer griseum remains a relatively rare tree today. Grafting this species has been impractical, if not impossible.

Many years ago, my father, Case Hoogendoorn, became very interested in Acer griseum and purchased 500 two-year seedlings from Gulf Stream Nurseries, Inc., Wachapreague, Virginia. They were planted in a stock bed with the intent of using these plants for vegetative propagation purposes. We usually prune the


Author: Darrel A. Apps

PP: 573

Selecting daylilies with commercial value is a perplexing problem for plant propagators because of the large number of registrations and introductions each year. In 1983 alone The American Hemerocallis Society (AHS) registered over 800 daylilies. Annual registrations since the society's formation in 1946 now include over 20,000 named cultivars (1).

In actuality only a very few of the plants registered become important commercially. There are several reasons for this: 1) many are not commercially superior to those previously introduced; 2) most breeder-introducers are not effective in marketing new plants over an extensive geographical area; 3) some hybridizers assign names for the convenience of breeders and friends, and do not consider their plants to have commercial value; and 4) slow plant increase has kept some cultivars off the market long enough so that they are rapidly superseded by newer and better cultivars.

With the advent of micropropagation, new cultivars can now be propagated


Author: Ben Swane

PP: 577

Many Australian plants have been difficult to propagate and many still are in that category. In this paper I do not intend to try to tell you how to propagate all Australian plants, but rather how selection and development of different species has given way to better results in propagation.

We are conducting experiments on Sid Cadwell's property 200 km west of Sydney. Mr. Cadwell's property is situated in a very dry area which receives approximately 300 to 350 mm of rain per year. Summer temperatures reach 40°C and winter temperatures are below 0°C.

Propagation material, such as grevilleas, has been collected with careful attention paid to selection of parent materials from all over Australia. Cutting material is harvested in very early morning or late evening during spring, summer, and fall (October to April). It is recorded and packed in plastic bags with very little water. In most cases cuttings are wrapped first in clean white paper, then packed in styrofoam boxes and air freighted


Author: Philip E. Parvin

PP: 583

This paper will consider some of the exotic plants that make up Hawaii's nursery industry. The State of Hawaii is made up of 7 inhabited islands and is located 2,500 miles off the coast of California. Each island is just the tip of an enormous volcano that started erupting eons of time ago, on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. Depending upon the height of the volcano remaining above sea level, there can be a dramatic difference between the wet side of the island, where trade winds drop their showers daily, and the dry side, in the rain shadow of the mountain, that can receive less than 10 in. per year. In addition to influencing the amount of rain falling on the leeward side of the mountains, the height of the volcano also influences the temperature range. At 10,000 feet, Haleakala on Maui may register temperatures well below freezing in winter, and occasionally snows are encountered. At this elevation, strange forms of plant life have evolved, like the rare silversword, found only at

Author: David Byers

PP: 584

Short term crops are a big part of our business. Situated in the center of North Alabama, Byers Nursery Company emphasizes lining out stock that has been grown in the field. More than 30 acres are devoted to Lagerstroemia cultivars and another 50 acres are used in growing Cornus, Magnolia, and other genera. These plants originate as seedlings, grafts, and hardwood or softwood cuttings.

Efficient production of these many small plants is our goal and adequate water is one of the elements of production that makes this scheme work. Normally, our area receives about 56 in. of rainfall, but this is not uniformly spread throughout our growing season. Therefore, we must have the ability to water our liners when needed.

Overhead irrigation with movable aluminum pipes was installed in 1954. This method served well until our production outgrew the covered area. In 1978 we began using trickle, or drip, systems to extend our water delivery capability. In 1981 a commitment was made to trickle


Author: John A. Wott

PP: 586

Horticulture is described by Webster as the "art and science" of gardening, especially related to food and fiber crops. However, during the post-World War II growth period, a new field of horticulture has emerged and grown tremendously. The development of this field was fueled by rapidly increasing suburbanization, rapid job expansion, and the ease of personal mobility. This new field is the area of landscape horticulture which includes not only design but also encompasses the selection, propagation, growth, sales, and use of landscape plants.

Because there was a rapidly escalating need for landscape plants, even shortages, all commercial enterprises involved with landscape plants expanded, sometimes seeming to appear overnight. For some years, it appeared that anything green could be sold to the consumer.

Recently, the slowing economy, the over-supply of many types of landscape plants, and the growing knowledge base of the consumer are causing landscape horticulture to mature. The time


Author: Edmund V. Mezitt

PP: 591

The introduction and growing of new plants is an important part of the nursery industry. New plants result from the discovery of new species — mostly by plant explorers, from mutations of existing known species, or through hybridization.

Every nurseryman constantly surveys his plants in the field and is occasionally rewarded by discovering a superior plant. These are generally variations within the species, but on rare occasions they can be the natural hybrids between even distantly-related species.

When growing plants from seed, the nurseryman has an opportunity to select better strains, and plants grown from seeds selected from these improved strains will generally retain more of the desirable characteristics. Occasionally, even greater variations will occur. Many rhododendrons, azaleas, and kalmias will quite regularly reproduce color shades and plant growth habits similar to those of their parents, if plants of the same characteristics are cross-pollinated or isolated from each


Author: Wayne Lovelace

PP: 595

Seedlings germinated in open field beds need all possible means of protection in order to survive and make satisfactory stands that result in economically profitable crops for growers. It has long been recognized that nurse crops could provide much needed protection during germination and establishment of nursery crop seedlings. However, controlling the nurse or companion crop presents a near impossible situation, when the companion crop out-grows its useful size and becomes a competition crop that is uneconomical to clean up. This situation left growers with very few options except mainly oats for a companion crop which would freeze out when temperatures reached about 0°F.

The recent development and approval for use of two postemergence grass herbicides in ornamentals has presented new opportunities for the use of companion grasses in nursery production systems. These herbicides, Poast and Fusilade, provide excellent control of almost all grasses while showing no injury to a wide range


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 598

Cornus kousa, the Kousa dogwood, is one of the most outstanding and trouble-free small trees available to horticulture. It is indigenous to Japan, Korea, and China and is hardier than our native C. florida. In June it produces a profusion of flowers with showy white bracts, several weeks after C. florida has finished blooming. Other features include its month-long floral display, its attractive fruits, its autumn color, and its mottled, exfloliating bark, which is prominent on trunks and branches of older plants.

When plants are raised from seeds, seedlings grown from some plants duplicate one another with monotonous uniformity. Seedlings of other plants, however, may contain individuals which differ greatly from other members in the same lot. Such variation can lead to new and worthwhile selections with horticultural merit.

Both C. kousa and C. florida provide striking examples of the variation that can arise when plants are raised from seeds. They can show great variability in all respects —


Author: G.M. Moore

PP: 79

Botanists have recognised for over one hundred years that plant growth and development are controlled by chemicals produced within the plant. Today there are five groups of widely known and used hormones (Figure 1). These are the auxins, the gibberellins, the cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene (10). It is unfortunate, however, that the definition of a plant hormone was borrowed from the definition used by zoologists.

"an organic compound synthesised in one part of a plant and translocated to another part, where in low concentrations it has a controlling or regulatory effect — it causes a physiological response" (1).


Author: Jack Alexander, Rob Nicholson

PP: 603

MODERATOR ALEXANDER: Ruth Kvaalen will begin the new plants session with a presentation on Orixa japonica.

RUTH KVAALEN: Landscape plants which lack showy flowers or colorful autumn foliage are often overlooked in favor of the brightly colored plants. But a plant with good foliage appearance during the whole growing season can be more valuable in the landscape than one with a week of vivid color but poor appearance the rest of the year.

Orixa japonica is a plant with excellent foliage. Orixa is a deciduous shrub with rounded growth habit, usable as a specimen, in groups, or naturalized. In the Indianapolis to Chicago region it reaches 6 to 8 ft with equal spread or slightly less. The lower branches sometimes layer where they touch moist soil, so the plants are able to spread and create larger clumps.

Its ornamental character lies in its glossy foliage. Leaves are about 4 in long, giving a medium-coarse texture. Typically leaves are a bright, deep green. Some plants, in some years, develop


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 608

The individual recognized for the Award of Merit at this, our 34th Annual Meeting, personifies in an exemplary manner the purpose and spirit of our Society, as well as that of our cherished national heritage, which offers to everyone opportunities for success commensurate with their talents, initiative, and efforts.

Our recipient was born in 1934 in Bowling Green, Ohio, into a farming and gardening family. Boyhood employment at Ilgenfritz Nursery, where his father also worked, gave him early life exposure to horticulture and, no doubt, influenced his preparation for college and later life. His father purchased land at Toledo, Ohio, to start a small nursery, primarily to generate funds for higher education. The nursery was successful and so was our recipients academic efforts in high school, where he earned a 4-year scholarship at Michigan State University. At Michigan State he received his bachelors degree in Horticulture in 1956 and his advisor was our good member, Dr. Fred B. Widmoyer.


Author: Charles Kempenaar

PP: 610

Potting procedure. We use 2-year-old seedlings of Acer palmatum as the understock. We bring in the understock plants in March so we can clean the tops and cut the roots. They are then placed in a bucket of water that contains captan (3 tbls/gal) to help control any disease. The understock is potted into a 2½ in. clay pot no deeper than it was growing in the ground in a soil - ½ yd, sand - ¼ yd, peat - 4 bu, fertilizer - 1 lb. of 5–10–10, and limestone - 1lb. The potted understock plants are placed into flats, moved outside into a sand frame, covered with sand to a depth of 1 in., and then watered. The frames are shaded.

Leaves are removed the first week in October and any excess poor shoot growth on the bottom of the rootstock is removed. The rootstocks are then placed in a cool greenhouse with no heat so the buds do not break. In late December the pots are cleaned and the rootstocks are placed in flats for grafting in January.

Grafting procedures. Grafting is begun the first week of


Author: Ralph Shugert, Joerg Leiss

PP: 611

The Question Box Session was convened at 9.00 a.m. with Ralph Shugert and Joerg Leiss serving as moderators.

MODERATOR LEISS: What is the shelf life of a rooting compound, such as the various Hormex formulations, provided you keep them in a cool, dry place? Will they break down after a certain period of time?

DICK WOLFF: If it is kept cool and in the dark there should be no deterioration I have had some cans for 6 and 7 years but finally threw them out because I was concerned, even though I was successful.

PETER VERMEULEN: We were approached by the maker of Hormodin who was working on labeling. During the course of the conversation we were advised that Hormodin had an excellent shelf life if kept cool, sealed, and out of the light.

JOERG LEISS: Does it make any difference in relation to heat buildup when using two layers of plastic, whether the clear or the opaque layer is to the inside?

JIM CROSS. Dick Bosley did a study years age. The best combination in cool areas was white on the inside


Author: Gary J. Kling

PP: 618


Woody plant establishment and growth are greatly affected by root loss which occurs during the transplanting process. The resulting stresses placed on the plant are a major source of problems in woody plant production and consumer usage of trees and shrubs. Root loss which occurs during digging, handling, storage and transplanting, results in reduced shoot growth for several years, branch dieback, or plant death. It also reduces the type and size of trees able to be moved and makes some species expensive to produce and unavailable in the landscape trade. The transplanting period and the first growing season following it are one of the most critical periods for survival and growth in the life of trees and shrubs

The greatest cause of death of transplanted seedlings is water stress (8), and is directly related to root loss. Transplants undergo massive physiological shock when removed from the soil. The most damaging injury is the loss of actively growing root tips and the


Author: John W. Einset, John H. Alexander III

PP: 628

A micropropagation method for Syringa × hyacinthiflora cv. Excel is described involving cytokinin control of shoot growth in tissue cultures Shoot tips and nodes from rooted cuttings are decontaminated in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and transferred to nutrient medium supplemented with 2.2 µM thidiazuron. Under defined conditions of light intensity, photoperiod, and temperature, shoots elongate from preformed buds to produce monopodial axes, and then lateral buds form in the axils of leaves After 6 weeks incubation, shoots can be used as sources of bud explants for further shoot multiplication, or as cuttings Plantlets produced after induction of roots on cuttings are then gradually acclimated to the greenhouse environment Shoots of other members of Oleaceae, such as additional species and cultivars of Syringa, and species of Fraxinus, Forsythia, and Ligustrum also respond in tissue cultures to these treatments, suggesting that the method may be generally applicable. For S × hyacinthiflora cv Excel it was shown that the inhibitory effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on shoot growth in tissue cultures was not mediated via stimulated production of ethylene.

Author: Gustav A.L Mehlquist, Edmond L. Marrotte

PP: 636

This project was begun in 1938 while the senior author was a graduate student at the University of California, at Berkeley, California. In 1939 the project was transferred to UCLA, and in 1945 to the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1952 it was again moved to the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut.

The original reason for undertaking this work many years ago was the appearance in some California nurseries of a red or pink-flowered delphinium hybrid from Europe, Delphinium ruysii ‘Pink Sensation’, introduced by Jackson and Perkins. It was almost sterile, the propagation by cuttings or division was slow, and it was generally not a good grower in the warmer sections of California. It seemed, therefore, desirable to try to utilize D. cardinale Hook., a red-flowered species native to California, to overcome these problems. Since this species is normally found in the warmer sections of California, it might conceivably produce hybrids better suited to at least


Author: Ian S Tolley

PP: 641

The motto of the International Plant Propagator's Society "To Seek and to Share", should not be forgotten. I came 12,000 miles to this meeting to seek and to share and I thought that I might be able to bring something to share with you. The more I thought about sharing at the time, I realized I could not bring an emu egg, like I did to the IPPS Western Region meeting a few years ago. Therefore, I-decided to share a new Australian book. The book, Growing Media for Ornamental Plants and Turf1, was published in 1984, and I was fortunate enough to cooperate with the two authors. This book was co-authored by Kevin A. Handreck, Division of Soils, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Adelaide, South Australia, and Neil D. Black, Ryde School of Horticulture, New South Wales Department of Technical and Further Education.

The thing i like about the book is that it deal with basics, as you can see from the table contents (Table 1).


Author: John B. Gaggini

PP: 646

Bench grafting of trees under polythene offers the propagator a number of advantages. These include:
  1. Fills the labour through during the winter period.
  2. Reduces the time span from the rootstock phase to obtaining a saleable tree (one year faster than budding),
  3. Allows the grafting operation to be done under cover without the need for working outside.

Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 90

There are many criteria that can be used to select good propagation material. For everyone I might suggest, there will be many more you can add which are of a specific nature to the plants you are propagating.

Let me use two examples to illustrate the difference between areas of decision and happenstance in propagation.

Seedlings for citrus come from a wide range of seed sources, many of which were, and still are, chosen for their ease of growing by the propagator, but not necessarily the best material needed by the end user.

An example is the use of Rough lemon as a rootstock. It is a proven poor performer in the field, and has long since been supplemented by much improved rootstock, but it is still being used today. It is marvelous stock to propagate but should not the main aim to be reflect the needs of the end user?

If seed is the product then great care needs to be exercised to harvest it fresh from the tree to avoid soil contaminants. Heat treatment has to be done accurately and an


Author: V.J. Hartney, E.D. Kabay

PP: 93

Micropropagation of eucalypts and many other kinds of forest trees is now technically possible. There are several methods available to reduce the cost of producing plants by micropropagation and there is potential for integrating tissue culture techniques into nursery systems developed for seedlings. However, the largest cost in micropropagation is the labour and time entailed with manual subculturing techniques. Automatic, intelligent machine systems could overcome this restriction and revolutionize clonal forestry.

Author: Kevin G. Stevens

PP: 99

Canning Plant Farm has about 6.5 hectares of container-grown nursery stock in Perth. Like most nurseries we used to do the cutting propagation in glasshouses and polyhouses.

Whilst in America we noticed that at some of the large nurseries a great amount of cutting propagation was being carried out in the open under mist. The material appeared to be in good condition with no sign of disease. Upon arriving home we decided to try this method.

The selection of the site was most important as we soon found out, as under our conditions the winds were quite severe. The hot Western Australia summer also caused some problems.

It was necessary to choose a site which was well protected from wind. We chose one which was occupied by an existing tunnel, which proved to be ideal. It was protected from the wind by a fence on one side and another tunnel on the other. The plastic and shade coverings were removed from the tunnel but the frame retained.

Bottom heat was provided by laying 25 mm poly-pipe along


Author: R.K. Ellyard, P.J. Ollerenshaw

PP: 101

Grevillea johnsonii is a most attractive species. An upright shrub with fine, slender, deep-green foliage on reddish stems, it is quick growing and forms a more compact and neater shrub than the closely related G. longistyla. Occurring naturally in the Rylstone area of the central tablelands of New South Wales, G. johnsonii has proved frost hardy in Canberra and plants at the National Botanic Gardens have reached 4 m × 3 m in five years. The orange to pink flowers are borne in loose clusters in the upper leaf axils from late winter to early summer.

Vegetative propagation of G. johnsonii is considered difficult (4,10) although grafting onto G. robusta has proved successful (2,4). Generally, the use of soft cutting material taken from hard-pruned stock plants maintained in active growth by the regular application of nitrogenous fertilizer is recommended for the propagation of grevilleas (1,2). Hellriegel (10), working with Grevillea ‘Ivanhoe’, obtained superior rooting with tip cuttings


Author: John W. Wrigley

PP: 108

The potential of Australian native plants is examined over a broad spectrum of horticultural applications. The history of the development of this potential is traced and the future direction to which research should be aimed is proposed. The flora is examined for its potential in such categories as garden subjects, cut flowers, dried flowers, amenity plants for arid areas, forage plants for arid areas, indoor plants, and economic plants.

Author: Pauline A. Cooper, Daniel Cohen

PP: 118

A micropropagation method for Japanese persimmon, Diospyros kaki, is described. Of a range of cytokinins tested, only zeatin (Z) supported good shoot growth. Adenine sulphate (AdS) at 40 mg/l improved shoot growth in the presence of Z at 1 mg/l, but indolebutyric acid (IBA) had no effect at 0.1 mg/l and was deleterious at 1.0 mg/l. Best shoot growth occurred with Murashige and Skoog minerals. Rooting of shoots approximately 2 cm long was induced by dipping shoot bases into 1000 mg/l aqueous IBA before placing them in fine pumice. Bottom heat (26?C) and intermittent mist (2 sec/30 min) in a high humidity tent resulted in 80% rooting. Rooted cuttings became dormant or died when disturbed. The use of Rootrainers is being investigated to improve shoot growth following rooting.

Author: Brian C. Hanger

PP: 124

Three studies were conducted to demonstrate the importance of nutrition on the growth and development of young seedlings and rooted plants from cuttings. Seedlings of four Curcurbiataceae species were grown in rockwool without nutrient for 14 days from sowing and then given one application of nutrient. Strong growth responses occurred within 3 days of nutrient application, an indication that the internal nutrient reserves had become exhausted even before the appearance of visual deficiency symptoms. Gerbera jamesonii seedlings were fed weekly for 10 weeks from sowing with nutrient solutions of different strength. Optimum growth was achieved when solutions had electrical conductance values between 2 and 3.9 mS cm-1. Daphne odora cuttings were taken from mother stock of different vigour and struck in rockwool blocks, with and without nutrients. They were grown-on in rockwool then transplanted into scoria and grown hydroponically for one growth cycle. Absence of nutrients in the rockwool caused the production of very long roots which were prone to damage on transplant. After one growth cycle, best plants were from cuttings taken from strong healthy mother stock and supplied nutrients throughout.

Author: David H. Simons

PP: 34

Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone affecting a wide range of plant growth and development responses. It is effective in minute concentrations and is extremely common in the environment. It is difficult to avoid exposure of plants to ethylene.

There is conflicting evidence of the effects of ethylene in plant propagation and minor changes in conditions appear to alter the response from promoting rooting to inhibiting it. In some cases ethylene clearly promotes root initiation. or root elongation. Ethylene effects in propagation can be tested by adding it, most conveniently as ethephon, or by removing it with ventilation. Its action can be inhibited thiosulphate.


Author: Douglas M. McKenzie

PP: 135

This paper deals with the results of a large number of experimental grafts using Australian native plants. (Table 1, 2, and 3). Because of the large number of grafts made, methods were adapted or developed to produce grafted plants as quickly as possible. The three main methods involved used very young seedlings or tender shoot growth. The advantage of these methods was that an adequate supply of relatively homogeneous scion material was easily produced or gathered.

The three grafting methods were:

  1. Grafting at the Cotyledon State. The method described by McKenzie (2) for grafting Clianthus spp. was used. When grafting Proteaceae spp. special care had to be taken to observe strict hygiene as these plants were very susceptible to fungal disease in the first few months.
  2. Grafting at the cotyledon stage was possible with some Myrtaceae plants. Some species produce a hypocotyl (tissue below cotyledons above soil surface) which is sufficiently robust to graft if care is taken. Some Eucalyptus


Author: W.U.v. Hentig, M. Fischer, K. Kohler

PP: 141


Investigations into the reaction of fuchsias to daylength have been carried out by many workers including Roberts and Struckmeyer (6), Sachs and Bretz (7), Heide (4), Guttridge (3), Canham (2), Zimmer (9,10,11). In these investigations flowering was of primary interest. It was found that different fuchsia cultivars showed different reactions, and that different cultivar groups showed differences in flowering.

Most of the fuchsia cultivars offered for sale are long-day plants. In the literature these are named Fuchsia × hybrida or Fuchsia-hybrids, in spite of the fact that they mostly originate from Fuchsia magellanica and thus ought to be named Magellanica hybrids.

This large group should, however, be divided into two smaller groups, the larger being the obligate or qualitative long-day plants, and the smaller being the facultative or quantitative long-day plant. ‘Alice King’, ‘Beverly Hills’, ‘Dollar prinzessin’, ‘Hanna’, ‘Lord Byron’, ‘Marinka’ and ‘Swingtime’ belong to the obligate group, and


Author: Kenneth F. Baker

PP: 152

Major landmarks in the development of modern nursery techniques are outlined. The John Innes Horticultural Institute in England demonstrated in 1934–39 that, with slight modifications, a single roughly standardized soil mix could be used for a wide variety of plants. The first unified comprehensive approach to the special problems of plant growth in containers was evolved at the University of California in 1941–57. The U.C mixes were the first truly standardized, light weight, inert, well-aerated media that could be steamed without production of phytotoxicity. Many modifications have since appeared, based on the principles presented in Manual 23, in which the mixes were described. The U C System was uniquely evolved under stress of war conditions, with shortages of labor and materials; it was the result of the combined effort of many growers, research scientists, extension workers, and commercial laboratories, and was continually referred back to growers for modification. There was emphasis on using soil and plants free of pathogens, and practicing intensive sanitation Major advances in the System in the past 27 years are: aerated steam treatment of soil and propagules; addition of selected microorganisms (antagonists) to propagules or to treated soil for biological control of accidentally introduced pathogens and to increase plant growth through bacterization, use of minute meristems, cells, and protoplasts in propagation to improve pathogen control, prolonged mild heat therapy of plant propagules to decrease virus transmission; prevention of pathogen transmission in irrigation water, holding seed in polyethylene glycol following thermotherapy to permit metabolic damage to be repaired and the seed thus to recover from treatment


Author: Serge Zimberoff

PP: 165

We began growing foliage crops at Santa Rosa Tropicals in 1972. By 1973 we were using tissue culture propagation at a time when the techniques for commercial tissue culture were only 8 years old. Today we have a laboratory that occupies 4000 square feet, and 40,000 square feet of greenhouses. We are known predominantly for our ferns but we also do a great deal of specialty propagation of other crops such as Syngonium, Spathiphyllum, Ficus, Anthurium, Nandina, Gypsophila, and Tupidanthus species.

It is necessary to define certain terms that are common among tissue culture propagators. The industry has a naming convention that refers to the theoretical stages that plants go through in culture.

Stage I: The establishment of the culture in the laboratory.

Stage II: The expansion block in the laboratory. (This can sometimes be used as the final step in the lab. It can also be used several times before going on to another stage).

Stage III: Root initiation stage (or final adjustment prior to


Author: Howard Asper Sr

PP: 168

The family of plants named Proteaceae is very large and is indigenous to the southern hemisphere. Several of its genera have graced our California gardens for many years, such as the grevilleas, the hakeas, and macadamia. During the last 20 years there has been a growing interest in a number of proteas for flowers and foliage to be used in the cut flower industry. For the most part these are the banksias, the leucodendrons, the leucospermums, and the proteas.

It is the propagation of these plants that we will attempt to consider. As with most plants they are propagated by seed, by cuttings, and by grafting. With but one exception, seed can be obtained from plants already growing in the U.S. The exception is the large-flowered proteas which require hand pollination. In their native South Africa the sun bird (Anthobaphes violacea) does the pollinating. There are a number of seed merchants in both South Africa and Australia who will supply seed for very reasonable charge. The seed loses


Author: Paul T. Greever

PP: 173

Production material for a wholesale nursery generally comes from two different propagation sources. One you have control over more directly than the other; in-house production plants provide you with cuttings. But when you are buying seed or cuttings from out-of-house sources, on a regular or as-needed basis, then your control is to continue to buy, or to stop buying from them. Our plant material at Nurserymen's Exchange comes from both of these sources. The production quantities that we work with demand that both sources be used. The cost in maintaining the extra square footage necessary for in-house stock plants, and their maintenance cost, may be a factor in it. The real advantage in the use of both sources is that often an increased demand for the plants in production or an error in stock plant production makes outside sources a good back-up program. An example is when our poinsettia stock program was set back some weeks in an error in the soil mix so that the plants had to

Author: John Maurice

PP: 177

Weight reduction to about 150 grams of grafted tropical and subtropical nursery trees has been achieved here by multi-directional air root-pruning, thereby molding the root system into a flat compact mass that substitutes for containerization. This opens up the possibility of supplying genetically improved nursery trees to distant locations, particularly hill and arid regions in the Third World. At destination, the nearly bare roots can be inserted into a mud solution to fill in and protect the fibrous mass. This forms a flat solid rootplate that can be planted very fast by placing against an 18 cm. vertical wall of a small hole, made by a stroke or two of a hoe.

In the first growing stage, rootstock seedlings are air root-pruned in baskets of 6 cm. depth. Subsequently about eight are transplanted horizontally into narrow plastic mesh trays by pressing the root systems flat on the substrate surface and covering. The trays are then placed in a semi-upright position on rods approaching eye level. The slanting position prevents the substrate from sliding out. The technical advantages of the method are: ease and perfection of flat root transplanting; preventing trees grown in a small volume of substrate from being blown over; allowing for a continuous thick mulch to prevent drying out of the surface and supplying constant nutrition; optimum aeration and drainage prevention of overheating of substrate at edges by use of a white polyethylene curtain; ease of extracting trees by shaking. Special micro-grafting processes are used; length is substituted for width in the cuts, to permit precise work on the slender upper part of the rootstocks. Reasons for the generally high positioning of the grafts are : ease of forcing the scions into growth; less wastage of rootstock growth when cutting down to scion, high grafting success; the perfection of graft unions when effectively molded on relatively soft young rootstock growth. Thin scion material sometimes has to be grown on hedged mother trees.


Author: Gordon R. Letterman, Ellen F. Letterman

PP: 185

Neotoma Enterprises is investigating the potential of combining aquaculture, hydroponics, and solar technologies. Our experimental and prototype polyculture systems demonstrate a significant net income increase per square foot of growing area over conventional aquaculture and plant propagation facilities. The use of solar collectors and a large volume of water for heat storage minimize system heating costs.

Author: Carolyn J. Sluis

PP: 189

Although current technological focus in many of the biotechnology fields, such as genetic engineering, is on agricultural crops, there is every reason to believe that the development of these technologies will have a significant impact on horticultural practices.

Strategies used in the study of plant tissues and cells, the propagation of clonal plantlets, and the production of biosynthetics in vitro, are becoming increasingly sophisticated. In vitro techniques are being used in the production of novel germplasm for the development of new plant cultivars using a variety of technologies rapidly being developed by molecular and cell biologists. The core biotechnologies which can be applied to the improvement of a cultivar now include protoplast production, somatic cell genetics, and genetic engineering. In addition, plant propagation and cultivation techniques are being developed using the biotechnologies of monoclonal antibodies, plant growth promoting bacteria, and somatic seeds. In fact


Author: Kenneth F. Baker

PP: 195

Because the ultimate sources of plant pathogens are previously diseased plants and the soil (including water and nonliving organic matter), propagators of pathogen-free plant materials are a primary or seminal source in modern plant production, and have special health responsibilities. Pathogens must be eliminated in this culture, not inhibited or suppressed In addition to being a profitable business practice, there are very specific benefits from clean culture for both the propagator and the producer Nursery diseases have decreased in the last 27 years, but remain a lurking hazard, and growers must accordingly continue to practice clean culture In such a plant-health program, growers have an important role and they should be directly involved in the ongoing research program, as they were in the development of the U C. System of plant culture in 1941–57. Present efforts to standardize nursery stock solely by physical characteristics miss the essential point that growth potential and plant vigor are at least as significant as size. "Root nibblers," pathogens that attack root tips and insidiously reduce plant growth but only eventually kill the plant, are largely ignored in present schemes. A combination of such physical specifications and a certification of health status can make true standardization a reality, so needed in these times of mass marketing. For both propagators and producers, a triple program of planting truly healthy propagules in clean treated soil, and practicing careful sanitation and hygiene, will keep the plant pathogens at bay in the future.

Author: James F. Hutchinson

PP: 38

The literature on the micropropagation of apple rootstocks is briefly reviewed. Detailed results are presented on factors affecting the establishment of cultures, shoot proliferation, adventitious root initiation, and growth and establishment in potting medium of the apple rootstock ‘Northern Spy.’

Author: Gene Blythe

PP: 204

The introduction of several vegetatively propagated cultivars of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl in recent years has resulted in vast improvements over the highly variable seed propagated specimens in ornamental use. Selected for superiority of growth habit, texture, and foliage color, these selected cultivars continue to gain in popularity in many areas for their use as landscape ornamentals. The efficient, commercial cutting propagation of these selected cultivars requires the selection of the optimal type and concentration of rooting hormone for each cultivar.

Cuttings of three selected cultivars of Sequoia sempervirens were treated with a variety of rooting hormones and rooted in flats in a peat/perlite medium on oudoor rooting beds with full sun, bottom heat, and intermittent mist ‘Majestic Beauty’TM rooted best with a combination of 3000 ppm IBA + 3000 ppm NAA. ‘Santa Cruz’ exhibited optimal rooting with 16,000 ppm IBA powder. ‘Soquel’ responded best with a combination of 6000 ppm IBA + 6000 ppm NAA.


Author: Jack Ahlswede

PP: 211

Most of you have probably eaten the nuts from macadamia trees but I am sure some of you have never seen the trees. In recent years this fruit has created a lot of interest in San Diego County, California, and around the world. Its climatic requirements are similar to avocados and it has been used as a replant for avocado groves which have become unproductive from root rot. It is also being used as a dooryard tree both for the nuts and for its good looks. At present there is a great deal of interest in establishing macadamia production as an agricultural industry in southern California, as has been done in Hawaii and other subtropical and tropical areas.

There are two species of macadamias grown commercially. Macadamia integrifolia, the most popular species in Hawaii, and M. tetraphylla, the most widely grown in southern California.

My experience with macadamias dates back to the 1960's when I bought some seed from a tree on a ranch between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara because this tree


Author: Conrad A. Skimina

PP: 214

Chloramines were investigated for use in disinfection of pruning shears and their efficacy compared with Physan, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, and combinations of propylene glycol and terramycin and streptomycin. The objective was to find a suitable replacement for isopropyl alcohol which would have equal or better efficacy, good stability under high contamination, and lower cost Phytotoxicity and corrosiveness of several disinfectants were also investigated.

The best disinfectants were found to be Physan, isopropyl alcohol, and monochloramine. Of these, monochloramine was found to be equal in efficacy to the alcohol, least corrosive, least costly, and had excellent stability under high contamination.


Author: David W. Megeath

PP: 220

As our understanding has grown of the relationship between plant growth and environmental conditions, it has become a standard practice in nursery production and greenhouse propagation to exercise control over these environmental conditions.

The advent of computerized control systems has made possible the means whereby environmental conditions are monitored, and automatically modified per the operator's preprogrammed instructions. The complexity of this function is best and most effectively performed by the computer — leaving time for the operator (nursery/greenhouse manager) to perform his/her appropriate management functions. Not only can the computer perform the monitor and control functions, it can also generate a data base for the manager to manage from.

Why a computer? The key concept in nursery and greenhouse control is the every function is inter-related, in cause and/or effect, to other functions. For example, bench misting of cuttings should be at a frequency such that the


Author: Kathleen Fairbank, Serge Zimberoff

PP: 223

At our nursery we need to manage the complex scheduling that comes in hand with our production volume. In order to schedule the propagation of over three million plants, manage labor data of 30 employees, and handle over 100 orders a week, we gradually turned to the computer for assistance. Our first microcomputer was purchased in October, 1982. Shortly thereafter we needed another microcomputer to handle all the work that had been transferred onto the computer.

There are four basic types of programs available to use on a microcomputer: word processing, spreadsheets, database management, and graphics. We use the first three types quite extensively.

Word processing programs allow the compute to act as a very sophisticated typewriter. A document written with a word processing program is extremely flexible. The user can type a document on the keyboard, get a permanent copy, easily revise it, and print it out again.

Spreadsheet programs allow the computer to act as an electronic. The user can


Author: John E. Rodebaugh

PP: 232

When the current soil mixing systems were reviewed for the preparation of this report, it became readily apparent that very few changes in soil mixing systems have occurred during the past 25 years. The purpose of a soil mixing system should be to achieve a uniform blend of selected dry chemicals, or chemicals which have been placed in aqueous solution with bulk ingredients. Any system which can do this in a reasonable period of time is acceptable and probably has been used at some time in the industry.

The modified concrete mixer is the most common soil mixing machine in use in the medium sized nurseries and greenhouses. With this piece of equipment a batch type system is developed and when the ingredients are added to each batch accurately, the results are quite uniform. Some growers even steam pasteurize or fumigate their soil in these mixers. One of the major disadvantages is the relatively long mixing and unloading time which results are quite uniform. Some growers even steam


Author: Bruce Briggs

PP: 234

The Western Region's 1984 Award of Merit recipient received a BS degree in Horticulture from Oregon State University in 1936, where he was an outstanding horticulture student. He continued to work on advanced degrees at Oregon State University into the late 40's.

After serving in the military in European combat during W.W. II he worked in the ornamental horticulture field at the California Nursery Co., Fremont, California. Following further work experiences he continued his educational activities at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, where he became Department Chairman in Ornamental Horticulture.

Some of the awards he received in recognition for his outstanding teaching abilities are: The California Association of Nurserymens' Leadership Award, Honorary Future Farmer (FFA), Outstanding Teacher Award by American Society of Horticultural Science, and the American Florist's Education Award. These are only some of his accomplishments in the field of education.



Author: A. Standardi, F. Catalano

PP: 236

Since kiwifruit cultivation is increasing rapidly in Italy, better propagation methods are needed. A method is described for tissue culture propagation of kiwifruit by meristem-tips dissected from resting buds and actively growing shoot tips using a modified Lepoivre medium. A multiplication rate of 53 was achieved for each 30-day subculture period. Single shoots, 30 to 35 mm long, with 2 to 4 leaves, could be rooted in paperpots containing a soil-like mixture, wetted by half-strength macro-micro nutrient solution. After 3 weeks, about 90% of shoots rooted and within 60 days all developed into plants 150 to 200 mm long with 6 to 10 leaves.

Author: David W. Burger

PP: 244

Micrografting is a relatively new technique for the production of grafted plants in vitro. It was developed by Murashige et al. (4) in the early 1970's to rid Citrus cultivars of viruses. This technique can be more effective than thermotherapy, apical meristem culture, or embryogenesis (in vivo or in vitro) in the elimination of viruses from desired cultivars. Micrografted plants bypass the juvenile phase which does not occur if viruses are eliminated through nucellar embryony in Citrus.

Micrografting requires very few materials, but it does require precise manipulation of small tissues and plant organs. Seeds must be available that can be sown aseptically in vitro and thus serve as seedling rootstocks. Shoot-tips (0.1 to 0.2 mm in length) are taken from surface disinfested scions and placed on the decapitated seedling under aseptic conditions (Figure 1, a-d). If successful, the grafted plant develops and is then tested for the presence of viruses.


Author: Devon Zagory

PP: 248

The rapidly evolving technology of genetic engineering is opening up exciting new possibilities for plant science and for plant propagation. Although, until now, practical applications of gene splicing techniques have lagged behind fundamental advances, several applications are now ripe for exploitation and it is these that I wish to address.

What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering is less a discipline than a group of techniques applicable within many disciplines. These techniques are based upon an increasingly detailed understanding of the way DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is made, structured, read, regulated, processed, and translated into the metabolic machinery of life. Many of the tools of genetic engineering are, in fact, the very tools that cells use to manipulate their hereditary material and reproduce themselves. These tools include such things as plasmids, viruses, transposable elements, and restriction enzymes, all naturally occurring molecules that have been isolated,


Author: Ralph Scott

PP: 48

Our nursery has been experimenting for the past 5 years with various rooting media for camellia propagation. In the spring of 1982 it was suggested to us that we try Rockwool as a medium. The nurseryman making the suggestion had experienced great success in its use for the propagation of miniature roses. We purchased from the manufacturer of Rockwool, approximately 10,000 blocks measuring 38 × 38 × 40 mm. These blocks came in sheets of 28 units measuring 266 × 152 × 40 mm.

The sheets of Rockwool were laid on a sand bed in a glasshouse, the bed being heated by an electrical cable and maintained at 21°C. Intermittent mist was used on a time clock system, misting occurring for 10 sec every 10 min during daylight hours. The Rockwool sheets were placed on the bed dry and then thoroughly watered 2 or 3 times to ensure that they were wet through. Gloves were used with the dry sheets as the fibre can affect sensitive skin.

Cutting preparation began the first week of January (mid-summer), 1983. The


Author: Christopher Fairweather

PP: 256

In 1979 I started our first trials to establish a small propagation unit in the Highlands of Kenya, with the intention of rooting a range of hardy shrubs for the European market. We managed to obtain a small area of land situated at an altitude of 7000 ft. in one of the main tea (Camellia sinensis) [syn. C. thea] growing districts. Rainfall at this altitude is generally around 60–70 in. per annum, the long rains arriving during March, April and May. Later in the year are the less reliable short rains which occur in October/November.

The first task was to establish a stock bed to supply the necessary cuttings. As very little local material was available in the plants we required, this operation had to begin with very small rooted cuttings.

For the next three years we had to wait for the plants to develop. This was slower than expected and various hazards such as extreme hail storms occurred, which almost finished the whole project.

By 1982 the plants had developed from small 6 in. rooted


Author: Christopher Lane

PP: 257

Pieris belongs to the family Ericaceae and, like other members of the family such as Kalmia and Rhododendron, they thrive in light shade and do best with a cool, moist root run. Whilst perhaps not the choicest of evergreen shrubs they do offer a distinct ornamental quality for acid soils.

The most distinctive feature is, of course, the colour of the young growth. This can vary from brilliant red to pink, as well as creamy yellow, bronze, or copper. The flowers which are usually white, but sometimes pink or red, are lily-of-the-valley shaped and born profusely on racemes or panicles. Various species and hybrids flower in the garden from February to June. The flower buds, which are formed in late summer are also attractive during the winter months, particularly those of a bronzy colour.

Most plants are very compact in growth habit, making dense, shapely bushes up to 2 × 2 metres. Pieris Formosa var. forrestii, however, will grow up to 4 metres. Dead heading of old flowers is beneficial.


Author: David Ridgway

PP: 261

Garrya elliptica is listed as one of the most difficult plants to propagate, and many growers are reluctant to attempt production because of the numerous problems which can make it an uneconomic proposition. However, it is possible to overcome the problems with the equipment and facilities now available, and to achieve successful propagation.

The most important cultivar grown in Great Britain is the male cultivar Garrya elliptica ‘James Roof’, which produces catkins 300 mm long.


Author: Denis J. Bradshaw

PP: 265

We are a small family firm growing a range of plants, but specialising in clematis and climbing plants. We grow 135 species and cultivars of Clematis and between 70 and 80 cultivars of other climbing plants, as well as many climbing roses and wall shrubs. Clematis are sold as bare-root liners, 7 cm pot liners, and 4 ft. caned plants.

Propagation Facilities. We have one 65 × 14 ft single skinned polytunnel, covered with white polythene. This has two 6 ft beds at ground level with a centre pathway. The beds are insulated with 2 in thick polystrene wrapped in polythene, with 3 to 4 in of pea grit underneath for drainage. This is covered with a 3 in layer of durite sand beneath which there are five electric heating cables, each controlled by Camplex probe thermostats, giving a bottom heath of 68–70°F. We used to have a hand operated mist line, but now find it more convenient to use a fine sprayer on the end of a hosepipe. As the light intensity increases we cover the tunnel with a 50%


Author: David Hill

PP: 270

The use of tissue culture methods in propagation or rhododendrons has greatly improved their rooting, but has given rise to two significant problems related to the production of quality plants for sale. These are:
  1. The production of a bushy plant.
  2. Ensuring plentiful flower buds.

These criteria are of utmost importance from the sales point of view. Rhododendrons which are of a "leggy" form or do not possess many flower buds and are not desirable in the market place. In the retail market, a well-budded or flowering plant sells itself. At Boningale Nurseries Limited, we are not a large scale producer of rhododendrons, nor can we claim to be specialists, but through our experience to date we are upgrading the quality of our production. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to communicate some of our knowledge; and (2) stimulate interest amongst others to initiate research into production techniques for the benefit of the industry as a whole.

The key to the production of high quality


Author: Volker Behrens

PP: 274

INTRODUCTION Seasonal peaks of work-load are the main reason why German nursery managers have shifted the period for propagating conifers by cuttings into the winter months, November, and December (4). But as a result, more heating and more intensive phytosanitary treatments are necessary. Rising energy costs led to the idea of collecting the cuttings in November, preparing them for insertion and then storing them up until March. The main spring selling season in German nurseries starts in March. For this reason collecting and preparing the cuttings has to be done earlier, if possible in early winter.

Suitable storage conditions must be used to avoid a significant reduction of the rooting capacity. That is why:

  • water losses of the cuttings have to be kept to a minimum (13).
  • the spread of pathogenic fungi has to be avoided (10), and
  • respiration has to be kept low, especially if a definite amount of food reserves is necessary for quick and sufficient rooting (13,19).

All this is possible with


Author: Alan Q.M. Blain

PP: 281

The response of Salix and Populus hardwood cuttings to mulching with black polythene during field propagation was studied. The effect of the mulch was to suppress weed growth, increase soil temperature, and conserve soil moisture, as compared with a non-mulched control. Results of trials in 1982 and 1983 demonstrated an increase in growth with both species due to mulching.

Author: J.M. Hedger

PP: 287

Production of Maiden Trees. Five of tree stocks are planted annually. This is in a seven year rotation with strawberries. During the final year of the rotation the area is put down to a grass ley. This enables perennial weed to be selectively treated with herbicides during the year. The Westerwolth ryegrass is ploughed in as green manure after the addition of 100 tons per acre of farmyard manure after the early autumn. One acre of land is being sterilized with methyl bromide this year applied by contractors. We are attempting to reduce the problem of verticillium wilt, particularly on Acer trees. This occurs as a result of following strawberries in a cropping rotation.

The soil is ploughed and then worked down to a fine tilth in late autumn in readiness for planting. After this, we do not have to use a heavy tractor on the land again during the wet winter weather. Planting commences as early in the autumn as possible. This is done by using a combination of a mini-tractor and single share slitter which is very light and permits planting throughout


Author: L.M. Gill

PP: 290

Techniques for producing anemone tubers were developed at Rosewarne over the last 26 years in parallel with a breeding programme to produce a winter hardly strain of anemone. Since the de Caen anemone was not easy to propagate vegetatively it was also necessary to study seed production and, in particular, methods of sowing.

The Saint Piran strain which became available in 1978 contains 9 individual groups which are grown in isolation until the final mass seeding prior to the sale of the tubers.

Although there have been certain modifications, this basic system continues to be used by the commercial producers, Wyvern Growers in Somerset.

Seed production. Cultural requirements such as rotation manuring, soil preparation, depth and density of planting, weed and pest control are the same as for commercial flower production, a s detailed in the revised edition of the Anemone Advisory leaflet 353 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food. However a rigorous programme of sprays and rouging


Author: W. James Houghton

PP: 294

We owe the beauty of new cultivars of daffodils to the dedication of past and present hybridizers and daffodil lovers. During the last 100 years daffodils have been collected from the wild and crossbred, with and selections becoming better and more colourful with each generation.

In this world of daffodils the names of breeders that have given us the beauties that we enjoy today, to mention a few, are Reverend William Herbert, Edward Leeds, Peter Barr, Reverend George Engleneart, William Backhouse, The Brodie of Brodie, Guy Wilson, Lionel Richardson, P.D. Williams, and so many more very dedicated folk, including those hybridising today. At daffodil shows the results of their work can be seen in all its splendour. There are eleven distinct divisions of narcissi. Each year at shows a new cultivar more elegant than its predecessors will surprisingly come to light. It may be one of the large trumpets, a double, a small cup, tazetta, or a cheeky little rock daffodil.

Most of the new cultivars have been bred specifically for the show bench.


Author: Murray Richards

PP: 50

The first requirement in any propagating system for leafy cuttings is to conserve water in the cutting, which no longer has access to a free water supply from a root system. While some water can be absorbed through the cut base of the cutting, this is generally insufficient to replace water loss from transpiration. This water loss occurs because the humidity of the air around the cutting is lower than the humidity of the air inside the cutting. If the temperature of the air around the cutting increases, the relative humidity decreases; if the leaf temperature rises the vapour pressure inside the cutting increases, both lead to increased water loss from the cutting. Plants will endeavour to regulate this water loss in two ways: some have evolved structural forms of stomata which restrict rate of water transfer, while all plants will tend to close the stomata as water stress occurs. The extent of stomatal closure has a profound effect on CO2 uptake.

The second requirement is to provide an


Author: Bill Simpson

PP: 296

Introduction — Education and Training. Over recent years technological advances in the production and marketing of hardly nursery stock have emphasised the need for high standards of education and training for the industry. With a greatly reduced labour force and an increased reliance on mechanical and scientific aids, staff must be highly skilled as craftsmen, technicians, supervisors, technologists, managers, and scientists. The training and education services have met this challenge. The Agricultural Training Board (ATB) through its advisory field staff, identify where and what training is needed and see that it is provided. Local Education Authorities (LEA), through their colleges, or the universities, offer comprehensive technical horticultural courses.

Training Groups. The nursery sector is well served by colleges, while the Board has encouraged the formation of Training Groups in major areas of production. Examples of such groups are the Hampshire Nursery Training Group, the


Author: Norman S. Standbrook

PP: 301

N.P.T.C. training during the present time must be seriously considered by all aspiring nurserymen, large or small. In my opinion, there must be a continuing awareness of the need for efficiency and expertise in our industry. The whole concept of training must be put into perspective. We must identify the areas we need to cover, and I suggest there are many.

To this end the N.P.T.C. has evolved a whole series of tests as listed in their schedule of activities booklet, which enable people of all ages to become proficient in the crafts of their choosing. To become a craftsman in the nursery stock section a candidate must pass in at least five activities, including plant identification and the propagation of plants in either the glasshouse or the frame/case or field. On passing the five tests the candidate will be entitled to a Certificate of Craftsmanship in addition to an increase in wages. The aim of the N.P.T.C. is to ensure that the same standards of craftsmanship are maintained


Author: Douglas Weguelin

PP: 304

Are we, as nurserymen, passing on all the skills we have personally, or are we leaving this to the colleges, day-release schemes, or Training Boards? The modern nurseryman or woman is so involved with computers, cash flow, profits, plants, pots and pans, and all sells well, that he or she is often far too involved with these things to spend a few hours teaching (and getting to know) staff, particularly the junior.

I can look back 55 years when George Tucker showed me how to graft Gypsophila paniculata ‘Bristol Fairy’ and how he taught me to tie a reef knot instead of a granny. It is good to see he is here in our Society today. I was apprenticed to his father to learn the nursery trade. I believe that time spent with staff is a good investment. They appreciate the fact that the boss or manager can spend time teaching and that you can do the job that you are asking them to do!

When I intended to retire at 65, I sold my nursery to Rochfords, the houseplant growers, my nursery being Barters


Author: Joanna S. Wood

PP: 306

This paper reviews work the author was involved with while working at Efford Experimental Horticulture Station, Lymington, Hampshire. Work on field-grown nursery stock was started at Efford in 1981. Investigating aspects of propagation was a logical starting point. Following developments made with the rooting of cuttings under glass, it seemed likely that improvements could be made with the relatively cheap low tunnel or sun frame technique.

The sun frame technique for propagating softwood cuttings is not new — cold frames covered by Dutch lights were in use from the 19th century. Modern materials such as polythene sheeting for tunnels automatic misting have brought it up to date. As the plant material from sun frames has been mostly destined for field planting and the landscape market, the range of species grown has been limited. If plant quality could be improved there would be and opportunity to extend the species range as a cheaper alternative propagation technique to heated glass


Author: Kenneth G. Ellard

PP: 311

I shall give a brief account of why we started a nursery and include a short history of Welland Vale Nurseries. I will then outline the various problems and limiting factors we encountered and describe how we attempted to solve them.

The idea of starting a nursery was first discussed among various friends while still in the first year of our Ordinary National Diploma (OND) course at Pershore. At that time several people were interested in the project. However, by the end of the third year interest had waned and, on leaving college in the summer of 1972, only 3 people remained committed to the idea — these being Trevor Burns, who now deals with sales, Nick Cox, from whom we parted company after one year, and myself.

The initial impetus for the project which may well have been alcohol-induced, probably came from a romantic view of life and a naivety of business. We had very little experience in nursery work and none of business. None of the partners' us came from cities. So it was going to


Author: Paul A. Patience, Peter G. Alderson

PP: 316

An increase in the rooting percentage of cuttings of Syringa vulgaris ‘Madame Lemoine’ was observed in response to an etiolation treatment in the field in 1983. This result was not supported by data in 1984, possibly due to the disturbances of cuttings in an attempt to assess the time of root development. Variation in the rooting of shoots within treatments was associated with their stock plant origin.

Shoots grown in light and dark in controlled temperature environments developed at the same rate. Consequently differences in the striking date and also in the rooting environment between treatments were avoided. Cuttings which developed at 25°C rooted earlier than cuttings developed at 15°C High temperatures alone may account for rapid shoot extension whereas improved rooting was, in general, associated with the combination of high temperatures and low light levels. The value of studying etiolation in systems facilitating more precise control of the shoot environment during treatment is discussed.


Author: Paul M. Underhill

PP: 327

INTRODUCTION It has been established for some time that labour is the highest cost when producing nursery stock. Therefore there is a need to ensure the highest proportion of those labour costs should go into production. Despatching and aftercare are the other high labour areas. Aftercare sometimes implies after thought, or the time we have left between potting and despatching.

There is a neglected argument of forethought with herbicides, as this should be the first rule of growing. Good weed control, like early propagation, comes down to timing. The criteria is to apply a herbicide seal to the compost as soon after potting as possible and follow it up at regular intervals, not allowing an infestation to take place. With labour costs high you cannot afford to delay and hand weeding is labour intensive and costly.

To my surprise I have found few species of problem weeds, but these few are not to be underestimated. They include, especially in the propagation stage Cardamine hirsuta, which if controlled


Author: Peter Stokes

PP: 332

I have been interested in the production of hardy ferns for the past ten years and have been producing a limited range for the last five years. These are mostly grown in 3 litre containers for sale to retail outlets.

Ferns have been around for 400 million years, so they say, but hardy ferns only became really popular with British gardeners in the last half of the 19th century. Then hundreds of types were grown by some nurseries but since 1914 interest has greatly declined.

There is certainly a place in the modern garden for hardy ferns. Many forms grow well in damp shady places and stand considerable neglect. There are attractive low growing ferns which grow well in the shaded parts of rockeries, their foliage giving a good contrast to dwarf evergreens. Some of the larger species such as the royal fern (Osmunda regalis) or the ostrich plume fern (Mateucia struthopteris) grow well in very wet conditions and make excellent marginal plants.

Propagation. Division is the simplest method of


Author: Philip C. Gaut, Jenifer N. Roberts

PP: 334

Hamamelis virginiana seed contains complex dormancy factors involving not only the embryo but also the endosperm and possibly the integument and testa Optimum natural conditions for breaking dormancy in fresh seed are at least 8 weeks at about 20°C, followed by at least 20 weeks below 4°C, both in moist peat. Neither warm nor cold alone will break embryo dormancy, but warm in some way sensitises the embryo to react to subsequent cold. While dormant, the embryo produces a lipase inhibitor which presumably diffuses into the endosperm and prevents premature mobilisation of the fatty storage reserves. For the warm treatment a soak in gibberellic acid can be substituted, but a substitute for cold has not been found.

Author: Brian H. Dale

PP: 342

I have worked at Bridgemere Nurseries in Cheshire for the last 14 years. I achieved the position of head of propagation some 9 years ago, due to a knowledge based purely on practical experience and advice from fellow propagators.

I have a minimal involvement in field propagation and this is limited to fruit trees and the easy evergreens, such as laurel and Vinca spp. The latter are propagated under low polythene tunnels on sheltered, well-drained section of the field.

The breakdown of the 800,000 cuttings which are rooted by my department each year, is as follows: 30% shrubs, 25% heathers, and 25% conifers, the balance being split among everything from Exbury azaleas, Pieris spp., Mahonia spp., with about 5% of this balance being climbers.

The second type of propagation under my control is the division of bareroot herbaceous plants, a crop which is increasingly being home nursery produced. The reason for this is customer demand which is creating a demand for almost limitless cultivars of


Author: W. Rodger Elliot

PP: 53

The Australian flora is often referred to as being unique, but this is not an accurate description, as most of our Australian plants belong to families that are widely distributed throughout other parts of the world. The Australian flora is closely linked with the world flora, and the endemic species have evolved since the continent was isolated. The flora can be roughly divided into three main elements:
  1. Asian. Many species from the Kimberleys, Western Australia, Northern Territory, northern and eastern Queenland, coastal New South Wales and far eastern Victoria have links with the Pacific and Asian region, especially those found in rainforest areas.
  2. Antarctic. The relationship with New Zealand, sub-antarctic island, and South America is obvious and south-eastern Australia, especially Tazmania.
  3. Australian. The unique development of endemic plants has occurred since isolation, especially in Western Australia, sue to the dry barriers of central Australia and Nullar-bor Plain.

The Australian


Author: D.A. Husband

PP: 347

If our I.P.P.S. Conference has been of value at all, there will be some changes on the nursery as a result of our attendance. These changes need careful study to be effective, and so we will look at possible changes under five headings.

(1) In what area of business should there be changes? Changes in the wrong area could precede disaster. One guideline is, "the area where we do worst." Here, change can only improve things — or so it may seem. Another guide is, "where we are doing very well" — change in this area could shift us from the mediocre nursery to the elite nursery.

Suggestions are.

Outlets. Selling wholesale, to garden centres, instead of retail to the visiting public, — or vice-versa.

Subjects involved, or type of plant produced. Perhaps growing standards of choice ornamental trees instead of maiden fruit trees. A bigger change could be in going from bare-root to container sales.

Sources of Stock. Beginning a stock-plant area, so that all the cutting material is completely under


Author: K.R.W. Hammett

PP: 356

It is not my intention here to discuss breeding techniques. The sheer diversity of ornamental plant material makes that impossible. Indeed, faced with such diversity, my starting point must be to ask, "What is an ornamental plant?"

A possible definition would be, "any plant that is cultivated primarily for its decorative value." Such a definition is very open-ended and really does not give a breeder much guidance. A breeder of food plants knows pretty much what is required of him. Namely, his plants should produce the largest possible yields in the shortest time with minimum cost and trouble. Once produced the product should have maximum shelf life, be easily transported and, of course, be edible. In contrast, the breeder of ornamental plants has as his raw material virtually the whole of the plant kingdom — subjects ranging in size from forest trees to ground-hugging alpines. Even more important, he or she is in an area of taste and fashion, where none of the criteria are


Author: Jan Velvin

PP: 362

During the summer of 1982 Lyndale Nurseries set up a propagation unit at a new site in Whenuapai. This unit consists of four 60 × 20 ft. (18 × 6m) PVC film-covered tunnel houses containing a central bed with bottom heat and a mist facility plus two side beds without heat but with mist, including a weaning option, i.e. 1/1 to 1/10 misting. All the houses are ventilated with louvers together with fans working under positive pressure.

The two systems initially installed to control the mist operation were:

  1. A pre-set "off-on" cycle, i.e. a timer with the capabilities to operate regardless of the environment.
  2. An "electronic leaf", which gives a variable "off-on" cycle dependent on the environment, i.e. 2 electrodes contained in a non-conductive substance which is placed under the mist at leaf level. At a certain level of dryness the "leaf" activates a solenoid valve.

Also used was a combination of these two systems, i.e. time-regulated mist application for certain hours, e.g. before 10 a.m. and


Author: B. Tjia

PP: 365

For the past ten years the Transvaal daisy or gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hook f.) has steadily become more popular, thanks to advertising campaigns that have promoted the gerbera as a cut and pot flowering plant and as a bedding plant to be used and grown in the landscape. There are presently several strains of gerberas in the trade. In the U.S.A. the earlier Jongenelen material (double), semi-dwarf Happipot (singles and doubles), Florist strain (doubles), Park Mix (singles), Express series (singles and doubles), Tropic, Galaxy and Ceres 2000 series, and the University of California breeding lines from Dr. Harding and his associates, are readily available.

Other gerbera sources outside continental U.S.A. are in the Netherlands, France, Italy, Japan, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Most of the commercial lines are grown and sold from seed, although some are propagated vegetatively through tissue culture means. The clonal lines are usually disease and insect free,


Author: T.E. Welsh

PP: 375

Climate and lifestyle in New Zealand are very conductive to bedding plant growing. This is evident in the extensive use of flowering annuals in both public and private gardens. The production of bedding plants, until recent years, has involved a very traditional approach. Because bedding plants can be grown year-round in New Zealand there is a tendency to produce small seedlings in an open-pack to be sold at the green stage. Difficult economic times and high inflation have created an awareness amongst growers of the need to increase production efficiency instead of simply increasing prices to counter rising costs.

A need for increased productivity is shared amongst bedding plant growers worldwide. Over the past decade, some new approaches to production techniques have arisen.

Direct seeding mechanically into the final container is one such approach. This eliminates the necessity for hand sowing and alleviates the need for pricking out. Interest in this system has seen the development of


Author: Michael B. Thomas and Alfred G.B. Leong

PP: 381

Three experiments were conducted to study the influence of nutrition on the production of container-grown Capsicum annuum ‘Fips’ the first was a central composite design which examined the influence of five rated of N, P, K and lime 0 to 600 g N m-3, 0 to 400 g P m-3, 0 to 332 g K m-3 and 0 to 12 kg lime m-3 The second experiment was a 4 × 2 × 2 factorial with 4 rates of Mg from 0 to 450 g m-3, 2 rates of P at 50 and 400 gm-3 and 2 rates of k at 83 and 415 g m-3. The third experiment was a simple randomised block design with 5 rates of K from 300 to 700 g m-3 Strong responses to N and K were noted while P had a moderate influence. Lime had no apparent effect at low N rates but influenced growth significantly at high N by raising the pH from 4.2 to 5 8. There was no response to added Mg Foliage growth, plant quality and fruiting were optimal at 600 g N, 300 g P and 500 g K m-3 Lime at 6 kg m-3. was recommended (optimum pH 5 8 – 61). Suggested tissue composition of good quality ornamental pepper ‘Fips’ are given as 3 4 to 3 8% N, 0 4% P, 4 6& K Ca, and 1 4% Mg.

Author: Ross A. Bicknell

PP: 396


Although the genius Gentiana contains many hundred species, the cultivated cut flower cultivars have arisen principally from only three: G. makinoi, G. triflora, and G. scabra, all of which are native to Japan. Gentiana is a very popular flower in Japan where it blooms mainly between the months of July and October. In 1979 it was estimated that approximately 278 ha of Gentiana was cultivated in Japan. In 1982 this had increased to 449 ha.

Until recently most propagation has been by seed. Cutting propagation is used in some districts for white cultivars, which tend to have a poorer seed germination rate than the blue and purple ones. The tissue-cultured material which is now becoming available provides the advantages of clonal multiplication but is more expensive than seedlings. Seed, available from several Japanese seed companies, is best purchased during November and December as this is when fresh stock is available from the previous season's crop. Although some seed lines


Author: Ian Fankhauser

PP: 401

Feijoa, a native of South America, was introduced to New Zealand in the early 1900's. Since this time selections of plants with fruit suitable for export is an ongoing process with "improved&quot cultivars coming onto the market periodically.

In the late 1950's, Duncan & Davies were producing named cultivars feijoa by layering. Trials have been done since then with grafting, bench grafting, budding, and cutting production. While cutting production produced results varying from 40% to 60%, depending on cultivar, the most successful to date has been bench grafting. This is the method I will deal with.

The main cultivars we graft are ‘Mammoth’ and ‘Triumph’, with lesser numbers of ‘Coolegei’, ‘Robert’, ‘David’, and ‘Variegata’. We do not grow ‘Apollo’ and ‘Gemini’, as these are restricted to six nurseries granted propagating rights.

Seed of Feijoa sellowiana is sown in trays progressively in winter, from July through August, then pricked out in September/October (spring) into 7cm Maclons in a 1


Author: John F. Seelye

PP: 403


The genus Telopea, in the Proteaceae family, comprises four species all indigenous to Australia. T. speciosissima, the New South Wales waratah, is woody shrub which produces large red blooms in the spring.

Its cultivation in New Zealand is increasing to meet cut flower market demands. However, its potential has been limited by the variable flower quality in plants raised from seed. A few clonal selections have been made in the past and vegetatively propagated by cuttings. Others are currently being evaluated at this Research Centre for their cut flower qualities. Rapid propagation from the limited base stock is necessary if the local cut flower industry is to quickly realise the potential of these selection.

The procedure described here is based on studies with two T. speciosissima selections, clone 8 and 38. Previous micropropagation successes with Proteaceae, a family of 60 genera have been mainly confined to the genus Grevillea (1,2). Shoot multiplication in Telopea using 6-benzyl-


Author: Stephen M. Butcher and Sheila M.N. Wood

PP: 407


The genus Sophora is in the family Papilionaceae, and consists of about 30 species of temperate and subtropical trees and shrubs (1) of wide distribution. Three species are found in New Zealand, S. tetraptera, S. prostrata, and S. microphylla.

S. tetraptera, J.F. Mill is a small to medium-sized tree up to 10 m tall growing from sea level to 450 m. The leaflets are large (3 cm long) and the flowers, which appear in the spring — October and November, are large and pale yellow with wings longer than the standard. This species does not have a juvenile form and usually flowers in four to five years from seed.

S. prostrata J. Buchan is a low-land bush of approximately 0.5 to 0.2 m tall. It forms a low hummock with densely inter-tangled divaricated orange-brown rigid branches and bears small (25 mm) orange/yellow flowers.

S. microphylla Ait. Is a small tree up to 10 m tall found from sea level to 700 m. It is the most variable and hardy of the three species. S. microphylla usually exhibits a


Author: Tony Biggs

PP: 61

Investigations dealing with horticultural seeds continue to occupy growers, researchers, educationalists, and others all over the world. The range of topics being investigated becomes wider each year and over the last four years more than 2000 abstracts on seeds have been cited in Horticultural Abstracts. This review paper looks at some of the recent work in the areas of dormancy and germination inhibition, and also considers developments in seed treatment.

Author: Gary M. Hutt

PP: 418

Cold temperatures and wind are the most obvious problems of winter but when choosing our overwintering techniques there are other factors we should consider: First is the plant and its limitations in coping with fluctuating temperatures during the winter months; second is the climate and the frequency in which temperatures range above or below the average norms. Of all our problems in wintering plants the latter is the most dangerous and most difficult to handle. After examining these factors we can then choose the method or methods of winter protection best suited for our given locations.

There are five options for winter plant protection available to us today:

  1. Do nothing at all.
  2. Place plants pot-to-pot.
  3. Place plants pot-to-pot and cover them with white poly or white poly plus shade cloth — then tack down.
  4. Put plants in overwintering structures.
  5. Lay plants down and cover with a microfoam insulation blanket first; follow with white poly, then seal air tight.

Why consider


Author: David A. Smith

PP: 421

Fungigation the injection of fungicides into the irrigation system, has been used to apply soil drench treatments for root-rot diseases for several years. It has recently been effective against foliar diseases as reported by Lambe (1). Several forms of fungicides — emulsifiable concentrates, such as Subdue 2E; flowables, such as Daconil 2787; and wettable powders, such as Benlate and Dithane M-45, have been applied through the irrigation system with little problem.

Our application technique is simple, since we irrigate from ponds, A hole is drilled and threaded into the suction pipe close to the centrifugal pump. A ?-in short pipe nipple and valve are installed, being careful to avoid any air leakage through the valve or pipe fittings, which can cause a loss of pump prime. A pipe may connect the valve permanently to a holding tank, or a hose may be attached and simply submerged into a bucket of fungicide solution, as shown in figure 1.


Author: Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R, Wehtje, Cecil Pounders, Gary S. Cob

PP: 423

Weed control from preemergence herbicides is often unacceptable for numerous reasons including improper timing and rate of application, weather conditions, or excessive volatilization loss. Hand labor is normally used to remove escape weeds. If weeds are not removed, they compete with ornamental plants for water, nutrients, and light. Weed competition can reduce growth of container-grown plants by 50% or more (4). An alternative to hand weeding of escape grass weeds is now available with the labeling of Fusilade (fluazifop-butyl) and Poast (sethoxydim) herbicides for postemergence application in ornamentals. Fusilade is produced by ICI Americas Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, and Poast by BASF Wynandotte Corp., Parsippany, New Jersey. Both materials control annual and perennial grasses (including quackgrass). Neither of these materials has any activity on nutsedge.

The first symptom of Fusilade and Poast activity is growth cessation, followed by death of the terminal growth points and


Author: Ken Schulz

PP: 432

Polk Nursery is located in the heart of peninsular Florida, midway between Tampa and Orlando. The operation was started in 1916 as an Asparagus setaceus ‘Nanus’ [syn. A. plumosus ‘Nanus’] ferney and was converted 30 years ago to a wholesale woody-stem container nursery. The production today occupies 130 acres. Heated polyhouses cover 15 acres and 80 acres are irrigated for 32°F cold protection. The woody stem production is 85% blooming or showy plants in 6-,8- and 10- inch containers. Plants are delivered on company trucks within 200 miles. Over half of the plants are delivered within 72 hours after they are sold. The intensive care and warmth of Florida affords two turns of production with 140 employees and 130 pieces of mechanical equipment. The selection of mechanical equipment that we use was based on a 5-year payout of initial cost and maintenance. The savings may be in reduced labor, increased speed or production, improved quality, lower maintenance, or measurable job dependability.

Author: Karl A. Kolb

PP: 434

Fertilizer placement studies to test the safety and efficiency of the "dibble" method of applying a resin-coated, controlled-release fertilizer to container or pot-grown plants have been conducted in New Zealand and the United States. Research trials were placed during 1981, 1982 and 1983 at the New Zealand Nursery Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand(3,4,5). Similar trials were also placed during 1982 (1) at the University of Arizona and in 1983 at Louisiana State University (2). All trials indicate the "dibble" method of applying a resin-coated, controlled-release fertilizer to new plantings of container-grown woody ornamentals is a safe and efficient cultural practice.

Also there have been many successful grower trials conducted throughout the country during the past three years, These trials have provided substantial evidence that dibble application offers certain advantages over conventional top dressing and incorporation methods.

Before we go much further


Author: Hubert Nicholson

PP: 437

I speak with only two full year of experience in using drip irrigation in the field. Even with this short experience I am sold on it to the extent that we are expanding its use as fast as our finances and water supplies will permit.

Before we could undertake drip irrigation we had to develop a water supply which we did by digging wells. In the mountains of Tennessee you're lucky to hit any water in a well, much less enough for irrigation, but we were fortunate to end up with a total of approximately a 200 gpm supply from 5 wells. These wells pump into a common underground system of 4-inch lines totaling about25,000 ft in length, making water available to a 200 acre area. With this limited amount of water the use of drip irrigation made good sense because of this method's efficient water use.


Author: Michael A. Richard

PP: 440

Of the hundreds of bamboo species grown in the United State only two are native; most were introduced from Asia. Most bamboo grown by commercial nurseries is used for ornamental purposes; however, the uses seem only limited by man's ingenuity and imagination. At our nursery located at Jefferson Island, Louisiana, we produce container-grown bamboo of both clump and running species. Specific problems or limitation exist in propagating these plants.

First we will separated and define the two classes of bamboo currently being propagated on a commercial scale.

Clump-forming bamboo typically produce late summer and autumnal growth, each successive cane developing adjacent to the preceding one. They are generally tropical or subtropical and grow constantly if moisture and temperature are right

Running bamboo produce sprouts very early in the spring followed by underground development until late fall. Generally this type is from temperate climates. By understanding these simplified characteristics, it becomes apparent that many techniques used for one group will be unsuccessful if used on the other


Author: Gary P. Taylor

PP: 444

Chesapeake Nurseries is a wholesale grower of broadleaved evergreens. We are located on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, 30 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and from Chesapeake Bay. Most of the Eastern Shore consists of farm land with a large poultry production industry, moderate seafood production industry, and a small amount of light industry. Chesapeake Nurseries has been in business for 26 years and sells mainly to metropolitan areas in and around Washington, D.C. Baltimore, Philadelphia, New Jersey, New York, and New England. At Chesapeake Nurseries we attribute our success to one thing in particular — quality.

My job as greenhouse manager is to produce heavy transplants and liners that are ready as soon as possible to go in the field and grow well.


Author: Joseph G. King

PP: 447

The forcing of azaleas is very easy as it is done every year by nature. As soon as the buds are mature and winter comes they will be cooled naturally. Sometimes they get more than they need but they usually bloom when it warms up in the spring.

We force azaleas from September to Mother's Day. The plants for September flowering are put into the cooler the latter part of June.

We produce several sizes including 5- to 6-in head in 6-in containers, 7-in head in 10-in containers, 8- to 12-in head in tubs. Production requires 12 to 18 months depending on plant size. We ship in our own trucks.


Author: John L. Machen Sr

PP: 449

At Mobjack Nurseries we have approximately 7 acres of container production and approximately 50 acres of field production. Our nursery is small but still needs good records. In our nursery production records are maintained on a micro-computer which uses dBase II. Our production records consist of 3 separate but closely related inventories. They are:
  1. New Plant Inventory
    1. All seedlings and cuttings we produce.
    2. All liners or plants we buy to grow on to larger sizes.
  2. Production Inventory
    1. All plants planted in the fields.
    2. All plants planted in the container in which they will be old

Author: Nancye Heighway

PP: 68

We have a 32 hectare irrigated fruit farm at Woorinen, near Swan Hill on the Murray River. The climate is rather severe with temperatures ranging from 0°C in the winter to 45?C in the summer. These conditions, however, combined with our heavy clay loam soil, are ideal for the cultivation of stone fruits.

Five years ago, in 1978, we decided to reorganise our plantings using the "Tatura Trellis" (an intensive planting method) and trickle irrigation, for the following reasons:

  1. To increase production without increasing the size of our holding.
  2. New cultivars of stone fruits were becoming available.
  3. Cost efficiency was necessary for picking and pruning and in the use of tractors for spraying and cultivation.
  4. Earlier yields were available from intensive planting systems.
  5. Water and land costs were rising at an alarming rate.

By using the "Tatura Trellis" we were able to plant 1600 trees per hectare instead of 300 using the old method. Thus production could be increased threefold


Author: Richard J. Stadtherr

PP: 454


The Netherlands is noted for their bulbs, and many new hybrids are seen among amaryllis, daffodils, tulips and lilies. There is variegated foliage with stripes of white, maroon, or purple in species hybrid tulips as well as multiflowered stalks with up to 6 flowers on each. The best new daffodil seen was a dark yellow, large-cupped cultivar named ‘Cyclops’. Crocosmia masoniorum, a bright orange-red montbrietia, blooms from June into September at Inverewe.


Author: Jack Siebenthaler

PP: 458

Perhaps every member of the Southern Region of the IPPS considers himself a manager of some sort; that would be only natural. We have always been schooled in the idea that, at least in the nursery production business, there are only managers, owners, and workers — never coaches!

A manager is a person charged with the control or direction of a business. He controls resources and expenditures. He directs the general activity of the business. He plans a lot for the future.

A coach is a person who trains others, either individually or as a team. He's a private tutor who gives instruction. He worries about individual effort and about making the most of individual abilities.

While there is some similarity in the duties of the two, it is readily apparent that there are marked differences also. In fact, it's hard to equate the two in view of their general responsibilities.

The Tampa Bay Buccaneers began their professional life with an initial record of 0–26. That is no wins and 26 defeats!


Author: Richard W. Henley

PP: 460

This is a review of work conducted on a method of plant propagation and plant production using a high quality peat-lite mix prepackaged in plastic film tailored to fit inside containers of specific shape and size. Production of foliage plants of commercial quality in these packs is shown to be feasible and offers several benefits. These include conservation of water, fertilizer, and plastic, and reduced costs of handling and shipping the finished plants. Packs will accept seeds, seedlings, unrooted or rooted cuttings, liners, and air layers to be grown to finished or prefinished sizes.

Author: Fred Morrison

PP: 463

In 1972 Morrison's Farm and Nursery began as a hobby type operation with the construction of a shade arbor for the rooting of plant material and a hot-house for the growing of foliage plants. We were originally in the chicken business and still do have two houses in production. From this meager beginning blossomed the present operation, which encompasses an area of 80 plus acres of production.

During the past 24 months our nursery has doubled in size. This accelerated expansion demanded a rapid method to propagate plants in large numbers. The method chosen to accomplish this necessary production of plant liners was the rooting bench procedure. This type method allows a large number of cuttings to be placed in a small area while the rooting process is taking place.

The benches chosen for our needs contain 648 ft2 each. Each bed is 6 ft wide and 108 ft long. These benches are laid out using concrete blocks for the lower portion of the bench. Each bench requires 170 concrete blocks laid


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 465

Poor uniformity in container-grown nursery stock increases production and labor costs and decreases effective space utilization and customer satisfaction. Ten major factors that affect crop uniformity are discussed and suggestions are made for improvement.

Author: Lin Taber

PP: 471

The 1984 Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Lin Taber, Glen Saint Mary, Florida.

LARRY EDWARDS: I would like more information on crop oil and surfactants. Do these materials have an effect on the chemical with which they are being used?

BRYSON JAMES: They are similar to dormant spray oils and, in general, are nonphytotoxic. They will mix with water. Vegetable oils have been tried, but crop oils are preferred. Ordinary household detergents usually do not interfere with chemical activity if they are nontoxic. Those with high phosphate content should not be used; pH of the solution makes a difference. A spreader-sticker should also be used with most tank mixes. These materials actually have a sticking effect as well as just making water wetter.

TED RICHARDSON: I have found that, in contrast to earlier comments, a surfactant works just as well with Poast as a crop oil.

GARY TAYLOR: Is there a danger that herbicides will affect rooting of the cuttings?

CARL WHITCOMB: In general, those


Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 475

Safe and effective spray programs require good equipment, frequent careful inspection of plants, knowledge of pests and chemicals, and accurate records.

We do not have time nor the knowledge to give specific programs to fit all nurseries or all potential pest problems. However, we will offer some generalized examples based on experience gained in custom application and in consultation with many of the best nurseries in the South.

Many nurseries do not have effective spray programs because they do not have proper equipment or do not maintain equipment properly. We will discuss types of sprayers later but should mention here that protective clothing should be considered as necessary spray equipment.


Author: Mona-Marie Kelety

PP: 480

The popularity of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in the southern U.S. as a garden shrub has increased tremendously. in the last few years. Hibiscus is the most popular flowering shrub in the tropics. Its unique and distinctive flower gives a lush tropical image to the surrounding landscape. The idea of using hibiscus as a color crop instead of a perennial shrub has been one of the most influential factors for the increased popularity and demand. The potential for commercial pot hibiscus production is just now being realized. Many people are unaware of the broad range of hibiscus colors, color combinations, and flower forms, and think only of hibiscus as a single red flower as so often seen. There is an almost unlimited variation in the shades of color of the hibiscus flowers.

Hibiscus may be propagated by seed (hybridizing), cuttings, grafting, or by tissue culture. Hybridizing is best done by collectors or research labs as cross-breeding hibiscus is an unprofitable method for commercial


Author: James B. Berry

PP: 486

The effects of synthetic auxins indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) have been known since 1935 (8). Since that time work with these chemicals and other compounds such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2), and willow extracts (6) have been reported. Commercial mixtures such as Wood's Rooting Compound (7), Rootone products, and Dip'N-Grow are successfully used throughout our nursery industry.

Flowerwood Nursery practices specific use of combinations of IBA, NAA, potassium-IBA, alcohol, water, talc mixtures and solutions, as root-promoting treatments, We find species and cultivar variations by treatment demonstrated by Raphiolepis indica, Rhododendron, Camellia sasanqua and almost all species that we produce. Our auxin formulation program offers opportunities for great progress for plant propagators in time, quality, and quantity of rooting.

Hormone-induced rooting of cuttings is a common practice among nurseries of all sizes. Many purchase commercially


Author: Joe Cialone

PP: 491

Dracaena fragrans and Dracena fragrans ‘Massangeana’ are two of the most important plants used in interiorscaping. These plants are native to tropical Africa but are known to have been under cultivation in Europe since at least the mid 1700's. Currently, these plants are available in bush, cane, tree, and stump forms. They are used extensively in interiorscapes because of their aesthetic impact and because they perform well under low light conditions with very few insect and disease problems.

This paper will focus mainly on the production of this plant in the cane form and will introduce some new techniques which could have a significant effect on how cane is produced and grown.

Until the 1960's most cane was collected in Central and South America and shipped to the United States for growing. During the past 25 years extensive acreage of cultivated cane has greatly increased both the total volume and diversity of sizes, and made cane available 12 months of the year. Cane is normally harvested


Author: Peter B. May

PP: 70

The auxin group of plant hormones were identified in the 1930's. By the late 1940's they had shown activity in a number of different horticultural applications, including the rooting of cutting. The discovery that basal application of auxins to cutting improved their strike rate had a major impact on commercial nursery practice, greatly increasing the range of plants which could be propagated by cuttings.

A number of naturally occurring and synthetic auxins have been used to induce the rooting of cuttings but only two are in common use. These are indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooting hormones are generally applied to cuttings as either powders, using talc as a carrier, or in solution. Hartmann and Kester (4) offer some arguments in favour of the use of hormone solutions.

Early experiments with hormone solutions used relatively dilute solutions (0 to 200 mg/litre), in which the cuttings were soaked for periods up to 24 hours. This technique has


Author: James Douglas Ryan

PP: 494

After a study of Japanese style management groups by Leiser Colburn, it was decided by the management team1 at Cypress Creek Nursery to set up a trial program in one department of the nursery to see if such methods would prove beneficial in the company. The propagation department was selected for two reasons:
  1. Under Cypress Creek Nursery management structure, the department functioned virtually alone. It was headed by a foreman who was a working member of the 10-member group. Its productivity could be objectively measured and was not dependent upon the performance of any other group within the nursery.
  2. The cost of production in the department was at an unacceptable high level, and long-term production schedules for finished liner had never been met. Conventional management techniques were not improving performance. It was the opinion of the management team that the situation in the department could not get any worse. The Quality Circle concept was to be implemented as a

Author: William G. Adams

PP: 496

Since the introduction of citrus fruit to the Western world by Spanish explorers, citrus trees have been produced by squeezing out the seeds and planting them in the ground. The trees grew slowly and were usually 10 to 20 years old before reaching a fruitful maturity.

In the late 19th century grafting and budding techniques began to be used by some growers to reproduce quantities of desirable fruit types. Other advantages soon became apparent as growers now had the abilities to improve cold hardiness, adapt trees to poorer soil types, and also produce larger quantities of better quality fruit without several years' wait for scion maturity.

Satisfied with these developments, growers and researchers spent the next several decades improving fruit quality by developing new cultivars and rootstocks, using cross pollination techniques.

With the invention of the orange concentrate process the Florida citrus industry rapidly grew in size and so did the demand for citrus trees. Nurserymen, in an


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Jerry D. Williams

PP: 500

An insulated pallet system was devised and tested for handling and summer and winter temperature moderation. Handling labor is required only twice instead of 6 to 9 times. Since plants could not blow over, the weight of the growth medium could be reduced by 50% or more by eliminating sand as a component. Plant growth and quality was increased by reduced root zone temperatures in summer. Plants overwintered with the pallet system had no detectable root injury compared to moderate injury with a single layer poly-covered structure or with straw, and severe injury or death with no protection. Ten advantages of the system are discussed.

Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 509

Publishing the Proceedings and The Plant Propagator constitutes the largest outlay of funds by the Society and these two publications are mainly what the members receive for their annual dues.

One of the problems we face is the ever-rising cost of publishing books. In any college bookstore it is common to find textbooks at prices ranging from $30 to $100 each. To avoid increases in our annual dues, we keep trying to hold our publishing costs down, principally of the Proceedings.

The primary controlling factor we have in avoiding cost increases is to hold down the book size. With material from our six Regions, it would be easy to allow the size of the book to greatly proliferate, becoming more and more expensive. So we have set a limit of 10-double-spaced typed pages including tables and figures, for manuscripts submitted for the Proceedings, which translates to about 5 printed pages. The length of the average article in the Proceedings has been less than this. We are trying to avoid


Author: Peter Orum

PP: 512

Before speaking about propagation, cost and systems, it might be well to define certain terminology which shall be used frequently. We will begin with what is meant when we refer to "propagation," and categorize the different types of "propagators" we will be talking about.

Some people would say that propagation is merely "putting roots on cuttings"; but more correctly, it entails the entire process from start to the finished liner. For example, a juniper cutting is really not finished in propagation until it is potted in a pint container. Similarly, the direct stuck pachysandra, or any other groundcover in flats, is not finished in propagation until the cuttings are rooted and are sufficiently established to sell.

We talk about being a propagator, and about all propagators doing the same thing. However, we are not the same, and we are doing the same thing only to a point, and within very different parameters. Propagators can be divided into three groups:

  1. Commercial propagators

Author: Anna J. Knuttel, Charles Addison

PP: 517

Deciduous azaleas with their vibrant flower colors should be an important plant for the landscape. However, there is a negative response to them in the nursery industry because of foliar problems. The most common cultivars, such as ‘Old Gold’, ‘Golddust’, and ‘Orangeade’, are highly susceptible to powdery mildew and from mid-summer on, the foliage of susceptible cultivars begin to look unattractive unless treated every 2 weeks with a fungicide.

There are other cultivars, however, such as ‘Royal Lodge’ and ‘Visco Sepala’. ‘Sunset Boulevard’, ‘Satan’, ‘Crimson Tide’, and ‘Pink Jolly’, that are not affected by powdery mildew and have attractive fall foliage. These plants would be a welcome addition to any garden and be saleable in both spring and fall. Clearly this type of cultivar should be selected for production by the commercial propagator.

To propagate deciduous azaleas by stem cuttings, we made use of a program at Knuttel Nursery that was described by H.C. Nienhuys of Roadview Farm


Author: Carl Orndorff

PP: 520

The word "reprogation" is not found in the dictionary and it is not normally used in the nursery industry. The word "repropagation" may be used to describe a technique useful in revitalizing plants that have been under stress as a result of improper shipping, packaging, storage, or from having been under poor growing conditions.

The principles of repropagation for herbaceous perennials have been in use for over a half century in the nursery industry. An early application was when many plants were shipped to the U.S. by ocean freight from Europe and other countries. In addition to the long trans-ocean crossings there were always delays during the inspection at port of entries and delays with domestic transportation. Therefore, the amount of time plants and plant parts had problems because of poor shipping conditions and delays. By the time shipments arrived at their destination, the plants and plant parts were often covered with mildew, or parts of them were rotting. To salvage those


Author: Kathleen S. Freeland

PP: 522

A prairie can be described as a meadow. So simple a definition describes the part of our country that is responsible for the soil that produces so much of the world's food. The pioneers broke the sod with their primitive implements and discovered some of the richest agricultural soil in the world, soil created by thousands of years of decomposing plant roots that extend as much as 10 ft deep. This breaking of the sod doomed the prairie.

Recently there has been a tremendous interest in not only preserving the remaining remnants of original prairies but reconstructing them, too. The Chicago Botanic Garden Prairie is a reestablished prairie of approximately 11 acres. Two acres, containing 155,000 plants, will be a mesic or tall grass prairie, the dominant type in Illinois where corn and soybeans are now planted.

All the seeds for this reconstruction were collected within a 200 mile radius of the Chicago Botanic Garden during the summer and autumn of the previous year. The seeds were


Author: Everett Van Hof

PP: 524

Propagators' efforts are not always richly rewarded. Sometimes we have failures which are beyond our control. For example, in June we had temperatures from 95° to 99°F, with equally high humidity, which caused us to lose about half of our Pieris japonica crop due to heat stress. This crop is the subject of my presentation today.

Pieris japonica seed capsules are gathered the first part of November. After the capsules open, the seeds are screened from the capsules. The seedling medium is prepared by mixing one 6-cu ft bale of peat moss with two 4-cu ft bags of coarse peat moss. Flats (20×14×3 in) are filled with this mixture and lightly pressed down to ½ in below the top of the flat. The flat is then filled with screened peat moss and leveled.

The flats are now ready for sowing. One level tablespoon of pieris seed is used per flat. After sowing, flats are watered well and a polyethylene cover is placed over the flat to retain moisture during the germination period.

After about 3 weeks the


Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 526

Each year after attending our Eastern Region, International Plant Propagators' Society meeting, I am motivated to try some of the ideas and procedures that are either presented or generated through personal contacts. Sometimes these applications may be far-fetched and slow to take hold. However, in 1983 a new procedure was initiated immediately because of necessity.

After returning from the 1983 meeting, I found that we did not have enough Quercus robur rootstock suitable for clay rosepots. Seeing all those well-branched root pieces, that had to be trimmed-off for the understocks to fit the pots, caused me to think that those root pieces might be the answer to my shortage problem.

Having just heard Moser (4) speak on root regeneration of oaks and also recalling papers by Lumis (1,2,3), and other articles and talks on hard-to-transplant tree species, led me to experiment with some of the same principles on Q. robur root pieces. While both authors mainly used auxins to stimulate root